Реферат на тему:

Architecture

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ac.parthenon5.jpg» \o
«The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece»

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon» \o «Parthenon»
Parthenon on top of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acropolis» \o «Acropolis» Acropolis ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athens» \o «Athens» Athens ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece» \o «Greece» Greece

Architecture (from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_language» \o «Latin language» Latin
, architectura and ultimately from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language» \o «Greek language» Greek
, ??????????, «a master builder», from ????- «chief, leader» and ??????,
«builder, carpenter») HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \l «endnote_etymology» \o
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture#endnote_etymology» [1] is
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art» \o «Art» art and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science» \o «Science» science
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design» \o «Design»
designing HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building» \o
«Building» buildings and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure» \o «Structure» structures .

A wider definition would include within its scope the design of the
total built environment, from the macrolevel of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Town_planning» \o «Town planning» town
planning , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_design» \o
«Urban design» urban design , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landscape_architecture» \o «Landscape
architecture» landscape architecture to the microlevel of creating
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furniture» \o «Furniture»
furniture . Architectural design usually must address both feasibility
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost» \o «Cost» cost for
the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction» \o
«Construction» builder , and function and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics» \o «Aesthetics» aesthetics
for the HYPERLINK «http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/user» \o
«wiktionary:user» user .

In modern usage, architecture is the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art» \o «Art» art and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discipline» \o «Discipline» discipline
of creating an actual, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of any
complex object or HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System» \o
«System» system . The term can be used to connote the implied
architecture of abstract things such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music» \o «Music» music or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics» \o «Mathematics» mathematics
, the apparent architecture of natural things, such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geology» \o «Geology» geological
formations or the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structural_biology» \o «Structural
biology» structure of biological cells , or explicitly planned
architectures of human-made things such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software» \o «Software» software ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computers» \o «Computers»
computers , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_architecture» \o «Enterprise
architecture» enterprises , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database» \o «Database» databases , in
addition to buildings. In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a
subjective HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map_%28mathematics%29» \o «Map
(mathematics)» mapping from a human perspective (that of the user in
the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Element_%28mathematics%29» \o «Element
(mathematics)» elements or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Components» \o «Components» components
of some kind of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure» \o
«Structure» structure or system, which preserves the relationships
among the elements or components.

Planned architecture often HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manipulation» \o «Manipulation»
manipulates HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space» \o «Space»
space , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volume» \o «Volume»
volume , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture» \o «Texture»
texture , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light» \o «Light»
light , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow» \o «Shadow»
shadow , or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics» \o «Aesthetics» aesthetics .
This distinguishes it from HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_science» \o «Applied science»
applied science or HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering» \o «Engineering» engineering
, which usually concentrate more on the functional and feasibility
aspects of the design of constructions or structures.

In the field of building architecture, the skills demanded of an
architect range from the more complex, such as for a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospital» \o «Hospital» hospital or a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stadium» \o «Stadium» stadium ,
to the apparently simpler, such as planning HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Residential» \o «Residential» residential
houses. Many architectural works may be seen also as cultural and
political HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbol» \o «Symbol»
symbols , and/or works of art. The role of the architect, though
changing, has been central to the successful (and sometimes less than
successful) design and implementation of pleasingly built environments
in which people live.

Table of architecture, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclopaedia» \o «Cyclopaedia» Cyclopaedia
, 1728

Scope

According to the very earliest surviving work on the subject,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitruvius» \o «Vitruvius»
Vitruvius ‘ HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_architectura»
\o «De architectura» De architectura , good buildings satisfy three
core principles: Firmness, Commodity, and Delight HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \l «endnote_elements» \o
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture#endnote_elements» [2] ;
architecture can be said to be a balance and coordination among these
three elements, with none overpowering the others. A modern day
definition sees architecture as addressing aesthetic, structural and
functional considerations. However, looked at another way, function
itself is seen as encompassing all criteria, including aesthetic and
psychological ones.

Architecture is an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interdisciplinarity» \o
«Interdisciplinarity» interdisciplinary field , drawing upon
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics» \o «Mathematics»
mathematics , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science» \o
«Science» science , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art» \o
«Art» art , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology» \o
«Technology» technology , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_sciences» \o «Social sciences»
social sciences , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics» \o
«Politics» politics , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History» \o «History» history , and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy» \o «Philosophy»
philosophy . Vitruvius states: «Architecture is a science, arising out
of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning: by
the help of which a judgement is formed of those works which are the
result of other arts.» He adds that an architect should be well versed
in fields such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music» \o
«Music» music and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomy»
\o «Astronomy» astronomy . HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy» \o «Philosophy» Philosophy
is a particular favourite; in fact the approach of an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect» \o «Architect» architect to
their subject is often called their philosophy. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationalism» \o «Rationalism» Rationalism
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empiricism» \o «Empiricism»
empiricism , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structuralism» \o
«Structuralism» structuralism , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poststructuralism» \o «Poststructuralism»
poststructuralism , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomenology» \o «Phenomenology»
phenomenology are some topics from philosophy that have influenced
architecture.

Architecture and buildings

The difference between architecture and building is a subject matter
that has engaged the attention of many. According to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Pevsner» \o «Nikolaus Pevsner»
Nikolaus Pevsner , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe» \o
«Europe» European historian of the early twentieth century, «A bicycle
shed is a building, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_Cathedral» \o «Lincoln Cathedral»
Lincoln Cathedral is a piece of architecture.» This distinction,
however, is not a clear one, and contemporary scholarship is showing
that all buildings, cathedrals and bicycle sheds alike, are part of a
single continuum that characterizes the built world.

Architecture is also the art of designing the built environment.
Buildings, landscaping, and street designs may be used to impart both
functional as well as aesthetic character to a project. Siding and
roofing materials and colors may be used to enhance or blend buildings
with the environment. Building features such as cornices, gables,
entrances, window treatments and borders may be used to soften or
enhance portions of a building. Landscaping may be used to create
privacy and block direct views from or to a site and enhance buildings
with colorful plants and trees. Street side features such as decorative
lighting, benches, meandering walkways, and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle_lane» \o «Bicycle lane» bicycle
lanes may enhance a site for passersby, pedestrians, and cyclists.

