Cherkasy Region (реферат)

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The “heart” of our young country is its capital, ancient and at the
same time young Kiev. And Cherkasy region we can trustfully consider the
soul of Ukraine. The very this region was the motherland of Cossack
movement, the hetman capital Chigirin is situated here.

Cherkasy region gave birth to the prominent people – the first Ukraine’s
hetman Bogdan Khmelnitskiy, heroes of National Liberation War Peter
Doroshenko and Ivan Vygovskiy, Gaidamak movement leaders Zaliznyak and
Gonta, the world-known genius Taras Shevchenko, the nation’s prophet,
without which we can’t realize our purpose on the Earth.

The region with 1,5 mn population is situated in the center of Ukraine
and can be trustfully called its visit card, because it comprises
something from every Ukraine’s region.

The very region’s name is closely connected with its history – long ago
all Ukrainians were called cherkasy.

Cherkasy region is famous not only for its historical past, but also our
present times, first of all due to the well-developed
agrarian-industrial complex, where about 1/3 of the gross national
domestic product is produced. For the intensive development of
agriculture in the region is created the chemical, processing and food
processing industries, modern machinery. This assists the comfortable
investment climate, the development of business partnership.


Cherkasy region was founded on the 7 of January 1954 and is one of the
youngest Ukraine’s regions. It is situated in the center of Ukraine, its
territory is 20,9 sq.km, that makes 3,5% of the total area. It borders
with the following regions: Kiev region in the north-west, Vinnitsa
region in the west, Poltava region in the north , Dnipropetrovsk region
in the east, and Kirovograd on south.

According to the administrative-territory division the region consists
of 20 districts, 6 towns of regional and 10 towns of district
subordination, 15 settlements 826 villages. The regional center is

Cherkasy region has a glorious past, it has a lot of unique monuments of
history and culture. On the territory of the region it was found more
than100 settlements of Tripil culture about 100 villages and burial
graves of Scithian time. Cherkasy area was a part of the East-Slav
territory established on the beginning of A.D, and during the time of
Kievan Rus was the southern part of Kiev principality.


The region is situated in the forest-steppe physical-geographic zone.
The area is hilly plain, the soil is mainly black. The climate is
temporally continental, with soft winters and warm summers. The average
temperature in summer is +20?C and in winter -5?C.

Due to the climate conditions the region has various vegetation, is
famous for its beautiful forests and different fauna. The largest in the
forest-steppe zone Kaniv biogeographical reserve is located here (its
area is 2028 ha), also the world-known dendrologic park “ Sofievka” is
the pearl of gardening art, in 1996 it celebrated the 200 anniversary
from the date of foundation.

There are 1037 rivers in the region, the largest is the Dnieper, the
main water way of Ukraine (the length on the territory of Cherkasy
region is 150 km); Gigskiy Tikich (161); Tyasmin (133); Ross (101).
Cherkasy region has more than 2,3 thousands lakes and reservoirs. The
length of Kremenchug reservoir is 130 km.


Cherkasy region has a large stock of decorative and building stone. The
most famous deposits of granite are Starobabanske and Tanske, the
production of which is widely exported.

On the region’s territory is located unique by the size, quality and
spheres of usage, the largest in Ukraine Cherkasy deposit of bentonite
clay, that is the important part of export-import operations in the
world market. Cherkasy region has the large stock of the secondary
kaolin, brown coal, peat, bauxite. The Boltysk deposit of oil-shales is
situated on the border of Cherkasy region and Kirovograd. The left bank
part of the region has the store of mineral waters, like “Mirgorodska”,
prospected and exploited the Zvenigorodka deposit of radon water.


The population of Cherkasy region is 1,387 million people (almost 2,9%
of Ukrainian population).The density of population is 67 persons per 1
sq.km. The urban population is 753 thousand people (54%), rural – 649
thousand people (46%).

The largest town is regional center Cherkasy, it has 307,8 thousand

Nationalities. The representatives of 85 nationalities dwell on the
territory of Cherkasy region. Ukrainians make up 90,5% of the
population. The most numerous national minority are Russians, then Jews,
Poles, Tartars, Armenians, Bulgarians.

The active population. There are 808,8 thousand persons of active
population. About 580 thousand people are engaged in economic activity.


