Реферат з англійської мови

Bristol (Брістоль)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Bridge» \o «Bristol
Bridge» Bristol Bridge and the Floating Harbour

Coat of Arms of the City Council

Bristol is a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_status_in_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«City status in the United Kingdom» city , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_authority_area» \o «Unitary
authority area» unitary authority area and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceremonial_counties_of_England» \o
«Ceremonial counties of England» ceremonial county in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_West_England» \o «South West
England» South West England , 105 miles (169 km) west of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o «London» London , and 24 miles
(39 km) east of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiff» \o
«Cardiff» Cardiff .

With an estimated population of 421,300 for the unitary authority in
2008, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-ons-pop-2» [3] and a surrounding HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larger_Urban_Zone» \o «Larger Urban Zone»
Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) with an estimated 1,006,600 residents,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-west-partner01-3» [4] it is England’s sixth, and the United
Kingdom’s eighth most populous city, one of the group of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Core_Cities_Group» \o «English
Core Cities Group» English Core Cities and the most populous city in
South West England. It received a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Charter» \o «Royal Charter» Royal
Charter in 1155 and was granted County status in 1373. From the 13th
century, for half a millennium, it ranked amongst the top three English
cities after London, alongside HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/York» \o «York» York and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwich» \o «Norwich» Norwich , on the
basis of tax receipts, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol»
\l «cite_note-4» [5] until the rapid rise of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool» \o «Liverpool» Liverpool ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham» \o «Birmingham»
Birmingham and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester» \o
«Manchester» Manchester during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution» \o «Industrial
Revolution» Industrial Revolution in the latter part of the 18th
century. It borders the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceremonial_county» \o «Ceremonial county»
counties of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerset» \o
«Somerset» Somerset and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloucestershire» \o «Gloucestershire»
Gloucestershire , and is also located near the historic cities of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bath,_Somerset» \o «Bath,
Somerset» Bath to the south east and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gloucester» \o «Gloucester» Gloucester
to the north. The city is built around the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Avon,_Bristol» \o «River Avon,
Bristol» River Avon , and it also has a short coastline on the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severn_Estuary» \o «Severn
Estuary» Severn Estuary , which flows into the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Channel» \o «Bristol Channel»
Bristol Channel .

Bristol is the largest centre of culture, employment and education in
the region. Its prosperity has been linked with the sea since its
earliest days. The commercial HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Bristol» \o «Port of Bristol»
Port of Bristol was originally in the city centre before being moved to
the Severn Estuary at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avonmouth» \o «Avonmouth» Avonmouth ;
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Portbury_Dock» \o «Royal
Portbury Dock» Royal Portbury Dock is on the western edge of the city
boundary. In more recent years the economy has depended on the creative
media, electronics and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerospace» \o «Aerospace» aerospace
industries, and the city centre docks have been regenerated as a centre
of heritage and culture. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-5» [6] There are
34 other populated places on Earth HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_places_called_Bristol» \o «List of
places called Bristol» named Bristol , most in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United States» United
States , but also in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peru» \o
«Peru» Peru , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada» \o
«Canada» Canada , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamaica» \o
«Jamaica» Jamaica and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Costa_Rica» \o «Costa Rica» Costa Rica ,
all presumably commemorating the original. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-6» [7] HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-7» [8]

History

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Bristol» \o «History of
Bristol» History of Bristol

