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Official name. Canada.

Status. An independent federative state, a member of the Commonwealth,
headed by the Queen of GB.

Area. 9,976,000 sq. km (3,851,790 sq. mi).

Population. 30,1 mln

Nationality. Canadian.

Ethnic composition.

About 40% are people of British origin.

30% are people of French origin.

1% are Indians and Eskimos.

European minorities (Irish, German, Ukrainian, Scandinavian, Italian,
Dutch, Polish).

The “Open Door” policy of immigration which began in the 1890s has meant
that Canada’s population is varied.

Language. English, French are both official languages. 20% of the
population speak only French, while 13% speak both French and English.

Religion. Roman Catholics 46%, Protestants 41%.

Education. Literacy: 99%.

Canada has about 50 universities. Among them are:

New Brunswick (Fredericton, 1785),

Dalhousie (Halifax, 1818),

McGill (Montreal, 1821),

Toronto (1827),

Laval (Quebec, 1852) – French language university,

Montreal (1876) – French language university.

Capital. Ottawa (920,800).

Currency. Dollar.


Is situated in the north of North America continent.

Is the 2nd world’s largest country.

Is bordered by the USA.

Its only neighbour is the USA.

Is washed by the Arctic Ocean in the North, by the Atlantic Ocean in the
East, by the Pacific Ocean in the West.

Is about 7,730 km from east to west.

Shares with the USA 7 of the world’s largest lakes.

Contains 3 of the globe’s longest 20 rivers.

Is blessed with the most fresh water of any country.


Canada can be divided into 7 geographic regions:

The Appalachian Region, the far eastern area (Newfoundland, Prince
Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the part of Quebec south of
the St. Lawrence River), is hilly and wooded.

The St. Lawrence – Great Lakes Lowland (between Quebec City and Windsor,
Ontario) includes most of the country’s large cities and towns. Half
(1/2) of Canada’s people live here.

The Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands. This land is mainly flat, bog,
little inhabited.

The Canadian Shield (Precambrian) formed 2,5 billion years ago (northern
Manitoba, Quebec, Ontario, across Labrador to the northern edge of
Alberta) is an ancient, rocky region with rivers, lake-filled
timberland. It’s rugged, cool and little developed.

The Great Plains (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, parts of Alberta) is a huge,
flat region responsible for Canada’s wheat crop.

Western Cordillera Region ( British Columbia, the Yukon, parts of
Alberta) combines the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains, the
Selkirks, Mount Logan (19,850 feet). Mountains dominate this region.

The Arctic Region is in the far north.

Rivers: – the St. Lawrence

the Mackenzie

the Saskatchewan

the Columbia

the Yukon.

Climate. Temperate, varies from freezing winter cold to blistering
summer heat.

The warmest area of Canada is along the US border.

The warmest areas with the longest summers and the shortest winters are
British Columbia’s South, central coast, southern Ontario around the
Niagara Peninsula.

July and August temperatures are + 20? Cs and few days + 30?Cs.

The hottest summer temperature and the most sunshine is in Manitoba.

The east and west coasts are wet.

The prairies are dry.

Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto can be humid in summer and damp in winter.

Nights are cool all year round.

January temperature is – 18? Cs.

The further north the more snow.

Vegetation (flora).

There are 8 vegetation zones:

The Arctic tundra.

The boreal forest.

The Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River forest zone.

The Acadian forest.

The parkland zone.

Prairie grasslands.

The Rocky Mountain forest.

The Pacific Coast forest.

The sugar maple is one of Canada’s best known symbols and the leaf
appears on the country’s flag. The sugar maples also produce edible
maple syrup.

Wildlife (fauna).

Canada has abundant wildlife:

Bears (grizzly bear, brown bear, black bear, polar bear).

Beaver (a symbol, they say “as busy as a beaver”).

Buffalo / bison.



Deer (moose, caribou, elk).

Rocky mountain goat.