Nowadays in the region function 706 pre-school institutions, where 34
thousand people are brought up. There are 709 secondary schools, where
study 187,8 thousand children. For satisfying the children’s needs,
development of their creative abilities function 59 out of school and 13
institutions of new type, 12 specialized schools, Small Academy of
Sciences, Small Academy of Arts. In 27 vocational schools, including 15
common, 2 – higher, 10 – gymnasiums study 10,5 thousand pupils by 116

50,8 thousand students (320 persons per 10 thousand of population) study
in 28 higher institutions of I-IV level of accreditation. 31,5 thousand
students (198 persons per 10 thousand of population) study in 7 higher
institutions of III-IV level of accreditation.

In 2002 scientific researches were done by 33 scientific organizations
of the region, among them 13 independent research organizations, 4
project-constuction technological, 3 project-research organizations, 9
scientific research and constuction branches at the industrial


There are 932 religious organizations of 48 confessions, persuasions,
directions in Cherkasy region. They consist of 7 regional religious
departments, 4 cloisters, 4 spiritual missions, 1 brotherhood, 1
biblical institute (tuition by correspondence), 913 religious societies,
among which 582 are orthodox, 317 – protestant, 33 – others.

Religious societies have Sunday schools. About 600 priests work in
religious societies.

Ukrainian Orthodox Church is the most numerous in the region, under its
jurisdiction there are 443 religious societies.

From the beginning of Ukraine’s independence by the expense of citizens’
contribution, active help of local authorities 162 religious
institutions are built and 55 are in the process of construction.


In the region there is a wide variety of cultural institutions. That is
regional musical-dramatic theatre of T.Shevchenko, regional puppet
theatre, regional philharmonic society, Kaniv cultural school, Uman
musical school of P. Demutskiy, Cherkasy musical cultural school of
S.Gulak-Artemovskiy, 40 schools of esthetic upbringing, 738 houses of
culture and clubs, 766 libraries, 2 national and 5 state
historical-cultural nature reserves, among which function 17 museums, 14
museums of municipal ownership, 288 museums and museum rooms on the
society basis.

Cherkasy region is and was the historical-cultural center of Ukraine. It
became the heir of spiritual heritage of people’s genius T.G.Shevchenko,
who was born in picturesque village Moryntsi, Zvenigorodskiy region and
was buried on Chernecha Mountain in Kaniv. Shevchenko’s land is famous
for significant historic events, outstanding names. The very this land
gave birth to Cossacks and democratic republic Zaporozhska Sich, here
was the great National Liberation War of Ukrainian people, led by

Cherkasy region contributed to the world culture such great writers,
artists, scientists as I.Nechuy-Levitskiy, M.Dry-Khmara, T.Osmachka,
M.Maximovich, A.Krimskiy, P.Yurkevich, V.Avramenko, I.Padalka, and many

Unique nature of the land, folk traditions gave creative impulse to
O.Pushkin, P.Chaikovskiy, M.Lysenko, M.Vovchok, M.Gogol,
I.Kotlyarevskiy, G.Skovoroda, A.Mitskevich.


The total area of dwelling fund is 33800 thousand sq.km. The average
material security of one person is 24,2 sq.m. from the total area.

Generally in the region are built 118,6 thousand sq.m. of dwelling
houses (79 thousand sq.m. is individual construction).


The participation of all objects of political process in following the
Constitutional laws, social society agreement, protection of person’s
rights is going on in Ukraine. 80 regional organizations, political
parties, 461 social organizations and charity fund are registered and
work in the region.

Trade unions

45 interbranch organizations make up Cherkasy regional organization of
trade unions.


Mass media is represented by 32 printed publications. The most numerous
group of publications – 60 (26%) – belong to the commercial structures.

The founders of mass media are private persons. This kind of editions
are 46, or 20%. A great number of editions (12) belongs to the political
parties and social organizations. Local authorities issue 26 newspapers,
specific weight of which is 14%.

The new event in the region’s information space is the appearance of
periodical publications, the founders of which are different religious
confessions. Nowadays 13 are officially registered. Advertising editions
constitute 23% of regional press.

