Elvis Presley (реферат)

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Elvis Presley

Elvis Presley at the White House in 1970

Background information

Birth name Elvis Aron Presley

Born HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_8” \o “January 8”
January 8 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935” \o “1935”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupelo%2C_Mississippi” \o
“Tupelo, Mississippi” Tupelo, Mississippi , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_of_America” \o “United
States of America” USA

Died HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_16” \o “August 16”
August 16 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o “1977”
1977 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis%2C_Tennessee” \o
“Memphis, Tennessee” Memphis, Tennessee , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_of_America” \o “United
States of America” USA

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_genre” \o “Music genre”
Genre(s) HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_music” \o
“Country music” Country , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_music” \o “Gospel music” Gospel ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock%27n%27Roll” \o
“Rock’n’Roll” Rock’n’Roll

Occupation(s) Singer, Actor, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army” \o “United States
Army” American soldier

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_instrument” \o
“Musical instrument” Instrument(s) HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitar” \o “Guitar” Guitar and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano” \o “Piano” Piano

Years active HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954_in_music” \o
“1954 in music” 1954 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977_in_music” \o “1977 in music” 1977

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Record_label” \o “Record
label” Label(s) HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Records”
\o “Sun Records” Sun , ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_in_music” \o “1953 in music” 1953 –
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955_in_music” \o “1955 in
music” 1955 ), HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCA_Records”
\o “RCA Records” RCA Victor ,( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956_in_music” \o “1956 in music” 1956 –
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977_in_music” \o “1977 in
music” 1977 )


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Parents.2C_childhood_and_youth” 1 Parents, childhood and youth

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Musical_roots” 2
Musical roots

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Voice_characteristics”
3 Voice characteristics

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Sun_recordings” 4 Sun

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Presley_and_his_manager_.22Colonel.22_Tom_Parker” 5 Presley and his
manager “Colonel” Tom Parker

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Cultural_impact” 6
Cultural impact

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Presley_and_African_American_music” 6.1 Presley and African American

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“.22A_danger_to_American_culture.22” 6.2 “A danger to American culture”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “American_icon” 6.3
American icon

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Military_service” 7
Military service

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “1960s_film_career” 8
1960s film career

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “1968_comeback” 9 1968

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “The_final_years” 10 The
final years

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Death_and_burial” 11
Death and burial

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Notes” 21 Notes

Elvis Aron Presley ( HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_8”
\o “January 8” January 8 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935” \o “1935” 1935 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_16” \o “August 16” August 16 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o “1977” 1977 ) often
known simply as Elvis and also called “The King of Rock ‘n’ Roll” or
simply “The King”, was an HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States” \o “United States”
American HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singer” \o “Singer”
singer and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor” \o “Actor”
actor . He is regarded by many to be the greatest entertainer of the
20th century. (Presley’s birth certificate uses the spelling Aron, but
his estate has designated Aaron as the official spelling of his middle

Presley started as a singer of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockabilly” \o “Rockabilly” rockabilly ,
singing many songs from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhythm_and_blues” \o “Rhythm and blues”
rhythm and blues (R&B), gospel and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_music” \o “Country music” country
. He was first billed as “The Hilbilly Cat”. His combination of country
music with bluesy vocals and a strong HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Back_beat” \o “Back beat” back beat
marked a clear path toward HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_%26_roll” \o “Rock & roll” rock &
roll . He was the most commercially successful singer of rock and roll,
but he also had success with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballads” \o “Ballads” ballads , country,
gospel, blues, pop, folk and even semi-operatic and jazz standards. His
voice, which developed into many voices as his career progressed, had
always a unique tonality and an extraordinary unusual center of gravity,
leading to his being able to tackle a range of songs and melodies which
would be nearly impossible for most other popular singers to achieve. In
a musical career of over two decades, Presley set many records, such as
concert attendance, television ratings, and record sales, and became one
of the best-selling artists in music history.

Elvis Presley is an icon of modern American pop culture. During the late
1960’s and through a large portion of the 1970’s, Presley re-emerged as
a live performer of old and new hit songs, both on tour and in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Las_Vegas%2C_Nevada” \o “Las
Vegas, Nevada” Las Vegas, Nevada , where he was known for his on-stage
highly energetic performances both vocally and physically, his sartorial
jump-suits and capes adding to the drama. He attracted massive
attendance figures. His concert performances were staggering in
quantity, considering they numbered over 1,100 in 8 years. He continued
to perform before sell-out audiences around the U.S. until his death in
1977. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-0” \o “” [1]
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-1” \o “” [2]
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-2” \o “” [3] His
death was premature at 42, despite alarming concerns about his health.
When he died on August 16, 1977, it was a huge shock to his fans.
However, it soon became clear that a combination of over-work, obesity,
depression, bad diet and severe abuse of prescription drugs, accelerated
his premature departure. His popularity as a singer has survived his

Parents, childhood and youth

Elvis Aaron Presley was born on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_8” \o “January 8” January 8 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1935” \o “1935” 1935 at around
4:13 a.m. in a two-room HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shotgun_house” \o “Shotgun house” shotgun
house in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupelo%2C_Mississippi” \o “Tupelo,
Mississippi” East Tupelo , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi” \o “Mississippi” Mississippi
to Vernon Presley, a truck driver, and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladys_Love_Smith” \o “Gladys Love Smith”
Gladys Love Smith , a sewing machine operator. Vernon Presley is
described as a “taciturn to the point of sullenness,” whereas his mother
Gladys “was voluble, lively, full of spunk.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-3” \o “” [4] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priscilla_Presley” \o “Priscilla Presley”
Priscilla Presley describes her as “a surreptitious drinker and
alcoholic.” When she was angry, “she cussed like a sailor”. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-4” \o “” [5] Presley’s twin
brother, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_Garon_Presley”
\o “Jesse Garon Presley” Jesse Garon Presley , was HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stillbirth” \o “Stillbirth” stillborn ,
thus leaving him to grow up as an HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Only_child” \o “Only child” only child .
The surname Presley was Anglicized from the German name “Pressler”
during the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War”
\o “American Civil War” Civil War . His ancestor Johann Valentin
Pressler emigrated to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States” \o “United States” America
in 1710. Presley was mostly of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_people” \o “Scottish people”
Scottish , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-5” \o “”
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States” \o
“Native Americans in the United States” Native American , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_People” \o “Irish People” Irish ,
HYPERLINK “http://www.elvispresleynews.com/JewishElvis.html” \o
“http://www.elvispresleynews.com/JewishElvis.html” Jewish , and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_people” \o “German
people” German roots.

Presley’s parents were very protective of their only surviving child.
The little boy “grew up a loved and precious child. He was, everyone
agreed, unusually close to his mother.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-6” \o “” [7] His mother
Gladys “worshipped him”, said a neighbor, “from the day he was born.”
Elvis himself said, “My mama never let me out of her sight. I couldn’t
go down to the creek with the other kids.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-7” \o “” [8] In his teens he
was still a very shy person, a “kid who had spent scarcely a night away
from home in his nineteen years.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-8” \o “” [9] He was teased
by his fellow classmates who threw “things at him – rotten fruit and
stuff – because he was different, because he was quiet and he stuttered
and he was a mama’s boy.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-9” \o “” [10] Gladys was so proud of her son, that, years
later, she “would get up early in the morning to run off the fans so
Elvis could sleep”. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-10” \o “” [11] She was frightened of Elvis being hurt: “She
knew her boy, and she knew he could take care of himself, but what if
some crazy man came after him with a gun? she said…tears streaming
down her face.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-11”
\o “” [12]

In 1938, when Presley was three years old, his father was convicted of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forgery” \o “Forgery” forgery .
Vernon, Gladys’s brother Travis Smith, and Luther Gable went to prison
for altering a check from Orville Bean, Vernon’s boss, from $3 to $8 and
then cashing it at a local bank. Vernon was sentenced to three years at
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_State_Penitentiary”
\o “Mississippi State Penitentiary” Mississippi State Penitentiary .
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-12” \o “” [13]
Though Vernon was released after serving eight months, this event deeply
influenced the life of the young family. During her husband’s absence,
Gladys lost the house and was forced to move in briefly with her in-laws
next door. The Presley family lived just above the poverty line during
their years in East Tupelo.

