Курсова робота

England, Canada, Americа (еnglish speaking countries)

Plan:

History of England.

Roman Britain.

The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and Dark Ages.

The Norman Invasion.

The Tudors.

Civil War and Oliver Cromwell. The Industrial Revolution.

The British Empire.

World War I and the “inter-war” years.

World War II and the ‘post-war’ years.

Canada

First Nations.

European colonization.

The Klondike Gold Rush.

America

Native Americans

Immigration and the creation of the USA.

America and WW2.

The making of the USA.

4.Ukraine and English speaking countries.

1. History of England.

1.1.Roman Britain.

The Romans, led by Julius Caesar, landed, in 55 and 54 BC, in the part
of the island of Great Britain which was later to become South East
England. Nevertheless, they did not come as conquerors at that time. It
was only a century later, in 43 AD, under the emperor Claudius, that the
Romans occupied England. In order to protect themselves from the Picts,
the inhabitants of Scotland at that time, the Romans under the emperor
Hadrian had a wall built from east to west, Hadrian’s Wall, to defend
their southern British provinces and marc the boundary between England
and Scotland, as they were to become later.

The Romans constructed a highly effective internal infrastructure to
underpin their military occupation, building long, straight roads the
length and breadth of the country, most of which centered on Londium
(the Roman name for London). Many viaducts and aqueducts still remain
across England, along with the Roman city walls of Chester York and
others.

The indigenous, mostly Celtic population was suppressed with efficiency,
although numerous, and often extremely bloody, uprisings occurred all
through their occupation. The most notable uprisings were that of the
Iceni (and other tribes) led by Boudicca or “Boadicea” in 61-62 AD.

The Romans held England for almost four centuries, never venturing much
into Wales and kept out of Scotland by the Picts, before their presence
weakened and by the 5th century they had left.

1.2.The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and the Dark Ages.

The dark Ages were times when history was oral, and the local Celts and
the Anglo-Saxons and Viking invaders all used songs, sagas and oral
poetry to record and retell events. Much became lost; of what remains,
there is a complex mix of history, legend and myth, King Arthur and
knights being just one example of inadequate historical source evidence.

What is now England was progressively settled by successive and often
complementary waves of Germanic tribesmen. Among them the Angles, Saxons
and Jutes together with many other tribes who had been partly displaced
on mainland Europe. Increasingly the Celtics population was pushed
westwards and northwards. The settlement of England is known as the
Saxon Conquest or the Anglo-Saxon settlement.

In the decisive Battle of Deorham, in 577, the Celtic people of
Southern Britain were separated into the South-West nation of Cornwall
and Devon and the Welsh by the advancing Saxons.

Beginning with the raid in 793 on the monastery at Lindisfarne, Vikings
made many raids on England.

The Saxons founded a settlement beside the River Sheaf, (later to
become Sheffield in South Yorkshire) and it was near there that Egbert
of Wessex received the submission of Eanred of Northumbria in 829 and so
became the first Saxon overlord of all England.

Having started with plundering raids, the Vikings later began to settle
in England and trade, eventually ruling the Danelaw from the late 9th
century.

There are many traces of Vikings in England today, for instance many
words in the English language; the similarity of Old English and Old
Norse led to much borrowing. The major Viking settlement was in York,
capital of the kingdom of York.

There were four major areas: Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex and East
Anglia. The kingdoms were powerful institutions and were characterised
by many personalities recorded by history, but usually only after the
record-keeping Normans took over, so much of their history is debatable.

1.3.The Norman Invasion

The Normans were Viking and Slav settlers in France who had become the
ruling elite, displacing the Gallic and Celtic tribes of France from
power. A long series of disputes between the Normans and the English
resulted in the invasion of England.

The defeat of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066
at the hands of William of Normandy, later styled William I of England
and the subsequent Norman takeover of Saxon, Celtic and Viking England
led to a major turning-point in the history of the small, isolated,
island state.

The Normans kept written records and recorded all aspects of life in
England. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a
survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax
purposes. This remains the most comprehensive survey of a country in
medieval Europe.

The Normans also built in stone: in the 11th and 12th centuries, many
hundreds of small churches were built across England and most not only
still stand, but remain in use.

The English Middle Ages were o be characterised by civil war,
international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political
intrigue amongst the aristocratic and monarchic elite.

At the same time, a ruling elite was being formed in England that began
in the 13th century to move England away from a feudal system ruled by
an autocratic monarch to the beginnings of the democracy. Simon de
Montfor was instrumental in forming first English Parliament in 1265.

1.4.The Tudors

In the 15th century, a major civil war took place, known as the Wars of
the Roses, as the two sides, the House of Lancaster and the House of
York were symbolized by a red rose and a white rose respectively. It
ended in the victory of Henry Tudor, who became Henry VII, at the Battle
of Bosworth Field in 1485, where the Yorkist King Richard III was
killed. Henry’s son King Henry VIII (1491-1547) was king of England and
later king of Ireland from 1509 until his death. He was the second
monarch of the Tudor dynasty. He is famous for having been married six
times and for taking and using the most power of any British king.

