Реферат на тему:

Бенджамін Франклін

Ancestry

Franklin’s father, Josiah Franklin was born at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecton» \o «Ecton» Ecton , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northamptonshire» \o «Northamptonshire»
Northamptonshire , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o
«England» England on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_23» \o «December 23» December 23
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1657» \o «1657» 1657 , the
son of Thomas Franklin, a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacksmith» \o «Blacksmith» blacksmith
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farmer» \o «Farmer»
farmer , and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nantucket» \o «Nantucket»
Nantucket , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts» \o
«Massachusetts» Massachusetts on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_15» \o «August 15» August 15 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1667» \o «1667» 1667 , to Peter
Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, and his wife HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Morrill» \o «Mary Morrill» Mary
Morrill a former HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indentured_servant» \o «Indentured
servant» indentured servant .

In around HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1677» \o «1677»
1677 , Josiah married Anne Child at Ecton; and over the next few years,
this couple had three children, all of whom being half-siblings of
Benjamin Franklin. They included: Elizabeth ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_2» \o «March 2» March 2 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1678» \o «1678» 1678 ), Samuel
( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_16» \o «May 16» May 16 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1681» \o «1681» 1681 ), and
Hannah ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_25» \o «May 25»
May 25 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1683» \o «1683» 1683
).

Sometime during the second half of 1683, the Franklins left HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o «England» England for
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston%2C_Massachusetts» \o
«Boston, Massachusetts» Boston , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts» \o «Massachusetts»
Massachusetts ; and while in Boston, they had several more children,
including: Josiah Jr. ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_23» \o «August 23» August 23 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1685» \o «1685» 1685 ), Ann (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_5» \o «January 5»
January 5 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687» \o «1687»
1687 ), Joseph ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_5» \o
«February 5» February 5 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1688» \o «1688» 1688 ), and Joseph (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_30» \o «June 30» June 30 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1689» \o «1689» 1689 ) (the
first Joseph having died soon after birth).

Josiah’s first wife Anne died in Boston on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_9» \o «July 9» July 9 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1689» \o «1689» 1689 . He then remarried,
to Abiah, on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_25» \o
«November 25» November 25 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1689» \o «1689» 1689 in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Old_South_Church&action=edit»
\o «Old South Church» Old South Church of Boston by the Rev. Samuel
Willard.

They had the following children: John ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_7» \o «December 7» December 7 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1690» \o «1690» 1690 ), Peter
( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_22» \o «November 22»
November 22 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1692» \o «1692»
1692 ), Mary ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_26»
\o «September 26» September 26 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1694» \o «1694» 1694 ), James (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_4» \o «February 4»
February 4 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1697» \o «1697»
1697 ), Sarah ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_9» \o
«July 9» July 9 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1699» \o
«1699» 1699 ), Ebenezer ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_20» \o «September 20» September
20 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1701» \o «1701» 1701 ),
Thomas ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_7» \o
«December 7» December 7 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1703» \o «1703» 1703 ), Benjamin (
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_17» \o «January 17»
January 17 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1706» \o «1706»
1706 ), Lydia ( HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_8» \o
«August 8» August 8 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1708»
\o «1708» 1708 ), and Jane ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_27» \o «March 27» March 27 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1712» \o «1712» 1712 ).

[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benjamin_Franklin&action=edit
&section=3» \o «Benjamin Franklin» edit ]

Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston%2C_Massachusetts» \o «Boston,
Massachusetts» Boston, Massachusetts on January 17, 1706. His father,
Josiah Franklin, was a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tallow»
\o «Tallow» tallow chandler, a maker of candles, who married twice.
Josiah’s marriages produced 17 children; Benjamin was the tenth and
youngest son. His schooling ended at ten and at 12 he became an
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprenticeship» \o
«Apprenticeship» apprentice to his brother James, a printer who
published the New England Courant. While a printing apprentice he wrote
under the pseudonym of ‘Silence Dogood’ who was ostensibly a middle-aged
widow. His brother and the Courant’s readers did not initially know the
real author. His brother was not impressed when he discovered his
popular correspondent was his younger, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Precocious&action=edit» \o
«Precocious» precocious brother. He left his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprenticeship» \o «Apprenticeship»
apprenticeship without permission and in so doing became a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive» \o «Fugitive» fugitive .

