Autonomous Republic of the Crimea (реферат)

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The population of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea makes up 2 018
400 of people.

The economy of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea has been shaped by
the peculiarities and riches of its nature, as well as beneficial
geographical location of the peninsula. The Crimea has advantageous
natural conditions for development of agriculture, recreational
industry, and certain extractive industries, such as gas extraction,
iron ore and fluxing limestone mining, construction materials, soda and
bromide production.

The Crimea is also known as supplier of food industry equipment, TV sets
and radio equipment, pneumatic devices, electric welding equipment and
agricultural machinery, tankers, floating cranes, and hydrofoils.

The Crimean economy’s special profile is in labor-intensive engineering
and metal-working.

Historically, agriculture in the Crimea has focused on plant farming. It
specializes in viticulture, horticulture, growing of tobacco, essential
oil crops, and grain. The republic’s animal husbandry includes dairy and
meat cattle breeding with well-developed livestock breeding, and such a
special sector as poultry industry.

The factories manufacturing consumer good occupy a special place in the
Crimean economy. They specialize in the production of clothing, footwear
and knitted garments, haberdashery and furniture. The Crimean steel
mills, machine building factories, and chemical plants contribute
significantly to the production of consumer goods. The Kerch Integrated
Steel Plant produces enameled steel kitchen utensils; machine building
factories in Simferopol and Sevastopol produce telecommunications
equipment; chemical plants in Krasnoperekopsk and Saky – textile dyes,
potassium permanganate, chemical plant in Simferopol – detergents.

Well known on world markets are the products of Crimean wine-makers,
such as vintage dessert and sparkling wines. The Crimean essential oils
enjoy a well-deserved authority.

The Crimean recreational sector has 632 sanative and preventive
healthcare facilities. Sanatoriums are concentrated mainly at the
Crimea’s South coast and the Yevpatoriya resort. The Crimea’s South
coast specializes in treatment of adults, whereas Yevpatoriya is
intended for recreation and treatment of children. The mountainous
Crimea has a network of tourist bases and camps. Hotels Yalta, Oreanda,
and camping motel Fairytale Glade are located at the peninsula’s South

In order to implement radical transformation in the national economy a
comprehensive long-term program of socioeconomic development and
restructuring of the economy of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea
has been developed covering the period until 2010.

Proceeding from the problems of republic’s socioeconomic development,
its climatic and resource potential, peculiarities and specialization of
the region, and its place in the social division of labor, and
approaches to structuring the economy, the program identifies the
following long-term priorities:

– development of the resort and recreational complex, its shaping as the
key industry within the economic complex;

– development of the fuel, energy, and water economy sectors to the
levels that would allow to provide for the needs of the population and
the whole economy;

– reforming and developing the agricultural and processing sector in
order to satisfy the needs of residents and guests in foodstuffs, and
provide the processing industry with raw materials, so as to increase
the traditional Crimean exports;

– further development of all means of transportation, including sea
ports, and expanding the transport and distribution functions;

– creating a high-tech competitive industrial complex, adapted to market
conditions and capable of satisfying the needs of the region and
participate in economic relations of Ukraine and other countries;

– reception and resettlement of the deported peoples returned to the
Crimea for permanent residence.

The measures applied to all areas include the requirement of
establishing environment-friendly production, minimizing technological
pressures on the environment, assuring the transition to a balanced use
and restoration of recreational and other natural and resource factors
for providing basic services.


The Crimea’s key manufacturing industries are represented by machine
building, metalworking, food, and chemical industries.

Machine building plants staffed with stable and skilled workforce are
highly technology-intensive. They supply, abroad included, the
shipbuilding products, equipment for food-processing industry,
electrical and pneumatic devices, electric welding equipment, and
agricultural machinery.

The Open Join-Stock Company “Zaliv Shipbuilding Plant” produces vessel
hulls. The level of production equipment and processes conforms to the
European standards. The high quality of workmanship has been recognized
by such international ship quality and classification companies as
German Lloyd’s and others.

The Feodosiya Production Association “More” has launched the production
of an innovative design of the high-speed 200-seat catamaran
“Superfoil-30” with titanium hydrofoils and a system of interceptors.

