Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
The world is rich in remarkable authors, but I think that Anton
Pavlovich Chekhov was one of the greatest authorities. He is my
favourite writer. In my opinion, he is the greatest Russian dramatist
and short-story writer. I’m never tired of reading and rereading his
plays and humorous stories.
Chekhov was born in 1860 in Taganrog. In 1879 he went to Moscow,
where he studies medicine. Though he practised little as a doctor in his
lifetime, he was prouder of his medical knowledge than of his writing
While in college, Chekhov wrote humorous sketches for comic papers to
support his family. He collected the best ones into a volume, Motley
Stories, in 1886. The book attracted the attention of the publisher of
the Novoje Vremja, Russia’s largest paper, and Chekhov was asked to
contribute stories regularly.
Chekhov, as an established writer, was able to develop a style of his
own. Though he never gave up writing comic stories, he began working in
a more serious vein. In 1887 Ivanov, his first play, established Chekhov
as a dramatist. From then on, he concentrated on writing plays, as well
as short stories.
Chekhov was seriously ill. He had tuberculosis and knew what it
meant. By 1892 his health was so bad that he was afraid to spend another
winter in Moscow. He bought a small estate near a village Melikhovo, 50
miles from Moscow. He spent 5 years there, and those were happy years in
spite of the illness. He wrote some of his best stories there, including
Ward No.6, several well-known one-act comedies and two of his serious
dramatic masterpieces, The Seagull and Uncle Vanya.
The Seagull was first staged in the Alexandrinsky Theatre in
Petersburg. It was a complete failure because of the dull and clumsy
production. It was a cruel blow to Chekhov. However, the play was
successfully performed as the first production of the Moscow Art Theatre
in 1898. From then on, Chekhov was closely connected with this theatre
and with its founder, K.S. Stanislavsky. In 1901 he married an Art
Theatre actress, Olga Knipper, who acted in his play The Three Sisters
the same year.
Chekhov’s health went from bad to worse and he had to spent the
remaining years in the Crimea and other health spas.
The Cherry Orchard, his last play, was produced in 1904. Soon after
the first night Chekhov died. He was 44.
Chekhov had an immense influence on the 20th century drama. Besides,
several generations of writers both in Russia and abroad studied and
imitated Chekhov to perfect their own literary style.
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