Several significant pieces of legislation were passed during Henry
VIII’s reign. They included the several Acts which severed the English
Church from the Roman Catholic Church and established Henry as the head
of the Protestant Church of England, the Acts of Union 1536-1543 (which
united England and Wales into one nation) and the Witchcraft Act 1542,
which punished ’’invoking or conjuring an evil spirit’’ with death.

Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from
1558 until her death. Sometimes referred to as The Virgin Queen or Good
Queen Bess, Elizabeth I was the fifth and the last monarch of the Tudor
dynasty. She reigned during a period of great religious turmoil in
English history when Catholics attempted the throne, at one point
through Elizabeth’s sister, Marry Queen of Scots.

1.5.Civil War and Oliver Cromwell. The Industrial Revolution.

The major English Civil War broke out in 1642, largely as a result of
an ongoing series of conflicts between the then King, Charles I, who
wanted more power than acceptable to the people. The defeat of the
Royalist army by the New Model Army of Parliament at the Battle of
Naseby in June 1645 effectively destroyed the King’s armies.

The King fled to Scotland but was handed over to the English Parliament
for money by the Scots. He escaped and the English Civil War re-started,
although it was to be only a short conflict, with Parliament quickly
securing the country.

The capture and subsequent trial of Charles I led to his execution by
beheading in1649 in London. The monarchy was abolished and Oliver
Cromwell became the Lord Protector and Head of State. After he died, his
son Richard Cromwell acceded him as Lord Protector, but soon abdicated.
The monarchy was restored in 1660, after Parliament decided to have a
royal Head of State, with King Charles II returning to London.

From about 1750, there was massive change as a largely agrarian society
was transformed by technological advances and increasing mechanization,
which was the Industrial Revolution. Much of the agricultural workforce
was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centers of
production, as the steambased production factories could undercut the
traditional cottage industries, due to economies of scale and the
increased output per worker made possible by new technology. The
consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure
saw dramatic increases in the rise of infant mortality, social problems
and many workers saw their livelihoods threatened by new technology. Of
these, some frequently sabotage factories. These saboteurs were known as
‘’Luddites’’.

The English economy boomed as the processing of raw materials such as
cotton and iron, and manufacture of goods in parallel with the growth of
cities and major conurbations forever changed the face of England.

1.6. The British Empire

Although called ‘’British’’, the empire was dominated by England. The
credit for the first ever usage of the words ‘’British Empire’’ is
usually given to Doctor John Dee, Queen Elizabeth I’s astrologer,
alchemist, and mathematician.

The British Empire, in the early decades of the 20th century, ruled
over a population of 400-500 million people – then roughly a quarter of
the world’s population – and covered nearly 30 million square
kilometers, roughly 40 % of the world’s land area.

The British Empire came together over 300 years through a succession of
phases of expansion by trade, settlement, or conquest, interspersed with
intervals of pacific commercial and diplomatic activity. Its territories
were scattered across every continent and ocean, and it was described
with some truth, as the empire on the sun never sets. Arguably, its peak
was reached in the 1890th and 1900th. The independence of the USA was
the only major hiccup in its growth.

The Empire facilitated the spread of British technology, commerce,
language, and government around much of the globe. Imperial dominance
contributed to Britain’s extraordinary economic growth, and greatly
strengthened its voice in world affairs. Even as Britain extended its
imperial reach overseas, it continued to develop and broaden democratic
institutions at the homeland.

From the perspectives of the colonies, the record of the British Empire
is mixed. The colonies received from Britain the English language, an
administrative and legal framework on the British model, and
technological and economic development. During desalinization, Britain
sought to pass parliamentary democracy and the rule of law to its
colonies have since chosen to join the Commonwealth of Nations, the
association which replaced the Empire.

The Victorian Era was at the height of the Industrial Revolution, a
period of great social, economic, and technological change in the United
Kingdom.

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (1829) was a Queen, reigning from 20
June 1837 until her death 63 years later. As well being queen of the
United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Ireland, she was also the first
monarch to use the title Empress of India.

Victoria was the last monarch of the House of the Hanover; her
successor belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

In 1851, the first World Fair, known as the Great Exhibition of 1851,
was held. Organized by Prince Albert, the exhibition was officially
opened by the Queen on 1 May 1851. Despite the commercial fears of many,
it proved an incredible success, with its profits being used to endow
the South Kensington Museum.

The United Kingdom was involved in the Crimean war in 1854, on the side
of Ottoman Empire and against Russia. Immediately before the entry of
the United Kingdom, rumours that the Queen and Prince Albert preferred
the Russian side, whose Royal family were close relatives, diminished
the popularity of the Royal couple. Nonetheless, Victoria publicly
encouraged unequivocal support for the troops.

During Victoria’s last years, the United Kingdom was involved in the
two Boer Wars, which received the enthusiastic support of the Queen.
These wars resulted in the victory of the British over the Dutch
settlers in Southern Africa, the liquidation of the two independent
republics they had founded and the incorporation of the territories into
the British Empire. During the later war with Germany the Royal family
changed its surname in 1917 to Windsor to minimize embarrassment.

1.7. World War I and the “inter-war” years

World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War
of the Nations, and the “War to end of Wars”, was a world conflict
occurring from 1914 to 1918. No previous conflict had mobilized so many
soldiers or involved so many in the field of battle. Never before had
casualties been so high. Chemical weapons were used for the first time,
the first mass bombardment of civilians from the sky was executed, and
some of the century’s first large-scale civilian massacres took place.
Both the UK and British Empire were major force on the, eventually,
winning side, while Germany led the opposing force.

