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Horse-breeding

in the Tambov Area

Historically Tambov area has been known as the territory of chanters. By
the amount of private stud farms it challenged superiority of Voronezh,
Oryol and Kursk areas. The development of horse breeding in many
respects was promoted by two circumstances. First because of the flood
plains, where the herds freely grazed (only in one Morshansk area today
are left about 20 thousands hectares even after rash ploughing up of a
large part of flood plains). Secondly, and it is also important, the
deep pocket of the Tambov landowners. They had large and sometimes
fabulous capitals. So, one of brothers Archarov’s, the holder of
extensive lands in Rasskasovo area, bestowed him by Katherine П, handed
the whole horse regiment to the Tambov national militia in 1812, by
putting on the horses his own bonded recruits. He also gave regimentals,
armed and supplied the regiment with provisions for three months. Nobody
in Russia made such generous gift for army that time.

Count Stroganov, princess Golitsina, general Lanskoy (the second
husband of Natalya Goncharova), Bashmakov — the Tambov millionaire and
holder of gold mines beyond Urals, old-line noblemen the Naryshkin’s,
the Arapov’s and many other had their own stud farms in Tambov area. The
Lavrovsky stud farm, which nowadays has worldwide glory, was built in
Tambov land by the landowner Voeykov.

The merchantry tried not to drop behind from the aristocracy. One
of the Aseev’s brothers, the holder of Arzhenka cloth factory, has
purchased the stud farm from a widow of the local broken landowner
Kruchenkov. The example of Aseev, but without the raping, was followed
also by other industrial aces from the districts of the region. It was
considered very prestigiously.

We should remember that horse-breeding remained one of the few
worthy commercial activities for the aristocrats. In 1840, when
Chicherin, the relative of our future Minister for Foreign Affairs, has
opened distillery in Lyada and the landowners Tulinov and Poltoratsky
have purchased cloth factories, noble society has apprehended it as
mauvais ton. But the pinces and dukes and members of the tsarist family
very well descended to trading horses from theirs stud farms.

All reading Russia knew from the story by Turgenev about inveterate
chanters from the district city of Tambov region with a beautiful name —
Lebedyan. But only few know today, that the fans of equitation created
there the first Russian association and issued first horseracing
journal. Much earlier than in metropolis and Moscow, the prize-winning
horserace of Oryol trotters were arranged in Lebedyan. Several years
later the same association of equitation fans was also established in
Tambov. This association built on share contributions the three-storey
building for its club on former Dvortsovaya, nowadays Sovietskaya
Street, one of first in the center of our city (now The Department of
Communications). In this club the horse-breeders from all Tambov
districts met at card tables and in the hall of extensive library.

The special page in a history of domestic horse-breeding were
written by the life copers brothers Demin’s from Kozlov. They managed to
get and turn over the blooded trotters even from Khrenov farm of count
Aleksey Orlov. Although, only after his death. While alive the count
strictly forbade selling his horses. Demin’s were in close friendship
with former count’s adscript Vasiliy Ivanovich Shishkin, the manager of
Khrenov farm. Shortly Shishkin opened his own stud farm.

The abundance of private stud farms in the region produced big
horse fairs, beginning from Lebedyanskaya and finishing with
Tokaryovskaya, one of cheapest in country. On Tambov fairs the merchants
came a long way from European countries, and also from Persia and
Turkey. Only in 1897 61 580 horses were exported from Russia. Each tenth
of them was purchased in Tambov region. On fairs they sold not only
separate horses, mainly it was the business of small copers, the owners
of stud farms sold the young grossly, by so-called stakes after one
famous stallion and different dams. Unblooded horses on Tambov fairs
were bought up for meat merchants from Denmark. A kilo of horsemeat was
equal in cost with a kilo of Danish butter. Vneshtorg knows the price
that the danish horsemeat lovers, the horsemeat is the irreplaceable
ingredient of top-grade sausage, are ready to pay us for horses for
meat.