Architectural history

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architectural_history» \o «Architectural
history» Architectural history

Architecture first HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolved» \o
«Evolved» evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter,
security, worship, etc.) and means (available HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_material» \o «Building material»
building materials and attendant skills). Prehistoric and primitive
architecture constitute this early stage. As humans progressed and
knowledge began to be formalised through oral traditions and practices,
architecture evolved into a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Craft» \o «Craft» craft . Here there is
first a process of trial and error, and later improvisation or
replication of a successful trial. What is termed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernacular_architecture» \o «Vernacular
architecture» Vernacular architecture continues to be produced in many
parts of the world. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most of the
built world that people experience every day.

Early human settlements were essentially HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rural» \o «Rural» rural . As surplus of
production began to occur, rural societies transformed into HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_area» \o «Urban area» urban ones
and cities began to evolve. In many ancient civilisations such as the
Egyptians’ and Mesopotamians’ architecture and urbanism reflected the
constant engagement with the divine and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supernatural» \o «Supernatural»
supernatural , while in other ancient cultures such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran» \o «Iran» Iran architecture and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_planning» \o «Urban
planning» urban planning was used to exemplify the power of the state.

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colosseum» \o «Colosseum»
Colosseum , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome» \o «Rome»
Rome , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy» \o «Italy»
Italy is an example of Roman architecture.

However, the architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilisations
such as the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece» \o
«Ancient Greece» Greek and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome» \o «Ancient Rome» Roman
evolved from more civic ideas and new building types emerged.
Architectural styles developed and texts on architecture began to be
written. These became canons to be followed in important works,
especially religious architecture. Some examples of canons are the works
of Vitruvius, the Kaogongji of ancient HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China» \o «China» China and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaastu_Shastra» \o «Vaastu Shastra»
Vaastu Shastra in ancient HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India» \o «India» India . In HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe» \o «Europe» Europe in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_antiquity» \o
«Classical antiquity» Classical and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval» \o «Medieval» Medieval
periods, buildings were not attributed to specific individual architects
who remained anonymous. HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guild»
\o «Guild» Guilds were formed by craftsmen to organise their trade.
Over time the complexity of buildings and their types increased. General
civil construction such as roads and bridges began to be built. Many new
building types such as schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities
emerged.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampi» \o «Hampi» Virupaksha
Temple , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampi» \o «Hampi»
Hampi , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India» \o «India»
India

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_architecture» \o
«Islamic architecture» Islamic architecture has a long and complex
history beginning in the seventh century HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_Era» \o «Common Era» CE . Examples
can be found throughout the countries that are, or were, Islamic — from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morocco» \o «Morocco» Morocco
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain» \o «Spain» Spain
to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey» \o «Turkey» Turkey
, and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran» \o «Iran» Iran .
Other examples can be found in areas where Muslims are a minority.
Islamic architecture includes mosques, madrasas, caravansarais, palaces,
and mausolea of this large region.

With the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance» \o
«Renaissance» Renaissance and its emphasis on the individual and
humanity rather than religion, and with all its attendant progress and
achievements, a new chapter began. Buildings were ascribed to specific
architects — HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michaelangelo» \o
«Michaelangelo» Michaelangelo , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunelleschi» \o «Brunelleschi»
Brunelleschi , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci» \o «Leonardo da Vinci»
Leonardo da Vinci — and the cult of the individual had begun. But there
was no dividing line between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artist» \o «Artist» artist , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect» \o «Architect» architect and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineer» \o «Engineer»
engineer , or any of the related vocations. At this stage, it was still
possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural
calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist.

With the consolidation of knowledge in scientific fields such as
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering» \o «Engineering»
engineering and the rise of new materials and technology, the architect
began to lose ground on the technical aspects of building. He therefore
cornered for himself another playing field — that of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics» \o «Aesthetics» aesthetics .
There was the rise of the «gentleman architect» who usually dealt with
wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities
derived usually from historical prototypes. In the 19th century
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecole_des_Beaux_Arts» \o «Ecole
des Beaux Arts» Ecole des Beaux Arts in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France , the training
was toward producing quick sketch schemes involving beautiful drawings
without much emphasis on context.

Meanwhile, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution» \o «Industrial
Revolution» Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass
consumption and aesthetics started becoming a criterion even for the
middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of
expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus» \o «Bauhaus» Bauhaus
building, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dessau» \o «Dessau»
Dessau , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o
«Germany» Germany

The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the
twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that in
architecture served as precursors to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_Architecture» \o «Modern
Architecture» Modern Architecture . Notable among these is the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutscher_Werkbund» \o
«Deutscher Werkbund» Deutscher Werkbund , formed in 1907 to produce
better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_design» \o
«Industrial design» industrial design is usually placed here.
Following this lead, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus» \o «Bauhaus» Bauhaus school,
founded in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o
«Germany» Germany in 1919, consciously rejected HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History» \o «History» history and looked
at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology.

When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avant-garde» \o «Avant-garde» avant-garde
movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings.
Modernist Architects sought to «strip down» buildings to their pure
form. Classical columns and decorations were dubbed unnecessary, in
favor simple steel and glass cages, seen as beautiful in their own
right. It was during this shift that the phrase, «Less is more» was
coined by HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mies_van_der_Rohe»
\o «Mies van der Rohe» Mies van der Rohe , one of the Fathers of the
Modernist movement.

Many people saw Modernism as dull or even ugly. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism» \o «Postmodernism»
Postmodernism developed as a reaction. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Venturi» \o «Robert Venturi»
Robert Venturi ‘s contention that a «decorated shed» (an ordinary
building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the
outside) was better than a «duck» (a building in which the whole form
and its function are tied together) gives an idea of this approach.