Three national broadcasting companies (UT-1, UT-2, “Inter”) cover 20
districts of the region. The programs of STB, TET, ICTV channels
broadcast from Cherkasy and Uman. TV studio “Ross”, the founder of which
is State TV Radio company, broadcasts on 2 channels.

47 electronic TV radio companies, their broadcasting time covers 1074
hours per week, work in the informational space of the region.

Electronic mass media of all kinds broadcast primarily in state


The region is industrial-agricultural. The production of commodities and
services makes up 42%.

The structure of industrial manufacture of th?????????????????????????›

? the mining industry makes up 2,2% of the total regional volume. It
includes 2 branches: extraction of power materials (peat) and extraction
of non-power materials (non-metalic raw material for industry and

? the manufacturing industry – 86,9% of the total regional volume;

the production and distribution of electric power, gas, heat, water is
10,9% of the total regional volume.

Food processing (39,9%) and chemical (26,9%) industries prevail in the
industrial manufacturing. The construction of machines and metal
manufacturing make up 8%, light industry – 1,5%.

There are more than 300 industrial enterprises in Cherkasy region, that
produce power energy, mineral fertilizers, ammonia, chemical fibers,
automatic and calculative equipment, technological equipment for
processing branches, machinery and equipment for stock-breeding and
fodder, consumer goods. In the food processing industry the most
developed are the following branches: sugar, meat processing, dairy,
flour, liqueur-vodka, canning.


Railway and autotransport

The territory of Cherkasy region is crossed by a great number of
railways and automobile highways. The railroads connect the south and
north of Ukraine, the basic highways – east and west of the country.

The railway transportation in the region is provided by the enterprises
and organizations of Shevchenko railway department. The main office is
located on the cross-roads of 2 directions: Moscow – Odessa, and Donbas
– the Carpathians. The length of state, regional and local roads is 6,2
thousand km.

Air transport

The Cherkasy air port can accept the planes with cargo-carrying capacity
up to 40 tones, it can be regularly used by the local air lines of
Ukraine. The length of the landing ground is 2,5 km.

River transport

In the region there is Cherkasy river port and 3 piers in Kaniv,
Irkliev, Adamivka. Different cargoes are delivered along the Dnieper.


Telephone and telegraph communication in the region is provided by the

“Ukrtelecom” and JV “Utel”. Installation of telephones is based on the
systematic change of existing equipment for modern digital systems,
including transmissions of electronic data.

The density of the urban telephone communication is 29,4 telephone
numbers per 100 inhabitants, rural – 9,5 telephone numbers per 100

Several providers work in the region, offering the services of Internet.
Mobile communication is very popular nowadays.


There is an advanced construction complex in the territory of the
region. The construction is performed by 160 enterprises of different
kind of ownership.

The industrial enterprises of the building industry have sufficient
capacities providing the construction complex with wall materials,
modular concrete and ferro-concrete designs and details, metal
constructions, joiner’s products, asphalt, nonmetallic and other


There are more than 5,3 thousand small enterprises and 34 thousand of
businessmen – private persons in the region.

Entrepreneurs can get help from 6 business centers, business training
center, 3 leasing centers, 2 regional funds of business support, 46
banks and 591 departments, 34 credit unions, 4 stock exchanges and 6
departments, about 60 information-consultative and juridical
institutions, 4 insurance companies and 40 branches, 32 auditing
companies, 3 investment companies and their 6 branches, center of
scientific-technical and economic information.


The external economic turn over of the commodities and services was 96,4
million USD, including export – 58,9 million USD, import – 37,5 million
USD. In the external economic turn over the services make up 1,5%.

Top articles of the export are mineral fertilizers (30,3%), yarn of
chemical fibers (16,6%), organic chemical compounds (14,1%), clothes
(5,9%), machinery and equipment (3,4%).

Top import articles are the products of chemical and associated
industries (25,4%), paper and things made of paper (22,9% of the total
import), machinery and equipment (18,2%), textile products (9,8%),
tobacco products (8,1%).

Repairing services, cargo transportation services and tourism services
prevail among the services presented by the region. Import cornerstone
was set by financial, transportation services, royalty.