WWI proved to be the catalyst for the Russian Revolution, which would
inspire later revolutions in countries as diverse as China and Cuba, and
would lay the basis for the Cold War standoff between the Soviet Union
and the United States. The defeat of Germany in the war and failure to
resolve the unsettled issues that had caused the Great War would lay the
basis for the rise of Nazism, and thus the outbreak of World War II in
1939. It also laid the basis for a new form of warfare that relied
heavily on technology, and would involve non-combatants in war as never
before,

The war has shattering effect on Britain. About 750,000 members of
British armed forces died. German submarines sank about 7 million tons
of British shipping. The war also created severe economic problems for
Britain and shook its position as a world power.

By 1920, nearly 2 million workers were unemployed. The coal industry
suffered badly as people began to use oil for fuel. Trade unions tried
to win gains for their members in many industries. But employers refused
concessions, and strikes followed.

A General Strike occurred in 1926, when miners, supported by the Trades
Union Congress, struck against reduced wages. After nine days, the main
strike ended. The miners remained on strike several months longer but
finally had to accept the wage cuts.

The world economic situation deteriorated in the late 1920’s. By 1932,
the United Kingdom had about 3 million unemployed. The industrial
districts of northern England, Scotland, and South Wales became
distressed areas, each with thousands of people out of work.

The world economic crisis gradually eased. Economic growth occurred
mostly in London, south-east England, and the western Midlands. In these
areas, new industries produced airplanes, cars, radio and electrical
equipment, and other items powered by oil and electricity. In the 1930s,
Coventry had 142 factories marking cars. Working conditions and housing
in these areas were better than in the old industrial regions.

King George V died in 1936, and his oldest son became King Edward VIII.
Edward wanted to marry an American divorcee, Mrs. Wallis Warfield
Simpson. The government, the Church of England, and many British people
objected. Edward then abdicated, gave up the throne, to marry “the woman
I love.” The story unraveled like a soap opera and held Britain
enthralled. It as never clears whether the majority of the people
supported or opposed the union.

Edward’s brother became as George VI.

1.8.World War II and the ‘post-war’ years.

German and Soviet troops marched into Poland on September 1, 1939. The
war that Churchill had so publicly foreseen had begun. On September 3,
Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. Prime Minister Neville
chamberlain at once named Churchill first Lord of the Admiralty, the
same post he had held in World War I. The British fleet was notified
with a simple message: “Winston is back.”

Chamberlain’s government fell in 1940 after various military setbacks.
On May 10, King George VI asked Churchill to form a new government. At
the age of 66, Churchill became prime minister of Great Britain.

The Germans had to defeat the Royal Air Force before they could invade
across the English Channel. In July 1940, the German Luftwaffe (air
force) began to bomb British shipping and ports, and in September, began
nightly raids on London. “The Blitz” destroyed many British cities,
perhaps the worst damage being Coventry. The RAF, though outnumbered,
fought bravely and finally defeated the Luftwaffe. Churchill expressed
the nation’s gratitude to it’s airman: “Never in field of human conflict
as so much owed by so many to so few.”

While the battle raged, Churchill turned up everywhere. He defied
air-raid alarms and went into the streets as the bombs fell. He toured
RAF headquarters, inspected coastal defences, and visited victims of the
air raids. Everywhere he went he held up two fingers in a “V for
victory” salute. To the people of all the Allied nations, this simple
gesture became an inspiring symbol of faith in eventual victory.

The United States entered the war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour on
December 7, 1941. In August 1942, Churchill met with Soviet Premier
Joseph Stalin. The Soviet Union had entered the war in June 1941,
changing sides after being invaded by Germany. Almost immediately,
Stalin had demanded that the British open a second fighting front in
Western Europe to relieve the strain on the Soviet Union. Churchill
refused saying that it would be disastrous to open a second front in
1942 because the allies were unprepared.

In February 1945, the “Big Three” met in Yalta in the Soviet Union. The
end of the war in Europe was in sight. The three leaders agreed on plans
to occupy defeated Germany. Churchill distrusted Stalin, believing
correctly that the Soviet Union would keep the territories in Eastern
Europe that its troops had occupied. Germany surrendered on May 7, 1945,
almost 5 years to the day after Churchill became prime minister.

About 360,000 British servicemen, servicewomen, and civilians died in
the war. Great sections of London, most of Coventry and other cities had
been destroyed by bombs. The war had shattered the economy, and the UK
had piled up huge depts. The United States and the Soviet Union came out
of the war as the world’s most powerful nations.

In July, Churchill met with Truman and Stalin in Potsdam, Germany, to
discuss the administration of Germany, to discuss the administration of
Germany. But Churchill’s presence at the meeting was cut short. He had
lost his post as prime minister. An election had been held in Britain.
The Conservatives suffered an overwhelming defeat by the Labour party.
The Labour party’s promise of sweeping socialist reform appealed to the
voters. The defeat hurt Churchill deeply.