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeological» \o
«Archaeological» Archaeological finds believed to be 60,000 years old,
discovered at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shirehampton» \o
«Shirehampton» Shirehampton and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brislington_West» \o «Brislington West»
St Annes , provide «evidence of human activity» in the Bristol area from
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palaeolithic» \o
«Palaeolithic» Palaeolithic era. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-8» [9] There are
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age» \o «Iron Age» Iron
Age HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hill_fort» \o «Hill fort»
hill forts near the city, at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leigh_Woods» \o «Leigh Woods» Leigh Woods
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifton_Down» \o «Clifton
Down» Clifton Down on the side of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avon_Gorge» \o «Avon Gorge» Avon Gorge ,
and on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingsweston_Hill» \o
«Kingsweston Hill» Kingsweston Hill , near HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henbury» \o «Henbury» Henbury .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-9» [10]
During the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Britain» \o
«Roman Britain» Roman era there was a settlement, Abona, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-10» [11] at what
is now HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Mills,_Bristol» \o
«Sea Mills, Bristol» Sea Mills , connected to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bath,_Somerset» \o «Bath, Somerset» Bath
by a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_road» \o «Roman
road» Roman road , and another at the present-day HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Inns_Court&action=edit&redlin
k=1» \o «Inns Court (page does not exist)» Inns Court . There were also
isolated HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_villa» \o
«Roman villa» Roman villas and small HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_fort» \o «Roman fort» Roman forts
and settlements throughout the area. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-11» [12] The town
of Brycgstow ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English_language» \o «Old English
language» Old English , «the place at the bridge») HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-12» [13] existed
by the beginning of the 11th century, and under HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normans» \o «Normans» Norman rule
acquired one of the strongest HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Castle» \o «Bristol Castle»
castles in southern England. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-13» [14]

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Bridge» \o «Bristol
Bridge» Bristol Bridge seen across the harbour

The area around the original junction of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Frome,_Bristol» \o «River Frome,
Bristol» River Frome with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Avon,_Bristol» \o «River Avon,
Bristol» River Avon , adjacent to the original HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Bridge» \o «Bristol Bridge»
Bristol Bridge and just outside the town walls, was where the port
began to develop in the 11th century. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-Brace-14» [15] By
the 12th century Bristol was an important port, handling much of
England’s trade with HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland»
\o «Ireland» Ireland . In 1247 a new stone bridge was built, which was
replaced by the current Bristol Bridge in the 1760s, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-15» [16] and the
town was extended to incorporate neighbouring suburbs, becoming in 1373
a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_corporate» \o «County
corporate» county in its own right. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-rayfield-16» [17]
During this period Bristol also became a centre of shipbuilding and
manufacturing. Bristol was the starting point for many important
voyages, notably HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cabot»
\o «John Cabot» John Cabot ‘s 1497 voyage of exploration to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_America» \o «North America» North
America . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-croxton-17» [18]

The west front of Bristol Cathedral

By the 14th century Bristol was one of England’s three largest
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval» \o «Medieval»
medieval towns after London, along with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/York» \o «York» York and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwich» \o «Norwich» Norwich , with
perhaps 15,000–20,000 inhabitants on the eve of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Death» \o «Black Death» Black Death
of 1348–49. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-18» [19] The plague resulted in a prolonged pause in the
growth of Bristol’s population, with numbers remaining at 10,000–12,000
through most of the 15th and 16th centuries. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diocese_of_Bristol» \o «Diocese of
Bristol» Diocese of Bristol was founded in 1542, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-19» [20] with the
former HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey» \o «Abbey»
Abbey of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_of_Canterbury» \o «Augustine of
Canterbury» St. Augustine , founded by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Fitzharding» \o «Robert
Fitzharding» Robert Fitzharding in 1140, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-20» [21] becoming
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Cathedral» \o «Bristol
Cathedral» Bristol Cathedral . Traditionally this is equivalent to the
town being granted HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_status_in_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«City status in the United Kingdom» city status . During the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War» \o «English
Civil War» 1640s English Civil War the city was occupied by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavalier» \o «Cavalier»
Royalist military, after they overran HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Fort» \o «Royal Fort» Royal Fort ,
the last HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roundhead» \o
«Roundhead» Parliamentarian stronghold in the city. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-21» [22]

Renewed growth came with the 17th century rise of England’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_colonies» \o «American colonies»
American colonies and the rapid 18th century expansion of England’s
part in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_slave_trade» \o «Atlantic slave
trade» Atlantic trade in Africans taken for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery» \o «Slavery» slavery in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americas» \o «Americas»
Americas . Bristol, along with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool» \o «Liverpool» Liverpool ,
became a centre for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangular_trade» \o «Triangular trade»
Triangular trade . In the first stage of this trade manufactured goods
were taken to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Africa» \o
«West Africa» West Africa and exchanged for Africans who were then, in
the second stage or middle passage, transported across the Atlantic in
brutal conditions. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-nmm-22» [23] The third leg of the triangle brought
plantation goods such as sugar, tobacco, rum, rice and cotton HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-nmm-22» [23] and
also a small number of slaves who were sold to the aristocracy as house
servants, some eventually buying their freedom. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-23» [24] During
the height of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_slave_trade» \o «Bristol slave
trade» slave trade , from 1700 to 1807, more than 2,000 slaving ships
were fitted out at Bristol, carrying a (conservatively) estimated half a
million people from Africa to the Americas and slavery. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-24» [25] The
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Stars_Public_House,_Bristol» \o
«Seven Stars Public House, Bristol» Seven Stars HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_house» \o «Public house» public
house , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-25» [26] where HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abolitionist» \o «Abolitionist»
abolitionist HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Clarkson»
\o «Thomas Clarkson» Thomas Clarkson collected information on the
slave trade, still exists.

