Albert Einstein (Альберт Ейнштейн) (реферат)

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Albert Einstein (Альберт Ейнштейн)

Albert Einstein photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947.


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Biography” 1 Biography

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Youth_and_college” 1.1
Youth and college

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Work_and_doctorate” 1.2
Work and doctorate

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Annus_Mirabilis_Papers”
1.2.1 Annus Mirabilis Papers

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Middle_years” 1.3
Middle years

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “General_relativity”
1.3.1 General relativity

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“The_.22Copenhagen.22_interpretation” 1.3.2 The “Copenhagen”

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Bose-Einstein_statistics” 1.3.3 Bose-Einstein statistics

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“The_Einstein_refrigerator” 1.3.4 The Einstein refrigerator

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “World_War_II” 1.3.5
World War II

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Institute_for_Advanced_Study” 1.3.6 Institute for Advanced Study

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Generalized_theory”
1.3.7 Generalized theory

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Final_years” 1.4 Final

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Personality” 2

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Religious_views” 2.1
Religious views

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Political_views” 2.2
Political views

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Popularity_and_cultural_impact” 3 Popularity and cultural impact

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Entertainment” 3.1

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Licensing” 3.2

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Honors” 3.3 Honors

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “References” 4

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“Works_by_Albert_Einstein” 4.1 Works by Albert Einstein

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “External_links” 5
External links

Albert Einstein ( HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_14” \o
“March 14” March 14 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1879”
\o “1879” 1879 – HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_18” \o
“April 18” April 18 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955”
\o “1955” 1955 ) was a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany” \o “Germany” German -born
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew” \o “Jew” Jewish
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theoretical_physics” \o
“Theoretical physics” theoretical physicist , who is widely regarded as
the greatest HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science” \o
“Science” scientist of the 20th century. He proposed the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_relativity” \o “Theory of
relativity” theory of relativity and also made major contributions to
the development of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics” \o “Quantum mechanics”
quantum mechanics , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_mechanics” \o “Statistical
mechanics” statistical mechanics , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_cosmology” \o “Physical
cosmology” cosmology . He was awarded the 1921 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_in_Physics” \o “Nobel Prize in
Physics” Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect” \o
“Photoelectric effect” photoelectric effect in 1905 (his ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annus_Mirabilis_Papers” \o “Annus
Mirabilis Papers” miracle year “) and “for his services to Theoretical

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_theory_of_relativity” \o “General
theory of relativity” general theory of relativity was formulated in
November 1915, Einstein became world-famous, an unusual achievement for
a scientist. In his later years, his fame exceeded that of any other
scientist in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science_and_technology” \o
“History of science and technology” history . In HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Popular_culture” \o “Popular culture”
popular culture , his name has become synonymous with great HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligence_%28trait%29” \o “Intelligence
(trait)” intelligence and even HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genius” \o “Genius” genius .

Einstein himself was deeply concerned with the social impact of
scientific discoveries. His reverence for all creation, his belief in an
“ultimate principle” and the grandeur, beauty, and sublimity of the
universe (the primary source of inspiration in science), his awe for the
scheme that is manifested in the material universe—all of these show
through in his work and philosophy.


Young Einstein before the Einsteins moved from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany” \o “Germany” Germany to
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy” \o “Italy” Italy .

Youth and college

Einstein was born on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_14”
\o “March 14” March 14 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1879” \o “1879” 1879 at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulm” \o “Ulm” Ulm in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg” \o
“Baden-Wuerttemberg” Baden-Wuerttemberg , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany” \o “Germany” Germany , about 100
km east of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stuttgart” \o
“Stuttgart” Stuttgart . His parents were Hermann Einstein, a featherbed
salesman who later ran an HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrochemistry” \o “Electrochemistry”
electrochemical works, and Pauline, whose maiden name was Koch. They
were married in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. The family was HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew” \o “Jew” Jewish (non-observant);
Albert attended a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_school” \o “Catholic school”
Catholic elementary school and, at the insistence of his mother, was
given HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violin” \o “Violin”
violin lessons.