Lynx (a grey cat 90 cm long).




Тhe making of Canada

John Cabot, an Italian sea captain in the pay of the British, discovered
Canada in 1497, five years after Columbus discovered America. He planted
a huge cross on the shore and sailed home, with the news that he had
reached north east China , the land of the Great Khan , and that the sea
was full of fish.

In 1534 , the French explorer, Jacques Cartier, sailed right down the
St.Lawrence River until he could go no further. Among the great forests
along the shore he met Indians who welcomed him, but in return he
kidnapped some of their chiefs . He was the first European to treat the
Indians with cruelty and treachery. It was almost another hundred years
before French colonists settled on the banks of the St Lawrence and
founded Quebec. They were sent there to give food and shelter to the
French fur traders, who were carrying on a profitable trade with the

By the middle of the 18th century, the French in North America realized
that they could not avoid a fight to the death with the British and
their American colonists, but back in France the French king , Louis XV
, was too busy with his wars with Prussia to bother much about what was
going on in the ‘ Land of Ice and Snow’. So the French troops in Canada
did not receive the supplies they needed so badly, and the few ships
that did try to get through were usually captured by British warships.

Yet this colonial war ended in a famous battle. The British surprised
the French by climbing the cliffs at Quebec in the middle of the night.
After their defeat , the French were forced to give up each inch of land
in North America. But the British allowed the French colonists , all
60,000 of them , to stay on, and they did no try to change the French
way of life or their religion. The French were all Catholics. But the
British warned them that Louis XV of France was no longer their King.
Their King, from now on, would be King George III of England.

At that time there were very few British colonists in Canada. The first
British settlers in Canada were American refugees who refused to fight
against the British army in the Revolutionary War , because they felt
they were more British than American. They called themselves Loyalists,
but their fellow Americans accused them of being traitors and took away
their possessions. 80,000 Loyalists helped the British to defend Canada
against Americans during the Revolutionary War.

During the first half of the nineteenth century one million immigrants,
mostly British, settled in Canada, but there were hardly any French
immigrants from France. However, the French Canadians‘ birth rate was
high, so that in just over two centuries the French Canadian population
increased from 60,000 to 6 million.

Canada spread from Atlantic right across the prairies and the Rocky
Mountains to British Columbia; and northwards to the bare but beautiful
Yukon and the ice-covered islands of the Arctic. The pioneer farmers
found that the black earth of the prairie provinces could grow some of
the finest grain in the world. The tracks of the Canadian Pacific
Railway pushed to westwards through Indian lands. To protect their land
the Indians made fierce attacks on the railway-builders and the farmers.

Canada moved slowly towards self-rule during the second half of the
nineteenth century. A federation of the provinces was formed from Nova
Scotia on the Atlantic coast to British Columbia on the far side of the
Rockies. In 1936 Canada became a Dominion (a self-governing nation)
within the British Commonwealth and Empire. The Dominions of Canada, New
Zealand and South Africa went to war alongside Britain in 1918 and again
in 1939.

People of Canada

Canada is a good example of the way peoples of different ways of life
and different languages can live side by side under one government. The
population of Canada has risen from 11,5 million in 1941 to 25 million
in 1980. Most of the newcomers are from Europe, Asia and the USA, so
that today less than 44% of Canada’s population is of British origin.
Quebec Province is still 90% French. There are some groups of French
Canadiands in Ontario and Manitoba, but the numbers are quite small.

There are many Indians, Pacistanis and Chinese, and also blacks from the
USA, among the immigrants who are pouring into Canada now. Some
Canadians are afraid that before long Canada will have coloured citizens
that white. Other Canadians are disturbed by the growing racism in their
country. Canada, like so many countries, has only just begun to treat
her own non-white citizens, Eskimos (or Inuit) and the Indians, as
generously as they deserve. The Indian and Eskimo populations have grown
quite a lot in the last few years. The government is at last realizing
that it has a duty towards this people that it has neglected for so

All Canadian children have to learn both French and English at school,
but Francophones and Anglophones do not enjoy learning each other’s
language. Still, most Quebecois middle class families, living in
Montreal are bilingual – they speak English and French equally well.