An 1873 engraving showing sights around Bristol

Fishermen from Bristol had fished the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Banks» \o «Grand Banks» Grand Banks
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newfoundland_%28island%29»
\o «Newfoundland (island)» Newfoundland since the 15th century
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-26» [27]
and began settling Newfoundland permanently in larger numbers in the
17th century establishing colonies at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol%27s_Hope,_Newfoundland_and_Labrado
r» \o «Bristol’s Hope, Newfoundland and Labrador» Bristol’s Hope and
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuper%27s_Cove,_Newfoundland_and_Labrador»
\o «Cuper’s Cove, Newfoundland and Labrador» Cuper’s Cove . Bristol’s
strong nautical ties meant that maritime safety was an important issue
in the city. During the 19th century HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Plimsoll» \o «Samuel Plimsoll»
Samuel Plimsoll , «the sailor’s friend», campaigned to make the seas
safer; he was shocked by the overloaded cargoes, and successfully fought
for a compulsory HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterline» \o
«Waterline» load line on ships. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-27» [28]

Competition from HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool» \o
«Liverpool» Liverpool from c. 1760, the disruption of maritime
commerce caused by wars with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France (1793) and
the abolition of the slave trade (1807) contributed to the city’s
failure to keep pace with the newer manufacturing centres of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_of_England» \o «North of
England» North of England and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Midlands_%28region%29» \o «West
Midlands (region)» West Midlands . The passage up the heavily
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal» \o «Tidal» tidal
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avon_Gorge» \o «Avon Gorge»
Avon Gorge , which had made the port highly secure during the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages» \o «Middle Ages»
Middle Ages , had become a liability which the construction of a new »
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Harbour» \o «Floating
Harbour» Floating Harbour » (designed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Jessop_%28engineer%29» \o «William
Jessop (engineer)» William Jessop ) in 1804–9 failed to overcome, as
the great cost of the scheme led to excessive harbour dues. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-buchanan-cossons-28» [29] Nevertheless, Bristol’s
population (66,000 in 1801) quintupled during the 19th century,
supported by new industries and growing commerce. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-29» [30] It was
particularly associated with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_era» \o «Victorian era»
Victorian era HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineer» \o
«Engineer» engineer HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isambard_Kingdom_Brunel» \o «Isambard
Kingdom Brunel» Isambard Kingdom Brunel , who designed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Western_Railway» \o «Great Western
Railway» Great Western Railway between Bristol and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Paddington» \o «London Paddington»
London Paddington , two pioneering Bristol-built ocean going HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamship» \o «Steamship» steamships ,
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Great_Britain» \o «SS
Great Britain» SS Great Britain and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Great_Western» \o «SS Great Western»
SS Great Western , and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifton_Suspension_Bridge» \o «Clifton
Suspension Bridge» Clifton Suspension Bridge . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wesley» \o «John Wesley» John Wesley
founded the very first HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodist» \o «Methodist» Methodist
Chapel, called the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Room,_Bristol» \o «New Room, Bristol»
New Room , in Bristol in 1739. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Riots» \o «Bristol Riots» Riots
occurred in 1793 HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-30» [31] and 1831, the first beginning as a protest at
renewal of an act levying HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toll_%28road_usage%29» \o «Toll (road
usage)» tolls on Bristol Bridge, and the latter after the rejection of
the second HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reform_Act_1832» \o
«Reform Act 1832» Reform Bill . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-31» [32]