Another part of the profession, and also some non-architects, responded
by going to what they considered the root of the problem. They felt that
architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by
individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and
use technology to give a livable environment. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Design_Methodology_Movement&a
ction=edit» \o «Design Methodology Movement» Design Methodology
Movement involving people such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chris_Jones%28design%29&actio
n=edit» \o «Chris Jones(design)» Chris Jones , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Alexander» \o «Christopher
Alexander» Christopher Alexander started searching for more
people-orientated designs. Extensive studies on areas such as
behavioural, environmental, and social sciences were done and started
informing the design process.

As many other concerns began to be recognised and complexity of
buildings began to increase in terms of aspects such as services,
architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary than ever.
Architecture now required a team of professionals in its making, an
architect being one among the many, sometimes the leader, sometimes not.
This is the state of the profession today. However, individuality is
still cherished and sought for in the design of buildings seen as
cultural symbols — the museum or fine arts centre has become a showcase
for new experiments in style: today one style, tomorrow maybe something
else.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Lloyd_Wright» \o «Frank
Lloyd Wright» Frank Lloyd Wright ‘s Famous » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallingwater» \o «Fallingwater»
Fallingwater »

Modern architecture in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw»
\o «Warsaw» Warsaw

Architectural style is a way of classifying HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \o «Architecture»
architecture largely by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphology» \o «Morphology» morphological
characteristics — in terms of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Form» \o «Form» form , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technique» \o «Technique» techniques ,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materials» \o «Materials»
materials , etc. However it is not a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holistic» \o «Holistic» holistic way of
understanding architectural works because of its emphasis on style.

It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and
history of architecture, but it is slightly different in its emphasis.
While in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architectural_history» \o «Architectural
history» architectural history , the study of, for instance,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_architecture» \o «Gothic
architecture» Gothic architecture would include all the aspects of the
cultural context that went into the making of these structures,
architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives
emphasis to the characteristic features of Gothic architecture, leading
to a terminology such as Gothic «style». This could then apply equally
to buildings even produced during periods outside the historic period of
Gothic architecture. Thus one could build a Gothic style church even
today, irrespective of the historic period from which the style emerged.

American Empire is a French-inspired HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-classical» \o «Neo-classical»
Neo-classical style of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States» \o «United States»
American furniture and decoration that was initiated just before
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1800» \o «1800» 1800 and is
most notably exemplified by the furniture of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duncan_Phyfe» \o «Duncan Phyfe» Duncan
Phyfe and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris» \o «Paris»
Paris -trained HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles-Honor%C3%A9_Lannuier&
action=edit» \o «Charles-Honore Lannuier» Charles-Honore Lannuier .
Their work in this style is characterized by antiquities-inspired
carving, applied, gilded brass mounts, and inlaid decorative elements
such as stamped brass banding with egg-and-dart, diamond, or Greek key
patterns, or individual shapes such as stars or circles. The most
elaborate examples were made before around 1825, and incorporate carved
columns and figures finished with a combination of gilding and
vert-antique. A more plain version of American Empire furniture, usually
referred to as the Grecian style, generally demonstrates curved forms,
figured mahogany veneer, and sometimes stencilled decorations. This
American version of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central-European&action=edit»
\o «Central-European» Central-European HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biedermeier» \o «Biedermeier» Biedermeier
style, continued to be made in conservative centers past the
mid-nineteenth century. Two major centers of American Empire style
cabinet-making were HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York»
\o «New York» New York and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltimore» \o «Baltimore» Baltimore .

Gothic architecture is a style of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \o «Architecture»
architecture , particularly associated with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral» \o «Cathedral» cathedrals and
other churches, which flourished in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe» \o «Europe» Europe during the
high and late HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages» \o
«Middle Ages» medieval period . Beginning in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/12th_century» \o «12th century» 12th
century HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France»
France , it was known as «the French Style», with the term HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_%28disambiguation%29» \o «Gothic
(disambiguation)» Gothic first appearing in the Reformation era as a
stylistic insult.

It was succeeded by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance_architecture» \o «Renaissance
architecture» Renaissance architecture beginning in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence» \o «Florence» Florence in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century» \o «15th century»
15th century .

A series of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_revival» \o
«Gothic revival» Gothic revivals began in mid- HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_century» \o «18th century» 18th
century HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o «England»
England , spread through HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/19th_century» \o «19th century» 19th
century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university
structures, into the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_century» \o «20th century» 20th
century .

Origin

The style originated at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Denis_Basilica» \o «Saint Denis
Basilica» abbey church of Saint-Denis in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Denis%2C_Seine-Saint-Denis» \o
«Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis» Saint-Denis , near HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris» \o «Paris» Paris , where it
exemplified the vision of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbot_Suger» \o «Abbot Suger» Abbot Suger
. Suger wanted to create a physical representation of the Heavenly
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethlehem» \o «Bethlehem»
Bethlehem , a building of a high degree of linearity that was suffused
with light and color. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facade» \o «Facade» facade was actually
designed by Suger, whereas the Gothic nave was added some hundred years
later. He designed the facade of Saint-Denis to be an echo of the Roman
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumphal_Arch_of_Constantine»
\o «Triumphal Arch of Constantine» Arch of Constantine with its
three-part division. This division is also frequently found in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanesque_architecture» \o
«Romanesque architecture» Romanesque style. The eastern HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_window» \o «Rose window» «rose»
window , which is credited to him as well, is a re-imagining of the
Christian «circle-square» HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iconography» \o «Iconography» iconography
. The first truly Gothic construction was the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_diagram» \o «Cathedral diagram»
choir of the church, consecrated in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1144» \o «1144» 1144 . With its thin
columns, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stained-glass» \o
«Stained-glass» stained-glass windows, and a sense of verticality with
an ethereal look, the choir of Saint-Denis established the elements that
would later be elaborated upon during the Gothic period. This style was
adopted first in northern HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France» \o «France» France and by the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England» \o «England» English ,
and spread throughout France, the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Countries» \o «Low Countries» Low
Countries and parts of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany» \o «Germany» Germany and also
to HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain» \o «Spain» Spain
and northern HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy» \o «Italy»
Italy .

Notre-Dame Cathedral seen from the River Seine.