When Albert was five, his father showed him a pocket HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compass” \o “Compass” compass , and
Einstein realized that something in “empty” space acted upon the needle;
he would later describe the experience as one of the most revelatory of
his life. Though he built HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_%28physical%29” \o “Model
(physical)” models and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine” \o “Machine” mechanical devices
for fun, he was considered a slow learner, possibly due to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia” \o “Dyslexia” dyslexia , simple
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shyness” \o “Shyness” shyness
, or the significantly rare and unusual structure of his HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_brain” \o “Human brain” brain
(examined after his death). He later credited his development of the
theory of relativity to this slowness, saying that by pondering space
and time later than most children, he was able to apply a more developed
intellect. Some researchers have speculated that Einstein may have
exhibited some traits of mild forms of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autism” \o “Autism” autism , although
they concede that a reliable posthumous diagnosis is impossible.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_autism” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote autism” [1]

Einstein attended the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luitpold_Gymnasium” \o “Luitpold
Gymnasium” Luitpold Gymnasium where he received a relatively
progressive education. He began to learn HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematics” \o “Mathematics” mathematics
around age twelve. There is a recurring HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumor” \o “Rumor” rumor that he failed
mathematics later in his education, but this is untrue; a change in the
way grades were assigned caused confusion years later. Two of his uncles
fostered his intellectual interests during his late childhood and early
adolescence by suggesting and providing books on science, mathematics
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy” \o
“Philosophy” philosophy .

In 1894, following the failure of Hermann’s electrochemical business,
the Einsteins moved from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich” \o “Munich” Munich to
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pavia%2C_Italy” \o “Pavia,
Italy” Pavia, Italy (near HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan” \o “Milan” Milan ). During this
year, Einstein’s first scientific work was written (called “The
Investigation of the State of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether” \o “Aether” Aether in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_Field” \o “Magnetic
Field” Magnetic Fields “). Albert remained behind in Munich lodgings to
finish school, completing only one term before leaving the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnasium_%28school%29” \o “Gymnasium
(school)” gymnasium in spring 1895 to rejoin his family in Pavia. He
quit without telling his parents and a year and a half prior to final
examinations, Einstein convinced the school to let him go with a medical
note from a friendly doctor, but this meant he had no secondary-school
certificate. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein”
\l “endnote_privatelives1” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote privatelives1” [2]

Despite excelling in the mathematics and science portion, his failure of
the liberal arts portion of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETH_Zurich” \o “ETH Zurich”
Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology, in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zurich” \o
“Zurich” Zurich ) entrance exam the following year was a setback; his
family sent him to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aarau” \o
“Aarau” Aarau , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland”
\o “Switzerland” Switzerland , to finish secondary school, where he
received his diploma in September 1896. During this time he lodged with
Professor Jost Winteler’s family and became enamoured with Marie, their
daughter, his first sweetheart. Albert’s sister Maja was to later marry
their son Paul, and his friend HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Michele_Besso&action=edit” \o
“Michele Besso” Michele Besso married their other daughter Anna.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_privatelives2” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote privatelives2” [3] Einstein subsequently enrolled at
the Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule in October and moved to
Zurich, while Marie moved to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olsberg” \o “Olsberg” Olsberg for a
teaching post. The same year, he renounced his HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C3%BCrttemberg” \o “Wuerttemberg”
Wuerttemberg citizenship and became HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stateless_person” \o “Stateless person”
stateless .

In the spring of 1896, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbia” \o “Serbia” Serbian HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mileva_Maric” \o “Mileva Maric” Mileva
Mari? started initially as a medical student at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Zurich” \o “University of
Zurich” University of Zurich , but after a term switched to the same
section as Einstein as the only woman that year to study for the same
diploma. Einstein’s relationship with Mileva developed into romance over
the next few years.