Clement Attlee became prime minister, and the Labour Party stayed in
power until 1951. During those six years, the UK became a welfare state.
The nations social security system was expanded to provide welfare for
the people “from the cradle to the grave.” The Labour government also
began to nationalize industry by putting private businesses under public
control. The nationalized industries included the Bank of England, the
coal mines, the iron and steel industries, the railways, the road
haulage industry, gas, electricity and water.

After World War II, the peoples of Africa and Asia increased their
demands for independence. In 1947, India and Pakistan became independent
nations within the Commonwealth, and Newfoundland became a province of
Canada.

While the UK was breaking up its empire during the post-war years,
other nations of Western Europe joined together in various organizations
to unite economically and politically. The UK was reluctant to join
them. Throughout history, the UK had preferred to stay out of European
affairs, except to keep the balance of power in Europe. By joining the
new organization, the UK feared it might lose some of its independence,
and would also be turning its back on the Commonwealth.

In the 1950’s, the UK refused to join the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).
Most important, it did not join the European Economic Community (EEC),
which eventually became the European Union. This association, also
called the European Common Market, was set up by France and five other
nations. After the EEC showed signs of succeeding, the UK set up the
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) with six other nations. But it
was only a mild success, and the UK later regretted its refusal to join
the EEC.

In the years after World War II, British foreign policy was closely
allied with that of the United States. The UK joined the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) and fought in the Korean War (1950-1953).

In the 1970 elections, the Conservative Party regained control of the
government. Edward Heath became prime minister. In 1971, agreement was
reached on terms for the UK’s entry into the EEC. The UK joined the EEC
in 1973. But continuing inflation, fuel shortages, major strikes, and
other matters caused serious problems for the Conservative government.

Elections held in May 1979 returned the conservatives to power.
Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. She
became the first woman ever to hold the office. As Prime Minister,
Thatcher worked to reduce government involvement in the economy and
promote the interests of the wealthy. Her policy was also to attempt to
dismantle the Welfare State and make most services payable. A further
major policy was the ending of manufacture and the production of
resources, especially coal and steel, in order to focus on providing a
“Service Economy” to the world.

Initially this was successful as the government sold its interests in
many industries to private citizens and businesses, and income to the
state budget suddenly increased. But, in the words of Harold Macmillan,
a former Conservative prime minister, she “sold off the family silver”.

Since 1833, the UK has ruled the Falkland Islands, which lie about 515
kilometers east of the southern coast of Argentina. But Argentina has
long claimed ownership of the islands. In April 1982, argentine troops
invaded and occupied the Falklands. British and Argentine forces fought
for control of the Falkland Islands. The Argentine forces surrendered in
June 1982.

In November 1990, Thatcher was forced to resign as Conservative Party
leader and prime minister, as the country started to become bankrupt,
leaving a dwindling super rich elite. She was the only prime minister
ever to the bundled out of office. To the amazement of many of
population, the Conservatives managed to hold power until elections held
in May 1997 resulted in a landslide victory for the Labour Party, led by
Tony Blair, ending the Conservative Party’s 18-year period in
government. Blair had reformed the Labour Party, abandoning some of its
leftwing policies to broaden its appeal to voters.

2.Canada.

2.1. First Nations.

Aboriginal peoples, known in Canada as the First Nations for about
10,000 years, have inhabited Canada.

This is the current title used by Canada to describe the various
societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S.
They have also been known as Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, or
Aboriginals, and in fact are officially called Indians in the Indian
Act, which defines the status of First Nations, and in the Indian
Register, the official record of members of First Nations. Today
»Indian» is generally offensive and came about from the very first
explorers confusing North America with Asia.

The First Nations people of Canada are made up of four main groups,
excluding the Inuit in the north and Metis. The collective term for all
three aboriginal groups is First Peoples. Each of these main groups
contained many tribes, each of which had adapted to their environments
which were all slightly different. The following geographic areas
subdivided the four main groups:

The Pacific coast and mountains. Among the largest tribes were the
Haida, Nootka, and Salish. They made glorious totem poles, a trait often
attributed to other tribes as well.

The Plains. The plains nations included primarily the Sioux, Blackfoot,
the Plains-Cree, and the Plains-Ojibwa. These people used tipis as their
homes, covered with skins. Their main sustenance was the buffalo, which
they used as food, and for all their garments. Tribal leaders often wore
large headdresses made of feather, something which is wrongfully
attributed to all first nations people.

The St. Lawrence valley. The largest group near the St. Lawrence
waterway was the Iroquois. They included the Huron peoples of central
Ontario and the League of Five Nations who lived in the USA, South of
Lake Ontario.

The North-East Woodlands. These included the Algonquints, Mi’kmaqs, the
Innu in Quebec, and the Cree and Ojibwa in Northern Ontario and
Manitoba.

The term is used to designate bands of aboriginal people for whom
reserves have been provided under the Canadian Indian Act. A
representative body in existence today for Canadian First Nations is the
Assembly of First Nations.

The Inuit left are traditionally hunters who fish and hunt whale,
walrus, and seal by kayak or by boat or by waiting at airholes in the
ice. They use igloos as hunting or emergency shelters. They make use of
animal skins in their clothing, and Dog sleds that are used for travel
pulled by Inuit Sled Dogs, though snowmobiles have largely replaced this
mode of travel.