The Term «Gothic»

Gothic architecture has nothing to do with the historical HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goths» \o «Goths» Goths . It was a
pejorative term that came to be used as early as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1530s» \o «1530s» 1530s to describe
culture that was considered rude and barbaric. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Rabelais» \o «Francois
Rabelais» Francois Rabelais imagines an inscription over the door of
his HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopia» \o «Utopia»
Utopian HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_of_Th%C3%A9l%C3%A8me» \o «Abbey of
Theleme» Abbey of Theleme , «Here enter no hypocrites, bigots…»
slipping in a slighting reference to «Gotz» (rendered as «Huns» in
Thomas Urquhart’s English translation) and «Ostrogotz.» In English
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/17th_century» \o «17th century»
17th century usage, «Goth» was an equivalent of » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vandal» \o «Vandal» vandal ,» a savage
despoiler with a Germanic heritage and so came to be applied to the
architectural styles of northern Europe before the revival of classical
types of architecture. «There can be no doubt that the term ‘Gothic’ as
applied to pointed styles of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecclesiastical» \o «Ecclesiastical»
ecclesiastical architecture was used at first contemptuously, and in
derision, by those who were ambitious to imitate and revive the Grecian
orders of architecture, after the revival of classical literature.
Authorities such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Wren» \o «Christopher Wren»
Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old mediaeval style,
which they termed Gothic, as synonymous with every thing that was
barbarous and rude.», according to a correspondent in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notes_and_Queries» \o «Notes and Queries»
Notes and Queries No. 9. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/December_29» \o «December 29» December 29
, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1849» \o «1849» 1849 .

Characteristics

The style emphasizes verticality and features almost skeletal stone
structures with great expanses of glass, pointed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch» \o «Arch» arches using the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogive» \o «Ogive» ogive shape,
ribbed vaults, clustered columns, sharply pointed spires, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_buttress» \o «Flying buttress»
flying buttresses and inventive HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sculpture» \o «Sculpture» sculptural
detail such as gargoyles and even HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterflies» \o «Butterflies» butterflies
attacking men. These features are all the consequence of the use of the
pointed arch and a focus on large stained-glass windows that allowed
more light to enter than was possible with older styles. To achieve this
«light» style, flying buttresses were used as a means of support to
enable higher ceilings and slender columns. Many of these features had
already appeared, for example in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durham_Cathedral» \o «Durham Cathedral»
Durham Cathedral , whose construction started in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1093» \o «1093» 1093 .

As a defining characteristic of Gothic Architecture, the pointed arch
was introduced for both visual and structural reasons. Visually, the
verticality suggests an aspiration to Heaven. Structurally, its use
gives a greater flexibility to Architectural form. The Gothic vault,
unlike the semi-circular vault of Roman and Romanesque buildings, can be
used to roof rectangular and irregularly shaped plans such as
trapezoids. The other advantage is that the pointed arch channels the
weight onto the bearing piers or columns at a steep angle.

In Gothic Architecture the pointed arch is utilised in every position
where an arched shape is called for, both structural and decorative.
Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have
pointed arches. Gothic vaulting over spaces both large and small is
usually supported by richly moulded ribs. Rows of arches upon delicate
shafts form a typical wall decoration known as blind arcading. Niches
with pointed arches and containing statuary are a major external
feature. The pointed arch leant itself to elaborate intersecting shapes
which developed within window spaces into complex Gothic tracery forming
the structural support of the large windows that are characteristic of
the style.

Conservative 13th century Gothic in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provence» \o «Provence» Provence :
Basilica of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Magdalene» \o
«Mary Magdalene» Mary Magdalene , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Maximin_la_Sainte_Baume» \o «Saint
Maximin la Sainte Baume» Saint Maximin la Sainte Baume .

Gothic cathedrals could be highly decorated with statues on the outside
and painting on the inside. Both usually told HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible» \o «Bible» Biblical stories,
emphasizing visual HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_allegory» \o «Medieval allegory»
typological allegories between HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Testament» \o «Old Testament» Old
Testament prophecy and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Testament» \o «New Testament» New
Testament .

Important Gothic churches could also be severely simple. At the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica» \o «Basilica»
Basilica of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Magdalene»
\o «Mary Magdalene» Mary Magdalene in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Maximin» \o «Saint-Maximin»
Saint-Maximin , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provence» \o
«Provence» Provence (illustration, right), the local traditions of the
sober, massive, Romanesque architecture were still strong. The basilica,
begun in the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/13th_century» \o
«13th century» 13th century under the patronage of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_of_Anjou» \o «Charles of Anjou»
Charles of Anjou , was laid out on an ambitious scale (it was never
completed all the way to the western entrance front) to accommodate
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilgrim» \o «Pilgrim» pilgrims
that came to venerate HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relic»
\o «Relic» relics . Building in the Gothic style continued at the
basilica until HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1532» \o «1532»
1532 .

In Gothic architecture new technology stands behind the new building
style. The Gothic cathedral was supposed to be a microcosm representing
the world, and each architectural concept, mainly the loftiness and huge
dimensions of the structure, were intended to pass a theological
message: the great glory of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God» \o «God» God versus the smallness
and insignificance of the mortal being.

Brick Gothic

The Teutonic Knights Castle of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malbork» \o «Malbork» Malbork

In Northern Germany, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavia» \o «Scandinavia» Scandinavia
and northern HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland» \o
«Poland» Poland , in areas where native stone was unavailable,
simplified provincial gothic churches were built of brick. The resultant
style is called Backsteingotik in Germany and Scandinavia. The biggest
brick gothic building is the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Teutonic_Knights_Castle&actio
n=edit» \o «Teutonic Knights Castle» Teutonic Knights Castle of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malbork» \o «Malbork» Malbork
in Poland and the biggest brick gothic church is the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Mary%27s_Church%2C_Gda%C5%84sk» \o
«St. Mary’s Church, Gda?sk» St. Mary’s Church, Gda?sk in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gdansk» \o «Gdansk» Gdansk . The most
famous example in HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denmark» \o
«Denmark» Denmark is HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roskilde_Cathedral» \o «Roskilde
Cathedral» Roskilde Cathedral . Brick gothic buildings were associated
with the HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanseatic_League» \o
«Hanseatic League» Hanseatic League and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutonic_Knights» \o «Teutonic Knights»
Teutonic Knights . There are over one hundred brick gothic castles in
northern Poland, Baltic States, and western Russia.