In 1941 Presley started school at the East Tupelo Consolidated. There he
seems to have been an outsider. His few friends relate that he was
separate from any crowd and did not belong to any “gang”, but, according
to his teachers, he was a sweet and average student, and he loved
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comic_book” \o “Comic book”
comic books . In 1943 Vernon moved to Memphis, where he found work and
stayed throughout the war, coming home only on weekends.

In January 1945 Gladys took Elvis shopping for a birthday present at
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupelo_hardware” \o “Tupelo
hardware” Tupelo hardware . And she bought him his first guitar, in
lieu of a bike and rifle, for $12.75.

In 1946 Presley started at a new school, Milam, which went from grades 5
through 9, but in 1948 the family left Tupelo, moving 110 miles
northwest to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis%2C_Tennessee” \o “Memphis,
Tennessee” Memphis, Tennessee . Here too, the thirteen-year-old lived
in the city’s poorer section of town and attended a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentecostal” \o “Pentecostal” Pentecostal
church. At this time, he was very much influenced by the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis_blues” \o “Memphis blues” Memphis
blues music and the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_music” \o “Gospel music” gospel
sung at his church.

Presley entered Humes High School in Memphis taking up work at the
school library and after school at Loew’s State Theatre. In 1951 he
enrolled in the school’s HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROTC”
\o “ROTC” ROTC unit, tried unsuccessfully to qualify for the high
school football team (supposedly cut from the team by the coach for not
trimming his HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sideburns” \o
“Sideburns” sideburns and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducktail” \o “Ducktail” ducktail ),
spending his spare time around the African-American section of Memphis,
especially on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beale_Street” \o
“Beale Street” Beale Street . In 1953 he graduated from Humes, majoring
in History, English, and Shop.

After graduation Presley worked first at Parker Machinists Shop, and
then for the Precision Tool Company with his father, finally working for
the Crown Electric Company driving a truck, where he began wearing his
hair the trademarked pompadour style.

Musical roots

Elvis was very influenced by gospel acts, as well as acts such as Little
Richard and Chuck Berry. The common story that the Presleys formed a
popular gospel trio who sang in church and travelled about to various
revival meetings is probably not true. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-13” \o “” [14] However, in
1945 Presley, just ten years old, entered a singing contest at the
Mississippi-Alabama Fair and Dairy Show. Decked out in a cowboy outfit,
he had to stand on a chair to reach the microphone singing HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Foley” \o “Red Foley” Red Foley’s
“Old Shep.” He won second place, a $5 prize and a free ticket to all the
rides. On his birthday in January 1946 he received a guitar purchased
from Tupelo Hardware Store. In his seventh-grade year at Milam he seems
to have taken this guitar to school every day. Many of the other
children denigrated him as a “trashy” kind of boy playing trashy
“hillbilly” music. Over the next year, Vernon’s brother Johnny Smith and
Assembly of God pastor Frank Smith gave him basic guitar lessons.

Some years later, in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis%2C_Tennessee” \o “Memphis,
Tennessee” Memphis, Tennessee , the young Presley “spent much of his
spare time hanging around the black section of town, especially on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beale_Street” \o “Beale Street”
Beale Street , where bluesmen like HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furry_Lewis” \o “Furry Lewis” Furry Lewis
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.B._King” \o “B.B. King”
B.B. King performed”. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-14” \o “” [15] B.B. King says that he “knew Elvis before he was
popular. He used to come around and be around us a lot. There was a
place we used to go and hang out on Beale Street”. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-15” \o “” [16] Beale Street
in Memphis was notorious for its bars, prostitutes and gambling
establishments. Music producer HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Dickinson” \o “Jim Dickinson” Jim
Dickinson called it “the center of all evil in the known universe”.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-16” \o “” [17] But
it was a place where young Presley could hear black music. In an
interview with Ev Grimes, composer HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Glass” \o “Philip Glass” Philip
Glass says, “Elvis Presley was really the guy that took black music and
made it—well, popular is really the best word.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-17” \o “” [18] In similar
terms, Elijah Wald writes that Presley has “listened carefully to Negro
blues men and sanctified singers, swallowed all of that music and
combined it with hillbilly sound.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-18” \o “” [19]

The opening chapter of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Guralnick” \o “Peter Guralnick”
Peter Guralnick’s book HYPERLINK
edit” \o “Last Train To Memphis” Last Train To Memphis HYPERLINK
“http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316332259” \o
“http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316332259” [8] deals with musical
influence coming from birth exclusively through his family’s attendance
at the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assemblies_of_God” \o
“Assemblies of God” Assembly of God , a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentecostal” \o “Pentecostal” Pentecostal
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holiness” \o “Holiness”
Holiness church. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone” \o “Rolling Stone” Rolling
Stone magazine wrote that: “Gospel pervaded Elvis’ character and was a
defining and enduring influence all of his days.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-19” \o “” [20] The
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_government” \o
“United States government” United States government mandatory personal
examination of Presley as part of the approval process to make his
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graceland” \o “Graceland”
Graceland home a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historic_Landmark” \o “National
Historic Landmark” National Historic Landmark wrote that Presley
“clearly embraced HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American” \o “African American”
African American music and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture” \o “Culture” culture and did so
at a pivotal point of cultural change in American history” but that ”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_music” \o “Gospel music”
Gospel music was his primary musical influence.” The U.S. government
historian stated that “In the early years of the twentieth century, the
evangelical HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentecostal” \o
“Pentecostal” Pentecostal movement with its “vibrant worship style”
became extremely popular with working-class Christians, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_people” \o “Black people” black
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_%28people%29” \o
“White (people)” white .” The church services in which the Presley
family participated was where people “jumped, shouted, danced, and fell
out for HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus” \o “Jesus”
Jesus , because, in a word, they acted “crazy, ” they became a national
laughingstock, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roller” \o “Holy Roller” Holy
Rollers of fable and cliche.” According to the study, the family’s move
to Memphis expanded his musical horizons when he began to attend Sunday
services at the East Trigg Baptist Church. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-20” \o “” [21]

Voice characteristics

Elvis Presley was a baritone whose voice had an extraordinary compass —
the so-called register — and a very wide range of vocal color.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-21” \o “” [22] It
covered two octaves and a third, from the baritone low-G to the tenor
high B, with an upward extension in falsetto to at least a D flat.
Presley’s best octave was in the middle, D-flat to D-flat. In ballads
and country songs he was able to belt out full-voiced high Gs and As,
showing a remarkable ability to naturally assimilate styles.

Presley’s range, though impressive in its own right, did not in itself
make his voice that remarkable, at least in terms of how it measured
against musical notation. What made it extraordinary, was where its
center of gravity lay. By that measure, and according to Gregory
Sandows, Music Professor at Columbia University, Presley was at once a
bass, a baritone, and a tenor, most unusual among singers in either
classical or popular music.