Until the Second World War, every Canadian province except Quebec was
overwhelmingly British. Some Canadians were more patriotic than the
British themselves and were really angry if anyone walked out of a
cinema while ‘God Save the King’ was being played. Now Canadians think
of themselves as a people in their own right, not tied to either Britain
or the USA. The USA has not been a threat to Canada for almost two
hundred years. In fact, the 6,416 km US-Canadian frontier is the longest
continuous frontier in the world, has no wire fence, no soldiers, no
guns on either side. It is called ‘The Border’.

History of Canada



Influences, results

25000 years ago From Asia across the Bering Strait People can be divided
into 6 groups:

The arctic peoples (in the far north) ( hunting.

The sub-arctic peoples (from Newfoundland to British Columbia) (
hunting, fishing ( the Beothuks.

The eastern woodlands tribes (Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island) ( agriculture ( permanent
settlements ( the Iroquois.

The plains peoples (the prairies, from lake Winnipeg to Rocky Mountains)
( hunting, fishing ( the Cree, the Blackfoot.

The plateau peoples (British Columbia) ( hunting, gathering.

The northwest peoples (from Vancouver to Alaska) ( hunting, fishing (
the Haida.

6000 years ago The Eskimos The Inuit (Eskimos) ( hunting.

1000 AD The Vikings from Iceland and Green-land Occupied the eastern
edge of Canada, founded Norman settlement which existed only 1 year.

1497 AD English seaman John Cabot Reached Newfoundland.

1534 AD

1535 AD French explorer Jacques Cartier – founder of Canada Discovered
the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Settled Kanata (a Huron-Iroquois word “village”) which gave the name to
the whole country Canada.

1608 AD

1642 AD French explorer Champlain Established the first permanent
settlements at Quebec (“where the river becomes narrow”).


1663 AD

Canada became a province of France (60.000 French settlers).

1670 AD British Trade Company Hudson’s Bay Company (fur) occupied
northern territories of the country ( Ontario.

1713 AD

Newfoundland were under

Nova Scotia British control.

1754 AD

French-Indian War.

1756 AD – 1763 AD

Rivalry between the English and the French (

The Seven Years’ War in which Great Britain gained military victory.

1759 AD

1763 AD

The British captured Quebec.

The British obtained control of the rest of New France. France handed
Canada over to Britain.

1774 AD

The Quebec Act (France retained the rights to their own language,
religion and civil laws).

1775 AD – 1783 AD

The American Revolution.

1791 AD

Canada was divided into Upper (English speaking Ontario) and Lower
Canada (French speaking Quebec).

1793 AD Sir Alexander Mackenzie Reached the Pacific Ocean.

1812 AD Lord Selkirk Formed a settlement of Scot Immigrants, Manitoba.

1812 AD –

1814 AD

British-American War which ended in a draw.

1837 AD –

1839 AD British Lord Durham Political agitation.

1840 AD

Act of Union (Quebec and Ontario were united). They didn’t like to be
under British or American control.

1848 AD

Canada got internal self-government.

1867 AD, July 1st The Canadian Dominion of Canada (a national holiday,
Day of Canada). 4 provinces were united Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick.

By 1912 AD

All provinces had become part of the central government.

1931 AD Canada A voluntary member of Commonwealth.

1945 AD Canada A member of United Nation Organization.

1949 AD

Newfoundland became part of the central government.

1949 AD Canada A member of NATO.


A time of unprecedented wealth (the middle class mushroomed).

1960 AD

Canada’s first Bill of Rights was signed.

1995 AD

Canada won in the so-called fish wars with Spain.