Sequence of Gothic Styles: France

The designations of styles in French Gothic architecture are as follows:

Early Gothic

High Gothic

Rayonnant

Late Gothic or Flamboyant style

These divisions are effective, but debatable. Because Gothic cathedrals
were built over several successive periods, each period not necessarily
following the wishes of previous periods, the dominant architectural
style changes throughout a particular building. Consequently, it is
often difficult to declare one building as a member of a certain era of
Gothic architecture. It is more useful to use the terms as descriptors
for specific elements within a structure, rather than applying it to the
building as a whole.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coutances_Cathedral» \o
«Coutances Cathedral» Coutances Cathedral in France

Early Gothic:

The East end of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_Church_of_St_Denis» \o «Abbey Church
of St Denis» Abbey Church of St Denis

High Gothic:

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiens_Cathedral» \o «Amiens
Cathedral» Amiens Cathedral

The main body of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chartres_Cathedral» \o «Chartres
Cathedral» Chartres Cathedral

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notre-Dame_of_Laon» \o
«Notre-Dame of Laon» Notre-Dame of Laon

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notre_Dame_de_Paris» \o «Notre
Dame de Paris» Notre Dame de Paris

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reims_Cathedral» \o «Reims
Cathedral» Reims Cathedral

Rayonnant:

The nave of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_Church_of_St_Denis» \o «Abbey Church
of St Denis» Abbey Church of St Denis

Late Gothic:

The north tower of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chartres_Cathedral» \o «Chartres
Cathedral» Chartres Cathedral

The HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_window» \o «Rose
window» rose window of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiens_Cathedral» \o «Amiens Cathedral»
Amiens Cathedral

The west facade of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen_Cathedral» \o «Rouen Cathedral»
Rouen Cathedral

Church of St. Maclou, HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen»
\o «Rouen» Rouen .

The south transept of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cath%C3%A9drale_Saint-Pierre_de_Beauvais»
\o «Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais» Cathedrale Saint-Pierre de
Beauvais

Sequence of Gothic styles: England

Salisbury Cathedral detail

The designations of styles in English architecture still follows
conventions of labels given them by the antiquary HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Rickman» \o «Thomas Rickman»
Thomas Rickman , who coined the terms in his Attempt to Discriminate the
Style of Architecture in England (1812—1815)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_English_Period» \o
«Early English Period» Early English (ca 1180 — 1275)

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decorated_Period» \o
«Decorated Period» Decorated (ca 1275 — 1380 )

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpendicular_Period» \o
«Perpendicular Period» Perpendicular (ca 1380 — 1520 ).

Early English:

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salisbury_Cathedral» \o
«Salisbury Cathedral» Salisbury Cathedral

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wells_Cathedral» \o «Wells
Cathedral» Wells Cathedral

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Abbey» \o
«Westminster Abbey» Westminster Abbey

Decorated or » HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flamboyant» \o
«Flamboyant» Flamboyant «:

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exeter_Cathedral» \o «Exeter
Cathedral» Exeter Cathedral

Perpendicular:

HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King%27s_College_Chapel%2C_Cambridge» \o
«King’s College Chapel, Cambridge» King’s College Chapel, Cambridge

Secular Gothic Architecture in England

Few examples of secular structures in Gothic style survive. The «Old
Palace» at HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatfield%2C_Hertfordshire» \o «Hatfield,
Hertfordshire» Hatfield , built in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1497» \o «1497» 1497 , is famous for its
entrance wing with an imposing HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gatehouse» \o «Gatehouse» gatehouse ,
which gave access to the protected inner court. This is an example of
the last phase of Gothic design in England which, due to its far
northern situation, was still untouched by the Renaissance underway in
central Italy. Local building traditions produced a HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernacular» \o «Vernacular» vernacular
style that was as important as Gothic in the final appearance. The roofs
are tiled in the local HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Anglia» \o «East Anglia» East
Anglian tradition. Substantial eaves enclose essential storage areas in
spacious attics. The Gothic elements in these buildings are the paired
lancet windows joined under a molding that threw rainwater away from
their sills, and the buttresses between each pier and on the angles of
the gatehouse tower.

Gothic revival

Main article: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_revival_architecture» \o «Gothic
revival architecture» Gothic revival architecture

Chateau d’Abbadie, Hendaye, France: a Gothic pile for the natural
historian and patron of astronomy HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_d%27Abbadie» \o «Antoine
d’Abbadie» Antoine d’Abbadie , 1860 — 1870; HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viollet-le-Duc» \o «Viollet-le-Duc»
Viollet-le-Duc , architect

In England, some discrete Gothic details appeared on new construction at
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford» \o «Oxford» Oxford
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambridge» \o «Cambridge»
Cambridge in the late 17th century, and at the archbishop of
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canterbury» \o «Canterbury»
Canterbury ‘s residence HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambeth_Palace» \o «Lambeth Palace»
Lambeth Palace , a Gothic HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammerbeam_roof» \o «Hammerbeam roof»
hammerbeam roof was built in 1663 to replace a building that had been
sacked during the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Civil_War» \o «English Civil War»
English Civil War . It is not easy to decide whether these instances
were Gothic survival or early appearances of Gothic revival,.

In England in the mid-18th century, the Gothic style was more widely
revived, first as a decorative, whimsical alternative to HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo» \o «Rococo» Rococo that is still
conventionally termed ‘Gothick’, of which HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horace_Walpole» \o «Horace Walpole»
Horace Walpole ‘s Twickenham villa » HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strawberry_Hill» \o «Strawberry Hill»
Strawberry Hill » is the familiar example. Then, especially after the
1830s, Gothic was treated more seriously in a series of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_revival» \o «Gothic revival»
Gothic revivals (sometimes termed HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_Gothic» \o «Victorian Gothic»
Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic). The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Westminster» \o «Palace of
Westminster» Houses of Parliament in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London» \o «London» London are an
example of this Gothic revival style, designed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Charles_Barry» \o «Sir Charles Barry»
Sir Charles Barry and a major exponent of the early Gothic Revival,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin» \o «Augustus
Pugin» Augustus Pugin . Another example is the main building of the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Glasgow» \o
«University of Glasgow» University of Glasgow designed by Sir
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Gilbert_Scott» \o «George
Gilbert Scott» George Gilbert Scott .

