Государственное общеобразовательное учреждение гимназия № 11

Реферат

на тему:

Ernest Miller Hemingway

Выполнил:

Самойлов Станислав Андреевич

Преподаватель:

Тоисеева Ирина Вадимовна

Санкт-Петербург

2007 г.

1. The introduction………………………………………………… 2

2. Life of Ernest Hemingway……………………………………… 2

3. Hemingways social viewpoint………………………………….. 4

4. Hemingways ideas regarding literature and writers…………… 5

5. Hemingways style of writing………………………………….. 6

6. The conclusion………………………………………………….. 7

Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961)

The introduction

Ernest Miller Hemingway was one of Americas foremost writers, and a
classic of American and world literature of the 20th century. He
influenced the American short story, and his novels “A Farewell to
Arms”, “To Have and Have Not”, “For Whom the Bells Tolls”, “The Old Man
and the Sea” are world known. He took part in the First World War, Civil
War in Spain and in the Second World War, and fought actively against
fascism and war.

Hemingway was a man of great talent. An American critic, Carlos Baker,
in his book “Ernest Hemingway A Life Story” writes that Hemingway was a
perpetual student, a profound reader, a brilliant naturalist and a keen
observer of life around him. Hemingway won the hearts of his readers
with his stories and novels and attracted people by his personal
qualities ? his honesty and courage above all. He was much interested in
fishing, hunting, boxing and the national Spanish sport corrida.

LIFE OF ERNEST HEMINGWAY

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born at eight o’clock in the morning on July
21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. In the nearly sixty two years of his
life that followed he forged a literary reputation unsurpassed in the
twentieth century.  In doing so, he also created a mythological hero in
himself that captivated (and at times confounded) not only serious
literary critics but the average man as well.  In a word, he was a star.

Born in the family home at 439 North Oak Park Avenue (now 339 N. Oak
Park Avenue), a house built by his widowed grandfather Ernest Hall,
Hemingway was the second of Dr. Clarence and Grace Hall Hemingways six
children; he had four sisters and one brother. He was named after his
maternal grandfather Ernest Hall and his great uncle Miller Hall.

Oak Park was a mainly Protestant, upper middle-class suburb of Chicago
that Hemingway would later refer to as a town of «wide lawns and narrow
minds.» Only ten miles from the big city, Oak Park was really much
farther away philosophically. It was basically a conservative town that
tried to isolate itself from Chicago’s liberal seediness. Hemingway was
raised with the conservative Midwestern values of strong religion, hard
work, physical fitness and self determination; if one adhered to these
parameters, he was taught, he would be ensured of success in whatever
field he chose.

His father, a keen sportsman and ethnographer, was a doctor. His
democratic views influenced Ernest greatly. He taught his son first and
foremost to be a man, and to love and understand nature His mother was a
successful opera singer. Ernest took to reading books at an early age.
His nurse recalled that she had been warned not to let him read in bed
but that after “Id tuck him in, hed say good night, as sweet as could
be, then in the morning I d find books stuffed under the mattress, in
the pillow-case, everywhere. He read all the time ? and books far beyond
his years”

At school Ernest was recognized as an exceptionally good football player
and boxer. Ernest took part in all school activities. But he was
adventurous and twice he ran away from home, working at farms as a
day-labourer, or as a waiter, or as a sparring partner for boxers. He
was also a good fisherman and was very fond of hunting. He used to hunt
in the woods of northern Michigan. Among his friends were Indian boys.

Later at school he began to show a fondness for literature, started
writing articles for two school periodicals, and became the editor of
the schools weekly paper.

When he left school, he took a job on the paper Kansas City Star as a
cub reporter. On the Star he got his first experience in writing for the
press.

In 1918 the United States entered the First World War. Hemingway was
rejected for service because of a bad eye. The following year he
volunteered as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross and was
badly wounded on the Italian front. He was hospitalized in Milan, where
227 shell fragments were removed from his body in the course of twelve
operations. He was twice decorated by the Italian Government for his
military services.