The Open-end Stock Company “SELMA” is persistently working towards
improving the competitiveness of its products. The performance of its
welding equipment conforms to international standards and is exported to
many countries throughout the world. The company has introduced and
certified the quality-assurance system ISO 9001.

In order to develop state-of-the-art and perspective technologies in
electric welding, the company is collaborating closely with the leading
foreign manufacturers of welding equipment, including Polish OZAS,
Swedish ESAB Concern, and Finnish KEMPPI.

The Open-end Stock Company “Factory Fiolent” is the leading Ukraine’s
and CIS producer of control systems for the technical and navigational
facilities for commercial and naval vessels, precision micro-machinery,
sensors and indicators, controlling security systems for nuclear power
industry, and the leading Ukrainian manufacturer of household and
industrial power tools.

The Crimea’s most promising industries are related to the use of its
natural resources.

The scope of reserves and the share of the fields prospected allows to
use only natural gas as technological fuel at present. Natural gas
fields began to be explored in the Crimea from mid-80s at the Tarkhankut
peninsula, on the Arabat point, and near the city of Dzhankoi. The
fields on the continental part of the Crimean peninsula were jointed in
the late 70s, by the shelf reserves of natural gas at the Black Sea and
Azov Sea reservoirs. The Golitsyn gas condensate field is the largest
supplier of organic fuel. The field is located at the Black Sea, 72 km
off the Tarkhankut peninsula at depths of 40 m. In general, the
recoverable reserves of gas and gas condensate in the Crimea are as
follows: gas – 8,948 bn m3; gas condensate – 2.12 bn tons.

The oil deposits in the Black Sea and Azov Sea aquatory, as well as in
the vicinity of the Kerch peninsula present a promising group of Crimean
resources. The prospected oil reserves amount to 1.492 mn tons.

The Saky State Chemical Plant and Open-end Research and Production
Association “Iodobrom” use local raw materials. Two plants in the town
of Krasnoperekopsk – the Open-end Stock Company “The Crimean Soda Plant”
and the Open-end Stock Company “Bromine” use the brine drawn from the
Syvash bay and from salt lakes. These enterprises are monopolists on the
Ukrainian and CIS markets, and produce unique products, being quite
competitive on the European and world markets.

The Mining and Concentration Works “Titan” produces more than a half of
the country’s titanium dioxide and ammophos. The Open-end Stock Company
“The Crimean Soda Plant” produces 90% of soda salt in Ukraine. The OSC
“Brom” is the only domestic producer of liquid bromine, iron bromine,
dipropanebromide, and bromine salts. The Saky State Chemical Plant
occupies the monopoly position on the CIS market in the production of
potassium permanganate and methyl bromine.

The metallurgy in the Crimea is represented by the OSC “The Kerch P.
Voikov Metallurgical Plant”, which manufactures steel enameled kitchen
utensils, and railway points.

The construction materials industry in the Crimea is represented by
well-developed facilities based on abundant reserves of non-ore raw
materials (about 200 deposits): saw limestone (45% of Ukrainian
reserves), cement stock, including marls. The annual output of
construction materials approaches 13 mn m3. The leading role in the
industry is occupied by the production of wall materials made of the saw
limestone mined at the Inkerman, Bodrak, and other deposits.

The Crimean cement industry is based on well-explored marls of the
Bakhchysarai deposit, which features significant reserves and uniformity
of composition. The production of facing tiles is concentrated at the
Alminsk, Inkerman, and Prymorsk Plants. The production reject is used to
make gravel, shall-and-concrete wall panels, and asphalt concrete.

Bottling of natural mineral water is one of the promising areas of the
Crimean food industry. The Crimea enjoys a great variety of mineral
waters, including table and curative water with a wide range of

The most promising food industry enterprises are wine-making enterprises
and distilleries, such as the Industrial-Agricultural Association
“Massandra”, Sparkling Wine-Making Plant “Novy Svet”, State Farm Plant
“Koktebel”, and company “Soyuz-Victan LTD”.

From the moment of its founding in 1894, the IAA “Massandra” has been
producing only high-quality wines for over 100 years now. Starting in
1900, the Massandra wines have been taking part in international
exhibitions and wine-testing competitions.

“Massandra” can boast the largest wine-collection worldwide. Its cellars
contain about one million bottles of various wines. This collection is
also one of the oldest.