Many brilliant trotters were grown up on Tambov stud farms. In
1904 at stud farm of Afanasyev in village Yaroslavka, now the territory
of Rzhaksa area was born grey stallion Krepysh. His father was
Gromadniy, the Imperial prizewinner, and the mother Koketka, the grand
daughter of Varvar – prizewinner from the farm of well-known
horse-breeder Rogov. Changing hands, Krepysh in a 1907 stepped on the
turfs of Moscow and St. Petersburg for the first time. By his graceful
pace he made a conquest of fans. Krepysh entered the competitions for 79
times and in 55 races he was the first and he established or improved 13
records. With heartache thousands of fans witnessed a loss of Krepysh in
February 1912 in Moscow to the American trotter General Age. They did
not blame their favorite but his american jockey William Keaton, who,
they believed, intentionally drive Krepysh in a wrong way.

The Novotomnikovo stud farm

The stud farm in Novotomnikovo played a large part in the
history of domestic horse-breeding; it was founded by count Illarion
Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1860 and still exists now. In short time
he bought up the best orlov’s stallions and dams, paying no attention to
the prices.

His new stud farm in Tambov area got famous after his bonded jockey
Oblopokhin on the stallion Zadorniy beat all capital jockeys on the
horses from the best prize-winning stables in St. Petersburg in 1861.
Zadorniy made three versts for 6 minutes and 6 seconds.

Vorontsov-Dashkov opened a new era in horseracing after he became
in 1882 a state manager of horse-breeding at tzar Alexander III request.
At that time he was the defense and domestic minister in the rank of
adjutant general.

He turned the horse-breeding from lairds’ merry-making into real
commerce. The prices on the private stud farms were raised up. The
owners of stud farms in Moscow or St. Petersburg could be lucky enough
and win whole bags in one racing season.

In the last quarter of 19th century in a pursuit of high prizes the
american jockeys began to appear in St. Petersburg and Moscow more and
more often on theirs so-called “two-minutes” trotters – they cover a
mile (1600 meters) for two minutes and some seconds.

One of the first to Russia from America came Clayton’s, the
well-known jockey family – the father and sons with their own trotters.
They established the prize-winning stable and began the manufacturing of
modern very light carts with rubber wheels. Very soon they were
unrivalled on the racecourses of Moscow and St. Petersburg. One year
Clayton and sons won almost all prizes and earned more than 300,000
rubles. The horse-breeders got agitated and began to repine. Some of
them rushed to buy the very expensive American trotters. Other protested
demanding to forbid the performance of American trotters in Russia.

In such conditions Vorontsov-Dashkov, as a head of domestic
horse-breeding, had to make a decision. He found a compromise. The
prizes were divided into two groups. One was for the horses of all
breeds, other only for Oryol trotters. But nevertheless, the count
preferred American trotters. «The only criterion of quality of a horse I
consider a prize pole», — he told later. With such reasoning
Vorontsov-Dashkov made vigorous efforts buying American trotters, not
only for his stud farm and prize-winning stables in St. Petersburg and
Moscow, but also for state stud farms.

Vorontsov-Dashkov was interested in cross-breeding more than
anybody else. He always was present at horsing, sitting under a glass
cap at center above one of the stables. The count considered it to be so
important, that often forced his spouse Elizaveta Andreevna (Shuvalova
before marriage) to be present on it with visitors, which were in
Novotomnikovo that time. The visitors were only grand people: the
members of tzar family, which arrival was marked with planting of one
more tree in oak alley of ancient park. Such as relatives of four
daughters married off in families of Shuvalov’s, Sheremetyev’s,
Musin-Pushkin’s, and Demidov’s.

The conversations about horses touched common interest, as all
aristocracy had stables and stud farms. This kind of private business
was considered to be almost the only activity that is not derogating
dignity of a true aristocrat.

By the end of 19th century on private and state stud farms in
Russia there were 20 trotters prizewinners of an American origin. In the
mass order there was a crossing of blooded Oryol dams with American
trotters.

The most given was Vorontsov-Dashkov. Even two victories of
“oryols” over “americans” in summer season of 1898 didn’t cool him. The
Oryol trotter Boets broke the record on three miles established by
American trotter Monnet. His own mare Krylataya broke the record of
Monnet on three and three quarters of second in the same season. But he
had made the choice, « his knight’s move », and was not going to back
up. Soon the count accepted on a service all jockeys of Clayton’s family
with the fantastic salary 300 thousands rubles per year.