On returning to America Hemingway began writing articles for newspapers
in Toronto(Canada). In 1921 he went to Europe as a traveling
correspondent. Until 1928 he lived mainly in Paris and was in the centre
of European political life all the time. Hemingway was always in the
right place at the right time to get the biggest news. He covered
important conferences (Genoa, Lausanne), interviewed leading statesmen,
wrote on the coming revolution in Spain and followed the anti-fascist
movement. In Paris he made friends with many writers. He toured many
countries: he absorbed people, places and life like a sponge. He devoted
36 years of his life ( from 1920 to 1956) to journalism and may well be
considered one of the most experienced journalists of the 20th century.
He made it his principle to write the absolute truth. He learned to
write in a clear and lucid manner. Later he used his news accounts in
many short stories and novels. In 1920 he covered the Graeco-Turkish War
as a journalist. “I remember”, he said thirty years later, “coming home
from the Near East… absolutely heartbroken at what was going on and in
Paris trying to decide whether I would put my whole life into trying to
do something about it and be a writer.” He decided to become a writer
and quit his job as reporter. This immediately told on him materially.
He described his condition as being “bellyempty” and “hollow hungry” .
In Paris he even caught pigeons in parks to have some food. For a long
time he had no money. His first book “Three Stories and Ten Poems” was
given a limited publication in Paris in 1923. His short-story book “In
Our time” was published in 1924. His first novels on the so-called “lost
generation”, “The Sun Also Rises” and “The Torrents of Spring”, were
published in 1926. The year of 1929 was marked by the publishing of his
famous novel “A Farewell to Arms”. From 1928 to 1938 the writer lived in
Key West, Florida. He traveled a lot in France and Spain, wrote the best
book on corrida that had appeared anywhere in the world, “Death in the
Afternoon” (1932). He also took part in the first African safari (big
game hunting), which he later described in the book “Green Hills of
Africa” (1935). The short-story book “Winner Take Nothing” was published
in 1933. “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber” (1936) and “The
Snows of Kilimanjaro” (1936) belong to the most prominent of his short
stories. In 1935 Hemingway published in the New Masses a pamphlet on the
death of war veterans, whom the American Government had sent to work on
reefs in the sea during a hurricane, thus causing their death.

The Civil War in Spain was a turning-point in the writers life. He was
eager to help the republicans and did everything he could. He bought
some ambulance cars and took an active part in the fight against fascism
as a correspondent and writer. Hemingway wrote the film script for the
movie “The Spanish Earth” (1938), in connection with which he said:
“…when men fight for the freedom of their country against a foreign
invasion, and when these men are your friends, some new friends and some
of long standing, you know how they were attacked and how they fought at
first unarmed, you learn, watching them live and fight and die, that
there are worse things than war. Cowardice is worse, treachery is worse,
and simple selfishness is worse.” He raised money for Spain. In June
1937 he made a speech at the Second Congress of American writers in
defense of the Spanish Republic. The experience he got in Spain helped
him to write the play “The Fifth Column” (1938), some short stories
(“The Chauffeurs of Madrid”, “Old Man at the Bridge”, “The Butterfly and
the Tank”, “On the Americans Dead in Spain” and others), the novel “For
Whom the Bell Tolls” (1940), and to complete his novel “To Have and Have
Not”.

When Hemingway learned about the invasion of the Soviet Union by German
troops, he addressed a telegram to our country expressing his support of
the heroic struggle of our people.

For some months in 1942-1943 he voluntarily patrolled the Cuban coast in
his boat Pilar chasing submarines in the Caribbean Sea. From 1942 on, he
lived much of the time in Cuba. His short novel “The Old an and the Sea”
was a tribute to a simple man ? a Cuban fisherman. It was after writing
this book that he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.

While traveling in Africa in 1954 he had two narrow escapes in
successive air crashes. His health began to deteriorate. The last years
of his life he was seriously ill. He died of a self-inflicted gunshot
wound in Ketchum, Idaho, on July 2, 1961. He was buried at Ketchum. His
house in Cuba was converted into museum by the Revolutionary Government
of Cuba. In 1966 a memorial was erected to his memory with the following
words on it:

Best of all he loved the fall

The leaves yellow on the
cottonwoods

Leaves floating on the trout
streams

And above the hills

The high blue windless skies

…Now he will be a part of
them forever.

