Ministry of Education and Sport of Republic of Kazakhstan
L.N.Gumilev National Eurasian University
Essay on the Theme:
SUMMER SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND
Fulfilled by: Nurmaganbetova Gulshat
Astana – 2002
A Brief History of University
Structure of the Oxford University
Staff of the University
Teaching and Research
Oxford is renowned the world over, as the home of one of the oldest and
most highly revered Universities in Europe. The city lies at the
confluence of the Rivers Cherwell and Thames, or «Isis», as it is
locally known, giving the opportunity for boating, punting and many
pleasant riverside walks. Oxford is a compact city; its main streets
radiate from Carfax Tower in the centre, with most of the colleges and
University buildings all within easy walking distance. It was Mathew
Arnold whose description lingers in the mind, and best sums up Oxford.
«And that sweet City with her dreaming spires, she needs not June for
beauty’s heightening». Just outside the City on Boar’s Hill is the best
place to see an overall view of the «dreaming spires», a hauntingly
beautiful and unforgettable sight.
The University Church of St. Mary the Virgin — First mentioned in the
Domesday Book, one of the best views of Oxford is from the magnificent
tower, which was built in the 13th century, the nave dates from the 15th
and 16th centuries.
The Ashmolean Museum — Britain’s oldest public museum, housing the
University’s collections of paintings, glass, silver, ceramics and
artefacts from the ancient world.
Other Museums in Oxford — Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Oxford, Museum
of the History of Science, Oxford University Museum of Natural History,
the Bate Collection and the Pitt Rivers Museum.
The Radcliffe Camera (closed to the public) a rotunda, whose dome is a
landmark in Oxford’s centre, was designed by James Gibb (1737-49).
Inspired by the Tower of the Winds in Athens, it is regarded as one of
Europe’s most beautiful buildings. It originally housed the Radcliffe
Library, today the 16 sided room on the ground floor is a reading room
for the Bodleian Library.
The Bodleian Library — 15th century Divinity School, 17th century Old
Schools Quadrangle and Exhibition Room.
Carfax Tower — 16th century church tower and viewpoint.
Curioxity — Hands on science exhibits for all ages.
The Oxford Story — Ride through exhibition interpreting the fascinating
800 year history of Oxford University.
Sheldonian Theatre — The ceremonial hall of the University designed by
Sir Christopher Wren.
University of Oxford Botanic Gardens — Opposite Magdalen College in Rose
Lane is the oldest Botanic Gardens in Britain. Laid out in 1621 on the
instructions of Henry, Earl of Danby, as a Physic Garden. Entrance is
through the beautiful Italianate Gateway designed by Nicholas Stone,
beautiful flowerbeds, trees and greenhouses filled with rare plants,
collected over the centuries from around the world. The gardens are in a
beautiful and peaceful setting, bounded on one side by the curve of the
Nearby at Magdalen Bridge punts are available for hire on the Cherwell
and the Thames, other boat houses are located at Bardwell Road and Folly
Bridge, St. Aldates.
The famous Christ Church Meadow, painted by J.M.W. Turner, still exists
and provides rural walkways in the heart of the city.
Today’s Oxford, offers interesting shopping facilities, from the
well-known high street names, modern shopping centres and malls to the
interesting Victorian covered market in the High Street. From the
University’s shop, to many small specialists, offering old maps and
prints, books, jewellery and local souvenirs you will find shopping
interesting in Oxford.
When it comes to eating out, you will have no trouble finding just the
right place. Oxford is well experienced in catering for customers from
around the world, of all ages and all tastes. There is a wide choice
from Coffee Houses through to gourmet Restaurants.
INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z «Oxford on
Entertainment in Oxford is as interesting as you would expect in this
university city. The Apollo Theatre is the largest theatre, where
visiting international touring companies present a mix of musicals,
shows and rock and pop concerts. At Oxford Playhouse, leading
international, national and local theatre companies make up a varied
programme of high quality drama, dance, music and opera presented in
this newly refurbished Georgian Theatre. There are other smaller
theatres where you can see Drama and Comedy from the University’s
leading players. Classical music concerts are held in the Sheldonian
Theatre, Christ Church Cathedral and other famous Oxford settings.
