Famoust Chemists of the world (реферат)

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«Famoust Chemists of the world»

Arrhenius Svante August

 Svante Arrhenius was born in Sweden. He learned to read at the age of
three and became interested in mathematics and physics at an early age.
He proposed in his doctoral thesis that electrolytes split into ions in
water. For his efforts he was awarded the barest of passes. Fortunately,
William Ostwald and Jacobus van?t Hoff promoted his work on electrolytic
theory. He was awarded the 1903 Nobel prize for Chemistry for roughly
the same thesis that had been nearly rejected nineteen years previously.
He had universal interests in science and proposed the greenhouse

Avogadro Amedeo

Amedeo Avogadro was a professor of physics in the University of Turin,
but is best known for his contributions to chemistry. He followed the
work of Gay Lussac closely and realised early on the difference between
atoms and molecules. Avogadro suggested that equal volumes of gases
under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contained equal
numbers of particles. The number of particles in a mole, 6,022×1023  ,
is called Avogadro?s Number in his honour.

Bohr Niels Henrik David

Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen in denmark in 1885. His father was a
professor of physiology at the University of Copengagen. Niels attended
the same university and was a distinguished soccer player as well as a
brilliant student.

Bohr studied at J. J. Thomson?s Cavendish Laboratory and at Rutherford?s
laboratory. At the young age of 28, while working with Rutherford, he
invented the first effective model and theory of the structure of the
atom. His work ranks as one of the truly great examples of an
imaginative mind at work. He was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for
physics for his study of the structure of atoms.

During Worls War 2, Bohr and his family escaped from occupied Denmark to
the United States. He and his son, Aage, acted as advisers at the Los
Alomos Atomic Laboratories, where the atom bomb was developed.
Thereafter, Bohr concerned himself with developing peaceful uses of
nuclear energy. Aage Bohr, Neil?s son was awarded the Nobel Prize for
physics in 1975.

Boyle Robert

Robert Boyle was born in Lismore, Ireland. He was regarded as one of the
foremost  experimental scientists of his time. It is thought that he was
the first to collect gases by displacing water in an inverted flask. He
discovered the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas
in 1660. The relationship, pxV = constant, is known as Boyle?s law and
was one of the first attempts to express a scientific principle in a
mathematical form. Boyle separated chemistry from the realm of alchemy
and estabilished it as a science. On the basis of experiment he defined
an element as something that cannot be broken up into smaller
substances. Robert Boyle devoted his life to experimental science,
taking careful notes of each experiment, enabling other scientists to
learn from his work. He is regarded as the father of experimental

Faraday Michael

 The English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday was Born in Surrey,
the son of a poor blacksmith. He was largely self-taught, never thought
too highly of himself but was essentially a very happy man. He is best
known today for his research into elctricity and magnetism. His
reputation, in his own time, was based on his remarkable lecturing
skills; the public at the time looked on electricity as a useful toy and
was more interested in the more useful inventions of Stephenson and
Joule. He was apprenticed to a bookbinder in 1805. Having attended a
lecture by Humpray Davy, he presented Davy with a bound version of the
lecture. Davy was so impressed with the detailed notes and drawings that
he offered him a job as a laboratory assistant. From there on the
relationship between the greatest scientists of their day flourished. He
also collaborated with the mathematician, James Clerk Maxwell who
expressed many of Faraday?s ideas in mathematical form.

Nobel Alfred Bernhard

 Alfred Bernhard Nobel was born in Stockholm, Sweden on 31st October
1833. When he was 9 years old, his family moved to St. Petersburg. He
was educated mostly privately and at the age of 16 was a
sciencetifically trained chemist.

He loved literature and the natural sciences. He knew English,   German,
French, Swedish and Russian. He travelled to Paris and USA to continue
his studies. Then he worked in his father?s factory. He began to
experiment with nitroglicerine, the manufacture of which developed into
a world industry. Then he invented new, improved explosive, dynamit. He
received a patent in 1867.

But it isn?t his only discovery. He discovered other explosives, use to
minig, constructing highways, railways etc. He travelled a lot, so he
wasn?t at home and he was here only on temportary visits. He became very

He died on 10th December 1896 in San Remo, Italy and left the major part
of his large estate in trust to estabilished five prizes. They are
awarded every year in physics, chemistry, psychology or medicine,
literature and peace. The distribution of these prizes was begun on 10th
December 1901, the fifth anniversary of Nobel?s dead. The peace prize is
presented in Oslo, other prizes in Stockholm.

Two people from Czech republic were awarded the Nobel prizes: Professor
Jaroslav Heyrovsky in 1959 for the discovery and developement of
polarography and National Artist Jaroslav Seifert in 1984 for his
outstanding contribution to poetry.

Ostwald Wilhlelm

Wilhelm Ostwald, the German chemist and philosopher became interested in
chemistry at an early age; as an eleven year old he made his own
fireworks. He developed the Ostwald process for the synthesis of nitric
acid using a platinum-rhodium catalyst. He proposed that catalysts speed
up chemical reactions by lowering the energy of activation. He is one of
the founders physical chemistry, the theoretical branch of chemistry
which deals with the properties and reactions of ions, atoms and
molecules. Curiously enough, although he was one of the most eminent
chemists of his time, he did not accept the developement of athomic
theory until 1906. He was awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for
his work on catalysis and on the conditions of chemical equilibrium and
the velocities of chemical reactions.

Pauling Linus Carl

Linus Pauling was born in Portland,

Oregon in 1901. He is the only person ever to recieve a Nobel Prize for
science and a Nobel Peace Prize. He received the science award in 1954
for his work in chemistry into the nature of the chemical bond. His work
in chemistry is important both in range and importance of his
contributions. He studied quantum mechanics with the phyzicists, Bohr
and Schroedinger and combined quantum mechanics with the idea of
electron pair sharing. He explained many important concepts in his
classic book „The Nature of the Chemical Bond”. From 1936 onwards he
devoted much of his research to biochemical problems, including the
structure of proteins, sickle cell anaemia and the effects of vitamins
disease. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in promoting nuclear
disarmament which led to the signing of a nuclear test ban in 1962.

Rutherford Lord Ernest

Ernest Rutherford was born in Nelson, New Zeland in 1871. He began work
in J.J. Thompson?s laboratory in 1895. He later moved to McGill
University in Montreal where he became one of the leading figures in the
field of radioactivity. From 1907 on he was professor at the University
of Manchester where he worked with Geiger and Marsden.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908 for his work on
radioactivity. In 1910, with co-workers Geiger and Marsden he discovered
that alfa-particles could be deflected by thin metal foil. This work
enabled him to propose a structure for the atom. Later on he proposed
the existence of the proton and predicted the existence of the neutron.
He died in 1937 and like J.J. Thompson is buried in Wesminster Abbey. He
was one of the most distinguished scientists of his century.

Thompson Sir Joseph John

J. J. Thompson was born in Menchester in 1856. His father was a
bookseller and publisher. Thompson was Cavendish Professor of
experimental physics, Cambridge University from 1894 – 1919. He was
described as humble, devout, generous, a good conversationalist and had
an uncanny memory. He valued and inspired enthusiasm in his
students.Thompson was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his
investigations of the passage of electricity through gases. In 1897, he
discovered the electron through his work on cathode rays.Thompson?s son,
Sir George Paget, shared the Nobel Prize for physics with C.J.Davisson
in 1937. Seven of Thompson?s trainees were also awarded Nobel Prizes.

J.J. Thompson is buried in Wesminster Abbey close to some of the World?s
greatest  scientists, Newton, Kelvin, Darwin, Hershel and Rutherford.


















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