2000 AD

Canada maintains its position in NATO and is one of the so-called G-7
countries. (The G-7 group of Germany, France, the USA, the UK, Japan,
Italy and Canada meet regularly to develop major economic policies.)

Provinces and Territories of Canada

Province in brief Occupation Cities

1 2 3

1. Ontario

“rocks standing high near the water”

Entered Confederation: 1 July 1867

Area: 1,068,587 sq km

Location: in the center of Canada

Population: 10,084,885

Provincial symbols:

the trillium

the eastern white pine

the loon

It’s a geographic and cultural transition between eastern Quebec and
the Midwestern prairie provinces.

It’s the largest province in the terms of wealth and population.

It’s the most industrial center of Canada.

It produces: 98% of motor vehicles,

93 % of heavy electrical equipment,

92% of agricultural machinery,

1/4 of the world’s nickel (Sudbury).

It’s the national leader in car production (Oshawa, Winsdor).

It’s Canada’s iron and steel center (Hamilton).

Elliot Lake sits on the largest uranium deposits.

The Niagara Peninsula is an important fruit and wine-producing region.

Toronto – the capital of the province and the largest city.

It is located on the north shore of Lake Ontario.

It’s one of the chief Great Lakes ports.

It has an international airport at Malton.

It is famous as an artistic and musical center.

The sights are: the Art Gallery, the Royal Conservatory of Music, the
Royal Ontario Museum.

Educational centers are: the University of Toronto,

Ryerson Iinstitute of Technology, York University.

Ottawa – the capital of Canada.

It sits on the south bank of the Ottawa River at its confluence with the
Rideau River.

It’s a political center, the government and the parliament are situated

The sights are: Parliament Hill, Peace Tower, Rockcliffe Park, the
National Gallery, the Royal Canadian Mint, the Canadian War Museum, the
National Museum of Science and Technology, the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police Stables and Practice Ground.

2. Quebec

“where the river narrows”

Entered Confederation: 1 July 1867

Area: 1,540,687 sq km

Location: St. Lawrence Lowlands

Population: 6,895,960

Provincial symbols:

the white lily

the snowy owl The Climate and the soil are good for general farming.

Manufacturing is the prime industry.

There are vast amounts of hydroelectric power.

It’s the main paper producer in North America.

Half the province is forest.

Other important industries are: aluminium, minerals, timber, tourism,
dairy goods, apples and maple syrup.

St. Lawrence River is a link between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic
Ocean. Quebec City – the capital of the province.

It was founded by Jacques Cartier in 1534 (was called Stadacona).

It was named Quebec (“kebec”) by Samuel de Champlain in 1608.

Montreal – an island city.

It’s the largest Canada’s city and most important port.

It’s the largest French-speaking city in the world after Paris.

It’s called the “Paris of the Western Hemisphere”.

It’s a financial, commercial and industrial center of the country.

Here is James Street known as the “Wall Street of Cana-da”.

The Metro was opened in 1966.

The sights are: the square Place Royal (old), Basilica Notre Dame (the
church), Museum of Archaeology and History, the park Mont Royal, Fine
Arts Museum, the Contemporary Art Gallery, the Cathedral of Montreal,
the Olympic Sports Complex, the Biodom, Wax Museum.

Educational centers: McGill University (English), the University of
Montreal (French).

3. Newfoundland and Labrador

Entered Confederation: 31 March 1949

Area: 404,520 sq km

Location: island of Newfoundland, the coast of Labrador on the main-land

Population: 568,474

Provincial symbols:

the pitcher plant

the marine Atlantic puffin It’s rugged, weather-beaten land at the edge
of Canada, heavily influenced by the sea and the conditions of the
not-to-distant north.

Fishing and forestry gave prosperity to this province.

They export raw natural resources: nickel, copper, oil, cobalt.

Labrador is the second largest producer of nickel in the world. St.
John’s – the capital of the province.