The “Massandra” museum fund stores Jerez de la Frontera of the 1775
vintage, which is still a living wine. There are also other wines, which
are over a hundred years old and continue getting top grades for their
quality. The company Internet site is: HYPERLINK
“http://www.massandra.crimea.com/” http://www.massandra.crimea.com/


The main vector in the development of the Crimean agroindustrial complex
lies in its orientation towards the best possible utilization of the
peninsula’s unique natural and bioclimatic potential.

The climatic conditions and fertility of soil in the republic are
conducive for the development of diversified agriculture.

The Crimea’s agricultural and climatic resources allow growing of
numerous crops of the temperate and even subtropical zone. The annual
total of active temperatures in the flatland Crimea is 3300-3600
degrees, whereas the South coast indicator exceeds 4000 degrees; the
frost-free period duration in the flatland Crimea is 170-200 days, and
240-270 days at the South coast. The abundance of warmth and sunshine,
however, is accompanied by insufficient precipitation. The average
annual precipitation amounts to 300-400 mm in the most of the Crimea.
During arid years, the amount of precipitation declines twofold, which
has an extremely negative impact on agriculture. Therefore, irrigation
projects are being implemented in the region. Every hectare of irrigated
area yields four times more crops than a dry one. The main irrigated
areas are located in the North-Crimean Canal area.

The current agricultural priorities are grain, horticulture, viticulture
and wine-making, poultry industry, and food-processing industry.

The Crimea is also famous for its essential oils. Lavender, sage, and
rose are grown commercially.

Private farms produce over 70% of meat and milk, over a half of eggs,
and nearly all potatoes.

The formation of a socially-oriented economy requires a powerful food
industry to be developed in the Crimea, capable of ensuring normal life
of the population, restoration and preservation of its health, and
expanding the Crimean exports.

Meat, dairy, and canning factories have a significant potential, which
consists, specifically, in establishing close collaboration with
agricultural producers in order to expand the raw material base.

Integration processes will be facilitated by reforming the land and
property relations, which would develop real owners of land and means of

The Crimean network of fruit and vegetable canneries could satisfy the
wide needs of the population in various types of canned fruit and
vegetables, provided the plants are modernized and upgraded.

The Closed-end Stock Company “Maybel” produces six types of juices made
of Crimean fruits and various nectars of exotic fruits. The company is
interested in expanding its exports to the Russian Federation.

The production of a wide range of baby-food is increasing, with the OSC
“The Simferopol Cannery Named After the 1st of May” being the main
producer. Various fruit juices prevail: apple, plum, apricot, grape.

The republic’s agricultural producers need agricultural machinery,
mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides.


The present tourist and recreational potential of the Crimean peninsula
can be described as follows:

– historical and cultural resources:

There are over 11,500 historical, cultural, and architectural monuments
in the Crimea, related to various historical epochs, civilizations,
peoples, and religions. The most unique of them, e.g., the complex of
cave towns and monasteries, Genoa fortresses, sacred places of various
denominations, and others are used as tourist attractions.

– landscape resources:

Five state reserves, 33 game reserves, including 16 national ones, 87
natural monuments, including 13 national ones, 10 reserved tracts, etc.

– curative and mineral resources:

The Crimean peninsula has an extremely rich recreational potential. The
Crimean mineral (mud-bath) resources, its beaches, and coastal plots of
land are very highly rated according to the world standards.

The peninsula has 26 deposits of curative mud and brine, as well as over
100 mineral water springs of various chemical composition. 15 mud
deposits and 13 major mineral springs have been recognized as curative
by a special decree of the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers.

– territorial resources:

Over 90% of recreational facilities are concentrated on a narrow 3 km
coastal strip. Inland territories (mountains and foothills) have only
small (less than 100 beds) facilities with only basic amenities, even
though this “Crimean Switzerland” has all the necessary conditions and
resources for a high-level recreational development.

In addition, prospective business partners will be impressed by the
opportunities of developing the infrastructure of rural ecological and
social tourism; systems of resort service in the new coastal areas of
recreational development; system of service for non-organized
vacationers; show business and entertainment industry; developing the
infrastructure for the elite kinds of sport; and introduction of unique
treatment methodologies.