In France, the towering figure of the Gothic Revival was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Viollet-le-Duc» \o «Eugene
Viollet-le-Duc» Eugene Viollet-le-Duc , who outdid historical Gothic
constructions to create a Gothic as it ought to have been, notably at
the fortified city of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcassonne» \o «Carcassonne» Carcassonne
in the south of France and in some richly fortified keeps for
industrial magnates (illustration, left). Viollet-le-Duc compiled and
coordinated an Encyclopedie medievale that was a rich repertory his
contemporaries mined for architectural details but also include armor,
costume, tools, furniture, weapons and the like. He effected vigorous
restoration of crumbling detail of French cathedrals, famously at
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notre_Dame_de_Paris» \o «Notre
Dame de Paris» Notre Dame , many of whose most «Gothic» gargoyles are
Viollet-le-Duc’s. But he also taught a generation of reform-Gothic
designers and showed how to apply Gothic style to thoroughly modern
structural materials, especially HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cast_iron» \o «Cast iron» cast iron .

[ HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gothic_architecture&action=ed
it&section=9» \o «Edit section: Gothic in the 20th Century» edit ]

Gothic in the 20th Century

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasson_Hall» \o «Gasson Hall»
Gasson Hall on the campus of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_College» \o «Boston College»
Boston College in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chestnut_Hill%2C_Massachusetts» \o
«Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts» Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-Gothic» \o «Neo-Gothic»
Neo-Gothic continued to be considered appropriate for churches and
college buildings well into the 20th century. HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Donagh_Maginnis» \o «Charles
Donagh Maginnis» Charles Donagh Maginnis ‘s early buildings at
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_College» \o «Boston
College» Boston College helped establish the prevalence of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collegiate_Gothic» \o «Collegiate Gothic»
Collegiate Gothic architecture on American university campuses, such as
at HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Chicago» \o
«University of Chicago» Chicago , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeton_University» \o «Princeton
University» Princeton , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yale_University» \o «Yale University»
Yale and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_University» \o
«Duke University» Duke . It was also used, perhaps less appropriately,
for early steel skyscrapers.

Cass Gilbert produced his 1907 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/90_West_Street» \o «90 West Street» 90
West Street building and the 1914 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolworth_Building» \o «Woolworth
Building» Woolworth Building , both in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan» \o «Manhattan» Manhattan , in
a neo-Gothic idiom. It was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Hood» \o «Raymond Hood» Raymond
Hood ‘s neo-Gothic tower that won the 1922 competition for the Chicago
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribune_Tower» \o «Tribune
Tower» Tribune Tower , a late example of the vertical style that has
been called «American Perpendicular Gothic.»

Another Gothic structure of interest is the jailhouse built in
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeRidder%2C_Louisiana» \o
«DeRidder, Louisiana» DeRidder , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana» \o «Louisiana» Louisiana in
1914. The iron bars in most of the windows give the structure an eerie
appearance. The structure includes shallow arches, dormer windows and
has a central tower. It is now on the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Register_of_Historic_Places» \o
«National Register of Historic Places» National Register of Historic
Places . The National Cathedral is also a neo-Gothic structure.

The last prominent Gothic architect in America was probably HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Adams_Cram» \o «Ralph Adams Cram»
Ralph Adams Cram , working in the 1910s and 1920s. With partner
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertram_Goodhue» \o «Bertram
Goodhue» Bertram Goodhue they produced many good examples, like the
sensitive and clever French High Gothic HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Thomas_Episcopal_Church%2C_New_York»
\o «St. Thomas Episcopal Church, New York» St. Thomas Episcopal Church,
New York with its asymmetrical, urban facade in the heart of Manhattan.
Working alone, Cram took up the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_Saint_John_the_Divine» \o
«Cathedral of Saint John the Divine» Cathedral of Saint John the Divine
, what he meant to be the largest cathedral and largest Gothic struture
in the world, again in French High Gothic. It remains unfinished. Both
St. Thomas and St. John the Divine are built without steel.

Art Deco ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_%28language%29» \o «French
(language)» French : Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et
Industriels Modernes) was a twentieth century movement in the
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decorative_art» \o «Decorative
art» decorative arts , that grew to influence HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \o «Architecture»
architecture , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design» \o
«Design» design , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fashion» \o
«Fashion» fashion and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_arts» \o «Visual arts» visual arts
.

Overview

The name Art Deco derived from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Internationale_des_Arts_D%C3%A9
coratifs_et_Industriels_Modernes» \o «Exposition Internationale des Arts
Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes» Exposition Internationale des Arts
Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes , though the term was not used until
the late HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960s» \o «1960s»
1960s . Art Deco was influenced by many different cultures, particularly
pre- HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I» \o «World War
I» World War I Europe. The movement occurred at the same time, and as
a response to, the rapid social and technological advances of the early
20th century.

Paris was at the center of the high end of Art Deco design, epitomized
in furniture by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jacques-Emile_Ruhlmann&action
=edit» \o «Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann» Jacques-Emile Ruhlmann , the
best-known of Art Deco furniture designers and perhaps the last of the
traditional Parisian ebenistes, and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean-Jacques_Rateau&action=ed
it» \o «Jean-Jacques Rateau» Jean-Jacques Rateau , the firm of
HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=S%C3%BCe_et_Mare&action=edit»
\o «Suee et Mare» Suee et Mare , the screens of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eileen_Gray» \o «Eileen Gray» Eileen Gray
, wrought iron of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edgar_Brandt&action=edit» \o
«Edgar Brandt» Edgar Brandt , metalwork and lacquer of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean_Dunand&action=edit» \o
«Jean Dunand» Jean Dunand , the glass of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Lalique» \o «Rene Lalique» Rene
Lalique and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maurice_Marinot&action=edit»
\o «Maurice Marinot» Maurice Marinot , clocks and jewelry by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartier_SA» \o «Cartier SA»
Cartier .