There exists an amiable dispute, about which college in Oxford is the
oldest, and may be determined thus. — University College had the first
benefactor and indirectly, founder and the first property. Balliol
College first occupied a site it has never left. Merton College had the
first statutes establishing a collegiate institution.
Map of Oxford dated 1644 The University Church
PRIVATE «TYPE=PICT;ALT=Map of Oxford dated 1644»
INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z «University of Oxford A Brief
Oxford is a unique and historic institution. As the oldest
English-speaking university in the world, it lays claim to eight
centuries of continuous existence. There is no clear date of foundation,
but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed
rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending
the University of Paris.
In 1188, the historian, Gerald of Wales, gave a public reading to the
assembled Oxford dons and in 1190 the arrival of Emo of Friesland, the
first known overseas student, initiated the University’s tradition of
international scholarship. By 1201, the University was headed by a
magister scolarum Oxonie, on whom the title of Chancellor was conferred
in 1214, and in 1231 the masters were recognized as a universitas or
In the 13th century, rioting between town and gown (students and
townspeople) hastened the establishment of primitive halls of residence.
These were succeeded by the first of Oxford’s colleges, which began as
medieval ‘halls of residence’ or endowed houses under the supervision of
a Master. University, Balliol and Merton Colleges, established between
1249 and 1264, were the oldest.
Less than a century later, Oxford had achieved eminence above every
other seat of learning, and won the praises of popes, kings and sages by
virtue of its antiquity, curriculum, doctrine and privileges. In 1355,
Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable
contribution to learning; he also commented on the services rendered to
the state by distinguished Oxford graduates.
PRIVATE «TYPE=PICT;ALT=An early drawing of the University Church»
Oxford early on became a centre for lively controversy, with scholars
involved in religious and political disputes. John Wyclif, a
14th-century Master of Balliol, campaigned for a bible in the
vernacular, against the wishes of the papacy. In 1530, Henry VIII forced
the University to accept his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. During
the Reformation in the 16th century, the Anglican churchmen Cranmer,
Latimer and Ridley were tried for heresy and burnt at the stake in
Oxford. The University was Royalist in the Civil War, and Charles I held
a counter-Parliament in Convocation House.
In the late 17th century, the Oxford philosopher John Locke, suspected
of treason, was forced to flee the country. The 18th century, when
Oxford was said to have forsaken port for politics, was also an era of
scientific discovery and religious revival. Edmund Halley, Professor of
Geometry, predicted the return of the comet that bears his name; John
and Charles Wesley’s prayer meetings laid the foundations of the
The University assumed a leading role in the Victorian era, especially
in religious controversy. From 1811 onwards The Oxford Movement sought
to revitalise the Catholic aspects of the Anglican Church. One of its
leaders, John Henry Newman, became a Roman Catholic in 1845 and was
later made a Cardinal. In 1860 the new University Museum was the site of
a famous debate between Thomas Huxley, the champion of evolution, and
From 1878, academic halls were established for women, who became members
of the University in 1920. Since 1974, all but one of Oxford’s 39
colleges have changed their statutes to admit both men and women. St
Hilda’s remains the only women’s college.
In the years since the war, Oxford has added to its humanistic core a
major new research capacity in the natural and applied sciences,
including medicine. In so doing, it has enhanced and strengthened its
traditional role as a focus for learning and a forum for intellectual
Oxford is an independent and self-governing institution, consisting of
the central University and the Colleges.
The HYPERLINK «http://www.ox.ac.uk/aboutoxford/vc.shtml»
Vice-Chancellor , who holds office for seven years, is effectively the
‘Chief Executive’ of the University. Three Pro-Vice-Chancellors have
specific, functional responsibility for Academic Matters, Academic
Services and University Collections, and Planning and Resource
Allocation. The HYPERLINK
«http://www.ox.ac.uk/aboutoxford/chancellor.shtml» Chancellor , who is
usually an eminent public figure elected for life, serves as the titular
head of the University, presiding over all major ceremonies.