The outstanding scientist hippologist prince Sergei Urusov engaged in
controversy against Vorontsov-Dashkov. Urusov considered cross-breeding
«as a medicine not by illness». «The only developing of ability to quick
trot, as they have made with the trotter in America, — he wrote, — will
result in quick but narrow, boneless, long-legged horse without rib and
quite often without a back and completely useless in agriculture. It is
necessary to improve inside the breed. Bad can be born even from good
but never good from bad ».

Many years have passed since then and this dispute has not finished
yet.

After the death of the count Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1916 his heirs,
going to leave the country, arranged cut-price sale of all horses’ elite
of the farm. In Soviet time it became only a branch of state stud farm
in Morshansk.

By 1918 in Novotomnikovo left only three blooded mares of Oryol
breed. Horses were taken from stables both by “red” and “white”. The
very nice farm before now it fell to desolation and, as the saying goes,
the farm was going. For long time it was existing only as horsing point,
on which only a dozen of mares were blissomed per year.

By a lucky chance among the three left blooded Oryol dams there was
the young mare Opora. Later she was bound to play the outstanding role
in domestic horse-breeding and to save the breed of Oryol trotters from
complete oblivion. In a 1934 she gave birth to a colt named Otboy. His
father was stallion Burelom born in 1927. The Moscow scientist
hippologist S. Kalinin liked this streamlined trotter after the Moscow
races in 1930 and advised to pay the special attention to him.

Meanwhile stud farms kept cross-breeding of Oryol trot horses, what
was started before the revolution. Only now they cross-breed blooded
Oryol mares not with American trotters, the state did not give money to
buy them, but with crossbreeds’ posterity. At first they were called
“american-oryols”, then just Russian trotters. They were propagated on
six stud farms, mainly on Lavrovsk farm in our region.

The big work was performing continuously on creating and developing of
that new breed of thrifty trotters. The care for Oryol trotters was
paled into insignificance. The majority of the experts believed that
this breed had reached the limits of the further perfection. And, as it
turned out, they were wrong.

Today in stalls of Novotomnikovo stud farm stay the good-lookers
of Oryol breed restored by the efforts of horse-breeding enthusiasts.
The farm fosterlings have reached friskiness, which once was considered
possible only for American trotters. Now the Russian troyka, made from
Oryol trotters revives abroad as the mode. The customers from abroad
readily buy them in Novotomnikovo.

One cannot name the work on cross-breeding of Oryol trotter with
American one as reckless step. If due to Oryol trotter Russia gained the
improved breed of working horses in place of bow-backed hacks with
bangled stomachs, then the cross-breeding of Oryol horse gave the new
breed of Russian trotter of distinct sportish type.

There is no other animal like horse the mankind is so indebted to.
Without the count Aleksei Orlov we would not have Oryol trotters, which
bring glory to Russia for many years, making an ornament to our nation.
We would not receive a trotter, which is used for breed improvement of
trotting horses almost in all countries of Western Europe, and also in
Asia and America.

For the revirescence of beautiful Oryol trotter we are obliged to
S. Kasimenko. It was him, who managed the farm and choose the dams for
Burelom. In such selection the ancestry of dams is very important, down
to their great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers and even deeper into
a family tree. All their features and qualities are taken into account.
All was clear with Burelom, the son of distinguished Oryol trotter
Lovchiy. Maternally his bloodline ascended to the famous stallion
Zadorniy, who brought the first glory to Novotomnikovo farm of
Vorontsov-Dashkov. But the mare Opora, born even before October
revolution, was in declining years for horses and seemed to be not a
suitable bride for young beauty Burelom. However Kasimenko took chances.
As we mentioned, stallion Otboy was born from this unequal march. The
careful godfather to him became A. Samoilov, who replaced Kasimenko in a
1934.

At first Otboy didn’t show anything special in posterity. They have
from him just common trotters and dams not distinguished by high
friskiness, only their exterior was faultless.

The farm decided to part with Otboy. He was sent to other stud
farm. And here we should say thanks to A. Popov, who was the head of
horse department during the Great Patriotic War. Popov decided to return
Otboy in Novotomnikovo. But the new head V. Remizov received him there.
Popov went to the front in 1943 and did not come back on farm, as well
as other 36 workers of farm — hostlers, jockeys, foragers, tractor
operators, smiths didn’t return here after war.