In 1900, he was granted a teaching diploma by the Eidgenoessische
Technische Hochschule ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETH_Zurich” \o “ETH Zurich” ETH Zurich )
and was accepted as a Swiss citizen in 1901. He kept his Swiss passport
for his whole life. During this time Einstein discussed his scientific
interests with a group of close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva
had an illegitimate daughter HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lieserl_Einstein” \o “Lieserl Einstein”
Lieserl , born in January 1902.

Work and doctorate

Einstein in 1905, when he wrote the ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annus_Mirabilis_Papers” \o “Annus
Mirabilis Papers” Annus Mirabilis Papers ”

Upon graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching post, mostly because
his brashness as a young man had apparently irritated most of his
professors. The father of a classmate helped him obtain employment as a
technical assistant HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent_clerk” \o “Patent clerk” examiner
at the Swiss Patent Office HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_www.ipi.ch.376” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote www.ipi.ch.376” [4] in 1902. There, Einstein judged
the worth of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventor” \o
“Inventor” inventors ‘ HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent” \o “Patent” patent applications
for devices that required a knowledge of physics to understand — in
particular he was chiefly charged to evaluate patents relating to
electromagnetic devices. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l “endnote_Galison368”
\o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert Einstein#endnote Galison368”
[5] He also learned how to discern the essence of applications despite
sometimes poor descriptions, and was taught by the director how “to
express [him]self correctly”. He occasionally rectified their design
errors while evaluating the practicality of their work.

Einstein married HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mileva_Mari%C4%87” \o “Mileva Mari?”
Mileva Mari? on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_6” \o
“January 6” January 6 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1903”
\o “1903” 1903 . Einstein’s marriage to Mari?, who was a mathematician,
was both a personal and intellectual partnership: Einstein referred to
Mileva as “a creature who is my equal and who is as strong and
independent as I am”. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_W._Clark” \o “Ronald W. Clark”
Ronald W. Clark , a biographer of Einstein, claimed that Einstein
depended on the distance that existed in his and Mileva’s marriage in
order to have the solitude necessary to accomplish his work; he required
intellectual isolation. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abram_Joffe” \o “Abram Joffe” Abram Joffe
, a Soviet physicist who knew Einstein, in an obituary of Einstein,
wrote, “The author of [the papers of 1905] was … a bureaucrat at the
Patent Office in Bern, Einstein-Mari?” and this has recently been taken
as evidence of a collaborative relationship. However, according to
Alberto A. Martinez of the Center for Einstein Studies at Boston
University, Joffe only ascribed authorship to Einstein, as he believed
that it was a Swiss custom at the time to append the spouse’s last name
to the husband’s name. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_physicsweb.org.377” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote physicsweb.org.377” [6] Whatever the truth, the
extent of her influence on Einstein’s work is a highly controversial and
debated question.

On HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_14” \o “May 14” May 14
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1904” \o “1904” 1904 , the
couple’s first son, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Albert_Einstein” \o “Hans Albert
Einstein” Hans Albert Einstein , was born. In 1903, Einstein’s position
at the Swiss Patent Office had been made permanent, though he was passed
over for promotion until he had “fully mastered machine technology”.
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_Galison370” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote Galison370” [7] He obtained his HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_Philosophy” \o “Doctor of
Philosophy” doctorate after submitting his thesis “A new determination
of molecular dimensions” (“Eine neue Bestimmung der
Molekueldimensionen”) in 1905.