Sun recordings

Main article: HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley%27s_Sun_recordings” \o
“Elvis Presley’s Sun recordings” Elvis Presley’s Sun recordings

On HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_18” \o “July 18” July
18 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953” \o “1953” 1953
Presley paid $3.25 to record the first of two double-sided demos
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose_acetate” \o “Cellulose
acetate” acetates at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Records” \o “Sun Records” Sun Studios
, “My Happiness” and “That’s When Your Heartaches Begin”, which were
popular HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballad” \o “Ballad”
ballads at the time. According to the official Presley website, Presley
gave it to his mother as a much-belated birthday present. Presley
returned to Sun Studios (706 Union Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee) on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_4” \o “January 4”
January 4 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954” \o “1954”
1954 . He again paid $8.25 to record a second demo, “I’ll Never Stand in
Your Way” and “It Wouldn’t Be the Same Without You” (master 0812).

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Records” \o “Sun Records”
Sun Records founder HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Phillips” \o “Sam Phillips” Sam
Phillips , who had already recorded bluesmen such as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howlin%27_Wolf” \o “Howlin’ Wolf” Howlin’
Wolf , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cotton” \o “James
Cotton” James Cotton , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.B._King” \o “B.B. King” B.B. King ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Milton” \o “Little
Milton” Little Milton and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junior_Parker” \o “Junior Parker” Junior
“http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_saa_elvispresley.html” \o
[9] , was looking for “a white man with a Negro sound and the Negro
feel,” with whom he “could make a billion dollars,” because he thought
black blues and boogie-woogie music might become tremendously popular
among white people if presented in the right way. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-22” \o “” [23] The Sun
Records producer felt that a black rhythm and blues act stood little
chance at the time of gaining the broad exposure needed to achieve
large-scale commercial success.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-23” \o “” [24]

Phillips and assistant Marion Keisker heard the Presley discs and called
him on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_26” \o “June 26”
June 26 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954” \o “1954”
1954 to fill in for a missing ballad singer. Although that session was
not productive, Phillips put Presley together with local musicians
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotty_Moore” \o “Scotty Moore”
Scotty Moore and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Black”
\o “Bill Black” Bill Black to see what might develop. During a
rehearsal break on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_5” \o
“July 5” July 5 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954” \o
“1954” 1954 , Presley began singing a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blues” \o “Blues” blues song written by
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Crudup” \o “Arthur
Crudup” Arthur Crudup called ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/That%27s_All_Right” \o “That’s All Right”
That’s All Right “. Phillips liked the resulting record and on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_19” \o “July 19” July 19 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954” \o “1954” 1954 he
released it as a 78-rpm single backed with Presley’s hopped-up version
of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Monroe” \o “Bill
Monroe” Bill Monroe ‘s HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluegrass_music” \o “Bluegrass music”
bluegrass song ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Moon_of_Kentucky” \o “Blue Moon of
Kentucky” Blue Moon of Kentucky “. Memphis radio station HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WHBQ” \o “WHBQ” WHBQ began playing it
two days later, the record became a local hit and Presley began a
regular touring schedule hoping to expand his fame beyond HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee” \o “Tennessee” Tennessee .

However, Sam Phillips had difficulty persuading Southern white disc
jockeys to play Presley’s first recordings. The only place that played
his records at first were in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro” \o “Negro” Negro sections of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago” \o “Chicago” Chicago
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit” \o “Detroit”
Detroit and in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California” \o
“California” California . However, his music and style began to draw
larger and larger audiences as he toured the South in 1955. Soon, demand
by white teenagers that their local radio stations play his music
overcame much of that resistance and as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone” \o “Rolling Stone” Rolling
Stone magazine wrote years later in Presley’s biography: “Overnight, it
seemed, “race music,” as the music industry had labeled the work of
black artists, became a thing of the past, as did the pejorative
“hillbilly” music. HYPERLINK
“http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography” \o
“http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography” [10]
Still, throughout 1955 and even well into 1956 when he had become a
national phenomenon, Presley had to deal with an entrenched racism of
die-hard segregationists and their continued labeling of his sound and
style as vulgar “nigger music”. Allegations of racism were made against
Presley, possibly by those segregationist elements who hated what he was
doing. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_%28magazine%29” \o
“Jet (magazine)” Jet examined the issue and in its August 1, 1957
edition, the African American magazine concluded that: “To Elvis, people
are people regardless of race, color or creed.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-24” \o “” [25]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_music” \o “Country
music” Country music star HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hank_Snow” \o “Hank Snow” Hank Snow
arranged to have Presley perform at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nashville” \o “Nashville” Nashville ‘s
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Ole_Opry” \o “Grand Ole
Opry” Grand Ole Opry and his performance was well received.
Nonetheless, one of the show’s executives was not impressed and hinted
that Presley should give up his music.

Presley’s second single, “Good Rockin’ Tonight”, with “I Don’t Care if
the Sun Don’t Shine” on the B-side, was released on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_25” \o “September 25” September
25 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954” \o “1954” 1954 .
He then continued to tour the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._South” \o “U.S. South” South . On
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_16” \o “October 16”
October 16 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954” \o “1954”
1954 , he made his first appearance on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Hayride” \o “Louisiana Hayride”
Louisiana Hayride , a radio broadcast of live country music in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shreveport%2C_Louisiana” \o
“Shreveport, Louisiana” Shreveport, Louisiana , and was a hit with the
large audience. His releases began to reach the top of the country
charts. Following this, Presley was signed to a one-year contract for a
weekly performance, during which time he was introduced to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonel_Tom_Parker” \o “Colonel Tom
Parker” Colonel Tom Parker .

National exposure began on January 28, 1956, when Presley, Moore, Black
and drummer HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D.J._Fontana” \o
“D.J. Fontana” D.J. Fontana made their first National Television
appearance on the Dorsey brothers’ Stage Show. It was the first of six
appearances on the show and the first of eight performances recorded and
broadcast from CBS TV Studio 50 at 1697 Broadway, New York. After the
success of their first appearance they were signed to five more in early
1956 (February 4, 11, 18 and March 17 and 24).

Presley and his manager “Colonel” Tom Parker

On HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_15” \o “August 15”
August 15 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955” \o “1955”
1955 , Presley was signed by “Hank Snow Attractions”, a management
company jointly owned by singer HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hank_Snow” \o “Hank Snow” Hank Snow and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonel_Tom_Parker” \o “Colonel
Tom Parker” “Colonel” Tom Parker . Shortly thereafter, “Colonel” Parker
took full control and recognizing the limitations of Sun Studios,
negotiated a deal with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCA_Victor” \o “RCA Victor” RCA Victor
Records to acquire Presley’s Sun contract for $35,000 on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955” \o “1955” 1955 .
Presley’s first single for RCA “Heartbreak Hotel” quickly sold one
million copies and within a year RCA would go on to sell ten million
Presley singles.

Elvis Presley at the Mississippi-Alabama State Fair, 1956

Parker was a master promoter who wasted no time in furthering Presley’s
image, licensing everything from guitars to cookware. Parker’s first
major coup was to market Presley on television. First, he had Presley
booked in six of the Dorsey Shows (CBS). Presley appeared on the show on
January 28, 1956, then on February 4, 11 & 18, 1956, with two more
appearances on March 17 & 24, 1956. In March, he was able to obtain a
lucrative deal with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton_Berle” \o “Milton Berle” Milton
Berle (NBC), for two appearances: The first appearance on April 3,
1956. The second appearance was controversial pertaining to Presley’s
performance of ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hound_Dog_%28song%29” \o “Hound Dog
(song)” Hound Dog ” on the June 5, 1956. It sparked a storm over his
“gyrations” while singing. The controversy lasted through the rest of
the 50’s. However, that show drew such huge ratings that Steve Allen
(ABC) booked him for one appearance, which took place early on July 1,
1956. That night, Allen had for the first time beaten The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Sullivan” \o “Ed Sullivan” Ed Sullivan
Show in the Sunday night ratings, prompting Sullivan (CBS) to book
Presley for three appearances: September 9, and October 28, 1956 as well
as January 6, 1957, for an unprecedented fee of $50,000. On September 9,
1956, at his first of three appearances on the Sullivan show, Presley
drew an estimated 82.5% percent of the television audience, calculated
at between 55-60 million viewers.