The European arrival caused a great deal of damage to the Inuit way of
life, causing mass death and other suffering. Around 1970, Inuit leaders
came forward and pushed for respect for the Inuit and their territories.
One of the resulting landclaims agreements created the Canadian
territory of Nunavut, the largest landclaims agreement in Canadian
history. In recent years, circumpolar cultural and political groups have
come together to promote the Inuit people and to fight against
ecological problems, such as greenhouse effect and resulting global
warming, which heavily affects the Inuit population due to the melting
and thinning of the arctic ice and possible extinction of arctic
mammals.

Nunavut premier Paul Okalik took the lead in this regard in a First
Ministers meeting discussing the Kyoto Accord.

The Metis are an ethic group of the Canadian prairies and Ontario.
These communities of descent consist of individuals descended from
marriages of Cree, Ojibway and Saulteaux women to French Canadian and
British employees of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Their history dates to
the mid-seventeenth century, and they have been recognized as a people
since the early eighteenth. There is no generally accepted standard for
determining who is Metis and who not, so estimates of the number of
Metis vary from 300,000 to 700,000 or more.

The most famous Metis was Louis Riel who led what are usually depicted
as two failed rebellions, the Red River ’’Rebellion’’ in 1869 in the
area now known as Saskatchewan. Reasonable doubts may be raised about
whether either of these events was a rebellion. For example, the actions
considered rebellious in 1869 were undertaken by Riel as the leader of a
government recognized by Canada as in legitimate control of territory
that didn’t belong to Canada.

Canada negotiated the Manitoba Act with this government. After these
rebellions, land speculators and other non-Metis effectively stripped
the Metis of land by exploiting a government programme for its
’purchase’ at unreal, law prices.

The Metis are not recognized at a First Nation by the Canadian
government and do not receive the benefits granted to First Nation under
the Indian Act. However, the new Canadian Constitution of 1982
recognized the Metis as an aboriginal group and has enabled individual
Metis to sue successfully for recognition of their traditional rights,
such as rights to hunt and trap. In 2003, a court ruling in Ontario
found that the Metis deserve the same rights as other aboriginal
communities in Canada.

2.2. European Colonisation

Europeans probably visited Canada around 1000, when the Vikings settled
in Newfoundland.

Helge Ingstad, a Norwegian, had explored and surveyed the Northeast
coast of the USA and the Maritimes in Canada and had determined from his
findings and extensive analysis of the old sagas that Vinland the Good
must be somewhere along the north-eastern coast of Newfoundland. In 1960
he determined a likely location where a Viking settlement may have been
located. In 1961 excavation began to successfully uncover a complex
settlement.

More permanent European visits came in the 16th and 17th century, as
the French settled there.

In 1763, at the end of the Seven Years’ War, France chose to keep its
Caribbean Islands and to leave its North American colony, New France, to
Britain, and in addition, after the American Revolution, many British
Loyalists settled in Canada.

On July 1, 1867, with the passing of the British North America Act, the
British government granted local self-government to a federation of four
provinces formed from three of its North America Colonies, Canada, New
Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The former Province of Canada formed two
provinces of the new Dominion of Canada, being partitioned into Quebec
and Ontario. The Act created “one Dominion under the name of Canada.”
The term Dominion was chosen to avoid possible antagonizing of
anti-monarchist sentiment in the United States and to reflect Canada’s
status as a self-governing colony of the British Empire.

Other British colonies and territories soon joined the Confederation;
by 1880 Canada included all of its present area except for Newfoundland
and Labrador.

Full control over the Dominion’s affairs officially came in 1931 with
the Statute of Westminster, and in 1982 with the adoption of Canada’s
constitution.

In the second half of the 20th century, some citizens of the mainly
French-speaking province of Quebec sought independence in two
referendums held in 1980 and 1995. in both referendums, the separatists
cause, lead by the Party Quebecois, was defeated with 60% and 50.6%
opposed to independence.

The Klondike Gold Rush.

The Klondike is a region of the Yukon Territory in northwest Canada,
just east of the Alaska border. It lies around the Klondike River, a
small stream that enters the Yukon River from the east where the town of
Dawson is situated.

The Klondike is famous for the Klondike Gold Rush, which started in
1897. Gold is still mined in the area.

The Klondike Gold Rush was a frenzy of immigration to the Klondike and
gold prospecting after gold was discovered there in the late 19th
century. On August 16, 1896, rich gold deposits were discovered by
George Carmack in Bonanza Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River near
Dawson. News reached the United States on July 17, 1897 when the first
successful prospectors arrived in Seattle, and within a month the
Klondike stampede had begun.

The population in the Klondike in 1898 may have reached 40,000,
threatening to cause a famine. Most prospectors landed at Skagway at the
head of Lynn Canal and crossed by Chilkoot Pass or White Pass to Bennett
Lake. Here, prospectors built boats that would take them the final 500
miles down the Yukon River to the gold fields.

The Chilkoot Pass was steep and hazardous, rising thousand feet in the
last half-mile. It was too steep for pack animals and prospectors had to
pack their equipment and supplies to the top. Some 1,500 steps were
carved into the ice to aid travel up the pass. Conditions on White Pass
were even worse. It was known as the Dead Horse Trail with about 3,000
animals dying along the rout.