That same year, he wrote four articles that provided the foundation of
modern physics, without much HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_literature” \o “Scientific
literature” scientific literature to which he could refer or many
scientific colleagues with whom he could discuss the theories. Most
physicists agree that three of those papers (on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_motion” \o “Brownian motion”
Brownian motion , the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect” \o “Photoelectric
effect” photoelectric effect , and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_relativity” \o “Special
relativity” special relativity ) deserved HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize” Nobel
Prizes . Only the paper on the photoelectric effect would be mentioned
by the Nobel committee in the award. This is ironic, not only because
Einstein is far better-known for relativity, but also because the
photoelectric effect is a quantum phenomenon, and Einstein became
somewhat disenchanted with the path HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics” \o “Quantum mechanics”
quantum theory would take. What makes these papers remarkable is that,
in each case, Einstein boldly took an idea from theoretical physics to
its logical consequences and managed to explain experimental results
that had baffled scientists for decades.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Planck” \o “Max Planck”
Max Planck and Einstein

Annus Mirabilis Papers

For more details on this topic, see HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annus_Mirabilis_Papers” \o “Annus
Mirabilis Papers” Annus Mirabilis Papers .

Einstein submitted the series of papers to the “Annalen der Physik”.
They are commonly referred to as the ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annus_Mirabilis_Papers” \o “Annus
Mirabilis Papers” Annus Mirabilis Papers ” (from HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_phrases” \o “List of Latin
phrases” Annus mirabilis , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin” \o “Latin” Latin for ‘year of
wonders’). The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IUPAP” \o “IUPAP” IUPAP ) is
commemorating the 100th year of the publication of Einstein’s extensive
work in 1905 as the ‘ HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Year_of_Physics_2005” \o “World Year
of Physics 2005” World Year of Physics 2005 ‘.

The first paper, named “On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the
Production and Transformation of Light”, (“Ueber einen die Erzeugung und
Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt”)
proposed that “energy quanta” (which are essentially what we now call
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon” \o “Photon” photons )
were real, and showed how they could be used to explain such phenomena
as the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect”
\o “Photoelectric effect” photoelectric effect . This paper was
specifically cited for his Nobel Prize. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Planck” \o “Max Planck” Max Planck
had made the formal assumption that energy was quantized in deriving his
black-body radiation law, published in 1901, but had considered this to
be no more than a mathematical trick.

His second article in 1905, named “On the Motion—Required by the
Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat—of Small Particles Suspended in a
Stationary Liquid”, (” HYPERLINK
keiten_suspendierten_Teilchen” \o “Ueber die von der
molekularkinetischen Theorie der Waerme geforderte Ueber die von der
molekularkinetischen Theorie der Waerme geforderte Bewegung von in
ruhenden Fluessigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen “) covered his study of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_motion” \o “Brownian
motion” Brownian motion , and provided empirical evidence for the
existence of atoms. Before this paper, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom” \o “Atom” atoms were recognized as
a useful concept, but HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physicist” \o “Physicist” physicists and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemist” \o “Chemist”
chemists hotly debated whether atoms were real entities. Einstein’s
statistical discussion of atomic behavior gave HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experimentalist” \o “Experimentalist”
experimentalists a way to count atoms by looking through an ordinary
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microscope” \o “Microscope”
microscope . HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_Ostwald”
\o “Wilhelm Ostwald” Wilhelm Ostwald , one of the leaders of the
anti-atom school, later told HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnold_Sommerfeld” \o “Arnold Sommerfeld”
Arnold Sommerfeld that he had been converted to a belief in atoms by
Einstein’s complete explanation of Brownian motion.

Einstein’s third paper that year, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving
Bodies” (“Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Koerper”), was published in
September 1905. This paper introduced the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_relativity” \o “Special
relativity” special theory of relativity , a theory of time, distance,
mass and energy which was consistent with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetism” \o “Electromagnetism”
electromagnetism , but omitted the force of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity” \o “Gravity” gravity . While
developing this paper, Einstein wrote to Mileva about “our work on
relative motion”, and this has led some to ask whether Mileva played a
part in its development.

A fourth paper, “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy
Content?”, (“Ist die Traegheit eines Koerpers von seinem Energieinhalt
abhaengig?”) published late in 1905, showed one further deduction from
relativity’s HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axiom” \o “Axiom”
axioms , the famous equation that the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy” \o “Energy” energy of a body at
rest (E) equals its mass (m) times the speed of light (c) squared:
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E%3Dmc%C2%B2” \o “E=mc?”
E = mc2 .