A map of Bristol from 1946

Bristol’s city centre suffered severe damage from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe» \o «Luftwaffe» Luftwaffe
bombing during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Blitz» \o «Bristol Blitz» Bristol
Blitz of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o
«World War II» World War II . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-32» [33] The
original central shopping area, near the bridge and castle, is now a
park containing two bombed out churches and some fragments of the
castle. A third bombed church nearby, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Nicholas,_Bristol» \o «St Nicholas,
Bristol» St Nicholas , has been restored and has been made into a
museum which houses a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triptych» \o «Triptych» triptych by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hogarth» \o «William
Hogarth» William Hogarth , painted for the high altar of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Mary_Redcliffe» \o «St Mary Redcliffe»
St Mary Redcliffe in 1756. The museum also contains statues moved from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arno%27s_Court_Triumphal_Arch»
\o «Arno’s Court Triumphal Arch» Arno’s Court Triumphal Arch , of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England» \o «Edward
I of England» King Edward I and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Edward_III» \o «King Edward III»
King Edward III taken from Lawfords’ Gate of the city walls when they
were demolished around 1760, and 13th century figures from Bristol’s
Newgate representing Robert, the builder of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Castle» \o «Bristol Castle»
Bristol Castle , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_de_Montbray» \o «Geoffrey de
Montbray» Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances , builder of the
fortified walls of the city. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-33» [34]

The rebuilding of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_city_centre» \o «Bristol city
centre» Bristol city centre was characterised by large, cheap 1960s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_block» \o «Tower block»
tower blocks , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brutalist_architecture» \o «Brutalist
architecture» brutalist architecture and expansion of roads. Since the
1980s another trend has emerged with the closure of some main roads, the
restoration of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgian_period» \o «Georgian period»
Georgian period HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Square,_Bristol» \o «Queen Square,
Bristol» Queen Square and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland_Square,_Bristol» \o «Portland
Square, Bristol» Portland Square , the regeneration of the Broadmead
shopping area, and the demolition of one of the city centre’s tallest
post-war blocks. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-34» [35]

The removal of the docks to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avonmouth_Docks» \o «Avonmouth Docks»
Avonmouth Docks and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Portbury_Dock» \o «Royal Portbury
Dock» Royal Portbury Dock , 7 miles (11.3 km) downstream from the city
centre during the 20th century has also allowed redevelopment of the old
central dock area (the » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Harbour» \o «Floating Harbour»
Floating Harbour «) in recent decades, although at one time the
continued existence of the docks was in jeopardy as it was viewed as a
derelict industrial site rather than an asset. However the holding, in
1996, of the first HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Festival_of_the_Sea,_1996»
\o «International Festival of the Sea, 1996» International Festival of
the Sea in and around the docks, affirmed the dockside area in its new
leisure role as a key feature of the city.

Governance

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Council_House,_Bristol» \o
«Council House, Bristol» Council House , the seat of local government

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Mary_Redcliffe» \o «St Mary
Redcliffe» St Mary Redcliffe church and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floating_Harbour» \o «Floating Harbour»
Floating Harbour , Bristol.

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Bristol» \o «Politics of
Bristol» Politics of Bristol

Bristol City Council consists of 70 councillors representing 35 wards.
They are elected in thirds with two councillors per ward, each serving a
four-year term. Wards never have both councillors up for election at the
same time, so effectively two-thirds of the wards are up each election.
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-36» [37]
The Council has long been dominated by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labour_Party_%28UK%29» \o «Labour Party
(UK)» Labour Party , but recently the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Democrats» \o «Liberal Democrats»
Liberal Democrats have grown strong in the city and as the largest
party took minority control of the Council at the 2005 election. In
2007, Labour and the Conservatives joined forces to vote down the
Liberal Democrat administration, and as a result, Labour ruled the
council under a minority administration, with Helen Holland as the
council leader. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-37» [38] In February 2009, the Labour group resigned, and
the Liberal Democrats took office with their own minority
administration. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-38» [39] At HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Council_election,_2009» \o
«Bristol Council election, 2009» the council elections on 4 June 2009
the Liberal Democrats gained four seats and, for the first time, overall
control of the City Council. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-39» [40] The Lord
Mayor is HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Democrats» \o
«Liberal Democrats» Lib Dem Councillor Chris Davis. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-40» [41]