Parker eventually negotiated a multi-picture seven-year contract with
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Goldwyn_Mayer” \o “Metro
Goldwyn Mayer” Metro Goldwyn Mayer that shifted Presley’s focus from
music to films. Under the terms of his contract, Presley earned a fee
for performing plus a percentage of the profits on the films, most of
which were huge moneymakers. These were usually musicals based around
Presley performances, and marked the beginning of his transition from
rebellious rock and roller to all-round family entertainer. Presley was
praised by all his directors, including the highly respected HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Curtiz” \o “Michael Curtiz”
Michael Curtiz , as unfailingly polite and extremely hardworking.

Presley began his movie career with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Me_Tender_%28movie%29” \o “Love Me
Tender (movie)” Love Me Tender (opened on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_15” \o “November 15” November 15
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956_in_film” \o “1956 in
film” 1956 ). The movies HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jailhouse_Rock_%28movie%29” \o “Jailhouse
Rock (movie)” Jailhouse Rock (1957) and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Creole” \o “King Creole” King Creole
(1958) are regarded as among his best early films.

Parker’s success led to Presley expanding the “Colonel’s” management
contract to an even 50/50 split. Over the years, much has been written
about “Colonel” Parker, most of it critical. Marty Lacker, a lifelong
friend and a member of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis_Mafia” \o “Memphis Mafia” Memphis
Mafia , says he thought of Parker as a “hustler and scam artist” who
abused Presley’s reliance on him. Priscilla Presley admits that “Elvis
detested the business side of his career. He would sign a contract
without even reading it.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-25” \o “” [26] This would explain the strong influence the
Colonel had on Presley. Nonetheless, Lacker acknowledged that Parker was
a master promoter. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-26” \o “” [27]

Cultural impact

Presley and African American music

Even in the 1950s era of blantant racism, Presley would publicly cite
his debt to African American music, pointing to artists such as
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._B._King” \o “B. B. King” B.
B. King , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Crudup” \o
“Arthur Crudup” Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackie_Wilson” \o “Jackie Wilson” Jackie
Wilson , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivory_Joe_Hunter” \o
“Ivory Joe Hunter” Ivory Joe Hunter , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fats_Domino” \o “Fats Domino” Fats Domino
. The reporter who conducted Presley’s first interview in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City” \o “New York City” New
York City in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956” \o “1956”
1956 noted that he named blues singers who “obviously meant a lot to
him. I was very surprised to hear him talk about the black performers
down there and about how he tried to carry on their music.”[ HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources” \o
“Wikipedia:Citing sources” citation needed ] Later that year in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte%2C_North_Carolina” \o
“Charlotte, North Carolina” Charlotte, North Carolina , Presley was
quoted as saying: “The colored folks been singing it and playing it just
like I’m doin’ now, man, for more years than I know. They played it like
that in their shanties and in their juke joints and nobody paid it no
mind ’til I goosed it up. I got it from them. Down in Tupelo,
Mississippi, I used to hear old HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Crudup” \o “Arthur Crudup” Arthur
Crudup bang his box the way I do now and I said if I ever got to a
place I could feel all old Arthur felt, I’d be a music man like nobody
ever saw.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-27” \o
“” [28] HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Richard” \o
“Little Richard” Little Richard said of Presley: “He was an
integrator. Elvis was a blessing. They wouldn’t let black music through.
He opened the door for black music.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-28” \o “” [29] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._B._King” \o “B. B. King” B. B. King
said he began to respect Presley after he did Arthur “Big Boy” Crudup
material and that after he met him, he thought the singer really was
something else and was someone whose music was growing all the time
right up to his death. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-29” \o “” [30]

Up to the mid 1950s black artists had sold miniscule amounts of their
recorded music relative to the national market potential. Black
songwriters had mostly limited horizons and could only eke out a living.
But after Presley purchased the music of African American HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otis_Blackwell” \o “Otis Blackwell” Otis
Blackwell and had his “Gladys Music” company hire talented black
songwriter HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Demetrius”
\o “Claude Demetrius” Claude Demetrius , the industry underwent a
dramatic change. In the spring of 1957 Presley invited African American
performer HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivory_Joe_Hunter” \o
“Ivory Joe Hunter” Ivory Joe Hunter to visit Graceland and the two
spent the day together, singing “I Almost Lost My Mind” and other songs.
Of Presley, Hunter commented, “He showed me every courtesy, and I think
he’s one of the greatest.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-30” \o “” [31]

However, certain elements in American society began to simply dismiss
Presley as no more than a racist Southerner who stole black music.
However, in the words of Black R&B artist HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackie_Wilson” \o “Jackie Wilson” Jackie
Wilson , “A lot of people have accused Elvis of stealing the black man’s
music, when in fact, almost every black solo entertainer copied his
stage mannerisms from Elvis.” “Racists attacked rock and roll because of
the mingling of black and white people it implied and achieved, and
because of what they saw as black music’s power to corrupt through
vulgar and animalistic rhythms. … The popularity of Elvis Presley was
similarly founded on his transgressive position with respect to racial
and sexual boundaries. … White cover versions of hits by black
musicians … often outsold the originals; it seems that many Americans
wanted black music without the black people in it,” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-31” \o “” [32] and Elvis had
undoubtedly “derived his style from the Negro rhythm-and-blues
performers of the late 1940’s.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-32” \o “” [33] “Many White
people would be surprised to learn that Elvis Presley’s hit ‘Hound Dog’
was first popularized by a Black woman, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Mama_Thornton” \o “Big Mama Thornton”
Big Mama Thornton , (but it was written by the white songwriting team of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Leiber_and_Mike_Stoller”
\o “Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller” Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller ).
Elvis and his music live on the collective memory of Whites, yet
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Richard” \o “Little
Richard” Little Richard , some of whose work Elvis borrowed, has been
forgotten.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-33” \o
“” [34] A southern background combined with a performing style largely
associated with African Americans had let to “bitter criticism by those
who feel he stole a good thing,” as Tan magazine surmised. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-34” \o “” [35] No wonder
that Elvis became “a symbol of all that was oppressive to the black
experience in the Western Hemisphere”. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-35” \o “” [36] What is more,
Presley was widely believed to have said, “The only thing black people
can do for me is shine my shoes and buy my records.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-36” \o “” [37] It was
claimed that the alleged comment was been made either in Boston or on
Edward R. Murrow’s Person to Person. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-37” \o “” [38] A black
southerner in the late 1980s even captured that sentiment: “To talk to
Presley about blacks was like talking to Adolph Hitler about the Jews.”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-38” \o “” [39]

In his scholarly work Race, Rock, and Elvis, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-39” \o “” [40] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee_State_University” \o “Tennessee
State University” Tennessee State University professor HYPERLINK
it” \o “Michael T. Bertrand” Michael T. Bertrand examined the
relationship between popular culture and social change in America and
these allegations against Presley. Professor Bertrand postulated that
Presley’s rock and roll music brought an unprecedented access to African
American culture that challenged that 1950s segregated generation to
reassess ingrained segregationist stereotypes. The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Historical_Review” \o “American
Historical Review” American Historical Review wrote that the author
“convincingly argues that the black-and-white character of the sound, as
well as Presley’s own persona, helped to relax the rigid color line and
thereby fed the fires of the HYPERLINK
8%29” \o “American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)” civil rights
movement .” The U.S. government report stated: “Presley has been accused
of “stealing” black rhythm and blues, but such accusations indicate
little knowledge of his many musical influences.” “However much Elvis
may have ‘borrowed’ from black blues performers (e.g., ‘Big Boy’ Crudup,
‘Big Mama’ Thornton), he borrowed no less from white country stars
(e.g., HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Tubb” \o “Ernest
Tubb” Ernest Tubb , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Monroe” \o “Bill Monroe” Bill Monroe
) and white pop singers (e.g., HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mario_Lanza” \o “Mario Lanza” Mario Lanza
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dean_Martin” \o “Dean
Martin” Dean Martin ),” and most of his borrowings came from the
church; its gospel music was his primary musical influence and