The Crimea is presently providing a third of tourist services in Ukraine
for the foreign tourists who arrive for rest and a half of the provided
excursion services.

Russia and Ukraine account for the greatest part of the CIS tourists.
The Crimea is visited by tourists from non-CIS countries. The main
partners, as before, are Germany and Turkey.

The availability of tourist resources, the specifics of the existing
infrastructure provide opportunities to develop in the Crimea some
non-traditional forms of tourism, such as: speleology, rock-climbing,
horse-riding, hang-gliding, mountain hiking, wine and hunting tours,
helicopter rides, yachting trips, scuba-diving, scientific and motor

The Aquasport tourist company is working in the area of underwater
tourism in the Crimea. The extracurricular training and educational
institution “Diving Center” is intended for children of 6 to 16 years
old, Onyks-Tour and Kizil-Koba organize speleological tours, Karyer and
Burulcha offer horseback tours.

All these tours can be combined with other activities and intended both
for groups of tourists and individuals, be accompanied by a wide range
of additional services, various classes of accommodation,
transportation, and service.

Of late, the pilgrim tourism is developing in the Crimea rather rapidly.
One-day tours have been developed and prepared, including visits to all
the renewed holy shrines of the Crimea: monasteries, temples of
Simferopol, Sevastopol, and Greater Yalta.

Tours have been developed for the German, Bulgarian, Greek, Crimean
Tatar, and Czech citizens whose ancestors used to live in the Crimea to
come to their historical motherland with visits to architectural and
religious monuments of the peninsula.

The green (rural) tourism is a new and promising trend in the
development of the Crimean tourist industry. The Crimea has all the
conditions for this: a combination of picturesque mountains and wide
plains, forests, steppes, seas, lakes, unique flora and fauna, a
wide-ranging network of natural, historical, and ethnographical
monuments. Each of the Crimean cities has its own monuments and presents
a tourist region in itself.

Sevastopol. Founded in 1783. Population: 378 000 of people. Navy port.

Sights: A memorial to commemorate the heroic defense of Sevastopol in
1941-1942. Count’s Quay, monument to perished sailors of the destroyer
“Svobodny”, communal grave of the defenders of Sevastopol,
Konstantynivsky and Mykhailivsky forts, aquarium of the Institute of
Biology of Southern Seas of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences,
cape Crystal with an obelisk in honor of the hero-city, St. Volodymyr’s
Cathedral, Museum of the Black Sea Fleet, Panorama “Defense of
Sevastopol 1854-1855”, Malakhy’s Hill.


– Museum of the Heroic Defense and Liberation of Sevastopol. Tel.:
52-29-26, 52-05-16.

– Panorama “Defense of Sevastopol in 1854-55”. Tel. 52-40-06, 52-05-15.

– Diorama “Storming of the Sapun Hill on 7 May 1944″

– Museum of the Black Sea Fleet. Tel. 522-289.

– National Reserve “Khersones Taurica”. Tel. 24-14-15.

– Sevastopol Art Museum.

Yevpatoriya – an ancient town with a history extending for 25 centuries.
A major seaside resort in the Western Crimea. Distance from Simferopol
65 km. Population: 106 000 people.

Sights: remains of a fortress wall of the ancient Greek town of
Kerkinitida, Greek and Scythian settlement site, medieval Dzhuma-Dzhami
mosque, Turkish bath of XVI century, dervish takiye of VI-XV centuries,
Karaim kenassa of XVIII century, St. Nicholas Cathedral, Yevpatoriya
Regional Museum, Tel. 312-80.

Feodosiya – a cultural and tourist center of south-eastern Crimea, one
of the oldest European towns. Feodosiya celebrated her 2500th
anniversary in 1971. Population 74 000 people. Distance from Simferopol
120 km.

Sights: monument to the landing party of the Kerch-Feodosiya operation
in 1941-1942, St. Constantine’s Tower, Quarantine Hill, Greek Church of
Introduction, Armenian Church of St. Serge (Sury-Sarkiz) XIV century,
Mufta-Dzhami mosque of XV century, former Stamboli’s dacha.