The principal policy-making body is the HYPERLINK
«http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/councilsec/» Council of the University ,
which has 26 members, including those elected by Congregation,
representatives of the Colleges and two members from outside the
University. Council is responsible for the academic policy and strategic
direction of the University, and operates through four major committees:
Educational Policy and Standards, General Purposes, Personnel, and
Planning and Resource Allocation.
Final responsibility for legislative matters rests with Congregation,
which comprises over 3600 members of the academic, senior research,
library, museum and administrative staff.
Day-to-day decision-making in matters such as finance and planning is
devolved to the University’s five HYPERLINK
«http://www.ox.ac.uk/departments/» Academic Divisions — Humanities,
Life and Environmental Sciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences,
Medical Sciences and Social Sciences. Each division has a full-time
divisional head and an elected divisional board. HYPERLINK
«http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/» Continuing Education is the
responsibility of a separate board.
Kellogg College, specialises in part-time graduate and continuing
Oxford’s current academic community includes 78 Fellows of the Royal
Society and 112 Fellows of the British Academy. A further 100 Emeritus
and Honorary College Fellows are Fellows of the Royal Society and 145
Emeritus and Honorary College Fellows are also Fellows of the British
The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class
research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK
Amongst our academic community are:
The President of the Royal Society
The Chief Scientist at the Ministry of Defence
The Chairman of the Food Standards Agency
The Chief Executives of the Economic and Social Research Council and the
Medical Research Council
A member of the Bank of England’s Monetary Committee
The Director General of the Office of Fair Trading
The Vice-Chairman of the Thames Valley Police Authority
The Director of the Royal Institution
The Chairman of the British Association for the Advancement of Science
The Chairman of the National Radiological Protection Board
The President of the Royal College of Surgeons
The Deputy Chair of the British Council
PRIVATE «TYPE=PICT;ALT=Structure chart of Oxford University»
INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z «Structure of the University Oxford
University.files/structure-chart.gif» In 2002, Oxford University
claimed first place in the annual Times Good University Guide, which
ranks universities according to the quality of teaching and research, as
well as indicators including staffing levels, facilities spending and
In the Financial Times 2002 MBA ranking, the Said Business School’s
one-year MBA course received the highest rating for value for money of
all the international schools surveyed.
In 2002, Oxford University topped the annual league table of teacher
training providers for the fifth successive year.
Oxford University was named the HYPERLINK
«http://www.ox.ac.uk/innovation/» UK’s most innovative University in
the Launchit2001 competition, in recognition of the greatest
achievements in innovation and enterprise across the broadest range of
In the academic year 2000-2001, Oxford’s overall research income from
external sponsors rose by 10 per cent for the second successive year,
reaching F142.4 million.
In the most recent national Teaching Quality Assessment exercises for
2000, Oxford was awarded top marks in six out of ten subjects assessed.
Oxford, Stanford and Yale Universities have recently become partners in
a joint ‘distance learning’ venture, the Alliance for Lifelong Learning,
which will provide on-line courses in the arts and sciences initially to
their combined 500,000 alumni.
The University of Oxford has more academic staff working in world-class
research departments (rated 5* or 5 in the RAE 2001) than any other UK
Oxford has recently received its fourth Queen’s Anniversary Prize, in
recognition of the Refugee Studies Centre’s contribution to the study of
forced migration and refugees.
Isis Innovation, the University’s technology transfer company, files on
average one new patent application a week and spins out a new company
from University research every two months.
Oxford has spun out more companies than any other UK university. Our
spin-out companies are collectively worth around F2 billion, and have
helped produce some 30 multi-millionaires.
Oxford is the UK pioneer in developing a university intellectual
As one of the leading international universities, Oxford attracts
scholars from all over the world to join its teaching and research staff
and collaborates with institutions in around 80 countries. This includes
good relationships with the Far East (including HYPERLINK
«http://www.ox.ac.uk/aboutoxford/china/» China ), India, South Africa,
the USA and Latin America. Over 130 nationalities are represented among
our student body and almost a quarter of our students are from overseas.