4. Nova Scotia

Entered Confederation: 1 July 1867

Area: 55,491 sq km

Location: a 380 mi long peninsula at the Atlantic Coast

Population: 930,000

Provincial symbols:

the mayflower

the osprey Fishing remains important.

Major moneymakers are: mining, shipbuilding, tourism, crafts.

Agriculture is a significant part of the economy. The main products are:
dairying, fruit, Christmas trees. Halifax – the capital of the province.

5. Prince Edward Island

Entered Confederation: 1 July 1873

Area: 5,657sq km

Location: is separated from the mainland by a strait

Population: 131,600

Provincial symbols:

the common lady’s slipper

the blue jay It’s primarily a farming community because of good red
soil. They grow potatoes and sold it all over the country.

Fishing is also important.

Tourism is a growing industry. The quiet, gently rolling hills with good
beaches attract a lot of tourists. Charlottetown – the capital of the

6. New Brunswick

Entered Confederation: 1 July 1867

Area: 73,437 sq km

Location: along the Atlantic Coast

Population: 723,900

Provincial symbols:

the purple violet

the chickadee It’s largely forested.

Two of the main industries are: Lumber and pulp and paper operations.

Fishing, manufacturing and minerals are also important. Fredericton –
the capital of the province.

7. Manitoba

“great spirit” “Manito Waba”

Entered Confederation: 15 July 1870

Area: 650,090 sq km

Location: between Ontario and Saskatchewan

Population: 1,091,942

Provincial symbols:

the prairie crocus

the grey owl The western edge is best for farming.

Wheat is the major agricultural product.

Manufacturing is the main source of income.

Food processing and clothing factories are important.

In the northern Shield area there are rich deposits of gold, copper,
nickel, zinc. Winnipeg – the capital of the province.

8. Saskatchewan

“river which turns around when it runs”

Entered Confederation: 1 September 1905

Area: 651,903 sq km The south is flat.

It’s the greatest grower of wheat in North America.

It produces 2/3 of Canada’s crop.

Other agricultural products: barley, rye, sunflowers, beef cattle.

In the north there are 100,000 lakes. Regina – the capital of the

Location: between Manitoba and Alberta

Population: 988,928

Provincial symbols:

the lily

the sharp-tailed grouse It has the richest potash deposits in the world.

Oil mining brings a lot of money.

9. Alberta

Entered Confederation: 1 September 1905

Area: 661,185 sq km

Location: between British Columbia and Saskatchewan

Population: 2,545,550

Provincial symbols:

the wild rose

the lodgepole pine

the great horned owl

the big horned sheep In the east – the Canadian prairies.

It has very fertile agricultural land. They produce wheat, barley, rye
and beef.

In the north – rivers, lakes and forests.

Manufacturing industries: timber and pulp industry, mining minerals
(oil, natural gas, coking coal).

Tourism is the third highest source of profit.

Edmonton – the capital of the province.

It’s on the North Saskatchewan River.

It’s the ninth largest city in Canada.

It has one of the largest airports in the country.

The Canadian National Railway passes through the city.

There are numerous industries there.

The University of Alberta is here.

Calgary (“clear running water”) is the center of Canada’ greatest
ranching area.

It’s the administrative and financial center of Canada’s oil industry.

It’s a cultural and educational center: the University of Alberta,
Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, Mount Royal College, Allied
Arts Centre, Philarmonic Orchestra, Jubilee Auditorium, an aquarium.

10. British Columbia

Entered Confederation: 20 July 1871

Area: 948,596 sq km

Location: Pacific Coast, is warmed by the Japanese Current

Population: 3,282,065

Provincial symbols:

the Pacific dogwood

the blue-black Stellar’s jay In the east – Rocky Mountains.

In the north – mountain ranges, forests, lakes.

In the south – a small desert.

The major industries: forestry, tourism, mining, hydroelectric power,
agriculture and fishing.

Victoria – the capital of the province.

Vancouver is the largest city in the province.