Middle years

Einstein at the 1911 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solvay_Conference” \o “Solvay Conference”
Solvay Conference .

In 1906, Einstein was promoted to technical examiner second class. In
1908, Einstein was licensed in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bern” \o “Bern” Bern , Switzerland, as a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privatdozent” \o “Privatdozent”
Privatdozent (unsalaried teacher at a university). Einstein’s second
son, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eduard_Einstein” \o
“Eduard Einstein” Eduard , was born on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_28” \o “July 28” July 28 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1910” \o “1910” 1910 . In 1911,
Einstein became first associate HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professor” \o “Professor” professor at
the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Zurich” \o
“University of Zurich” University of Zurich , and shortly afterwards
full professor at the (German) HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Prague” \o “University of
Prague” University of Prague , only to return the following year to
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zurich” \o “Zurich” Zurich in
order to become full professor at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETH_Zurich” \o “ETH Zurich” ETH Zurich .
At that time, he worked closely with the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematician” \o “Mathematician”
mathematician HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Grossmann” \o “Marcel Grossmann”
Marcel Grossmann . In 1912, Einstein started to refer to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time” \o “Time” time as the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_dimension” \o “Fourth dimension”
fourth dimension (although HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.G._Wells” \o “H.G. Wells” H.G. Wells
had done this earlier, in 1895 in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Time_Machine” \o “The Time Machine”
The Time Machine ).

In 1914, just before the start of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I” \o “World War I” World War I
, Einstein settled in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin”
\o “Berlin” Berlin as professor at the local HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Berlin” \o “University of
Berlin” university and became a member of the HYPERLINK
action=edit” \o “Prussian Academy of Sciences” Prussian Academy of
Sciences . He took German citizenship. His HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacifism” \o “Pacifism” pacifism and
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew” \o “Jew” Jewish origins
irritated German nationalists. After he became world-famous,
nationalistic hatred of him grew and for the first time he was the
subject of an organized campaign to discredit his theories. From 1914 to
1933, he served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics
in Berlin, and it was during this time that he was awarded his
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize” \o “Nobel Prize”
Nobel Prize and made his most groundbreaking discoveries. He was also
an extraordinary professor at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leiden_University” \o “Leiden University”
Leiden University from 1920 until officially 1946, where he regularly
gave guest lectures.

Einstein divorced Mileva on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_14” \o “February 14” February 14
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919” \o “1919” 1919 , and
married his cousin HYPERLINK
it” \o “Elsa Loewenthal” Elsa Loewenthal (born Einstein: Loewenthal
was the surname of her first husband, Max) on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_2” \o “June 2” June 2 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919” \o “1919” 1919 . Elsa was Albert’s
first cousin (maternally) and his second cousin (paternally). She was
three years older than Albert, and had nursed him to health after he had
suffered a partial nervous breakdown combined with a severe stomach
ailment; there were no children from this marriage. The fate of Albert
and Mileva’s first child, Lieserl, is unknown. Some believe she died in
infancy, while others believe she was given out for adoption. They later
had two sons: Eduard and Hans Albert. Eduard intended to practice as a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychoanalyst” \o
“Psychoanalyst” Freudian analyst but was institutionalized for
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia” \o
“Schizophrenia” schizophrenia and died in an asylum. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Albert_Einstein” \o “Hans Albert
Einstein” Hans Albert , his older brother, became a professor of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_engineering” \o
“Hydraulic engineering” hydraulic engineering at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_California%2C_Berkeley” \o
“University of California, Berkeley” University of California, Berkeley
, having little interaction with his father.

“Einstein theory triumphs,” declared the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Times” \o “New York Times” New
York Times on November 10, 1919.