Throughout this period this period, the North West Mounted Police,
under the command of Sam Steele maintained a firm grip on the activities
of the prospectors to ensure the safety of the population as well as
enforcing the laws and sovereignty of Canada. As a result, this gold
rush has been described as the most peaceful and orderly of its type in
history. The effectiveness of the Mounties in this period made the
police force famous around the world.

The gold rush remains an important event in the history of the city of
Edmonton, which to this day celebrates Klondike Day, an annual summer
fair with a Klondike gold rush theme.

3.America

3.1. Native Americans

Based on anthropological and genetic evidence, scientists generally
agree that most Native Americans descend from people who migrated from
Siberia across the Bering Strait, at least 12,000 years ago.

One result of these successive waves of migration is that large groups
of Native Americans with similar languages and perhaps physical
characteristics as well, moved into various geographic areas of North,
and then later, Central and South America.

While many Native American groups retained a nomadic or semi-nomadic
lifestyle through the time of European occupation of New World, in some
regions, especially in the Mississippi River valley of the United
States, they built advanced civilizations with monumental architecture
and large-scale organization into cities and states.

It was not acceptable to American immigrants in the 18th-19th centuries
that the people they regarded as “savages” had built civilizations and
by policy, most archeological remains were destroyed and records
obliterated.

The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and
cultures of Native Americans. In the 15th to 19th centuries, their
populations were ravage, by the results of displacement, disease, and in
many cases by warfare with European groups and enslavement by them. The
first Native American group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000
Arawakas, were violently enslaved. Only 500 survived by the year 1550,
and the group was extinct before 1650.

In the 15th century Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the
Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase
their numbers in the wild. Ironically, the horse had originally evolved
in the Americas, but the last American horses, died out at the end of
the last ice age. The re-introduction of the horse had a profound impact
of Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America. This
new mode of travel made it possible for some tribes to greatly expand
their territories, exchanged goods with neighboring tribes, and more
easily captures game.

Europeans also brought disease against which the Native Americans had
no immunity. Some historians estimate that up to 80% of some native
populations may have died due to European disease.

In the 19th century, the Westward expansion of the United States
incrementally expelled large numbers of Native Americans from vast areas
of their territory, either by forcing them into marginal lands farther
and farther west, or by outright massacres. Under president Andrew
Jackson, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which forced
the Five Civilized Tribes from the east onto western reservations,
primarily to take their land for settlement. The forced migration was
marked by great hardship and many deaths. Its route is known as the
Trail of Tears.

Conflicts generally known as “Indian Wars” broke out between U.S.
forces and many different tribes. Well-known battles include the
atypical Native American victory at the Battle of Little Bighorn in
1876, and the massacre of Native Americans at Wounded Knee in 1890, when
the US Cavalry attempted to exterminate the Sioux Nation and killed all
the men, women and children they could find. On January 31, 1876 the
United States government ordered all surviving Native Americans to move
into reservation or reserves.

Probably the most famous leader of Native Americans was Geronimo.

In the late 19th century reformers in efforts to civilized Indians
adapted the practice of educating native children in Indian Boarding
Schools. These schools, which were primarily run by Christians, proved
traumatic to Indian children, who were forbidden to speak their native
languages, taught Christianity instead of their native religions, and in
numerous other ways forced to abandon their Indian identity and adopt
European-American culture. There are also many documented cases of
sexual, physical and mental abuses occurring at these schools.

As recently as the 1960s, Native Americans were being jailed for
teaching their traditional beliefs.

According to 2003 United States Census Bureau estimates, a little over
one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in
three states: California with 413,382, Arizona with 294,137 and Oklahoma
with 279,559. as of 2000, the largest tribes surviving in the U.S. by
population were Cherokee, Navajo, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache,
Blackfoot, Iroquois and Pueblo.

3.2.Immigration and the creation of the USA.

The Vikings were probably the first Europeans to reach America.
Although archeological remains have been found in Canada from about
2,000 years ago, so far there is no conclusive evidence for Vikings
habitation in today’s USA.

IN 1492, Columbus, an explorer and trader sailed westward from Spain,
seeking a short sea route to the Orient.

He found, instead, a vast “New World” as it became known later, although
Columbus himself named it the “Other World”.

Following the Columbus’ voyage, explorers, soldiers, and settlers from
several European countries sailed to this land, soon called America,
after Amerigo Vespucci, by most Europeans. Vespucci made voyages to the
New World for Spain and Portugal beginning in 1497.

The discovery of the existence of America caused a wave of excitement
in Europe. To many Europeans, the New World offered opportunities for
wealth, power, and imperialism. During the 1500th Spaniards moved into
what is now the Southeastern and Western United States. They took
control of Florida and the land west of Mississippi River, basing their
activity on the Western United States. They of Florida and the land west
of Mississippi River.

The English and French began exploring eastern North America in about
1500.

Explorer Bartholomew Gosnold in 1607 established the first permanent
English settlement in Northern America at Jamestown in Virginia.

Jamestown became the first real English colony and eventually led to
the creation of the United States of America.

The Pilgrims were a group of English Protestant extremists who sailed
from Europe to North America in 1620, in search of a home where they
could freely practice their religion and live according to their own
Biblical laws.