At the age of 17, Franklin ran away to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia%2C_Pennsylvania» \o
«Philadelphia, Pennsylvania» Philadelphia , seeking a new start in a
new city. When he first arrived he worked in several printer shops
around town. However, he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects.
After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was
induced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London%2C_England» \o «London, England»
London , ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing
another newspaper in Philadelphia. Finding Keith’s promises of backing a
newspaper empty, Franklin worked as a compositor in a printer’s shop in
what is now the Church of St Batholomew the Great, Smithfield. Following
this he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of a merchant
named Thomas Denham, who gave Franklin a position as clerk, shopkeeper
and bookkeeper in Denham’s merchant business.

Upon Denham’s death, Franklin returned to his former trade. By 1730,
Franklin had set up a printing house of his own and had contrived to
become the publisher of a newspaper called The Pennsylvania Gazette. The
Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local
reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations. Over
time, his commentary, together with a great deal of savvy about
cultivating a positive image of an industrious and intellectual young
man, earned him a great deal of social respect.

Franklin established a common law marriage with a woman named Deborah
Read in September, 1730. In 1724, while a boarder in her mother’s home,
Franklin had courted Deborah before going to London at Governor Kieth’s
behest. At that time, Miss Read’s mother was somewhat wary of allowing
her daughter to wed a seventeen year old on his way to London. Her own
husband having recently died, Mrs. Read declined Franklin’s offer of
marriage.

While Franklin was finding himself in London, Deborah married a man
named John Rodgers. This proved to be an regrettable decision. Rodgers
shortly fled debt and prosecution by going to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbados» \o «Barbados» Barbados ,
leaving Deborah behind. With Rodgers’ fate unknown, and bigamy an
offense punishable by public whipping and imprisonment, Deborah was not
free to remarry.

Franklin himself had his own actions to ponder. During 1730, Franklin
acknowledged an illegitimate son named HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Franklin» \o «William Franklin»
William , who eventually became the last Loyalist governor of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Jersey» \o «New Jersey» New
Jersey . While the identity of William’s mother remains unknown, perhaps
the responsibility of an infant child gave Franklin a reason to take up
residence with Deborah Read. In any event, William eventually broke with
his father over the treatment of the colonies at the hands of the crown,
but was not above using his father’s notoriety to enhance his own
standing.

At a time when many colonial families consisted of six or more children,
Benjamin and Deborah Franklin eventually had two. The first was Francis
Folger Franklin, born October 1732. In one of the most painful moments
of Franklin’s life, the boy died of smallpox in the fall of 1736. A
daughter, Sarah Franklin, was born in 1743. She eventually married a man
named Richard Bache, had seven children, and cared for her father in his
old age.

In 1732 Franklin began to issue the famous Poor Richard’s Almanack (with
content both original and borrowed) on which much of his popular
reputation is based. Adages from this almanac such as «A penny saved is
twopence clear» (often misquoted as «A penny saved is a penny earned»)
and «Fish and visitors stink in three days» remain common quotations in
the modern world.

Franklin and several other members of a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophical» \o «Philosophical»
philosophical association joined their resources in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1731» \o «1731» 1731 and began the first
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_library» \o «Public
library» public library in Philadelphia. The newly founded HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Library_Company&action=edit»
\o «Library Company» Library Company ordered its first books in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1732» \o «1732» 1732 , mostly
theological and educational tomes, but by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1741» \o «1741» 1741 the library also
included works on history, geography, poetry, exploration and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science» \o «Science» science .
The success of this library encouraged the opening of libraries in other
American cities, and Franklin felt that this HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enlightenment_%28concept%29» \o
«Enlightenment (concept)» enlightenment partly contributed to the
American colonies’ struggle to maintain their privileges.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1736» \o «1736» 1736 he
created the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Union_Fire_Company&action=edi
t» \o «Union Fire Company» Union Fire Company , the first volunteer
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firefighting» \o «Firefighting»
firefighting company in America.