General relativity

In November 1915, Einstein presented a series of lectures before the
Prussian Academy of Sciences in which he described his theory of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_relativity” \o “General
relativity” general relativity . The final lecture climaxed with his
introduction of an equation that replaced Newton’s law of gravity. This
theory considered all observers to be equivalent, not only those moving
at a uniform speed. In general relativity, gravity is no longer a force
(as it is in Newton’s law of gravity) but is a consequence of the
curvature of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space-time” \o
“Space-time” space-time .

The theory provided the foundation for the study of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_cosmology” \o “Physical
cosmology” cosmology and gave scientists the tools for understanding
many features of the universe that were discovered well after Einstein’s
death. A truly revolutionary theory, general relativity has so far
passed every test posed to it and has become a powerful tool used in the
analysis of many subjects in physics.

Initially, scientists were skeptical because the theory was derived by
mathematical reasoning and rational analysis, not by experiment or
observation. But in 1919, predictions made using the theory were
confirmed by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Stanley_Eddington” \o “Arthur
Stanley Eddington” Arthur Eddington ‘s measurements (during a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse” \o “Solar
eclipse” solar eclipse ), of how much the light emanating from a star
was HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravitational_lens” \o
“Gravitational lens” bent by the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun” \o “Sun” Sun ‘s gravity when it
passed close to the Sun, an effect called gravitational lensing. The
observations were carried out on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_29” \o “May 29” May 29 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1919” \o “1919” 1919 , at two locations,
one in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobral%2C_Cear%C3%A1”
\o “Sobral, Ceara” Sobral, Ceara , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil” \o “Brazil” Brazil , and another
in the island of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principe” \o
“Principe” Principe , in the west coast of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa” \o “Africa” Africa . On
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_7” \o “November 7”
November 7 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Times” \o
“The Times” The Times reported the confirmation, cementing Einstein’s

Many scientists were still unconvinced for various reasons ranging from
disagreement with Einstein’s interpretation of the experiments, to not
being able to tolerate the absence of an absolute frame of reference. In
Einstein’s view, many of them simply could not understand the
mathematics involved. Einstein’s public fame which followed the 1919
article created resentment among these scientists some of which lasted
well into the 1930s.

In the early 1920s Einstein was the lead figure in a famous weekly
physics colloquium at the University of Berlin. On HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_30” \o “March 30” March 30 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1921” \o “1921” 1921 , Einstein
went to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City” \o “New
York City” New York to give a lecture on his new Theory of Relativity,
the same year he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Though he is now most
famous for his work on relativity, it was for his earlier work on the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect” \o
“Photoelectric effect” photoelectric effect that he was given the
Prize, as his work on general relativity was still disputed. The Nobel
committee decided that citing his less-contested theory in the Prize
would gain more acceptance from the scientific community.

The “Copenhagen” interpretation

Einstein and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niels_Bohr” \o
“Niels Bohr” Niels Bohr sparred over HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_theory” \o “Quantum theory”
quantum theory during the 1920s.

Einstein’s relationship with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_physics” \o “Quantum physics”
quantum physics was quite remarkable. He was the first to say that
quantum theory was revolutionary. His postulation that light can be
described not only as a wave with no kinetic energy, but also as
massless discrete packets of energy called quanta with measurable
kinetic energy (now known as photons) marked a landmark break with the
classical physics. In 1909 Einstein presented his first paper on the
quantification of light to a gathering of physicists and told them that
they must find some way to understand waves and particles together.

In the mid-1920s, as the original quantum theory was replaced with a new
theory of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics”
\o “Quantum mechanics” quantum mechanics , Einstein balked at the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen_interpretation” \o
“Copenhagen interpretation” Copenhagen interpretation of the new
equations because it settled for a probabilistic, non-visualizable
account of physical behaviour. Einstein agreed that the theory was the
best available, but he looked for a more “complete” explanation, i.e.,
more HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_determinism”
\o “Scientific determinism” deterministic . He could not abandon the
belief that physics described the laws that govern “real things”, the
belief which had led to his successes with atoms, photons, and gravity.

