Isaak Newton (реферат)

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English writer

Isaak Newton


The great English scientist Isaak Newton was born in the village of
Woolthorpe, not far from the university town of Cambridge on December
25,1642. Little Isaak was left to the care of his mother, grandmother
and uncle who” sent him to school. In his early years young Isaak showed
more as one who could make things with his hand then a scholar. He made
various things. He made a clock that worked by water. He also made a
sundial. When Isaak grew older, he took a consider-able interest in
mathematics. His ability as mathematician and physicist was very
important. His first physical experiment was carried out when he was
sixteen years old.

On June 5,1661 Newton entered the University of Cambridge where he
studied mathematics. Soon he became famous for his contribution to
mathematics by that time he was twenty-one. When Newton was twenty-two
years old he began studying the theory of gravitation. In 1665, while he
.was on a visit in his native village, he saw an apple fall from a tree
and began wondering what force made the apple fall

At Cambridge Newton read with great interest the writings of Galileo, he
knew the geometry of Descartes, he worked out the methods of calculus.
So when he began to think “of gravity extending to the orb of the moon”
he immediately put this idea to the test of calculation. Newton
performed many experiments with light and found that white light was
made up of rays of different colours. He invented a reflecting
telescope, that was very small in diameter but magnified objects to
forty diameters. Newton developed a mathematical method which is known
as the Binomial Theorem and also differential and integral caculus.

In 1669 Newton was appointed professor end began lectures on mathematics
and optics at Cambridge and continued his work on the problem of
gravitation. In 1673 Newton gathered together ail his earlier
calculations and succeeded in completing his whole theory. He examined
the attraction of one mass by another. He showed that a massive sphere
here attracts another as if the whole mass were in the centre. This was
of great importance. It enabled Newton to treat the problems of the sun,
moon and earth like problems of geometry. He at last justified the
method of treatment which he had first adopted for the problem of the
earth and moon The proof of his universe square law was not complete. He
had demonstrated that the gravitation pull of the earth extends as far
as the moon and keeps it in its orbit. He demonstrated that his pull is
in accordance with the same law as that by which a stone fails to the
ground, namely gravity. Newton’s great work “Elements of Natural
Philosophy” was published only in the middle of 1687.

Newton’s law of universe squares joined in one simple mathematical
statement the behaviour of the planets as well as 42 of bodies on this
earth. It was the first synthesis of physical knowledge. As such his
contribution to science is unique. Isaak Newton died in 1727 at the age
of 85. He was buried with honours as a national hero. It was the first
time that national honours of this kind had been accorded in England to
a man of science.

English writer

Charlez Dickens


One of my favourite writers is Charles Dickens. He was born near
Portsmouth on February 7, 1812. He was the second of eight children. His
father was a clerk. The Dickens family although not poor by the
standards of the time lived through a series of financial crises.

In 1823 facing financial ruin, the family moved to London, where Charles
began to work in a blacking warehouse for six shillings a week. At that
time his father was arrested for debt After three months in prison John
Dickens was released by having himself declared an Insolvent Debtor.
Charles was sent to school at the age of twelve, where he did well, and
at the age of fifteen began to work in the office of a legal firm.

After learning short hand he became a freelance reporter. His career was
prospering with his rapid and accurate reporting of debates in the House
of Commons for the “Morning Chronicle”. At that time he began to write
novels. “The Pickwick Papers” was Dickens’ first novel. It was
originally serialized in 1836-1837. In a book form it was published in
November 17, 1837. This book is considered to be Dickens’ greatest
novel. Charles Dickens wrote a lot of novels. His masterpieces are:
“Oliver Twist” (1837 – 1838), “Nickolas Nickleby” (1838-1839), “David
Copperfield” (1849 – 1850) “Little Dorrit” (1837 – 1838), “Great
Expectations” (1860-1861).

Charles Dickens wrote about ordinary people, whose life he knew very
well. Dickens worked very hard. His health began to fail In mid-1860s.
He suffered a stroke at his home at Gad’s Hill, near Rochester, Kent in
June 1870 and died the next day.

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