The term Art Deco was coined during the Exposition of 1925 but did not
receive wider usage until it was re-evaluated in the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960s» \o «1960s» 1960s . Its
practitioners were not working as a coherent community. It is considered
to be an eclectic form of decorative Modernism, being influenced by a
variety of sources:

Early work from the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiener_Werkst%C3%A4tte» \o «Wiener
Werkstaette» Wiener Werkstaette ; functional industrial design, with
roots in the later nineteenth century

«Primitive» arts of Africa, Egypt, or Aztec Mexico, partly mediated
through HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cubism» \o «Cubism»
Decorative Cubism

Early work and thinking of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar» \o «Weimar» Weimar HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus» \o «Bauhaus» Bauhaus in its
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expressionist_architecture» \o
«Expressionist architecture» expressionist phase.

Ancient Greek sculpture and ceramic design of the less naturalistic »
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_period_in_Greece» \o
«Archaic period in Greece» archaic period »

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_Bakst» \o «Leon
Bakst» Leon Bakst ‘s sets and costumes for HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diaghilev» \o «Diaghilev» Diaghilev ‘s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballets_Russes» \o «Ballets
Russes» Ballets Russes

Fractionated, crystalline, facetted form of decorative HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cubism» \o «Cubism» Cubism and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futurism_%28art%29» \o «Futurism
(art)» Futurism

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fauvism» \o «Fauvism» Fauve
color palette

Severe forms of radical HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoclassicism» \o «Neoclassicism»
Neoclassicism : HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boull%C3%A9e&action=edit» \o
«Boullee» Boullee , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Schinkel&action=edit» \o
«Schinkel» Schinkel

Everything associated with Jazz, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz_Age» \o «Jazz Age» Jazz Age or
«jazzy»

Animal motifs and forms; tropical foliage; HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ziggurat» \o «Ziggurat» ziggurats ;
crystals; «sunbursts»; stylized fountain motifs

Lithe athletic «modern» female forms; flappers’ bobbed haircuts

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamline_Moderne» \o
«Streamline Moderne» Machine age technology such as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio» \o «Radio» radio and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skyscraper» \o «Skyscraper» skyscraper .

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asheville%2C_North_Carolina»
\o «Asheville, North Carolina» Asheville, North Carolina City Hall,
1926–1928 epitomizes the American Art Deco style.

Corresponding to these influences, Art Deco is characterized by use of
materials such as HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminum» \o
«Aluminum» aluminum , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stainless_steel» \o «Stainless steel»
stainless steel , lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin ( HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shagreen» \o «Shagreen» shagreen ), and
zebraskin. The bold use of zigzag and stepped forms, and sweeping curves
(unlike the sinuous curves of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_nouveau» \o «Art nouveau» Art nouveau
), HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chevron_%28insignia%29» \o
«Chevron (insignia)» chevron patterns, and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunburst» \o «Sunburst» sunburst motif.
Some of these motifs were ubiquitous — for example the sunburst motif
was used in such varied contexts as a lady’s shoe, a radiator grille,
the auditorium of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_City_Music_Hall» \o «Radio City
Music Hall» Radio City Music Hall and the spire of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler_Building» \o «Chrysler Building»
Chrysler Building .

Art Deco was an opulent style and this lavishness is attributed to
reaction of the forced austerity caused by World War I. Its rich,
festive character fitted it for «modern» contexts including interiors of
cinema theaters and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocean_liner» \o «Ocean liner» ocean
liners such as the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Ile_de_France» \o «SS Ile de France»
Ile de France and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Normandie» \o «SS Normandie» Normandie
. A parallel movement called HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamline_Moderne» \o «Streamline
Moderne» Streamline Moderne or simply Streamline followed close
behind. Streamline was influenced by manufacturing and streamlining
techniques arising from science and the mass production shape of bullet,
liners, etc., where aerodynamics are involved. Once the Chrysler Air-Flo
design of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1933» \o «1933»
1933 was successful, «streamlined» forms began to be used even for
objects such as pencil sharpeners and refrigerators.

Art Deco slowly lost patronage in the West after reaching mass
production, where it began to be derided as gaudy and presenting a false
image of luxury. Eventually the style was cut short by the austerities
of HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World War
II» World War II . In colonial countries such as India, it became a
gateway for Modernism and continued to be used well into the 1960s. A
resurgence of interest in Art Deco came with graphic design in the
1980s, where its association with HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_noir» \o «Film noir» film noir and
1930s glamour led to its use in ads for jewelry and fashion.

Constructivism was an HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art» \o
«Art» artistic and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture» \o «Architecture»
architectural movement in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia» \o «Russia» Russia from
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914» \o «1914» 1914 onward
(especially present after the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/October_Revolution» \o «October
Revolution» October Revolution ), and a term often used in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_art» \o «Modern art» modern art
today, which dismissed «pure» art in favour of art used as an instrument
for social purposes, namely, the construction of the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism» \o «Socialism» socialist
system . The term Construction Art was first used as a derisive term by
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazimir_Malevich» \o «Kazimir
Malevich» Kazimir Malevich to describe the work of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Rodchenko» \o «Alexander
Rodchenko» Alexander Rodchenko in 1917. Constructivism first appears
as a positive term in HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naum_Gabo» \o «Naum Gabo» Naum Gabo ‘s
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realistic_Manifesto» \o
«Realistic Manifesto» Realistic Manifesto of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1920» \o «1920» 1920 .