Middle years

Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs. In 1743, he
set forth a scheme for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Academy_and_College_of_Philadelphia»
\o «The Academy and College of Philadelphia» The Academy and College of
Philadelphia , which he was appointed President of on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_13» \o «November 13» November 13
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1749» \o «1749» 1749 . The
Academy opened on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_13»
\o «August 13» August 13 , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1751» \o «1751» 1751 , and seven men
graduated on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_17» \o «May
17» May 17 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1757» \o «1757»
1757 , at the first HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commencement» \o «Commencement»
commencement ; six with a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachelor_of_Arts» \o «Bachelor of Arts»
Bachelor of Arts and one as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_of_Arts» \o «Master of Arts»
Master of Arts . It was later merged with the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=University_of_the_State_of_Pe
nnsylvania&action=edit» \o «University of the State of Pennsylvania»
University of the State of Pennsylvania , to become the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Pennsylvania» \o «University
of Pennsylvania» University of Pennsylvania , today a member of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivy_League» \o «Ivy League» Ivy
League . He founded an American Philosophical Society to help scientific
men discuss their discoveries. He began the electrical research that,
along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of
his life (in between bouts of politics and money-making).

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1748» \o «1748» 1748 , he
retired from printing and went into other businesses. He created a
partnership with his foreman, David Hill, which provided Franklin with
half of the shop’s profits for 18 years. This HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lucrative&action=edit» \o
«Lucrative» lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for
study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a
reputation with the learned throughout Europe and especially in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France .

These include his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Investigations&action=edit»
\o «Investigations» investigations of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity» \o «Electricity» electricity
. Franklin proposed that «vitreous» and «resinous» electricity were not
different types of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electrical_fluid&action=edit»
\o «Electrical fluid» electrical fluid (as electricity was called
then) but the same electrical fluid under different pressures (See
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_charge» \o
«Electrical charge» electrical charge ). He is also often credited with
labeling them as positive and negative respectively. In 1750 he
published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is
electricity by flying a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kite_flying» \o «Kite flying» kite in a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storm» \o «Storm» storm that
appeared capable of becoming a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning» \o «Lightning» lightning
storm. On HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_10» \o «May 10»
May 10 , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1752» \o «1752» 1752
, Thomas Francois d’Alibard of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France conducted
Franklin’s experiment (using a 40-foot-tall iron rod instead of a kite)
and extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_15» \o «June 15» June 15 , Franklin
conducted his famous kite experiment and also successfully extracted
sparks from a cloud (unaware that d’Alibard had already done so, 36 days
earlier). Franklin’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiment» \o «Experiment» experiment
was not written up until HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Priestley» \o «Joseph Priestley»
Joseph Priestley ‘s HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1767» \o
«1767» 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence
shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, as he would
have been in danger of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrocution» \o «Electrocution»
electrocution in the event of a lightning strike). (Others, such as
Prof. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Richmann»
\o «Georg Wilhelm Richmann» Georg Wilhelm Richmann of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Petersburg%2C_Russia» \o «St.
Petersburg, Russia» St. Petersburg, Russia , were spectacularly
electrocuted during the months following Franklin’s experiment.)
Franklin, in his writings, displays that he was aware of the dangers and
offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical,
as shown by his invention of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning_rod» \o «Lightning rod»
lightning rod , an application of the use of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ground_%28electricity%29» \o «Ground
(electricity)» electrical ground . If Franklin did perform this
experiment, he did not do it in the way that is often described (as it
would have been HYPERLINK «http://www.mos.org/sln/toe/kite.html» \o
«http://www.mos.org/sln/toe/kite.html» dramatic but fatal ). Instead he
used the kite to collect some electric charge from a storm cloud, which
implied that HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning» \o
«Lightning» lightning was electrical. See, for example, the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1805» \o «1805» 1805 painting
by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_West» \o «Benjamin
West» Benjamin West of HYPERLINK
«http://www.frankelec.com/west_thumb_desc.htm» \o
«http://www.frankelec.com/west thumb desc.htm» Benjamin Franklin
drawing electricity from the sky .