Remizov had been working in Novotomnikovo till 1965, and in his
time a new line in breed of Oryol trotter was born and appeared the new
branch on his family tree. The grey colt Otklik came into being after
Otboy and mare Konventsiya on Zaporozhye stud farm in 1952. Konventsiya
had arrived on this farm from Novotomnikovo already pregnant. So all
palms for a new line of Oryol trotter belong to the stud farm in
Novotomnikovo.

The posterity of Otklik appeared to be marvelously quick. The
stallions Vodovorot and Borets ran a mile for two minutes and four
tenths of a second.

The interest to Oryol trotter has revived today all over the world.
Horses from Novotomnikovo have purchased the stud farms of
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, China, Germany, and Sweden. All America and
Canada have got acquainted with troika of Oryol trotters, where the
thiller was a trotter from Novotomnikovo farm. The millions of
televiewers in these countries admired them. Many newspapers of Old and
New World enthusiastically wrote about them.

The Lavrovo stud farm

The Lavrovo stud farm is located in Mordovian area of Tambov
region and stands out against other trotting stud farms because of the
achievements of its fosterlings.

Established by the good judge of horses V.P. Voeykov 170 years
ago, the Lavrovo stud farm is one of «big fishes» of domestic trotters.
Ii is the birthplace of the well-known grey Oryol trotter Lebed 5.44
(Atlasniy — Pobeda), born in1829. He is on the pictures of the artist
N.G. Sverchkov and on the tapestry made by bondmaids from village
Lavrovo. These things are kept in the museum of horse-breeding of TAA.

Till the end of 80-th the farm in Lavrovo kept the path of
cross-breeding.

During the civil war the facilities were ruined, the horses were
plundered. They could save only one mare Margaritka 2.16,1 (Fatalist —
Binyonia), born in 1918, who later became a founder of dams family and
was the great-grandmother of Pervenets 2.00,4. During the acquisition of
the farm (1922-23) not only “Oryol-Americans” got there, but also the
Oryol trotters.

Since 1930 all Oryol dams were excluded from Lavrovo stud farm.
Together with mares half-breeds, which were brought on farm instead of
Oryol mares, also came the studhorse Aloisha 2.14,2 (Aloisha — Kreolka)
from the line of Peter The Great. There was started the line of Aloisha
and the line of Trepet – together with Smolensk farm. In January 1935
from Aloisha and mare Paguba (the grand daughter of Peter The Great)
appeared the red stallion Podarok 2.02,1; 3.09,4; 4.17.4 – the pride of
Lavrovo and the founder of one progressive line in Russian trotter
breed.

The important part in the stud activity of the farm also played
then the lines of Iris (through Khorovod, Khor Kalinych, Interes), Nalim
(through Lunatik and Otprysk), Aksvort (through Viktor Vorti, Vampir,
Vzriv). The main was the method of cultivation ”in itself” of the horses
of desirable type using cross-breeding and in-breeding. The crossing
with lines of Aloisha and Gildeets had become one of the bases of
Lavrovo complex creation.

The returned cross-breeding was also applied with Oryol stallions
for the improvement of horses exterior. The Oryol lines in remote
ancestors are traced in the best horses of the farm.

Through the Oryol trotter Bunt 2.14.3 (Metsenat — Budushnost) the
lines of Podaga and blooded Boyar were enhanced. The daughters of Bunt
could be met in family trees of Vasilyok, Pervenets, Lazutchik, Pavodok,
Vopl.

All-Union prize horse and founder of the line Podarok was selfed on
Oryol trotters Zadornov and Petushok. His best get: the sons Pervenets
2.00,4, Pryatel 2.03,4, Lazutchik 2.05,6, Park 2.10,4, Vopl 2.09,2, Azot
2.06,3, Pereryv 2.07,6; 6.44,6, Lotus 2.09,9 and daughters Povilika
2.09,3 (the mother of Prologue 2.06), Aplikatsiya 2.14,7 (the mother of
Atlas 2.07,6) and Atmosfera, Podarok gave with dams, who had the similar
Oryol ancestors.