The University has a small number of formal academic and research
collaborative agreements with international universities (currently with
Jagiellonian University, Krakow; Kyoto University; Leiden University;
Tokyo University; Seoul National University; National Taiwan University;
Australian National University and Peking University). In addition,
Oxford and Princeton University recently announced a major collaboration
to create new research partnerships, increase staff and student
exchanges, and provide opportunities to share resources for cutting-edge
Oxford also has links with many European universities through
SOCRATES (ERASMUS) exchange programmes;
membership of the Coimbra Group of European universities;
membership of the Europaeum, a group of leading universities promoting
staff and student exchange, joint research, and conferences and summer
schools in European Studies.
A range of scholarships offer support for international students,
including specific schemes for Western Europe, Central/Eastern Europe,
China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Pakistan, the countries of the Arab
League, and developing countries.
Each year, almost 200 students are supported by University scholarships
funded fully or in part by outside donors and a further 100 receive
bursaries funded by the University to assist with their costs.
The HYPERLINK «http://www.admissions.ox.ac.uk/finance/bursaries/»
Clarendon Fund Bursaries , a major scheme supported by Oxford University
Press, makes approximately 70 awards annually for overseas graduate
Additionally, the Rhodes Scholarships scheme enables students from
nearly 20 countries to come to study in Oxford, with around 90 students
taking up their places each October.
Malaysian students outside St Antony’s College
The University of Oxford’s total student population numbers just over
16,500 (students in residence, 2000-2001).
Almost a quarter of these students are from overseas.
More than 130 nationalities are represented among our student body.
Almost 5,000 students are engaged in postgraduate work. Of these, around
3,000 are working in the arts and humanities.
Every year more than 16,500 people take part in courses offered by the
University’s Department for Continuing Education.
Latest figures show that only 5.5 per cent of Oxford graduates were
unemployed six months after graduation, compared with the national
sector average of over 6 per cent.
Oxford has a higher number of first degree graduates (36%) entering
further training than the national average (20%).
Our students and staff are currently involved in over 55 initiatives,
including visits to more than 3,700 schools and colleges, to encourage
the brightest and best students to apply to Oxford, whatever their
Throughout its history, Oxford has produced gifted men and women in
every sphere of human endeavour who have studied or taught at the
University. Among these are 5 kings, 40 Nobel prizewinners, 25 British
Prime Ministers, 9 current holders of the Order of Merit, plus 3 Saints,
85 Archbishops and 18 Cardinals.
A few of these famous Oxonians, past and present, are listed here; the
date shows the start, or a known date, of their time at Oxford. PLEASE
NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A COMPREHENSIVE LIST:
PRIVATE INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z «University of Oxford Famous
1231 Roger Bacon, scholar INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z «University of Oxford
1303 William of Ockham, philosopher and theologian
1360 John Wyclif, religious reformer
1382 Jerome of Prague, Czech religious reformer
1480 Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Churchman
1492 Sir Thomas More, statesman and martyr
1499 Desiderius Erasmus, humanist and scholar
1520 William Tyndale, translator of the Bible
1572 Sir Walter Raleigh, explorer and statesman
1572 Sir Philip Sydney, poet
1584 John Donne, poet
1589 Archbishop Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury
1608 Thomas Hobbes, philosopher
1620 William Harvey, scientist, discoverer of the circulation of the
1647 Sir Christopher Wren, architect
1650 John Locke, philosopher