In a 1926 letter to HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Born”
\o “Max Born” Max Born , Einstein made a remark that is now famous:

Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me it
is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot, but does not really
bring us any closer to the secret of the Old One. I, at any rate, am
convinced that He does not throw dice.

To this, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niels_Bohr” \o “Niels
Bohr” Bohr , who sparred with Einstein on quantum theory, retorted,
“Stop telling God what He must do!” The HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohr-Einstein_debates” \o “Bohr-Einstein
debates” Bohr-Einstein debates on foundational aspects of quantum
mechanics happened during the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solvay_Conference” \o “Solvay Conference”
Solvay conferences .

Einstein was not rejecting probabilistic theories per se. Einstein
himself was a great statistician, using statistical analysis in his
works on Brownian motion and photoelectricity and in papers published
before the miraculous year 1905; Einstein had even discovered
\o “Gibbs ensemble” Gibbs ensembles . He believed, however, that at the
core reality behaved HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_determinism” \o “Scientific
determinism” deterministically . Many physicists argue that
experimental evidence contradicting this belief was found much later
with the discovery of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_Theorem” \o “Bell’s Theorem”
Bell’s Theorem and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_inequality” \o “Bell’s
inequality” Bell’s inequality . Nonetheless, there is still space for
lively discussions about the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interpretation_of_quantum_mechanics” \o
“Interpretation of quantum mechanics” interpretation of quantum
mechanics .

Bose-Einstein statistics

In 1924, Einstein received a short paper from a young HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India” \o “India” Indian physicist named
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satyendra_Nath_Bose” \o
“Satyendra Nath Bose” Satyendra Nath Bose describing light as a gas of
photons and asking for Einstein’s assistance in publication. Einstein
realized that the same statistics could be applied to atoms, and
published an article in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language” \o “German language”
German (then the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingua_franca” \o “Lingua franca” lingua
franca of physics) which described Bose’s model and explained its
implications. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bose-Einstein_statistics” \o
“Bose-Einstein statistics” Bose-Einstein statistics now describe any
assembly of these HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identical_particles” \o “Identical
particles” indistinguishable particles known as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boson” \o “Boson” bosons . The
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bose-Einstein_condensate” \o
“Bose-Einstein condensate” Bose-Einstein condensate phenomenon was
predicted in the 1920s by Bose and Einstein, based on Bose’s work on the
statistical mechanics of photons, which was then formalized and
generalized by Einstein. The first such condensate was produced by
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Cornell” \o “Eric Cornell”
Eric Cornell and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Wieman”
\o “Carl Wieman” Carl Wieman in 1995 at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Colorado_at_Boulder” \o
“University of Colorado at Boulder” University of Colorado at Boulder .
Einstein’s original sketches on this theory were recovered in August
2005 in the library of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leiden_University” \o “Leiden University”
Leiden University (see website with original manuscript: HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl.378” \o
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert Einstein#endnote
www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl.378” [8] ).

Einstein also assisted HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Schr%C3%B6dinger” \o “Erwin
Schroedinger” Erwin Schroedinger in the development of the HYPERLINK
n&action=edit” \o “Quantum Boltzmann distribution” quantum Boltzmann
distribution , a mixed classical and quantum mechanical gas model
although he realized that this was less significant than the
Bose-Einstein model and declined to have his name included on the paper.

The Einstein refrigerator

Einstein and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le%C3%B3_Szil%C3%A1rd” \o “Leo Szilard”
Szilard ‘s refrigerator patent diagram.