In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin was elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society and received its HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copley_Medal» \o «Copley Medal» Copley
Medal in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1753» \o «1753»
1753 . The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cgs» \o «Cgs» cgs
unit of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_charge» \o
«Electric charge» electric charge has been named after him: one
franklin (Fr) is equal to one HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statcoulomb» \o «Statcoulomb» statcoulomb
.

Franklin established two major fields of physical science, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity» \o «Electricity» electricity
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meteorology» \o
«Meteorology» meteorology . In his classic work (A History of The
Theories of Electricity & Aether), Sir HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Whittaker» \o «Edmund Whittaker»
Edmund Whittaker (p. 46) refers to Franklin’s inference that electric
charge is not created by rubbing substances, but only transferred, so
that «the total quantity in any insulated system is invariable.» This
assertion is known as the «principle of conservation of charge.»

As a printer and a publisher of a newspaper, Franklin frequented the
farmers’ markets in Philadelphia to gather news. One day Franklin
inferred that reports of a storm elsewhere in Pennsylvania must be the
storm that visited the Philadelphia area in recent days. This initiated
the notion that some storms travel, eventually leading to the synoptic
charts of dynamic meteorology, replacing sole dependence upon the charts
of climatology.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1751» \o «1751» 1751
Franklin and Dr. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bond»
\o «Thomas Bond» Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania» \o «Pennsylvania»
Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Hospital» \o «Pennsylvania
Hospital» Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to
become the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o
«United States» United States of America .

This political cartoon by Franklin urged the colonies to join together
during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_and_Indian_War» \o «French and
Indian War» French and Indian War ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War» \o «Seven Years’ War»
Seven Years’ War ).

In politics he proved very able both as an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrator» \o «Administrator»
administrator and as a controversialist; as an office-holder, he made
use of his position to advance his relatives, though doing so was all
but expected in a HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World» \o
«World» world dominated by political patronage. His most notable
service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, but
his fame as a statesman rests chiefly on his diplomatic services in
connection with the relations of the colonies with Great Britain, and
later with HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France»
France . It was during this period that Franklin was involved in the
creation of not only the aforementioned first volunteer fire department
and free public library, but also many other civic enterprises.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1754» \o «1754» 1754 he
headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albany_Congress» \o «Albany Congress»
Albany Congress . This meeting of several colonies had been requested by
the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and
defense against the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o
«France» French . Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the
colonies. While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way
into the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation» \o «Articles of
Confederation» Articles of Confederation and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution» \o «United
States Constitution» Constitution .

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1757» \o «1757» 1757 he
was sent to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o
«England» England to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protest» \o «Protest» protest against
the influence of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Penn_family&action=edit» \o
«Penn family» Penn family in the government of Pennsylvania, and for
five years he remained there, striving to enlighten the people and the
ministry of the United Kingdom as to colonial conditions. At HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Oxford» \o «University of
Oxford» Oxford University Franklin was awarded an honorary doctorate
for his scientific accomplishments and from then on went by «Doctor
Franklin.» He also managed to secure a post for his illegitimate son,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Franklin» \o «William
Franklin» William Franklin , as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Governors_of_New_Jersey» \o «List
of Governors of New Jersey» Colonial Governor of New Jersey .

In 1756, Franklin became a member of the Society for the encouragement
of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (now HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Society_of_Arts» \o «Royal Society
of Arts» Royal Society of Arts or RSA, which had been founded in 1754)
whose early meetings took place in coffee shops in London’s Covent
Garden district, close to Franklin’s main London residence in Craven
Street (the only one of his residences to survive and which is currently
undergoing renovation and conversion to a Franklin museum). After his
return to America, Franklin became the Society’s Corresponding Member
and remained closely connected with the Society. The RSA instituted a
Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of
Franklin’s birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership of the RSA.