History

The movement was formed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Tatlin» \o «Vladimir Tatlin»
Vladimir Tatlin , and later prominent constructivists included
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Rend%C3%B3n» \o «Manuel
Rendon» Manuel Rendon , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaqu%C3%ADn_Torres_Garc%C3%ADa» \o
«Joaquin Torres Garcia» Joaquin Torres Garcia , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoine_Pevsner» \o «Antoine Pevsner»
Antoine Pevsner and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naum_Gabo» \o «Naum Gabo» Naum Gabo . The
basis for the new movement was laid by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_Commissar» \o «People’s
Commissar» People’s Commissar of Education HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatoliy_Vasilievich_Lunacharsky» \o
«Anatoliy Vasilievich Lunacharsky» Anatoliy Vasilievich Lunacharsky
with the suppression of the old HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Petersburg» \o «Saint Petersburg»
Petrograd HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Academy_of_Arts» \o «Imperial
Academy of Arts» Academy of Fine Arts and the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow» \o «Moscow» Moscow HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_School_of_painting%2C_sculpturing_a
nd_architecture» \o «Moscow School of painting, sculpturing and
architecture» College of Painting in 1918. The focus for
Constructivism in Moscow was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VKhUTEMAS» \o «VKhUTEMAS» VKhUTEMAS the
school for art and design established in 1919. Gabo later stated that
teaching at the school was focused more on political and ideological
discussion than art making.

Kazimir Malevich also worked in the constructivist style, though he is
better known for his earlier HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suprematism» \o «Suprematism» suprematism
and ran his own competing group in Vitebsk. The movement was an
important influence on new HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphic_design» \o «Graphic design»
graphic design techniques championed by HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Lissitzky» \o «El Lissitzky» El
Lissitzky .

As a part of the early HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union» \o «Soviet Union» Soviet
youth movement, the constructivists took an artistic outlook aimed to
encompass cognitive, material activity, and the whole of spirtuality of
mankind. The artists tried to create art that would take the viewer out
of the traditional setting and make them an active viewer of the
artwork. Most of the designs were a fusion of art and political
commitment, and reflected the revolutionary times.

The artists of the movement were influenced by, and used materials from,
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry» \o «Industry»
industrial design such as HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheet_metal» \o «Sheet metal» sheet metal
and HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass» \o «Glass» glass
. Often these materials were used to create geometric objects.

The canonical work of Constructivism was Tatlin’s proposal for the
Monument to the Third International (1920) which combined a machine
aesthetic with dynamic components celebrating technology such as
searchlights and projection screens. Gabo publically criticized Tatlin’s
design saying Either create functional houses and bridges or create pure
art, not both. This led to a major split in the Moscow group in 1920
when Gabo and Pevsner released the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realistic_Manifesto» \o «Realistic
Manifesto» Realistic Manifesto that asserted a spiritual core for the
movement. This was opposed to the utilitarian and adaptable version of
Constructivism held by Tatlin and Rodchenko. The Constructivists main
political patron was HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Trotsky» \o «Leon Trotsky» Leon
Trotsky but after 1921 his support began to decline — the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union» \o
«Communist Party of the Soviet Union» Communist Party could not afford
to support a pure art movement, and as early as 1918 HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pravda» \o «Pravda» Pravda had
complained that government funds were being used to buy works by untried
artists. To distance themselves from Gabo, Tatlin and Rodchenko began to
use the term HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productivism» \o
«Productivism» Productivism .

In HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1921» \o «1921» 1921 , a
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Economic_Policy» \o «New
Economic Policy» New Economic Policy was set in place in the Soviet
Union, and Rodchenko, HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varvara_Stepanova» \o «Varvara Stepanova»
Varvara Stepanova , and others made advertising for commercial
enterprises. The poet-artist HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Mayakovsky» \o «Vladimir
Mayakovsky» Vladimir Mayakovsky and Rodchenko worked together and
called themselves «advertising constructors». Together they designed
eye-catching images featuring bright colors, geometric shapes, and bold
lettering. The lettering of most contructivist designs is intended to
create a reaction, and function on emotional and substantive levels.

Legacy

A number of Constructivists would teach or lecture at the HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus» \o «Bauhaus» Bauhaus , and some
of the VKhUTEMAS teaching methods were taken up and developed there.
Gabo established a version of Constructivism in England in the 1930s and
1940s that was taken up by architects, designers and artists after
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II» \o «World War II»
World War II (see HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Pasmore» \o «Victor Pasmore»
Victor Pasmore ). HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaquin_Torres_Garcia» \o «Joaquin Torres
Garcia» Joaquin Torres Garcia and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Rend%C3%B3n» \o «Manuel Rendon»
Manuel Rendon were monumental in spreading the Constructivist Movement
throughout Europe and Latin America. The Constructivist Movement had a
enormous impact on the modern masters of HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_America» \o «Latin America» Latin
America such as: HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Merida» \o «Carlos Merida» Carlos
Merida , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrique_T%C3%A1bara»
\o «Enrique Tabara» Enrique Tabara , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theo_Constant%C3%A9» \o «Theo Constante»
Theo Constante , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oswaldo_Viteri» \o «Oswaldo Viteri»
Oswaldo Viteri , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anibal_Villacis» \o «Anibal Villacis»
Anibal Villacis , HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estuardo_Maldonado» \o «Estuardo
Maldonado» Estuardo Maldonado , and HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Catasse» \o «Carlos Catasse»
Carlos Catasse , just to name a few.

In the 1980s graphic designer HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville_Brody» \o «Neville Brody» Neville
Brody used styles based on Constructivist posters that sparked a
revival of popular interest.

HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deconstructivism» \o
«Deconstructivism» Deconstructivist architecture by architects
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaha_Hadid» \o «Zaha Hadid»
Zaha Hadid , HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rem_Koolhaas» \o
«Rem Koolhaas» Rem Koolhaas and others takes constructivism as a point
of departure for works in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Zaha
Hadid in her sketches and drawings of abstract triangles and rectangles
evokes the aesthetic of constructivism. Though formally similar, the
socialist political connotations of Russian constructivism are de
emphasized in Hadid’s deconstructivism. Rem Koolhaas’ projects recall
another aspect of constructivism. The HYPERLINK
«http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaffold» \o «Scaffold» scaffold and
HYPERLINK «http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_%28machine%29» \o «Crane
(machine)» crane -like structures represented by many constructivist
architects, return in the finished forms of his designs and buildings.

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