Although Queen Elizabeth I of England introduced the notion of
punishing criminals by sending them to another country as early as 1619,
when the first cargo of convicts was sent to the New World, the term
transportation seems to have come into vogue around 1680 during Charles
II’s reign. It was intended to be an alternative to execution and it
became a formal concept in 1717 with George III’s ‘Transportation Act’.

Between 1717 and 1775, when the American Revolution started, convicts
were transported at the rate of about 1000 per annum and best estimates
are that some 50,000 convicts from Britain were sent to America.

By the mid-1700’s, most of the settlements had been formed into 13
British colonies. Each colony had a governor and legislature, but each
was under the ultimate control of the British government.

All the land west of the Mississippi was under Spanish control, which
was gradually incorporated into the (later) United States. The Native
Americans were initially allowed to live between the 13 colonies and the
Mississippi but were later pushed further west.

On April 19, 1775, the American Revolution broke out between the
Americans and British. During the war – on July 4, 1776 – the American
Congress officially declared independence and formed the United States
of America by adopting the Declaration of Independence.

At the end of the American Revolution, the new nation was still a loose
confederation of states. But in 1787, American leaders got together and
wrote the Constitution of the United States of America. Among them were
George Washington and James Madison of Virginia, Alexander Hamilton of
New York, and Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania. The authors of the
Constitution, along with other early leaders such as Thomas Jefferson of
Virginia, won lasting fame as the Founding Fathers of the United States.

There was initially a lot of opposition to the new Constitution, as
many felt that it didn’t specifically guarantee enough individual
rights. In response, 10 amendments known as a Bill of Rights were added
to the document. The Bill of Rights became law on December 15, 1791.
Among other things, it guaranteed freedom of speech, the right to bear
arms, freedom of religion and the rights to trial by jury and peaceful
assembly.

George Washington, (1732-1799), was an American general and
Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary
War (1775-1783) and later the first President of the United States of
America under the U.S. Constitution (1789-97). He also served as
President of the 1787 Constitutional Convention.

For the role he played in winning and securing American independence,
George Washington is generally recognized as one of the most important
figures in all of U.S. history.

Thomas Jefferson became president in 1800 and again in 1804, with a
political philosophy became known as Jeffersonian democracy.

The Louisiana Purchase, the first major action of Jefferson’s
presidency, almost doubled the size of the United States. In 1801,
Jefferson learned that France had taken over from Spain a large area
between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains called Louisiana.
Spain was weak nation, and did not pose a threat to the United States.
But France-then ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte-was powerful and aggressive.
Jefferson viewed French control of Louisiana as a danger to the United
States. In 1803, Jefferson arranged the purchase of the area from
France. The Louisiana Purchase added 2,144,476 square kilometers of
territory to the United States.

Western farmers and pioneers, as well as city labourers and
craftworkers, soon banded together politically to promote their
interests. They found a strong leader in Andrew Jackson, and helped
elect him president in 1828. Jackson took steps to reduce the power of
wealthy Easterners and aid the “common man.” At the same time, other
Americans were working for such social reforms as women’s rights,
improvements in education, and the abolition of slavery.

In 1853, with the Gadsden Purchase, America bought from Mexico the
strip of land that makes up the southern edge of Arizona and New Mexico.
The US then owned all the territory of its present states except Alaska
and Hawaii 3.3 America and WW2.

In the time period of 1939 to 1945, the world was involved in a crisis
known as World War II. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese armed forces
bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii resulting in the decision of the United
States to enter into the war. (“Depression”, 1) The United States was
effected in many aspects as a result of being in World War II, in both
positive and negative ways.

World War II meant the need for many men to join the armed forces. When
these men went off to war they left their country, families, friends,
and also their jobs. With all the jobs being, left their is a need for
employees to keep the country running. The women of the United States
are called to take on the jobs that the American men once had. Some of
these jobs included: fire fighting, welding, riveting, operating drill
presses, and driving taxi cabs. (Giampaoli, “Arms”, 3) Programs were
established, hoping to attract the women to the workforce. Some programs
tried to “ glamorize war work, as well as stress the importance of women
working in non-traditional jobs.”

This was the very beginning of what was to be the new type of warfare
known as nuclear warfare. As the war progressed, the Allies became in
need of supplies and the United States was there to provide for them.
The United States became involved in World War II shortly and was also
in need of supplies as well. (Giampaoli, “Women”, 1) The effects of the
war on the women turned out to be good for them because it opened up
many opportunities for them, although bad for the males because many of
their jobs had been taken. Due to the opportunities seized by the United
States and taken advantage of, the effects World War II had on America
were overall positive. The “Duck” was used in D-Day and other amphibious
operations in the Pacific. The Americans also invented a water and land
vehicle called “the DUKW, nicknamed “Duck”” (“Weapons”, 487).
Roosevelt’s New Deal helped relieve some of the problems during the
Great Depression ,it was not what saved the economy of America,
“America’s real savior was World War II. This vehicle eliminated the
changing between boats and land vehicles. ” Many people have credited
the efforts of Franklin D. As Rex Boyland put it, “World War II brought
the United States out of The Great Depression. (Giampaoli, “Arms”, 2)
The war had created a “wartime economy that had given women more freedom
than they had ever had before.

