English writer

Isaak Newton

ISAAK NEWTON

The great English scientist Isaak Newton was born in the village of

Woolthorpe, not far from the university town of Cambridge on December

25,1642. Little Isaak was left to the care of his mother, grandmother

and uncle who” sent him to school. In his early years young Isaak showed

more as one who could make things with his hand then a scholar. He made

various things. He made a clock that worked by water. He also made a

sundial. When Isaak grew older, he took a consider-able interest in

mathematics. His ability as mathematician and physicist was very

important. His first physical experiment was carried out when he was

sixteen years old.

On June 5,1661 Newton entered the University of Cambridge where he

studied mathematics. Soon he became famous for his contribution to

mathematics by that time he was twenty-one. When Newton was twenty-two

years old he began studying the theory of gravitation. In 1665, while he

.was on a visit in his native village, he saw an apple fall from a tree

and began wondering what force made the apple fall

At Cambridge Newton read with great interest the writings of Galileo, he

knew the geometry of Descartes, he worked out the methods of calculus.

So when he began to think “of gravity extending to the orb of the moon”

he immediately put this idea to the test of calculation. Newton

performed many experiments with light and found that white light was

made up of rays of different colours. He invented a reflecting

telescope, that was very small in diameter but magnified objects to

forty diameters. Newton developed a mathematical method which is known

as the Binomial Theorem and also differential and integral caculus.

In 1669 Newton was appointed professor end began lectures on mathematics

and optics at Cambridge and continued his work on the problem of

gravitation. In 1673 Newton gathered together ail his earlier

calculations and succeeded in completing his whole theory. He examined

the attraction of one mass by another. He showed that a massive sphere

here attracts another as if the whole mass were in the centre. This was

of great importance. It enabled Newton to treat the problems of the sun,

moon and earth like problems of geometry. He at last justified the

method of treatment which he had first adopted for the problem of the

earth and moon The proof of his universe square law was not complete. He

had demonstrated that the gravitation pull of the earth extends as far

as the moon and keeps it in its orbit. He demonstrated that his pull is

in accordance with the same law as that by which a stone fails to the

ground, namely gravity. Newton’s great work “Elements of Natural

Philosophy” was published only in the middle of 1687.

Newton’s law of universe squares joined in one simple mathematical

statement the behaviour of the planets as well as 42 of bodies on this

earth. It was the first synthesis of physical knowledge. As such his

contribution to science is unique. Isaak Newton died in 1727 at the age

of 85. He was buried with honours as a national hero. It was the first

time that national honours of this kind had been accorded in England to

a man of science.

English writer

Charlez Dickens

CHARLES DICKENS

One of my favourite writers is Charles Dickens. He was born near

Portsmouth on February 7, 1812. He was the second of eight children. His

father was a clerk. The Dickens family although not poor by the

standards of the time lived through a series of financial crises.

In 1823 facing financial ruin, the family moved to London, where Charles

began to work in a blacking warehouse for six shillings a week. At that

time his father was arrested for debt After three months in prison John

Dickens was released by having himself declared an Insolvent Debtor.

Charles was sent to school at the age of twelve, where he did well, and

at the age of fifteen began to work in the office of a legal firm.

After learning short hand he became a freelance reporter. His career was

prospering with his rapid and accurate reporting of debates in the House

of Commons for the “Morning Chronicle”. At that time he began to write

novels. “The Pickwick Papers” was Dickens’ first novel. It was

originally serialized in 1836-1837. In a book form it was published in

November 17, 1837. This book is considered to be Dickens’ greatest

novel. Charles Dickens wrote a lot of novels. His masterpieces are:

“Oliver Twist” (1837 – 1838), “Nickolas Nickleby” (1838-1839), “David

Copperfield” (1849 – 1850) “Little Dorrit” (1837 – 1838), “Great

Expectations” (1860-1861).

Charles Dickens wrote about ordinary people, whose life he knew very

well. Dickens worked very hard. His health began to fail In mid-1860s.

He suffered a stroke at his home at Gad’s Hill, near Rochester, Kent in

June 1870 and died the next day.

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