Bristol constituencies in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_House_of_Commons» \o «British
House of Commons» House of Commons cross the borders with neighbouring
authorities, and the city is divided into Bristol HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_West_%28UK_Parliament_constituency
%29» \o «Bristol West (UK Parliament constituency)» West , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_East_%28UK_Parliament_constituency
%29» \o «Bristol East (UK Parliament constituency)» East , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_South_%28UK_Parliament_constituenc
y%29» \o «Bristol South (UK Parliament constituency)» South and
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_North_West_%28UK_Parliament_consti
tuency%29» \o «Bristol North West (UK Parliament constituency)»
North-west and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingswood_%28UK_Parliament_constituency%29
» \o «Kingswood (UK Parliament constituency)» Kingswood . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northavon_%28UK_Parliament_constituency%29
» \o «Northavon (UK Parliament constituency)» Northavon also covers
some of the suburbs, but none of the administrative county. At the next
General Election, the boundaries will be changed to coincide with the
county boundary. Kingswood will no longer cover any of the county, and a
new HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filton_and_Bradley_Stoke_%28UK_Parliament_
constituency%29» \o «Filton and Bradley Stoke (UK Parliament
constituency)» Filton and Bradley Stoke constituency will include the
suburbs in South Gloucestershire. There are four HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labour_Party_%28UK%29» \o «Labour Party
(UK)» Labour HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member_of_Parliament» \o «Member of
Parliament» Members of Parliament and one Liberal Democrat. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-41» [42]

Bristol has a tradition of local political activism, and has been home
to many important political figures. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Burke» \o «Edmund Burke» Edmund
Burke , MP for the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_%28UK_Parliament_constituency%29»
\o «Bristol (UK Parliament constituency)» Bristol constituency for six
years from 1774, famously insisted that he was a Member of Parliament
first, rather than a representative of his constituents’ interests. The
women’s rights campaigner HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmeline_Pethick-Lawrence» \o «Emmeline
Pethick-Lawrence» Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) was born in
Bristol. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Benn» \o «Tony
Benn» Tony Benn , a veteran left-wing politician, was Member of
Parliament (MP) for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_South_East_%28UK_Parliament_consti
tuency%29» \o «Bristol South East (UK Parliament constituency)» Bristol
South East from 1950 until 1983. In 1963, there was a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Bus_Boycott,_1963» \o «Bristol Bus
Boycott, 1963» boycott of the city’s buses after the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Omnibus_Company» \o «Bristol
Omnibus Company» Bristol Omnibus Company refused to employ black
drivers and conductors. The boycott is known to have influenced the
creation of the UK’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Race_Relations_Act_1965» \o «Race
Relations Act 1965» Race Relations Act in 1965. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-42» [43] The city
was the scene of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980_St._Pauls_riot» \o «1980 St. Pauls
riot» first of the 1980s riots . In St. Paul’s, a number of largely
African-Caribbean people rose up against racism, police harassment and
mounting dissatisfaction with their social and economic circumstances
before similar disturbances followed across the UK. Local support of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_trade» \o «Fair trade»
fair trade issues was recognised in 2005 when Bristol was granted
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairtrade_City» \o «Fairtrade
City» Fairtrade City status. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-43» [44]

Bristol is unusual in having been a city with county status since
medieval times. The county was expanded to include suburbs such as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifton,_Bristol» \o «Clifton,
Bristol» Clifton in 1835, and it was named a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/County_borough» \o «County borough»
county borough in 1889, when the term was first introduced. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-rayfield-16» [17]
However, on 1 April 1974, it became a local government district of the
short-lived county of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avon_county» \o «Avon county» Avon .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-44» [45]
On 1 April 1996, it regained its independence and county status, when
the county of Avon was abolished and Bristol became a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_Authority» \o «Unitary Authority»
Unitary Authority . HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-45» [46]

Geography

Boundaries

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isambard_Kingdom_Brunel» \o
«Isambard Kingdom Brunel» Brunel ‘s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifton_Suspension_Bridge» \o «Clifton
Suspension Bridge» Clifton Suspension Bridge .