3.4. The Making of the USA

Two main challenges met by the American people are the building of a
democratic nation and the policy of imperialism that U.S. applied in
order to assert its authority all over the world. The Revolutionary War
and the Constitution opened the way for a great surge of
nation-building, since the Americans’ goals at that moment were national
liberties. Besides, the written Constitution set up the principles of
separation of powers and Federalism which created a true national
government. We will also see how the Americans could achieve their
dearest goals such as, national liberation and free enterprise based on
recurrent values like democracy, manifest destiny and the feeling of
superiority. Moreover, these values in turn have defined the American
national identity and a sense of unity making the Americans feel that
they are a special nation capable of overcoming the most challenging
situations. In spite of this, the United States still has to deal with
some unresolved conflicts such as, racism and economic unequality.

To begin with, the building of the nation started with the American
Revolution (1775). The goal of the war was national liberation.

The protection of life, liberty and property were the same Americans’
goals as they had been in 1776. Therefore, the Americans’ main goal was
to put an end to a series of oppressions such as, taxes and coercive
acts, that reduced them to slavery. Besides, their feeling of
superiority led them to use the atomic bomb, playing with the idea of
psychological power the bomb would bestow on the United States and , at
the same time,it would intimidate the Soviet Union into making
concessions in eastern Europe. Although the seed of democracy was
planted early in the colonies through town meetings and assemblies which
decided on local issues, it was not a complete democracy since only
landowners could vote. The output would be a written constitution (1787)
creating a true national government unlike any that had existed before.

Secondly, when the Americans declared the Independence in 1776, they
were ready to devise a government strong enough to preserve order but
not so strong that it would threaten liberty. The aim of this
reconciliation was to ensure that there would be support for a strong
national government from small as well as large states. Therefore the
goal of northern Americans was freedom and the union of the whole
country.

The second important challenge met by the American people is
imperialism. Thus, once more, the United States was in search for
influence and world power. thought that the Soviet Union was against the
principle of a liberal capitalist world order, the Cold war took place .
Besides, America had historically carried out expansionism through wars
and purchases which resulted in the anexation of new territories and
this policy was justified in terms of an important value always present
in the Americans’ minds: Manifest Destiny. Therefore, Wilson set out the
American principles that foreign countries would have to stick to.
ritish were conspiring to take away their tradional freedoms, so they
sought to protect their liberties such as, property, the right to bring
their legal cases before independent judges, the right to call their own
assemblies, and the right to engage in trade without restrictions and to
pay no taxes voted by a British Parliament in which they had no direct
representation. ” But in fact, he himself implemented segregation( He
segregated federal buildings in Washington and there were no black
officers in the army).

4. Ukraine and English speaking countries.

There is no denying the fact that not so long ago Ukraine had very weak
connections with other countries in the world. But at present the
situation has changed for the better. Ukraine establishes new relations
with the countries throughout the world. Ukraine is one of the members
of the United Nations Organisation and participates in the work of many
international organisations.

Ukraine has wide relations with English-speaking countries such as Great
Britain, the United States of America and Canada. In its international
activity Ukraine follows the universally accepted standards and
principles of the international law and acknowledges the priority of
human values. One of the main principles of the Ukrainian foreign policy
is its openness, predictability, and adherence to the civilized rules of
conduct in the world arena and in the international relations. One of
the main partners of Ukraine are English-speaking countries. These
countries are the major source of potential new technology, hi-tech
products and foreign investments for Ukraine. Foremost among them stand
Great Britain with the largest economic, financial, production, market,
and scientific, technological and military potential. The
agro-industrial complex, power engineering, aerospace industry and heath
care is priority areas of Ukrainian-British co-operation. Certainly
Ukraine has diplomatic relations with all these countries. It means that
they have ambassadors in Ukraine and we have Ukrainian diplomatic
missions in these countries. We have some joint political projects.
Scientific co-operation is also very important because Ukrainian science
is very good but it has not enough money for experiments. We have joint
projects for space exploration with the USA, Canada and Great Britain.
In future Ukraine will launch some space rockets from Canadian
territory. Speaking about cultural exchanges I must admit that they are
very intensive too. Besides we have wide relations with these countries
in education. We exchange students and teachers. It’s common knowledge
that tourism is very popular nowadays. And our country also has wide
relations with many countries in this sphere too. I must say, that we
have special relations with the USA and Canada because there are many
people who are Ukrainians by origin. So there is a Ministry for Diaspora
in Ukraine that solves the problem of relations between our country and
Ukrainians abroad. As you can see Ukraine became as equals with world
community and develop t

List of used literature:

Гапонів А.Б., Возна М.О. Лінгвокраїнознавство. Англомовні країни.
Підручник для студентів ВНЗ. – Вінниця: НОВА КНИГАб 2005.- 464 с.

Богацький І.С., Дюканова Н.М.

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6eFtHDIZKoLthNFPoQESaeUAV!XOeZ?[

(гос-М”, 2007.-352с.

The English-speaking world/Упоряд.: М.Россоха. Тернопіль, 1996.-161с.

Інтернет сайти: HYPERLINK «http://www.xrefer.com» www.xrefer.com

HYPERLINK «http://www.Encyclopedia.com» www.Encyclopedia.com

HYPERLINK «http://www.bartleby.com» www.bartleby.com .

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