– The I.K. Aivazovsky Feodosiya Picture Gallery, Tel. 302-79;

– The A.S. Grin Literary and Memorial Museum, Tel. 352-20;

– The State Museum of Hang Gliding and Paragliding, Tel. 320-28;

– The M. Voloshin Museum (settlement Koktebel).

Hero-City Kerch was founded in the VI century BC. Distance from
Simferopol 300 km. Population: 157 000 people. The city is located on
the Black Sea and Azov Sea coast.

Sights: Mountain Mitridat, Church of John the Baptist, Royal Burial
Mound of IV century BC, Melek-Chesmen Burial Mound of III century BC,
Scythian Burial Mound Kul-Oba, remains of the ancient town Panticapei,
Turkish fortress Eni-Kale, Eltigen.


– The Kerch History and Archeological Museum, Tel. 216-136.

– Picture Gallery.

– “The Heroic Defense of the Adzhimushkai Quarry in 1942”

– The Museum of the Eltigen Landing Party.

Yalta – an international resort and tourist center at the South coast of
the Crimea. It is a popular Ukrainian resort known world over. It is
also a large Black sea port. Distance from Simferopol 86 km. Population:
81 000 people.

Sights: bell tower of the St. John the Evangelist, Memorial of Glory
with Eternal Flames, Memorial at the Polikurovsky Hill, Armenian church,
Uchan-Su waterfalls, Massandra park, Pear-tree glade, Botkin
recreational trail, Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, Children’s Camp “Artek”,
Baidarsky Gate, the Ascension Church, Roman fortress “Kharaks”, the
Devil’s Ladder pass, Mountain Koshka, Bear Mountain, Mountain Ai-Petri,
Cross Mountain.


– The Yalta State Combined History and Literature Museum. Tel. 32-55-25;
“Fairytale Glade”;

– The A.P. Chekhov Memorial Home. Tel.. 32-50-42.;

– Livadia – a residence of the last Russian emperor, venue of the
Crimean (Yalta) Conference conducted on 4-11 February 1945;

– The Massandra Palace of Alexander III;

– Massandra wine-testing hall.

Alushta – a well-known resort and tourist town. Distance from Simferopol
45 km.

Sights: tower of medieval Alushta fortress, settlement Partenit,
Mountain Chatyr-Dag with the Marble Cave, Mountain Demerdzhi with the
Valley of Ghosts and Dzhur-Dzhur water falls.

Museums: The S.N. Sergeyev-Tsensky Literary and Memorial Museum.

Bakhchisarai (“Garden palace”) – a former residence of the Crimean Girey

Sights: the khan palace Khan-Sarai, Dilyary-Bikech Mausoleum, khan
mosque Biyuk-Khan-Dzhami, Fountain of Tears celebrated by A.S. Pushkin,
the Assumption Monastery, cave cities of Mangup-Kale, Chufut-Kale, and

Museums: the Bakhchisarai Historical and Architectural Reserve.

Simferopol – the capital of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea, an
administrative, cultural, and scientific center, founded in 1784.
Population: 343 000 people.

Sights: obelisk in honor of V.M. Dolgorukov, Kebir-Dzhami Mosque,
Chokurcha cave – a site of the Mustyr culture man, settlement Scythian
Neapolis, Red and Marble caves.

Museums: the Crimean Republic Regional Museum, Simferopol Art Museum.

Alongside with the tourist industry, the sanatoria and health resorts
present another priority for the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea at
present. This sector is based on using mineral waters (with a potential
capacity of 14,000 m3 per day), curative mud (with reserves of 22.4 mn
m3), beaches (517 km long), climatic and landscape resources, sea and
mountain air, etc.

There are a total of over 600 sanatoria and resort facilities used for
both year-round and seasonal treatment and recreation. The sanatoria and
rest-homes providing treatment services are located predominantly at the
Crimean South coast, as well as within resorts of Yevpatoriya and Saky.
The South coast specializes in treatment of adults, whereas Yevpatoriya
is a children’s resort.

All the Crimean sanatoria have a certain specialization, depending on
the peculiarities of curative factors of their location.