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1758» \o «1758» 1758 , the
year in which he ceased writing for the Almanac, he printed «Father
Abraham’s Sermon,» one of the most famous pieces of literature produced
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_America» \o
«Colonial America» Colonial America .

Franklin noted a principle of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigeration» \o «Refrigeration»
refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in
a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one. To understand this
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomenon» \o «Phenomenon»
phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments. On one warm day
in Cambridge England in 1758, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley
experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermometer» \o «Thermometer» thermometer
with HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ether» \o «Ether» ether
and using HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bellows» \o
«Bellows» bellows to evaporate the ether. With each subsequent
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporation» \o «Evaporation»
evaporation , the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually
reaching 7 °F (-14 °C). Another thermometer showed the room HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature» \o «Temperature» temperature
to be constant at 65 °F (18 °C). In his letter “ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cooling_by_Evaporation&action
=edit» \o «Cooling by Evaporation» Cooling by Evaporation ” Franklin
noted that “one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a
warm summer’s day.”

Later years

On his return to America, he played an honorable part in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontiac%27s_Rebellion» \l
«The_Paxton_Boys.27_Uprising» \o «Pontiac’s Rebellion» Paxton affair ,
through which he lost his seat in the Assembly, but in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1764» \o «1764» 1764 he was again
dispatched to England as agent for the colony, this time to petition
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_III_of_the_United_Kingdom» \o
«George III of the United Kingdom» the King to resume the government
from the hands of the proprietors. In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o «London» London he actively
opposed the proposed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamp_Act_1765» \o «Stamp Act 1765» Stamp
Act , but lost the credit for this and much of his popularity because he
secured for a friend the office of stamp agent in America. This
perceived conflict of interest, and the resulting outcry, is widely
regarded as a deciding factor in Franklin’s never achieving higher
elected office. Even his effective work in helping to obtain the repeal
of the act did not regain his popularity, but he continued his efforts
to present the case for the Colonies as the troubles thickened toward
the crisis of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Revolutionary_War» \o «American
Revolutionary War» Revolution . This also led to an irreconcilable
conflict with his son, who remained ardently loyal to the British
Government.

Franklin, an engraving from a painting by Duplessis

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1767» \o «1767» 1767 he
crossed to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France»
France , where he was received with honor; but before his return home
in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1775» \o «1775» 1775 he
lost his position as postmaster through his share in divulging to
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts» \o
«Massachusetts» Massachusetts the famous letter of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hutchinson» \o «Thomas Hutchinson»
Hutchinson and Oliver. On his arrival in Philadelphia he was chosen as
a member of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Congress» \o «Continental
Congress» Continental Congress and assisted in editing the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence»
\o «United States Declaration of Independence» Declaration of
Independence .

In December of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1776» \o «1776»
1776 he was dispatched to France as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commissioner» \o «Commissioner»
commissioner for the United States. He lived in a home in the Parisian
suburb of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passy» \o «Passy»
Passy donated by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques-Donatien_Le_Ray» \o
«Jacques-Donatien Le Ray» Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who
would become a friend and the most important foreigner to help the
United States win the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_independence» \o «War of
independence» war of independence . Ben Franklin remained in France
until HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1785» \o «1785» 1785 ,
a favorite of French society. Franklin was so popular that it became
fashionable for wealthy French families to decorate their parlors with a
painting of him. He conducted the affairs of his country towards that
nation with such success, which included securing a critical military
alliance and negotiating the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_%281783%29» \o «Treaty of
Paris (1783)» Treaty of Paris (1783) , that when he finally returned,
he received a place only second to that of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington» \o «George Washington»
George Washington as the champion of American independence.

When Franklin was recalled to America in 1785, Le Ray honored him with a
commissioned portrait painted by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_Siffred_Duplessis&acti
on=edit» \o «Joseph Siffred Duplessis» Joseph Siffred Duplessis that
now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smithsonian_Institution» \o «Smithsonian
Institution» Smithsonian Institution in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_DC» \o «Washington, DC»
Washington, DC .