It’s a major manufacturing and financial center.

It has a symphony orchestra, an art gallery, a summer theatre.

The annual Vancouver Festival of the Arts has been held here since 1958.


1. Yukon Territory

Area: 483,450 sq km

Location: a sub-Arctic region

Population: 31,500

Territorial symbol:

the fireweed Gold was found in the tributary of the Klondike River.

The most important industry is mining with gold, lead and zink.

The second biggest moneymaker is tourism.

Other industries: fishing, forestry, furs. Whitehorse – the capital of
the territory.

It’s the main distribution and transport center of the Yukon.

It’s a government center.

2. Northwest Territories

Area: 3,426,320 sq km

Location: from the Yukon to Greenland, north of Arctic Circle, many
islands of the Arctic Ocean

Population: 64,000

Territorial symbol:

the mountain avens

the jack pine

the gyrfalcon

the polar bear

3 districts:

Mackenzie (the most developed),



The major source of income is mining with zink, gold, lead.

1990s the beginning of industrial diamond exploration.

Other sources of income include fish, fur, handicrafts.

Yellowknife – the capital of the territory.


Создание Канады

В 1497 году, через пять лет после того, как Колумб открыл Америку, Джон
Кабот, итальянский капитан, наемник Британии, открыл Канаду. Он вкопал
огромный крест на канадском берегу и приплыл домой с новостями о том,
что он достиг северного побережья Китая, земель великого Хана, и что
море там полно рыбой.

В 1534 году, французский исследователь Жак Картье, проплыл вниз по реке
Cент-Лоренс, до того её места, далее которого он не смог плыть. Среди
огромных лесов по берегам реки он встретил индейцев, которые
приветствовали его. Однако, возвращаясь, Картье похитил нескольких
индейских вождей. Он был первым из европейцев, кто поступил жестоко и
предательски по отношению к индейцам. Почти через сто лет французские
колонисты поселились на берегу Cент-Лоренса и основали Квебек. Они были
посланы туда, чтобы обеспечивать продовольствием и давать кров
французским торговцам мехом, которые занимались выгодной торговлей мехом
с индейцами.

К середине 18-го столетия, французы в Северной Америке осознали, что не
смогут избежать смертельной борьбы с британцами и их американскими
колонистами. Но король Франции Луи XV, был слишком занят войнами с
Пруссией, чтобы беспокоиться о том, что происходит на ‘ Земле Льдов и
Снегов ‘. Таким образом, французские отряды в Канаде не получили той
поддержки, в которой они так нуждались, и те немногие суда, которые
пробовали достичь Франции, обычно захватывались британскими военными

И все же эта колониальная война, закончилась в знаменитой битве.
Британцы застали врасплох французов, поднявшись на утесы Квебека
посреди ночи. После поражения французы были вынуждены уступить Британии
каждый дюйм освоенной земли в Северной Америке. Но британцы позволили
всем 60,000 французских колонистов остаться и не делали никаких попыток
изменить их жизненный уклад и религию. Все французы были католиками.
Однако британцызаявили, что король Франции Луи XV отныне не их король.
Теперь их королем был король Англии Джордж III .

В то время в Канаде было очень мало британских колонистов. Первыми
британскими поселенцами в Канаде были американские беженцы, которые
отказались воевать против британской армии в Революционной Войне, потому
что чувствовали, что они были больше британцами, чем американцами. Они
назвали себя лоялистами, но американцы обвиняли их в предательстве и
отнимали их имущество. 80,000 лоялистов помогали британцам защищать
Канаду от американцев в Революционной Войне.