According to their specialization, the sanatoria are divided into
tuberculosis, respiratory, locomotoric, neurological, gynecological,
ophtalmological, cardiovascular, general therapeutical, and multipurpose

The Crimean Tourism Development Center was set up with the support of
the international TACIS program. The Center has become a link between
the tourist enterprises, the government, and customers. Publication of
booklets, newsletter, an active collaboration on a number of joint
publications, building of an information network, these are just some
examples of Center’s promotional activities. Financial support has been
granted to 31 tourism development projects. The majority of these
projects have already been successfully completed.

NGO Crimean Association of Travel Agencies (CATA) was founded in January
1997. The NGO’s main objective is advertisement and promotion of the
national tourist product. The Association presently has a membership of
over 120 members.

In April 1999, the Yalta and Yevpatoriya NGOs established the Crimean
Republican Resort Association “Krym-Kurort” aimed at coordinating
efforts of the Association members to improve competitiveness of the
resort and recreational complex at the domestic and foreign markets.
“Krym-Kurort” is a non-profit organization for social protection of the

The executive branch of the Autonomous Republic of the Crimea undertakes
concentrated efforts to improve the quality of the Crimean tourist
product and resort services, to promote them on the international
market, implements improvements of resort areas: embankments and beaches
are improved, the network of retail, service establishments, and other
infrastructure facilities is expanding.


There are about 100 various scientific, research, and design institutes
and offices, experimental stations, independent research departments and
branches, including 40 higher educational institutions, of which nine
are state-owned institutions.

The most representative groups of scientific institutions are as

– Agrarian science. This includes the Crimean State Agrarian University;

institutes: “Magarach”, Institute of Essential Oil and Medicinal Plants;
Institute of Horticulture; “Plodmashproekt”; the National Research
Center “Nikitsky Botanical Gardens”; a number of pilot stations, etc.

– Medical scientific institutions: the Crimean Medical University;
Institute of Physical Treatment Methods and of Climatology named after
Sechenov; and the Ukrainian Institute of Children’s Balneology.

The group of design and research institutes and offices includes about
30 organizations, branches or independent departments. The largest of
these are: KrymNIIproekt, Krymproektrekonstruktsia, the Crimean Branch
of the Institute UkrGINTIZ, the Crimean Branch of the Institute
UkrNIIGIM, KrymGIPROVODKHOZ, the Crimean Branch of the Institute

The Crimean Branch of the State Geological Prospecting Institute,
NIPIShelf, and others are involved in the research of natural resources
and problems of their utilization.

The Institute of the Biology of South Seas named after Kovalevsky, the
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Southern Research Institute of
Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, the Kerch Marine Technological
Institute, the Sevastopol Research and Production Enterprise
“Yugrybtekhtsentr”, and others are involved in researching the problems
of seas and fisheries.

Over 20 organizations are involved in the research and design for the
machine-building and instrument-making industries, including the major
institutions, such as: the Sevastopol State Technical University; NPP
“Orgtekhavtomatizatsia”, NPO “Selection Equipment”, Design Office
“Domen” of the Tavria National University named after V.I. Vernadsky,
the Simferopol Central Design Technological Office, NPO “Iodobrom”, and
others. In addition, these problems are addressed by nearly all state
higher educational institutions, numerous agricultural, civil
engineering, and other organizations.

A large group of shipbuilding research and design organizations is based
in Sevastopol. These are the Black Sea Scientific and Research Institute
of Shipbuilding, the Black Sea Scientific and Research Institute of
Shipbuilding Technology, Central Design Office “Chornomorets”, Central
Design Office “Tavria”. Design Office “Sudokompozit” is based in

In addition, one should also mention large former defense industry
research institutions: the Scientific and Research Institute of
Aeroelastic Systems, Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and
Industry, State Aviation Research and Testing Center, Scientific and
Research Center “Vertolet”, and others.

In recent years, the largest contribution in the development,
dissemination, and use of scientific and technological knowledge in all
areas of science and technology was made by the Institute of Grapes and
Wine “Magarach”, Nikitsky Botanical Gardens, Institute of Essential Oil
and Medicinal Plants, OSC Research and Production Association
“Iodobrom”, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, State Enterprise KTB
“Sudokompozit”, YUGNIRO, which ccount for about 65% of the scope of
research and design services.

The fundamental research is implemented by 20 organizations. A
significant part of these studies has been implemented by the Crimean
Astrophysical Observatory, Institute of Grapes and Wine “Magarach”, and

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