In addition, after his return from France in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1785» \o «1785» 1785 , he became an
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abolitionist» \o «Abolitionist»
abolitionist who eventually became HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President» \o «President» president of
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Society_for_the_Relief_of_Free_Negroes
_Unlawfully_Held_in_Bondage» \o «The Society for the Relief of Free
Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage» The Society for the Relief of Free
Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage . Nevertheless, Franklin had owned
several slaves, and never freed any of them. His fortune had been earned
selling newspapers that advertised slave sales. Ultimately, he chose not
to bring the matter of slavery to the Constitutional Convention of 1787
when asked to do so by the abolition society to which he belonged.

While in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retirement» \o
«Retirement» retirement by 1787, he agreed to attend, as a delegate,
the meetings that would produce the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution» \o «United
States Constitution» United States Constitution to replace the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation» \o
«Articles of Confederation» Articles of Confederation . He is the only
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Founding_Fathers_of_the_United_States» \o
«Founding Fathers of the United States» Founding Father who is a
signatory of all three of the major documents of the founding of the
United States: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Declaration_of_Independence» \o «The
Declaration of Independence» The Declaration of Independence , The
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_%281783%29» \o
«Treaty of Paris (1783)» Treaty of Paris and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution» \o «United
States Constitution» United States Constitution . Franklin also has the
distinction of being the oldest signer of both the Declaration of
Independence and the United States Constitution. He was 70 years old
when he signed the Declaration, and 81 when he signed the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution» \o «Constitution»
Constitution .

Also in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1787» \o «1787» 1787
, a group of prominent ministers in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lancaster%2C_Pennsylvania» \o «Lancaster,
Pennsylvania» Lancaster, Pennsylvania proposed the foundation of a new
college to be named in Franklin’s honor. Franklin donated F200 towards
the development of Franklin College, which would later merge with
Marshall College in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1853» \o
«1853» 1853 . It is now called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_and_Marshall_College» \o
«Franklin and Marshall College» Franklin and Marshall College .

Later, he finished his HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autobiography» \o «Autobiography»
autobiography between 1771 and 1788, at first addressed to his son,
then later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a
friend.

In his later years, as congress was forced to deal with the issue of
slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that attempted to convince his
readers of the importance of the abolition of slavery and of the
integration of Africans into American society. These writings included:

HYPERLINK «http://wikisource.org/wiki/An_Address_to_the_Public» \o
«http://wikisource.org/wiki/An Address to the Public» An Address to the
Public from the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of
Slavery , (1789)

HYPERLINK
«http://wikisource.org/wiki/Plan_for_Improving_the_Condition_of_the_Free
_Blacks» \o «http://wikisource.org/wiki/Plan for Improving the Condition
of the Free Blacks» Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks
(1789), and

Sidi Mehemet Ibrahim on the Slave Trade (1790).

On February 11, 1790, Quakers from New York and Pennsylvania presented
their petition for abolition. Their argument against slavery was backed
by the Pennsylvania Abolitionist Society and its president, Benjamin
Franklin. Because of his involvement in abolition, its cause was greatly
debated around the states, especially in the House of Representatives.

Death and afterwards

Memorial marble statue of Ben Franklin

Benjamin Franklin died on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_17» \o «April 17» April 17 ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1790» \o «1790» 1790 at the
extremely advanced age (for that time) of 84, and was interred in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Church_Burial_Ground» \o
«Christ Church Burial Ground» Christ Church Burial Ground in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia%2C_Pennsylvania» \o
«Philadelphia, Pennsylvania» Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .

At his death Franklin HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bequeathed&action=edit» \o
«Bequeathed» bequeathed F1000 (about $4400 at the time) each to the
cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust for 200 years. The origin of
the trust began in 1785 when a French HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematician» \o «Mathematician»
mathematician named Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour wrote a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parody» \o «Parody» parody of
Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanack called Fortunate Richard. In it he
mocked the unbearable spirit of American optimism represented by
Franklin. The Frenchman wrote a piece about Fortunate Richard leaving a
small sum of money in his will to be used only after it had collected
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interest» \o «Interest»
interest for 500 years. Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time,
wrote back to the Frenchman, thanking him for a great idea and telling
him that he had decided to leave a bequest to his native Boston and his
adopted Philadelphia of 1,000 pounds to each on the condition that it be
placed in a fund that would gather interest over a period of 200 years.
As of 1990 over $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin’s Philadelphia
trust since his death. During the lifetime of the trust, Philadelphia
used it for a variety of loan programs to local residents. From 1940 to
1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans. When the trust came
due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scholarships» \o «Scholarships»
scholarships for local high school students. Franklin’s Boston trust
fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time and eventually
was used to establish a trade school that, over time, became the
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Franklin_Institute_of_Technology»
\o «Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology» Franklin Institute of
Boston . HYPERLINK
«http://www.mathsci.appstate.edu/~sjg/class/1010/wc/finance/franklin1.ht
ml» \o
«http://www.mathsci.appstate.edu/~sjg/class/1010/wc/finance/franklin1.ht
ml» (excerpt from Philadelphia Inquirer article by Clark De Leon)

In recent years a number of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Semitism» \o «Anti-Semitism»
anti-Semitic groups have been promoting a HYPERLINK
«http://www.adl.org/special_reports/franklin_prophecy/franklin_prophecy.
asp» \o «http://www.adl.org/special reports/franklin prophecy/franklin
prophecy.asp» fabricated quotation which has been debunked by
historians: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-Nazi_Theory_%28American_founding_fathe
rs%29» \o «Neo-Nazi Theory (American founding fathers)» Neo-Nazi Theory
(American founding fathers) .

Franklin’s likeness adorns the American HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_hundred_dollar_bill» \o «American
hundred dollar bill» $100 bill . As a result, $100 bills are sometimes
referred to in slang as «Benjamins» or «Franklins.» From HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948» \o «1948» 1948 to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1964» \o «1964» 1964 , Franklin’s
portrait was also on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_half_dollar» \o «Franklin half
dollar» half dollar . He has also appeared on a $50 bill in the past,
as well as several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918, and
every $100 bill from 1928 to present. Franklin also appears on the
$1,000 Series EE HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treasury_security» \l «Savings_bond» \o
«Treasury security» Savings bond .

In 1976, as part of a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicentennial» \o «Bicentennial»
bicentennial celebration, Congress dedicated the Benjamin Franklin
National Memorial in Franklin’s hometown of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia» \o «Philadelphia»
Philadelphia , including a 20-foot high marble statue. Many of
Franklin’s personal possessions are also on display there. The
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memorial» \o «Memorial»
memorial is located in Philadelphia’s HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Institute» \o «Franklin
Institute» Franklin Institute . It is one of the few National Memorials
located on HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_property»
\o «Private property» private property .

In 1998, workmen restoring Franklin’s London home ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benjamin_Franklin_House&actio
n=edit» \o «Benjamin Franklin House» Benjamin Franklin House ) dug up
the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. The
Times of London reported on February 11, 1998:

«Initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were
buried at the time Franklin was living in the house, which was his home
from 1757 to 1762, and from 1764 to 1775. Most of the bones show signs
of having been dissected, sawn or cut. One skull has been drilled with
several holes. Paul Knapman, the Westminster Coroner, said yesterday: «I
cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime. There is still a
possibility that I may have to hold an inquest.»

The Friends of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benjamin_Franklin_House&actio
n=edit» \o «Benjamin Franklin House» Benjamin Franklin House (the
organization responsible for the restoration of Franklin’s house at 36
Craven Street in London) note that the bones were likely placed there by
William Hewson, a young surgeon who lived in the house for 2 years and
who had built a small anatomy school at the back of the house. They note
that while Franklin likely knew what Hewson was doing, he probably did
not participate in any dissections because he was much more of a
physicist than a medical man. Hewson ironically died of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septicaemia» \o «Septicaemia» septicaemia
on May 1, 1744 which he contracted from cutting himself while
dissecting a putrid corpse.

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