P.S. Hemingway was married four times.

HEMINGWAYS SOCIAL VIEWPOINT

Hemingway was a democrat and humanist. All his life he fought against
war and fascism and criticized the so-called “American way of life”. the
First World War influenced him a great deal. He saw the horrors and
tragedy suffered by both soldiers and civilians. In the preface to a
collection of war stories “Men at War” (1942) he wrote about the First
World War that it had been “the most colossal, murderous, mismanaged
butchery that has ever taken place on Earth”. He was convinced that
after the First World War the world was on the way to revolution: “In
those days we who believed in it, looked for it at any time, expected
it, hoped for it, ? for it was the logical thing.” A series of stories
on this subject make up the book “In Our Time” (1924). Hemingway said:
“The only way to combat the murder that is war, is to show the dirty
combinations that make it and the criminals and swine that hope for it
and the idiotic way they run it when they get it so that an honest man
will distrust it as he would a racket and refuse to be enslaved into
it.” His participation in the First World War, the Civil War in Spain,
the Second World War taught him to see the real nature of war. In the
preface to the novel “A Farewell to Arms”, published after the Second
World War, he wrote: “I believe that all the people who stand to profit
by a war and who help provoke it should be shot on the first day it
starts by accredited representatives of the loyal citizens of their
country who will fight it. The author of this book would be very glad to
take charge of this shooting if legally delegated by those who will
fight…”

He was one of the first to warn against the fatal danger of fascism.
Hemingways first feature-articles on fascism were written at the
beginning of the twenties. Having traced the development of fascism in
Italy, he wrote in his article called “Italys Fascists” that first it
was an organization of counter-attackers against the communist
demonstrations, then it became a political party, and now it is a
political and military party that is enlisting the workers of Italy and
invading the field of the labour organizations. In his article “Genoa
Conference” he noted that the fascists “were under the tacit protection
of the government, if not its active support”, that “they had a taste of
unpenalized lawlessness, unpunished murder, and the right to riot when
and where they pleased”. He said that Mussolini was the biggest bluff in
Europe. For Hemingway fascism meant war first of all. “There has been
war in Spain, now for two years,” he wrote in an article “Programme of
US Realism”. “There has been war in China for a year. War is due in
Europe by next summer at the latest.” His prediction was right. He was
also fully aware of the danger that fascism meant for literature: “There
is only one form of government that cannot produce good writers, and
that system is fascism. For fascism is a lie told by bullies. A writer
who will not lie cannot live or work under fascism.”

HEMINGWAYS IDEAS REGARDING LITERATURE AND WRITERS

Hemingway didnt consider himself a theoretician but he made some
important contributions to theory. He was of the opinion that art and
literature play an important role in the world: “A work of art endures
forever.” Hemingway stressed the role of the writer: “Trying to write
something of permanent value is a full-time job even though only a few
hours a day are spent on the actual writing. A writer can be compared to
a well. There are as many kinds of wells as there are writers. The
important thing is to have good water in the well and it is better to
take a regular amount out than to pump the well dry and wait for it to
refill.” He paid much attention to a writers qualifications: “First
there must be talent, much talent. Talent such as Kipling had. Then
there must be discipline, the discipline of Flaubert. Then there must
be…an absolute conscience as unchanging as the standard meter in Paris,
to prevent faking…” He said that a writer should be a man of knowledge
and experience: “There are some things which cannot be learned quickly,
and time, which is all we have, must be paid heavily for their
acquiring. There are the very simplest things and because it takes a
mans life to know them the little new that each man gets from life is
costly and the only her has to leave.” Rich experience enabled him to
make the following conclusion: “The hardest thing in the world to do is
to write straight honest prose on human beings. First you have to know
the subject: then you have to know how to write…Books should be about
the people you know, that you love and hate, not about the people you
study up about. If you write them truly they will have all the economic
implications a book can hold.”