Only from Podarok the farm had more than 298 colts. 20 among them
are of class 2.10 and even thriftier. The children of Podarok have won
17 international prizes: Priyatel, Pervenets and Lazutchik – 5 prizes
each and Park — 2 prizes. No other stallion from our stud farms had such
a successful offspring.

The all-Union records of Podarok were broken only 13 years later by
his son from Masandra the Derby racer Pervenets 2.00,4 р; 3.11,4 р;
4.11,2 р; 6.52,3 who was born in 1949. Podarok also gave from Argentina
the all-Union prizewinner Pryatel, born in1954 and the winner Lazutchik
(from Lazur); born in1959.

On Lavrovo stud farm was brought up the all-Union prizewinner among
two-year trotters Protalinka — 2.13,1 (Lucifer — Parallel), born in
1948. The prize of Protalinka is the standard for two-year trotters.

During the period before the war on Lavrovo stud farm was created
the type of a trotter distinguished by the harnessry forms, pedigree,
good top line, depth, strong dry limbs but which is a little craggy.

The hybridists of the farm were constantly selecting by the type
and friskiness.

The big job of creating the famous trotters on Lavrovo farm was
made by zootechnicians Y.N. Sarantsev (1920-1934), A.K. Brinken (the
author of selection, which gave Podarok), V.N. Zhardetskiy, K.V.
Voskresenskiy, R.I. Kalinin, who had been working here for 14 years and
was one of the founders of line of Podarok. Also he was the author of
the farm plan of line breeding in 1976-1975. On the racecourses the
trotters of Lavrovo stud farm were driven to the victories by such
jockeys as A.V. Zotov, A.A. Sorokin, N.R. Semichev, M.G. Chudnenko, V.T.
Novikov, A.P. Kreydin, V.Y. Kochetkov.

To its 150-year jubilee the farm had 5 Derby trotters. These are
Pobeditel 2.11,7, Vecher 2.06,7, Arzamas 2.06,4, Pervenets 2.00,4, Albom
2.03,9. In 1965 by the number of 2.10 class trotters the Lavrovo stud
farm was on the fourth in the country, and on the second place in class
2.05. The first was the stud farm in Dubrovskiy.

However, the period of success was followed by the long period of
decline. Mainly it could be explained by the fact, that the group of
studhorses didn’t have the appropriate stallions. Otprysk 2.09,3, Zheton
2.09,7, Zabiyaka 2.09 could not give a class horse in 60-es. And also
the technology of breeding was inadequate. The horses were not supplied
with high-grade forages as many natural pastures and the hayfields were
ploughed up.

The new progressive stage of selection began in 1971 with the
coming of standard breed stallion Low Hanover 1.59 (Bolshoy Star’s Pride
– Lynd Deen). From this outstanding studhorse the farm gained 253
horses. Among them are: Ligatura 2.04,2, Velonia 2.03,2 r, Lan 2.05 r,
Ghilka 2.07, Leeter 2.04,4 r, List 2.04,9, Vlastnyi Zhest 2.05,5, Alt
2.06, Alzhir 2.07, Valezhnik 3.12,2 and other class trotters. Such
intensive use of the studhorse for the insemination of mares with the
dilute semen deserves attention of the horse-breeding experts.

The work with Low Hanover allowed to half-complete the dams group
of the farm with his daughters and grand daughters and improve the
average frisky parameter of dams on 3,6.

After the use of Minion 2.11 (Napor – Mudraya Poslovitsa) and Low
Hanover in 60-es, the type of Lavrovo trotters was also changed. They
became more blooded and dry, lost roughness of a head, became less
massive but more vigorous and good-tempered.

The descendants of Low Hanover showed the high results in a 1983.
His great-grandson Gopak 2.04,2 (Parket — Glubokaya) had become the
sixth derby trotter of the farm when he won a Grand all-Union prize. The
Low Hanover’s great-grandson Lepetun 2.07,6 (Parket — Lesostep) won a
Big three-year prize, and grandson Peak 2.03,8 (Kolchedan — Programma)
became the winner of World international prizes (in Moscow) and «Villam»
(in Hungary) and was the second in the Elite prize.