В течение первой половины девятнадцатого столетия один миллион
иммигрантов, в большинстве своем британцев, поселились в Канаде. Однако
их все равно было намного меньше, чем французских иммигрантов. Однако у
них был настолько высокий уровень рождаемости, что в течение двух
столетий население французских канадцев увеличилось с 60,000 до 6

Канада простирается от Атлантики через прерии и Скалистые горы до
Британской Колумбии; и на север к безжизненному, но прекрасному Юкону и
к Арктике. Фермеры-первооткрыватели обнаружили, что на черноземах прерий
можно выращивать самое в школе, лучшее зерно в мире. Рельсы Канадской
Тихоокеанской Железной дороги тянулись на запад через индейские земли.
Чтобы защитить свою землю, индейцы совершали жестокие нападения на
строителей железной дороги и фермеров.

Канада медленно шла к самоуправлению в течение второй половины
девятнадцатого столетия. Федерация провинций была сформирована от Новой
Шотландии на Атлантическом побережье до Британской Колумбии на дальней
стороне Скалистых гор. В 1936 году Канада стала Доминионом
(самоуправляющейся нацией) в рамках Британского Содружества и Империи.
Доминионы Канады, Новой Зеландии и Южной Африки вступали в войну с
Англией в 1918 г. и снова в 1939 году.

Канада – хороший пример того, как люди, принадлежащие к разным культурам
и говорящие на разных языках, могут жить вместе с одним правительством.
Население Канады выросло с 11,5 миллионов в 1941 до 25 миллионов в 1980
году. Большинство новых граждан – из Европы, Азии и США, таким образом,
на сегодняшний день коренные британцы составляют менее, чем 44 %
населения Канады. В провинции Квебек 90 % населения – французы. В
Онтарио и Манитобе есть небольшие поселения французских канадцев, но их
население невелико.

Среди иммигрантов в Канаде есть много индейцев, пакистанцев и китайцев,
а также чернокожих из США. Некоторые канадцы опасаются, что вскоре в
Канаде будет больше цветных граждан, чем белых. Другие встревожены
растущим расизмом в стране. Канада, подобно другим странам, лишь недавно
начала обращаться со своими цветными гражданами, эскимосами и индейцами,
так, как они того заслуживают. За последние несколько лет индейские и
эскимосские поселения намного выросли. Теперь правительство наконец
поняло, что имеет обязательства по отношению к этим людям, которые оно
ранее не выполняло. Все канадские дети обязаны изучать в школе, как
французский, так и английский языки. Однако, большинство квебекских
семейств среднего класса, живущих в Монреале говорят одинаково хорошо на
английском и французском языках.

До Второй Мировой войны, все канадские провинции кроме Квебека были
британскими. Некоторые Канадцы были более патриотичны самих британцев и
были очень недовольны, если кто-то выходил из кинотеатра, в то время как
звучал ‘Боже, Храни Короля’. Теперь Канадцы себя независимым от Англии и
США народом. США не были угрозой Канаде в течение почти двух веков.
Граница США с Канадой, длиной 6,416 км – самая длинная непрерывная
граница в мире, которая не имеет никакого проволочного забора, никаких
солдат, никакого оружия с обеих сторон. Она называется ‘The Border’.

Unknown words



to pay- [ ] плата,уплата

to kidnap- [ ] похищать

to treat- [ ] обрабатывать, обращаться

treachery- [ ] предательство, вероломство

shelter- [ ] приют, кров

fur- [ ] пушнина, мех

profitable- [ ] выгодный

climbing- [ ] карабкающийся, взбирающийся

to supply- [ ] снабжать, обеспечивать

to refuge- [ ] убежище

traitor- [ ] предатель ,изменник

possession- [ ] владение

invading- [ ] вторжение

rate- [ ] норма ,ставка

to spread- [ ] простираться

prairies- [ ] прерии

fierce- [ ] свирепый, лютый

alongside- [ ] рядом

newcomer- [ ] вновь прибывший

to pour- [ ] наполнять

to deserve-[ ] заслуживать

to neglect- [ ] пренебрегать

to overwhelm-[ ] подавлять

to tie- [ ] связывать

to threat-[ ] угрожать

frontier-[ ] граница, пограничный

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