“A danger to American culture”

By the spring of 1956, Presley was fast becoming a national phenomenon
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-40” \o “” [41] and
teenagers came to his concerts in unprecedented numbers. When he
performed at the Mississippi-Alabama Fair in 1956, 100 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_National_Guard” \o “United
States National Guard” National Guardsmen surrounded the stage to
control crowds of excited fans. The singer was considered to represent a
threat to the moral well-being of young American women. The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic” \o “Roman Catholic” Roman
Catholic Church denounced him in its weekly magazine in an article
headlined “Beware Elvis Presley.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-41” \o “” [42]

In an interview with HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBS” \o
“PBS” PBS television, social historian HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Lott” \o “Eric Lott” Eric Lott
said, “all the citizens’ councils in the South called Elvis ‘nigger
music’ and were terribly afraid that Elvis, white as he was, being
ambiguously raced just by being working-class, was going to corrupt the
youth of America.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-42” \o “” [43] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Blair_Kaiser” \o “Robert Blair
Kaiser” Robert Kaiser says he was the first who gave the people “a
music that hit them where they lived, deep in their emotions, yes, even
below their belts. Other singers had been doing this for generations,
but they were black.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-43” \o “” [44] Therefore, his performance style was frequently
criticized. Social guardians blasted anyone responsible for exposing
impressionable teenagers to his “gyrating figure and suggestive
gestures.” The Louisville chief of police, for instance, called for a
no-wiggle rule to halt “any lewd, lascivious contortions that would
excite the crowd.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-44” \o “” [45] Even Priscilla Presley confirms that “his
performances were labeled obscene. My mother stated emphatically that he
was ‘a bad influence for teenage girls. He arouses things in them that
shouldn’t be aroused.'” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-45” \o “” [46]

According to rhythm and blues artist HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hank_Ballard” \o “Hank Ballard” Hank
Ballard , “In white society, the movement of the butt, the shaking of
the leg, all that was considered obscene. Now here’s this white boy
that’s grinding and rolling his belly and shaking that notorious leg. I
hadn’t even seen the black dudes doing that.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-46” \o “” [47] Presley
complained bitterly in a June 27, 1956, interview about being singled
out as “obscene”. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-47” \o “” [48] Due to his controversial style of song and stage
performances, municipal politicians began denying permits for Presley
appearances. This caused teens to pile into cars and travel elsewhere to
see him perform. Adult programmers announced they would not play
Presley’s music on their radio stations due to religious convictions
that his music was “devil music” and to racist beliefs that it was
“nigger music.” Many of Presley’s records were condemned as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sin” \o “Sin” wicked by Pentecostal
preachers, warning congregations to keep HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heathen” \o “Heathen” heathen rock and
roll music out of their homes and away from their children’s ears
(especially the music of “that backslidden Pentecostal pup.”) However,
the economic power of Presley’s fans became evident when they tuned in
alternative radio stations playing his records. In an era when radio
stations were shifting to an all-music format, in reaction to
competition from HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television”
\o “Television” television , profit-conscious radio station owners
learned quickly when sponsors bought more advertising time on new all
“rock and roll” stations, some of which reached enormous markets at
night with HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clear_channel” \o
“Clear channel” clear channel signals from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediumwave” \o “Mediumwave” AM

In August, 1956 in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonville%2C_Florida” \o “Jacksonville,
Florida” Jacksonville, Florida a local HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juvenile_Court” \o “Juvenile Court”
Juvenile Court judge called Presley a ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbarian” \o “Barbarian” savage ” and
threatened to arrest him if he shook his body while performing at
Jacksonville’s Florida Theatre, justifying the restrictions by saying
his music was undermining the youth of America. Throughout the
performance, Presley stood still as ordered but poked fun at the judge
by wiggling a finger. Similar attempts to stop his “sinful gyrations”
continued for more than a year and included his often-noted January 6,
1957 appearance on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ed_Sullivan_Show” \o “The Ed Sullivan
Show” The Ed Sullivan Show (during which he performed the spiritual
number “Peace in the Valley”), when he was filmed only from the waist

American icon

According to HYPERLINK
&cd=1&client=firefox-a” \o “h Rolling Stone magazine , “it was Elvis
who made rock ‘n’ roll the international language of pop.” A HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBS” \o “PBS” PBS documentary described
Presley as “an American music giant of the 20th century who
singlehandedly changed the course of music and culture in the
mid-1950s.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-48” \o
“” [49] His recordings, dance moves, attitude and clothing came to be
seen as embodiments of rock and roll. His music was heavily influenced
by African-American blues, Christian gospel, and Southern country.

Presley sang both hard driving HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockabilly” \o “Rockabilly” rockabilly ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_and_Roll” \o “Rock and
Roll” rock and roll dance songs and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballad” \o “Ballad” ballads , laying a
commercial foundation upon which other rock musicians would build their
careers. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American” \o
“African American” African-American performers like HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Richard” \o “Little Richard”
Little Richard and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuck_Berry” \o “Chuck Berry” Chuck Berry
came to national prominence after Presley’s acceptance among mass
audiences of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_race” \o
“White race” white teenagers. Singers like HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Lee_Lewis” \o “Jerry Lee Lewis”
Jerry Lee Lewis , the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everly_Brothers” \o “Everly Brothers”
Everly Brothers , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddy_Holly”
\o “Buddy Holly” Buddy Holly , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Orbison” \o “Roy Orbison” Roy Orbison
and others immediately followed in his wake. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beatles” \o “The Beatles” The Beatles
superstar HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lennon” \o
“John Lennon” John Lennon later observed, “Before Elvis, there was

During the post- HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II”
\o “World War II” WWII economic boom of the 1950s, many parents were
able to give their teenaged children much higher weekly HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allowance” \o “Allowance” allowances ,
signalling a shift in the buying power and purchasing habits of American
teens. During the 1940s HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobby_soxer” \o “Bobby soxer” bobby
soxers had idolized HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Sinatra” \o “Frank Sinatra” Frank
Sinatra , but the buyers of his records were mostly between the ages of
eighteen and twenty-two. Presley triggered a juggernaut of demand for
his records by near-teens and early teens aged ten and up. Along with
Presley’s ” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ducktail” \o
“Ducktail” ducktail ” haircut, the demand for black slacks and loose,
open-necked shirts resulted in new lines of clothing for teenaged boys
whereas a girl might get a pink portable 45 rpm record player for her
bedroom. Meanwhile American teenagers began buying newly available
portable HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor_radio” \o
“Transistor radio” transistor radios HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-49” \o “” [50] and listened
to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_%27n%27_roll” \o “Rock
‘n’ roll” rock ‘n’ roll on them (helping to propel that fledgling
industry from an estimated 100,000 units sold in 1955 to 5,000,000 units
by the end of 1958). Teens were asserting more independence and Presley
became a national symbol of their parents’ consternation.