On January 1, 1984 195 trotters of 2.10 class and more frisky (the
third place on this parameter after the stud farms in Dubrovskoe and
Elyan) are brought up. 19 of them are of class 2.05 and friskier. The
trotters from Lavrovo won 33 international prizes.

Conditions of creation and growing up of the hippodrome cracks in the
Lavrovo stud farm.

Brood work.

The hybridists from Lavrovo had to work much to transform the
motley brood structure into a valuable heart of the breed of Russian
trotters. Half a century ago the average dams’ measurements in Lavrovo
were 154,8-154,7-173-19 and met the requirements only of the second
class. Now there are 110 brood mares on the farm. Their measurements
meet the standard of the breed and make 159,5-162,1-183,3-19,6 cm.
Average friskiness of the main dams 2.15,2, of the horsing dams —
2.14,9. Almost all mares ranked as Elite class. With due regard on the
farm they look at the growing up of the “self-repair”: the age of more
than 50 % of brood horses included in selection is less than 10 years.
The duly use of young dams with high friskiness and good measurements,
allows to select mares in time, both by the age and quality of
posterity.

More than half of dams belong to the line of Volomait (through Low
Hanover and Apex Hanover), 22 mares are from the line of Podarok, 14 –
from the line of Trepet (through the daughters of Minion and Pavlin), 12
– of Nalim (daughters of Otprysk). There are several representatives of
the lines of Gildeets and Scotland. The related to each other mares form
the groups. The hybridists from the stud farm try to save the most
valuable dams nests.

According to the selection plan the Lavrovo stud farm works with
lines of Podarok, Volomait, Aksvort, Gildeets, Scotland. The line of
Volomait was successfully developed on the farm through Kolchedan 1.58,8
r (Low Hanover — Kaleriya), born in 1967, and also develops through
Parket 2.06,2 (Prolog — Prisma), born in 1972. The posterity of
Kolchedan has made about 180 heads, including classy Peak, Lokon,
Lukretsiy. Parket gave almost 100 horses. Among them are Gopak, Lepetun,
Aprel 2.08. Zalet 2.04,4 (Lazutchik — Zaletnaya) from the line of
Podarok was unsuccessfully used in 5 seasons, and he is excluded from
the mating plan for 1984.

The work with the line of Gildeets was performed through
Kolokolchik 2.08,6 (Konniy — Kolombina), but he also did not paid off
and work with this line was terminated.

Two falls were received from Grand 2.04,8 r (Abrikos — Gugenotka),
born in 1976; the line of Scotland. The youngsters of Grand are blooded
but had not run on hippodromes yet. In this line the hopes were set on
the all-Union prizewinner Bubnoviy 3.11,2 (Bill Hanover — Bastiliya),
born in 1977, who just began to procreate offsprings on the farm. More
than 20 mares were selected for him.

Almost for 10 years the farm had been working with the line of
Nalim through Linkor 2.07,5 (Aprichnik — Lotereya), born in 1971. Though
he gave Globus from Gubka, Lakolin from Luna, his use was limited since
he transmitted to posterity the narrow underjaw. The work with this line
was continued through Kropot (Charodei — Kreolka), born in1977. In
cross-breedings with the lines of Podarok and Volomait and in remote
in-breedings with grand daughters of Lunatik for Kropot was appointed 20
mares.

The main method in selection is the selection for in-breeding,
usually moderate and occasionally — close in-breeding for the test of
studhorses and dams.

The wide use of the stallions of standard breeding is the tendency
in brood work. The big hopes were set on the use of Blesk, for who about
30 mares were picked up. It was desirable for the farm to receive the
deeply frozen semen of standard bred Repriz and Victorious Speed.

2-3 months prior to the beginning of a horsing season The Head Of
Horse Department A. Yakimov, the veterinary by education, checked the
physiological condition of прохолостевших and young mares. The horsing
was conducted under the control of the follicle maturation. It saves
stallions and increases the percentage of colt fetation.

Horse feeding on the stud farm is organized properly. The sowing of
long-term grasses is enlarged thus improving the fodder base. After the
ending of horsing period the dams are constantly on the pasture and they
are weatherproofed. The stud horses are kept in stables, constructed
many years ago. Here is used the standard technology of growing up the
youngsters. Usually they start to gentle the youngsters when they reach
1 year.