Hemingway stressed the importance of truth in fiction: “A writers job
is to tell the truth. His standard of fidelity to the truth should be so
high that his experience, should produce a truer account than anything
factual can be.”

Hemingway made a careful study of both American and European literary
and cultural traditions. He thoroughly studied the works of many
writers, among them Flaubert, Stendhal, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky,
Chekhov, Maupassant, Dante, Virgil and many others. Hemingway considered
among his “teachers” many painters and composers as well. The writer
said he learned as much from painters about how to write as from
writers, and that “what one learns from composers and from the study of
harmony and counterpoint” should be obvious. He repeatedly stressed the

HEMINGWAYS STYLE OF WRITING

Hemingways aim to write absolute truth induced him to create a new
style. He avoided conventional narration in his stories. He tried to
sketching in vivid scenes his own experience in war, and tell his
hard toil. Leaving out many unnecessary details Hemingway mastered a new
short-story form. Some of these short stories he used for his novels.
Thats the way all my novels got started,” he said.

The language of Hemingways works is of bare simplicity; it is in
keeping with the characters he wanted to portray. It is surprising how
he reveals the inner world of his personages in short dialogues and
colloquial phrases. Plain words in simple declarative sentences bring
out the sensations of the central characters and at the same time make
the reader participate in the events of the story. “I use the oldest
words in the English language.” Hemingway said.

Hemingway was the inventor of the so-called “theory of an iceberg”: he
wrote that“…if a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing
about , he may omit things that he knows, and the reader, if the writer
is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things, as
strongly as though the writer has stated them. The dignity of movement
of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water.”

The conclusion

Leo Lania, Hemingways biographer, wrote: “Many serious and important
authors have learnt from him; from his incorruptible objectivity, his
exceptional gift of observation; from his language, as clear as the
mountain stream which reveals each single pebble on the bottom. He has
done more than anybody else to strip American literature of
sentimentality and free American prose from bombast and artificial
pathos. He has shown a complete generation of authors how to write
natural and unliterary dialogue with a rhythm and authenticity which
few other, contemporary novelists have equaled.”

The used material:

Л.Н. Утевская. 2004

«Эрнест Хемингуэй. Биография и творчество». Артуро Паскаль. 2006

The internet: www.lostgeneration.com

perpetual?бесконечный

profound?глубокий

a keen observer?острый наблюдатель (критик)

unsurpassed—бесподобно

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Oочарованный

confounded?проклятый

widowed?овдовевший

a suburb?пригород

“wide lawns and narrow minds”?«широкие лужайки и узкие умы»

a seediness?захудалость

a fondness?любовь, нежность

cub reporter ? a young and inexperienced journalist, a beginner

to absorb?поглощать

lucid?ясный

belly empty?пустой живот

“ hollow hungry”? «голодная пустота»

prominent?видный

eager?нетерпеливый

a treachery?предательство

a selfishness?эгоизм

a chauffeur?шофёр

to chase?преследовать

a tribute?дань

a narrow escape?спасение по счастливой случайности

to deteriorate?ухудшаться

a cottonwood?тополь

a trout?форель

a preface?предисловие

mismanaged?неумело проведенная

a participation?участие

a profit?прибыль

a charge?обвинение

to enlist?вербовать

tacit?молчаливый

unpenalized?не оштрафованный

a riot?бунт

a bluff?блеф

to aware?знать

a bully?хулиган

a contribution?вклад

to endure?выдерживать испытание времени

a well?колодец, родник

a pump?насос

Flaubert Gustave (1821-1880) ? French realist writer, author of the

a conscience?совесть

an acquiring?приобретение

to enable?позволить

an implication?значение

a fiction?беллетристика

a fidelity ?верность

Stendhal ? pen-name of Henri Beyle (1783-1842), French novelist..

a counterpoint?контрапункт

obvious?очевидный

a conventional narration?обычное повествование

a toil?тяжелый труд

bare?голый

to portray?изображать

to reveal?показать

inner?внутренний

declarative?описательный

a dignity?достоинство

a pebble?галька, камешек

a bombast?напыщенность

an authenticity?подлинность