Ensemble music (реферат)

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Ensemble music

Troyista muzyka

The Hutsuls have a legend about the troyista muzyka ensemble. “Three
musicians – a violinist, a tsymbaly player and a piper – fell in love
with a maiden. To choose her bridegroom, the maiden suggested that they
take part in a contest, and she would marry the player whose music the
people judged to be the best. Each musician played in turn his favorite
melody, but as the three musicians played equally well, none of them
could win the contest. Then the maiden asked them to compete again, this
time playing the same melody, but again nobody scored a victory. There
was only one thing left to do – to play the tune together. Their joint
performance yielded such enchanting music that the people decided that
it would be a sin to part them and so they continue to play together.”
In this way this music became known as “troyista muzyka,” i.e. trio
music. Ensembles of this type usually consist of three musicians: a
violinist, a tsymbaly and a bubon player. In some ensembles the
instruments can be varied with the inclusion of the basolia or sopilka
instead of the bubon. The ensemble’s instrumentation and also the style
of music it plays differs from region to region.


Bandura Ensembles

included several hurdy-gurdy players and a troyista muzyka ensemble.
After this historic performance, interest in the bandura became
widespread. In a short period non-blind intellectuals were learning to
play the bandura and gradually ensembles were formed. One of the first,
consisting of students from Kyiv University was led by Mykhailo
Domontovych gave its first public performance in Kyiv in 1908. Bandura
ensembles were soon established in cities outside of Ukraine, in Moscow
and the Kuban’.

1950, where it settled in Detroit. The Shevchenko Bandura Chorus became
known in the United Staes as the Ukrainian Bandurist Chorus was closely
associated with its conductor the late Hryhory Kytasty. From 1984-1996
the group has been directed by Volodymyr Kolesnyk. Currently its new
conductor is Oleh Mahlay. In 1948 a new State Bandurist Chorus was also
re-established in Kyiv under the direction of Olexander Minkivsky. Its
current director is Mykola Hvozd. With post WWII migration to countries
such as North America, South America and Australia, ensembles and
Bandura Choruses have been established in most cities that have a
Ukrainian population.


The idea of an orchestra of Ukrainian folk instruments was slow in
developing in Ukraine. The first performance of such a group can be
traced back to the XIIth Archeological Congress in Kharkiv, which under
the direction of Hnat Khotkevych included not only banduras but
hurdy-gurdies, violins a basolia and a tambourine. In 1922 Leonid
Haydamaka, a student of Hnat Khotkevych organized a bandura ensemble in
the Metalworkers Club in Kharkiv. This ensemble slowly introduced
banduras of various sizes of the Kharkiv type.

Gradually other instruments were added such as the tsymbaly, the lira,
sopilky, trembitas and the bagpipes. This orchestra, although of amateur
status, became well known. It became the basis for another orchestra,
formed in the 1930’s in the Pioneers Palace. Various performances by the
orchestra were given throughout Ukraine and other Soviet republics, and
records were released in the thirties.

In 1943 The Veriovka Choir was formed, with an orchestral group
consisting of Ukrainian folk instruments. Most of the regional folk
choir ensembles also have orchestras of Ukrainian folk instruments,
usually pertaining to the district from which they originate. In 1959 an
orchestra of Ukrainian folk instruments was formed at the Ukrainian
Radio and Television Center based on a bandura ensemble directed by
Andriy Bobyr. This orchestra however rarely performed on the concert
stage. Other orchestras have also been recently formed at various radio
centers in Ukraine.

In 1970 an orchestra of Ukrainian folk instruments was formed in Kyiv
under the auspices of the Music and Choral Society of Ukraine. Directed
by Yakiv Orlov, it became extremely popular and the orchestra has
recorded several records. It has recently been renamed the Kyiv State
Orchestra of Ukrainian Folk Instruments. Its current director is Viktor


Mishalow, Victor – The Ukrainian Hurdy-gurdy. Epic ballads, psalms and
songs from the repertoire of Vasyl Nechepa. (Kobza – Toronto, 1990)

Mishalow, Victor – The Ukrainian Hurdy-gurdy – in “Sinfonye” The journal
of the Hurdy-gurdy society pp.6-15 No. 7 Summer 1993 (Dorset, England

Mizynec, V – The Kobzar Brotherhoods – in “Bandura” (# 7-8 N.Y. 1984 p.

Moyle, Natalie K. – Ukrainian Dumy – Editio Minor CIUS and HURI

Nezovybat’ko, O. – Ukrainski tsymbaly (The Ukrainian Hammer Dulcimer)
(Kyiv, 1976)

Palmer, Susann – The Hurdy-gurdy – Davids and Charles (Devon, UK 1980)

Prokopenko, N. – Ustrojstvo, khranenie i remont narodnyx muzykalnyx
instrumentov (Adjustment, storage and repair of folk music instruments)
(Moscow, 1977)

Sadie, S (ed) – The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. –
Macmillan Press (NY, 1984)

Skliar, Ivan – Podarunok Sopilkariam (A gift to Soplika players) (Kyiv,

Skliar, Ivan – Kyivs’ka-kharkivs’ka bandura (The Kyiv-kharkiv bandura)
(Kyiv, 1971)

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