The collective of Lavrovo stud farm regularly achieves the high
fetation of mares and high youngsters output.

Experienced jockeys on 6 hippodromes of the country test the
trotters from Lavrovo: in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Tallinn,
Tambov.

The State Stables

Many sources of dynamic development of the city went back to the first
half of the 19th century. Among them was the process of formation of the
state stables. It was connected to the resolving of certain military
strategic problems: the Russian army needed strong and hardy horses.
Therefore the problem of the improvement of mass horse-breeding remained
urgent for many decades.

The attempts on improvement of horses’ quality were undertaken in
Russia in 1789-1799, then appeared the first state stables. In 1836,
according to the decree of Nikolai I, they returned to these problems
again.

In Tambov the state stable appeared in 1837 in northwest suburb of
the city.

The ensemble from two stone buildings and hospital for the animals
at the center of internal courtyard was erected in1848. Historically,
trotters were placed in the white building of the stables and
heavyweights — in the round one.

The gate, decorated with a head of a horse connected the foreside
buildings. In ancient times the horse head was a symbol of power for the
Scythians, and for our recent ancestors it was a symbol of happiness.

The street along the stable buildings with the lapse of time got
the name Konyushennaya. The building of the Tambov State stable is not
only the architectural monument of the first half of 19th century, but
also the monument of horse-breeding history of Russia.

In the system of stud farms the most important part belonged to the
hippodromes. The tests on the hippodrome were obligatory for the
selection of saddle-horses and trotters. By their results was performed
the animals selection for breeding: on friskiness, endurance and sport
qualities of horses. The Tambov hippodrome was one of oldest; it
followed the stables and appeared in a valley of Studenets in 1837. In
1876 the racing hippodrome was reconstructed according to the needs of
time.

The construction of stables and hippodrome made active local fans
of horse sport and had formed the basis for the stud farms association.

Since 1845 the association had been renting the ground floor of
Public library (Sovietskaya 114), where the methods of improvement of
the horse-breeding were discussed as one of the important branches of
the region economy.

The assemblies nominated prizes for trotters and racehorses. In the
competitions participated not only the horses of landowners, but also
the horses from farms. The data on the most interesting prize-winners
were given in «The stud farm book of Russian trotters », issued in
St.-Petersburg in 1892.

The competitions and races were usually organized after Tambov
horse fairs. They were conducted in June and October of each year on the
fairground to the north of the stables.

On Tambov fair they drove the horses from herds by the special
cattle roads; and the dealers bought animals here and sent them in
Moscow and St. Petersburg.

In the middle of 19th century up to 300 horses of different breeds
from trotters to draught horses were driven to the fair from the stud
farms of the region. The prices differed from 30 to 800 rubles depending
on the genuineness. Full information about the fairs was published in
the special editions like «The Horse Fairs in Russia».

Annually in Tambov took place the exhibitions of farm horses for
agricultural needs. The best samples were awarded with the appropriate
premiums.

The wars of last and new centuries have tragically reduced the
number of wonderful animals, bred in the region by the efforts of many
generations. The working conditions of Tambov State stables were also
complicated. Nevertheless, some traditions of Russian horse-breeding
were saved there.

The history of the soviet period is marked with new prizewinners
and famous Russian troika.

Many years the school of horse sports was working in the stables,
where 12-year’s old boys and girls were taught the bases of equitation
and mainly – the love to this wonderful animals.

In the soviet period the state stable was often visited by one of
the first
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Головашин А. Ход конем: Из истории нашего края

// Тамбовская жизнь. — 1992. — 7 мая. — С. 3.

Камбегов Б. Коневодство и коннозаводство России. — М.:
Росагромиздат,1988. — 224 с.

Ливанова Т. Рысаки Лавровки // Коневодство и конный спорт. — 1984. — №
2. — С. 12-15.

Неровный Н., Гаврилов П., Казеев Б. Лавровскому конному заводу — 150 //
Коневодство и конный спорт. — 1965. — № 3. — С. 15-20.

Щербакова М. Празднование юбилея конного завода (К столетию
Новотомниковского завода) // Коневодство и конный спорт. — 1960. — № 9.
— С. 5-8.

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