Banking system of Cherkasy region constitute the department of National
Bank of Ukraine in Cherkasy region, Cherkasy Central branch of
Prominvestbank, Cherkasy regional branch of PJSC “The State Savings Bank
of Ukraine ”, Cherkasy regional office APPB “Aval”, Cherkasy regional
branch ACB “Ukrsotsbank”, Cherkasy main regional department of
‘‘Privatbank’’, branch of ‘‘Ukreximbank’’ in Cherkasy, Cherkasy and
Dnipropetrovsk branch of JSC “Ukrinbank” Cherkasy regional branch of
“Energobank”, AKB “The National Credit”, Uman branch of “Kiev Rus”,
Cherkasy regional branches of AKIB “Ukrsibbank”, JSC “Credit Bank”
(Ukraine), OJSC ”Ukrgasbank”, AKB “Legbank”, AB “Kiev Rus”, AB
“Brockbusinessbank”, OJSC “Megabank”, OJSC “International Commercial
Bank”, OJSC “Promeconombank”.

Generally the regional banking system has 44 balance establishments and
593 branches. The regional bank establishments practice in giving
credits to the real economic sector. From the total amount of credits
invested in the region’s economy, about 40% are given for the industrial
sector, trade, small and middle business – 40%,agrarian and industrial
complex about 20%.

13 bank institutions work with plastic cards. The stability of the
currency market is provided in the region. The exchange transactions 34
points and 181 operational cash departments of the authorized banks.


Cherkasy region is proud of its sport history. Among famous sportsmen
are A.Himich (canoe), O.Motuzenko (kayak), O.Krikun (light athletics).

6 sportsmen presented our region in Olympic Games in Sidney. Silver
medals got O.Fedenko (cycle racing), V.Pershkura (sport gymnastics). 2
silver medals received A.Skachkov (light athletics, invalid sport) in
Paraolympic Games.

19 regional sportsmen were included to the candidates, who will take
part in future Olympic Games in Athens (Greece) in 2004. Cherkasy
sportsmen are among winners of championships, the cup tournament in
fencing, European and world championships in sambo, the cup of Europe in
kickboxing, sport gymnastics, international competitions in academic
fencing, championship in fire-applied sport.

Volleyball team “AZOT” took the 4 place in the cup tournament among
European teams. Today 6 teams take part in Ukraine’s championships,
representing Cherkasy region.


The system of health protection in the region includes 259
medical-prophylactic institutions of all kinds, where 4467 doctors and
12765 nurses work.

The center of specialized medical help to the region’s population is the
central hospital – multi profile medical-prophylactic institution, where
high-qualified specialists work.

For a long period of time the hospital successfully cooperates with
Oxford childish clinic within the program “The help to children with
inherent jaw-face defects”.

On the basis of the regional oncology clinic was created the open
oncology-mamological center for children, where together with the
corresponding center in Germany leukemia is researched.

In the framework of the USA project the problems of leukemia among the
region’s adult population are researched.

The regional oncology clinic cooperates with Ukrainian NSRI named after
M.D.Strazheska, the cooperation with French colleagues is in the process
of development, the educational-diagnostic center dealing with the
questions of echocardiology is organized together with the European
program of partnership TACIS.


In Cherkasy region there are 688 agricultural firms – privatized
structures and 1011 farms. The total area of agricultural fields is 1,5
mn ha or 3,5% in Ukraine, including the arable land – 1,3 mn ha.

In the structure of agricultural industry the plant-growing comprises
62%, stock-breeding – 38%. The number of heads in the stock-breeding
complex is the following: cattle – 388,5 thousand heads, pigs – 610,5
thousand heads, poultry – 6,6 mn heads.


















??????????????????????$??t? gross national product in the agriculture is
2,9 mld grivnas, that makes 5% of the total Ukraine’s agricultural
production, or 2055 grivnas per one person.

Cherkasy region is diversed from another regions by its corn production
(1947 thousand tons in 2002), sugar beet – 1005 thousand tons, sunflower
– 85,5 thousand tons, vegetables and potato (281 and 710 thousand tons
correspondingly) and diary-meat production (meat – 127 thousand tons,
milk – 560 thousand tons).

Cherkasy region totally provides itself with the main agricultural
products. Two scientific-research institutes provide the scientific
background for the successful development of agriculture.

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