Presley in 1957

Presley’s impact on the American youth consumer market was noted on the
front page of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wall_Street_Journal” \o “The Wall
Street Journal” The Wall Street Journal on December 31, 1956 when
business journalist Louis M. Kohlmeier wrote, “Elvis Presley today is a
business,” and reported on the singer’s record and merchandise sales.
Half a century later, historian Ian Brailsford ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Auckland” \o “University of
Auckland” University of Auckland , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand” \o “New Zealand” New Zealand
) commented, “The phenomenal success of Elvis Presley in 1956 convinced
many doubters of the financial opportunities existing in the youth
market.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-50” \o “”

Military service

On HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_20” \o “December
20” December 20 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1957” \o
“1957” 1957 , at the peak of his career, Presley received his
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription” \o “Conscription”
draft board notice for his mandatory service in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army” \o “United States
Army” United States Army . He was worried that his absence in the
public eye for 2 years, while serving in the Army, might end his career.
Even more worried were HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hal_Wallis” \o “Hal Wallis” Hal Wallis
and Paramount who already spent $350,000 on pre-production of Presley’s
latest film King Creole and they feared of suspending the project or
worse canceling it. Fortunately, the Memphis Draft Board granted Wallis
and Colonel Parker a deferment until HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_20” \o “March 20” March 20 so
Presley could complete his film project. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-51” \o “” [52] On
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_24” \o “March 24” 24
March HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1958” \o “1958” 1958 ,
Presley joined his unit, 1st Battalion, HYPERLINK
on=edit” \o “US 32nd Armored Regiment” 32nd Armored Regiment and was
posted to Germany.

While serving in Germany, Presley met his wife-to-be – the then
14-year-old HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priscilla_Presley”
\o “Priscilla Presley” Priscilla Beaulieu ; noted HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Herald_Tribune” \o
“International Herald Tribune” International Herald Tribune
correspondent and humorist HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Buchwald” \o “Art Buchwald” Art
Buchwald ; future US Secretary of State HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colin_Powell” \o “Colin Powell” Colin
Powell (then a lieutenant with the Third Army Division in Germany); and
Walter Alden, the father of Presley’s fiancee HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginger_Alden” \o “Ginger Alden” Ginger
Alden who inducted Presley into the Army.

His rankings and dates of promotions were as follows: Private (upon
draft March 24, 1958), Private First Class (November 27, 1958),
Specialist Fourth Class (June 1, 1959), Sergeant (January 20, 1960).
While in the Army, he earned sharpshooter badges for both the .45 pistol
and the M1 rifle, and a marksman badge for the M2 carbine, as well as a
Good Conduct Medal. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-52” \o “” [53]

Presley returned to the United States on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_2” \o “March 2” March 2 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960” \o “1960” 1960 , and was
honorably discharged with the rank of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staff_Sergeant” \o “Staff Sergeant” Staff
Sergeant (E-5) on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_5” \o
“March 5” March 5 . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-53” \o “” [54]

After serving his duty in the military, he became more mature and lost
his raw and rebellious edge. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/”
\l “_note-54” \o “” [55] However, he gained respect from older and
more conservative crowds who initially disliked him before he entered
the Army.

1960s film career

Presley admired HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Dean” \o
“James Dean” James Dean and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Curtis” \o “Tony Curtis” Tony Curtis
style and returned from the military eager to make a career as a movie
star. Although “he was definitely not the most talented actor around.”,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-55” \o “” [56] he
“became a film genre of his own.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-56” \o “” [57] Pop film
staples of the early sixties, such as the Presley musicals and the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_International_Pictures”
\o “American International Pictures” AlP beach movies were mainly
produced for a teenage audience and called by film critics a “pantheon
of bad taste” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-57”
\o “” [58] In the sixties, at Colonel Parker’s command, Presley
withdrew from concerts and television appearances, after his final
appearance with Frank Sinatra on NBC entitled “Welcome Home Elvis” where
he sang “Witchcraft/Love Me Tender” with Sinatra, in order to make these
movies. “He blamed his fading popularity on his humdrum movies,”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priscilla_Presley” \o “Priscilla
Presley” Priscilla Presley recalled in her 1985 autobiography,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_and_Me” \o “Elvis and Me”
Elvis and Me . “He loathed their stock plots and short shooting
schedules. He could have demanded better, more substantial scripts but
he didn’t.” According to most critics, the scripts of the movies “were
all the same, the songs progressively worse.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-58” \o “” [59] The latter
were “written on order by men who never really understood Elvis or rock
and roll.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-59” \o
“” [60] For Blue Hawaii and its soundtrack LP, “fourteen songs were
cut in just three days.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“_note-60” \o “” [61] Julie Parrish, starring in Paradise, Hawaiian
Style, says that Presley hated such songs and that he “couldn’t stop
laughing while he was recording” one of them. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-61” \o “” [62]

Although some film critics chastised these movies for their lack of
depth, the fans turned out and they were enormously profitable.
According to Jerry Hopkins’s book, Elvis in Hawaii, Presley’s
“pretty-as-a-postcard movies” even “boosted the new state’s (Hawaii)
tourism. Some of his most enduring and popular songs came from those
movies.” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-62” \o “”
[63] Altogether, Presley had made 27 movies during the 1960s, “which
had grossed about $130 million, and he had sold a hundred million
records, which had made $150 million.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-63” \o “” [64] Overall, he
was one of the highest paid Hollywood actors during the 1960s. However,
during the later sixties, “the Elvis Presley film was becoming passe.
Young people were tuning in, dropping out and doing HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LSD” \o “LSD” acid . Musical acts like
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jefferson_Airplane” \o
“Jefferson Airplane” Jefferson Airplane , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grateful_Dead” \o “Grateful Dead”
Grateful Dead , the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Doors”
\o “The Doors” Doors , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janis_Joplin” \o “Janis Joplin” Janis
Joplin and many others were dominating the airwaves. Elvis Presley was
not considered as cool as he once was.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-64” \o “” [65]

1968 comeback

Presley’s star had faded slightly over the 1960s as he made his movies
and America was struck by changing styles and tastes after the “British
Invasion” spearheaded by the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beatles” \o “The Beatles” Beatles .

Until the late sixties Presley continued to star in many B-movies,
featuring soundtracks that were of increasingly lower quality. He had
become deeply dissatisfied with the direction his career had taken over
the ensuing seven years, most notably the film contracts with a
demanding schedule that eliminated creative recording and giving public
concerts. This lead to a triumphant HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_special” \o “Television
special” televised performance later dubbed the HYPERLINK
\o “Elvis Presley’s ’68 Comeback Special” ’68 Comeback Special , aired
on the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NBC” \o “NBC” NBC
television network on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_3” \o “December 3” December 3 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968” \o “1968” 1968 and
released as an album by RCA. In a special that saw him return to his
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_and_roll” \o “Rock and
roll” rock and roll roots, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone” \o “Rolling Stone” Rolling
Stone magazine called it “a performance of emotional grandeur and
historical resonance”. HYPERLINK
“http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography” \o
“http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography” [11]

The comeback of 1968 was followed by a 1969 return to live performances,
first in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Las_Vegas%2C_Nevada”
\o “Las Vegas, Nevada” Las Vegas and then across the United States.
The return concerts were noted for the constant stream of sold-out
shows, with many setting attendance records in the venues where he

Two concert films were also released: Elvis: That’s the Way It Is (1970)
and Elvis on Tour (1972).

The final years

After seven years off the top of the charts, Presley’s song ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspicious_Minds” \o “Suspicious Minds”
Suspicious Minds ” hit number one on the Billboard music charts on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_1” \o “November 1”
November 1 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1969” \o “1969”
1969 . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-65” \o “”
[66] He also reached number one on charts elsewhere: ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_the_Ghetto” \o “In the Ghetto” In the
Ghetto ” did so in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Germany” \o “West Germany” West
Germany in 1969 and “The Wonder of You” did so in the UK in 1970.

The ” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis:_Aloha_from_Hawaii”
\o “Elvis: Aloha from Hawaii” Aloha from Hawaii ” concert in January
1973 was the first of its kind to be broadcast worldwide via HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite” \o “Satellite” satellite and
was seen by at least one billion viewers worldwide. The RCA soundtrack
album to the show reached number-one in the charts.

Presley recorded a number of country hits in his final years.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Way_Down” \o “Way Down” Way
Down was languishing in the American HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Country_Music” \o “Country Music” Country
Music chart shortly before his death in 1977, and reached number one
the week after his death. It also topped the UK pop charts at the same

Between 1969 and 1977 Presley gave over 1,000 sold-out performances in
Las Vegas and on tour. He was the first artist to have four shows in a
row sold to capacity crowds at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York” \o “New York” New York ‘s
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madison_Square_Garden” \o
“Madison Square Garden” Madison Square Garden .

From 1971 to his death in 1977 Presley employed the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamps_Quartet” \o “Stamps Quartet”
Stamps Quartet , a gospel group, for his backup vocals. He recorded
several gospel albums, earning three HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grammy_Award” \o “Grammy Award” Grammy
Awards for his gospel music. In his later years his live stage
performances almost always included a rendition of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_Great_Thou_Art” \o “How Great Thou
Art” How Great Thou Art , the 19th century gospel song made famous by
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Beverly_Shea” \o “George
Beverly Shea” George Beverly Shea . Although some critics say that the
singer travestied, commercialized and soft-soaped gospel “to the point
where it became nauseating.”, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/”
\l “_note-66” \o “” [67] twenty-four years after his death, the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_Music_Association” \o
“Gospel Music Association” Gospel Music Association inducted him into
its HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_Music_Hall_of_Fame”
\o “Gospel Music Hall of Fame” Gospel Music Hall of Fame (2001).

After his divorce in 1973 Presley became increasingly isolated,
overweight, and battling an addiction to prescription drugs which took a
heavy toll on his appearance, health, and performances. He made his last
live concert appearance in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indianapolis%2C_Indiana” \o “Indianapolis,
Indiana” Indianapolis at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_Square_Arena” \o “Market Square
Arena” Market Square Arena on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_26” \o “June 26” June 26 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o “1977” 1977 .

Death and burial

On HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_16” \o “August 16”
August 16 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o “1977”
1977 , at his HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graceland” \o
“Graceland” Graceland mansion in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis%2C_Tennessee” \o “Memphis,
Tennessee” Memphis, Tennessee , Presley was found lying on the floor of
his bedroom’s bathroom by his fiancee, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginger_Alden” \o “Ginger Alden” Ginger
Alden , who had been asleep. A stain on the bathroom carpeting was found
that indicated “where Elvis had thrown up after being stricken,
apparently while seated HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toilet-related_injury” \o “Toilet-related
injury” on the toilet . It looked to the medical investigator as if he
had ‘stumbled or crawled several feet before he died.’ ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-67” \o “” [68] He was taken
to Baptist Memorial Hospital, where doctors pronounced him dead at 3:30
P.M. Presley was 42 years old.

Elvis Presley funeral procession.

At a press conference following his death, one of the medical examiners
declared that he had died of a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrhythmia” \o “Cardiac
arrhythmia” cardiac arrhythmia from a intake of a large amount of

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_Stone” \o “Rolling
Stone” Rolling Stone magazine devoted an entire issue to Presley (RS
248) and his funeral was a national media event. HYPERLINK
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/flashpoints/music/elvis.html” \o
[12] Hundreds of thousands of Presley fans, the press, and celebrities
lined the street to witness Presley’s funeral and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jackie_Kahane&action=edit” \o
“Jackie Kahane” Jackie Kahane gave the eulogy.

Presley was originally buried at Forest Hill Cemetery in Memphis next to
his mother. After an attempted theft of the body, his remains and his
mother’s remains were moved to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graceland” \o “Graceland” Graceland to
the “meditation gardens.”

Following Presley’s death in 1977, US HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President” \o “President” President
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter” \o “Jimmy Carter”
Jimmy Carter said, “Elvis Presley’s death deprives our country of a
part of itself. He was unique and irreplaceable. More than 20 years ago,
he burst upon the scene with an impact that was unprecedented and will
probably never be equaled. His music and his personality, fusing the
styles of white country and black rhythm and blues, permanently changed
the face of American popular culture. His following was immense, and he
was a symbol to people the world over of the vitality, rebelliousness,
and good humor of his country.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_note-68” \o “” [69]


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-0” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.elvisconcerts.com/newspapers/press35.htm” \o
“http://www.elvisconcerts.com/newspapers/press35.htm” “Fans Of Elvis
Pay a Lot to See Little” by Damien Jaques, The Milwaukee Journal,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_28” \o “April 28” April
28 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o “1977” 1977 ,
retrieved HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_22” \o
“October 22” October 22 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-1” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.elvisconcerts.com/newspapers/press69.htm” \o
“http://www.elvisconcerts.com/newspapers/press69.htm” “They Screamed
For Elvis ‘All it took was a shake of a finger'” by Paul Betit,
Kennebec Journal, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_25” \o
“May 25” May 25 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o
“1977” 1977 , retrieved HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_22” \o “October 22” October 22 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-2” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.elvisconcerts.com/newspapers/press78.htm” \o
“http://www.elvisconcerts.com/newspapers/press78.htm” “There’s no doubt
about it -Elvis is still ‘king'” by Jeri Gulbransen, Rapid City
Journal, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_22” \o “June 22”
June 22 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977” \o “1977”
1977 , retrieved HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_22”
\o “October 22” October 22 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-3” \o “” ^ Peter
Guralnick, Last Train to Memphis: The Rise of Elvis Presley, p.12.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-4” \o “” ^
Priscilla Presley, Elvis and Me, p.172

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-5” \o “” ^ ”
HYPERLINK “http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/3559331.stm” \o
“http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/3559331.stm” Elvis roots ‘lead to
Scotland’ “; a 23 March 2004 BBC story that cites Allan Morrison, the
author of the then-unpublished book The Presley Prophecy.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-6” \o “” ^ Peter
Guralnick, Last Train to Memphis: The Rise of Elvis Presley, p.13.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-7” \o “” ^
Guralnick, p.13.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-8” \o “” ^
Guralnick, p.149

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-9” \o “” ^
Guralnick, p.36, referring to an account by singer HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbara_Pittman” \o “Barbara Pittman”
Barbara Pittman and Patrick Humphries, Elvis The #1 Hits: The Secret
History of the Classics, p.117.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-10” \o “” ^
Guralnick, p.280.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-11” \o “” ^
Guralnick, p.346.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-12” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.history-of-rock.com/elvis_presley.htm” \o
“http://www.history-of-rock.com/elvis_presley.htm” Elvis Presley .
history-of-rock.com. Retrieved on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_27” \o “August 27” 08-27 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-13” \o “” ^
Guralnick, Last Train to Memphis, p.17.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-14” \o “” ^
Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock, p. 783

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-15” \o “” ^ B.B.
King, quoted in David Szatmary, A Time to Rock (1996), p. 35

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-16” \o “” ^ James
Dickerson, Goin’ Back to Memphis (1996), p. 27

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-17” \o “” ^
Richard Kostelanetz and Robert Flemming, Writings on Glass: Essays,
Interviews, Criticism (University of California Press, 1999), p.15.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-18” \o “” ^
Elijah Wald, Josh White: Society Blues (2002), p.264.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-19” \o “” ^
Rolling Stone biography on Elvis Presley HYPERLINK
“http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography” \o
“http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography” [1]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-20” \o “” ^
\o “United States Department of the Interior” United States Department
of the Interior re Graceland National Historic Landmark Nomination
report prepared by Jody Cook, Architectural Historian with detailed
references: HYPERLINK
t=clnk&cd=17” \o
ignations/sa [2]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-21” \o “” ^ Henry
Pleasants, The Great American Popular Singers.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-22” \o “” ^ See
James Miller, Flowers in the Dustbin: The Rise of Rock and Roll,
1947-1977 (1999), p. 71