There are a number of different ways in which Bristol’s boundaries are
defined, depending on whether the boundaries attempt to define the city,
the built-up area, or the wider » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Bristol» \o «Greater Bristol»
Greater Bristol «. The narrowest definition of the city is the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_City_Council» \o
«Bristol City Council» city council boundary, which takes in a large
section of the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severn_Estuary»
\o «Severn Estuary» Severn Estuary west as far as, but not including,
the islands of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steep_Holm» \o
«Steep Holm» Steep Holm and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flat_Holm» \o «Flat Holm» Flat Holm .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-46» [47]
A slightly less narrow definition is used by the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Office_for_National_Statistics» \o «Office
for National Statistics» Office for National Statistics (ONS); this
includes built-up areas which adjoin Bristol but are not within the city
council boundary, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitchurch,_Bristol» \o «Whitchurch,
Bristol» Whitchurch village, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filton» \o «Filton» Filton , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patchway» \o «Patchway» Patchway ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bradley_Stoke» \o «Bradley
Stoke» Bradley Stoke , and excludes non-built-up areas within the city
council boundary. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-47» [48] The ONS has also defined an area called the
«Bristol Urban Area,» which includes HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingswood,_South_Gloucestershire» \o
«Kingswood, South Gloucestershire» Kingswood , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangotsfield» \o «Mangotsfield»
Mangotsfield , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoke_Gifford»
\o «Stoke Gifford» Stoke Gifford , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winterbourne,_Gloucestershire» \o
«Winterbourne, Gloucestershire» Winterbourne , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frampton_Cotterell» \o «Frampton
Cotterell» Frampton Cotterell , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almondsbury» \o «Almondsbury» Almondsbury
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easton-in-Gordano» \o
«Easton-in-Gordano» Easton-in-Gordano . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-48» [49] The term
«Greater Bristol», used for example by the Government Office of the
South West, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-49» [50] usually refers to the area occupied by the city
and parts of the three neighbouring local authorities ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bath_and_North_East_Somerset» \o «Bath and
North East Somerset» Bath and North East Somerset , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Somerset» \o «North Somerset» North
Somerset and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Gloucestershire» \o «South
Gloucestershire» South Gloucestershire ), an area sometimes also known
as the «former HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avon_%28county%29» \o «Avon (county)»
Avon area» or the » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_of_England» \o «West of England»
West of England «.

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avon_Gorge» \o «Avon
Gorge» Avon Gorge , home to several unique plant species.

Physical geography

Bristol is in a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limestone» \o
«Limestone» limestone area, which runs from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendip_Hills» \o «Mendip Hills» Mendip
Hills to the south and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotswolds» \o «Cotswolds» Cotswolds to
the north east. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-50» [51] The rivers HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Avon,_Bristol» \o «River Avon,
Bristol» Avon and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/River_Frome,_Bristol» \o «River Frome,
Bristol» Frome cut through this limestone to the underlying clays,
creating Bristol’s characteristic hilly landscape. The Avon flows from
Bath in the east, through HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_plain» \o «Flood plain» flood
plains and areas which were marshy before the growth of the city. To
the west the Avon has cut through the limestone to form the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avon_Gorge» \o «Avon Gorge» Avon Gorge ,
partly aided by glacial meltwater after the last HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_age» \o «Ice age» ice age .
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l
«cite_note-10.1144.2FGSL-51» [52] The gorge helped to protect Bristol
Harbour, and has been quarried for stone to build the city. The land
surrounding the gorge has been protected from development, as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Downs_%28Bristol%29» \o «The
Downs (Bristol)» The Downs and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leigh_Woods» \o «Leigh Woods» Leigh Woods
. The gorge and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estuary» \o
«Estuary» estuary of the Avon form the county’s boundary with
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Somerset» \o «North
Somerset» North Somerset , and the river flows into the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severn_Estuary» \o «Severn Estuary»
Severn Estuary at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avonmouth»
\o «Avonmouth» Avonmouth . There is another gorge in the city, in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaise_Castle» \o «Blaise
Castle» Blaise Castle estate to the north. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-10.1144.2FGSL-51″
[52]

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‘s weather, maintaining average temperatures above freezing throughout
the year, although cold spells in winter often bring frosts. Snow can
fall at any time from mid-November through to mid-April, but it is a
rare occurrence. Summers are drier and quite warm with variable amounts
of sunshine, rain and cloud. Spring is unsettled and changeable, and has
brought spells of winter snow as well as summer sunshine. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol» \l «cite_note-54» [55]

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