1654 Robert Boyle, scientist
1660 William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania
1675 Edmund Halley, astronomer
1692 Jethro Tull, agriculturalist and inventor
1710 Henry Pelham, UK Prime Minister 1743-54
1720 Jonathan Swift, author
1726 William Pitt the Elder, UK Prime Minister 1726
1728 Dr Samuel Johnson, diarist and writer
1744 Adam Smith, political economist
1787 George Canning, UK Prime Minister, 1827
1805 Sir Robert Peel, UK Prime Minister 1834-35 & 1841046
1810 John Keble, theologian
1816 Cardinal Newman, theologian
1828 William Gladstone, British Prime Minister
1834 John Ruskin, educational reformer and art critic
1851 Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), author
1852 William Morris, artist and poet
1853 Edward Burne-Jones, artist
1873 Cecil Rhodes, statesman and philanthropist
PRIVATE «TYPE=PICT;ALT=Jeanette Winterson» INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z
«University of Oxford Famous Oxonians.files/winterson.jpeg»
1874 Oscar Wilde, author
1886 Gertrude Bell, explorer
1895 Eglantyne Jebb, founder of Save the Children
1897 Sir Thomas Beecham, conductor
1901 Clement Attlee, UK Prime Minister 1945-51
1907 Lawrence of Arabia, soldier and diplomat
1908 Sir Adrian Boult, conductor
1911 J R R Tolkien, author
1912 Harold Macmillan, UK Prime Minister 1957-63
1914 T S Eliot, poet
1916 Aldous Huxley, author
1919 Alfred, Lord Denning, former Master of the Rolls
1919 Anthony Eden, UK Prime Minister 1955-57
1922 Graham Greene, author
1922 Evelyn Waugh, author
1925 J William Fulbright, founder of the Fulbright scholarships
1925 W H Auden, poet
1926 Dr Theodeor Seuss Geisel, children’s author and cartoonist
1926 Louis Macniece, poet
1928 Dorothy Hodgkin, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1964
1928 Sir Isaiah Berlin, philosopher
1930 William Golding, Nobel Laureate in Literature 1932
1934 Harold Wilson, UK Prime Minister 1964-70, 1974-76
1935 Edward Heath, UK Prime Minister 1970-74
1938 Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India 1966-1977 & 1980-84
1938 Dame Iris Murdoch, novelist and philosopher
1941 Robert Runcie, former Archbishop of Canterbury
1941 Kingsley Amis, author
1942 Tony Benn, politician
1943 Baroness Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister
1946 Sir Roger Bannister, athlete and neurosurgeon
1947 Sir Robin Day, writer and broadcaster
1948 Baroness Williams of Crosby, politician and academic
1949 Malcolm Fraser, Prime Minister of Australia 1975-83
1950 Sir Vidia S Naipaul, Nobel Laureate in Literature 2001
1951 Colin Cowdrey, cricketer
1953 Bob Hawke, Prime Minister of Australia 1983-1991
1954 Alan Bennett, playwright PRIVATE «TYPE=PICT;ALT=Alex Coomber»
INCLUDEPICTURE \d \z «University of Oxford Famous
1956 Dennis Potter, playwright
1957 Dudley Moore, actor
1959 Professor Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist
1960 Dr Frene Ginwala, Speaker of the South African Assembly
1961 John Kufuor, President of Ghana 2001-
1962 Michael Palin, broadcaster
1962 Joanna Trollope, novelist
1964 Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Laureate (Peace)
1965 Philip Pullman, novelist
1968 Bill Clinton, President of the United States 1992-2000
1968 Martin Amis, novelist
1968 Jancis Robinson, wine expert
1969 Rick Stein, chef and broadcaster
1970 Professor Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi
1971 Andrew Motion, Poet Laureate 1999-
1972 The Rt Hon Tony Blair, British Prime Minister
1973 Tim Berners Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web
1975 Rowan Atkinson, comedian
1975 Angus Deayton, comedian
1976 Helen Fielding, author
1978 Jeanette Winterson, novelist
1979 Hugh Grant, actor
1979 Nigella Lawson, broadcaster
1980 Sir Simon Rattle, conductor
1982 Armando Iannucci, comedian
1982 Fiona Bruce, television presenter
1983 Naruhito, Crown Prince of Japan
1984 King Abdullah of Jordan
1987 Yvette Cooper, MP, politician
1989 Viktor Orban, Prime Minister of Hungary 1998-
1989 Matthew Pinsent, Olympic gold medal rower
1992 Alex Coomber, Olympic bronze-medal winning skeleton bob slider
1993 Emilia Fox, actress
1994 Stephanie Cook, Olympic gold-medal winning pentathlete