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-23” \o “” ^
Michael T. Bertrand, Race, Rock, and Elvis, p.27.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-24” \o “” ^ Peter
Guralnick, Last Train to Memphis: The Rise of Elvis Presley, p.426.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-25” \o “” ^
Priscilla Presley, Elvis and Me, p. 188.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-26” \o “” ^ Marty
Lacker, Lamar Fike, and Billy Smith, Elvis Aron Presley: Revelations
from the Memphis Mafia (1995). A detailed biography of Parker was
written by HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alanna_Nash” \o
“Alanna Nash” Alanna Nash and published in 2003.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-27” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,661084,00.html”
\o “http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,661084,00.html” “Elvis
Rocks. But He’s Not the First” by Christopher John Farley, TIME,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_6” \o “July 6” July 6 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004” \o “2004” 2004 ,
retrieved HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_22” \o
“October 22” October 22 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-28” \o “” ^
\o “United States Department of the Interior” United States Department
of the Interior re Graceland National Historic Landmark Nomination
report prepared by Jody Cook, Architectural Historian with detailed
references: HYPERLINK
t=clnk&cd=17” \o
ignations/sa [3]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-29” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBS” \o “PBS” PBS television
interview HYPERLINK
“http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_oralh_bbking.html” \o
“http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_oralh_bbking.html” [4]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-30” \o “” ^ Peter
Guralnick, Last Train to Memphis: The Rise of Elvis Presley, p.426.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-31” \o “” ^
Robert Walser, “The rock and roll era”, in The Cambridge History of
American Music (Cambridge University Press, 1998), p.358.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-32” \o “” ^
Martha Bayles (ed.), Hole in Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in
American Popular Music (University of Chicago Press, 1996), p.22.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-33” \o “” ^ Carol
Tator, Winston Matthis, Frances Henry, Challenging Racism in the Arts
(University of Toronto Press, 1998), p.134.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-34” \o “” ^
Michael T. Bertrand, Race, Rock, and Elvis (University of Illinois
Press, 2000), p.222.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-35” \o “” ^
Bertrand, p.27.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-36” \o “” ^ A
variant: “I’ve only two uses for niggers – they can buy my records and
they can shine my shoes.” Quoted in Alexander Cockburn, The Golden Age
Is in Us: Journeys and Encounters, 1987-1994, p.17.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-37” \o “” ^
Bertrand, p.221.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-38” \o “” ^
Bertrand, p.200. The author adds, “One journalist wrote upon the
singer’s death that African Americans refused to participate in the
numerous eulogies dedicated to him.”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-39” \o “” ^ See
HYPERLINK “http://www.press.uillinois.edu/s05/bertrand.html” \o
“http://www.press.uillinois.edu/s05/bertrand.html” University of
Illinois Press website.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-40” \o “” ^
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/flashpoints/music/elvis.html” \o
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/flashpoints/music/elvis.html” [5]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-41” \o “” ^
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/flashpoints/music/elvis.html” \o
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/cultureshock/flashpoints/music/elvis.html” [6]

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-42” \o “” ^
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/foster/sfeature/sf_minstrelsy_10.html” \o

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-43” \o “” ^
Quoted in Michael T. Bertrand, Race, Rock, and Elvis (University of
Illinois Press, 2000), p.223.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-44” \o “” ^
Bertrand, p.223.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-45” \o “” ^
Priscilla Presley, Elvis and Me, p.8.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-46” \o “” ^
Quoted in Bertrand, p.223

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-47” \o “” ^ Roger
Beebe, Denise Fulbrook, Ben Saunders, Rock Over the Edge (Duke
University Press, 2002), p.100.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-48” \o “” ^ ”
“http://www.pbs.org/americanrootsmusic/pbs_arm_saa_elvispresley.html” \o
Elvis Presley “: a page at pbs.org with a single paragraph, attributed
to palmpictures.com.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-49” \o “” ^ Rich
sistor_radios_and_web_and_newspapers_and_hifi_radio_are_alike.html” \o
sistor_radios_and_web_and_news How Transistor Radios and Web (and
Newspapers and Hi-Fi radio) are Alike “, “Reprinted, with permission,
from The Cole Papers, June 22, 2005.”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-50” \o “” ^ Ian
Brailsford, ” HYPERLINK
“http://www.kingston.ac.uk/cusp/Lectures/Brailsfordpaper.doc” \o
“http://www.kingston.ac.uk/cusp/Lectures/Brailsfordpaper.doc” History
repeating itself: Were postwar American teenagers ripe for harvest? ”
(NB Microsoft Word format): transcript of a paper delivered at ”
HYPERLINK “http://www.kingston.ac.uk/cusp/Lectures/Youthforty.htm” \o
“http://www.kingston.ac.uk/cusp/Lectures/Youthforty.htm” Youth
Marketing Reaches Forty “, 17 May 2001.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-51” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.epgold.com/highlights/army.htm” \o
“http://www.epgold.com/highlights/army.htm” Elvis in the Army

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-52” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.3ad.org/elvis/elvis_home.htm” \o
“http://www.3ad.org/elvis/elvis_home.htm” Sergeant Elvis Aaron Presley

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-53” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.army.mil/CMH/faq/elvis.htm” \o
“http://www.army.mil/CMH/faq/elvis.htm” www.army.mil/CMH/faq/elvis.htm

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-54” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.elvis-presley-biography.com/ElvisArmyDays.htm” \o
“http://www.elvis-presley-biography.com/ElvisArmyDays.htm” Biography of
Elvis Presley – Elvis Army Days

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-55” \o “” ^ Leo
Verswijver, Movies Were Always Magical: Interviews with 19 Actors,
Directors, and Producers from the Hollywood of the 1930s through the
1950s (2002), p.129.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-56” \o “” ^ Tom
Lisanti, Fantasy Femmes of 60’s Cinema: Interviews with 20 Actresses
from Biker, Beach, and Elvis Movies (2000), p.18.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-57” \o “” ^
Andrew Caine, Interpreting Rock Movies: The Pop Film and Its Critics in
Britain, p. 21.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-58” \o “” ^
Connie Kirchberg and Marc Hendrickx, Elvis Presley, Richard Nixon, and
the American Dream (1999), p.67.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-59” \o “” ^ Jerry
Hopkins, Elvis in Hawaii (2002), p.32.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-60” \o “” ^
Hopkins, p.31

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-61” \o “” ^ Tom
Lisanti, Fantasy Femmes of 60’s Cinema, p.19, 136.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-62” \o “” ^
Hopkins, Elvis in Hawaii, p. vii

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-63” \o “” ^
Magdalena Alagna, Elvis Presley (2002)

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-64” \o “” ^ Tom
Lisanti, Fantasy Femmes of 60’s Cinema: Interviews with 20 Actresses
from Biker, Beach, and Elvis Movies, p.19.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-65” \o “” ^ This
was the last time any song by Presley reached number one on the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billboard_Hot_100” \o “Billboard
Hot 100” Hot 100 , although “Burning Love” reached two in September
1972, and “A Little Less Conversation” topped the Hot Singles Sales
chart in 2002.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-66” \o “” ^
Albert Goldman, Elvis: The Last 24 Hours, p.187.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-67” \o “” ^
Guralnick, Careless Love: The Unmaking of Elvis Presley, p.651.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “_ref-68” \o “” ^
HYPERLINK “http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7969.” \o
“http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7969.” “Death of Elvis Presley
Statement by the President.” by John Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The
American Presidency Project, retrieved HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_22” \o “October 22” October 22 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006

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