Einstein and former student HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le%C3%B3_Szil%C3%A1rd” \o “Leo Szilard”
Leo Szilard co-invented a unique type of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigeration” \o “Refrigeration”
refrigerator (usually called the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_refrigerator” \o “Einstein
refrigerator” Einstein refrigerator ) in 1926. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_gtalumni.org.379” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote gtalumni.org.379” [9] HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_www.uspto.gov.380” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote www.uspto.gov.380” [10] On HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_11” \o “November 11” November 11
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1930” \o “1930” 1930 ,
“http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=1,781,541” \o
“http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?patentnumber=1,781,541” U.S.
Patent 1,781,541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard. The
patent covered a thermodynamic refrigeration cycle providing cooling
with no moving parts, at a constant HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressure” \o “Pressure” pressure , with
only HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat” \o “Heat” heat as
an input. The refrigeration cycle used HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonia” \o “Ammonia” ammonia ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butane” \o “Butane” butane ,
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_%28molecule%29” \o
“Water (molecule)” water .

World War II

After HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler” \o “Adolf
Hitler” Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, expressions of hatred for
Einstein reached new levels. He was accused by the HYPERLINK
\o “National Socialist German Workers Party” National Socialist regime
of creating “Jewish physics” in contrast with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsche_Physik” \o “Deutsche Physik”
Deutsche Physik —”German” or “Aryan physics”. Nazi physicists (notably
including the Nobel laureates HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Stark” \o “Johannes Stark”
Johannes Stark and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philipp_Lenard” \o “Philipp Lenard”
Philipp Lenard ) continued the attempts to discredit his theories and to
blacklist politically those German physicists who taught them (such as
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Heisenberg” \o “Werner
Heisenberg” Werner Heisenberg ). Einstein renounced his German
citizenship and fled to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States” \o “United States” United
States , where he was given permanent residency. He accepted a position
at the newly founded HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_for_Advanced_Study” \o
“Institute for Advanced Study” Institute for Advanced Study in
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeton_Township%2C_New_Jersey” \o
“Princeton Township, New Jersey” Princeton Township , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Jersey” \o “New Jersey” New Jersey .
He became an American citizen in 1940, though he still retained Swiss

In 1939, under the encouragement of Szilard, Einstein HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein-Szil%C3%A1rd_letter” \o
“Einstein-Szilard letter” sent a letter to President HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Delano_Roosevelt” \o “Franklin
Delano Roosevelt” Franklin Delano Roosevelt urging the study of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_fission” \o “Nuclear
fission” nuclear fission for military purposes, under fears that the
Nazi government would be first to develop HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_weapon” \o “Atomic weapon” atomic
weapons . Roosevelt started a small investigation into the matter which
eventually became the massive HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project” \o “Manhattan Project”
Manhattan Project .

ed. For more information, see the section below on Einstein’s
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “Political_views” \o “”
political views .

Institute for Advanced Study

His work at the Institute for Advanced Study focused on the unification
of the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_law” \o
“Physical law” laws of physics , which he referred to as the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_unification_theory” \o
“Grand unification theory” Unified Field Theory . He attempted to
construct a model which would describe all of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_forces” \o “Fundamental
forces” fundamental forces as different manifestations of a single
force. His attempt was hindered because the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strong_interaction” \o “Strong
interaction” strong and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_nuclear_force” \o “Weak nuclear
force” weak nuclear forces were not understood independently until
around 1970, fifteen years after Einstein’s death. Einstein’s goal of
unifying the laws of physics under a single model survives in the
current drive for unification of the forces, embodied most notably by
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory” \o “String
theory” string theory .

Generalized theory

Einstein began to form a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalized_theory_of_gravitation” \o
“Generalized theory of gravitation” generalized theory of gravitation
with the Universal Law of Gravitation and the electromagnetic force in
his first attempt to demonstrate the unification and simplification of
the fundamental forces. In 1950 he described his work in a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_American” \o “Scientific
American” Scientific American article. Einstein was guided by a belief
in a single statistical measure of variance for the entire set of
physical laws.

Einstein’s Generalized Theory of Gravitation is a universal mathematical
approach to field theory. He investigated reducing the different
phenomena by the process of logic to something already known or evident.
Einstein tried to unify gravity and electromagnetism in a way that also
led to a new subtle understanding of quantum mechanics.

Einstein postulated a four-dimensional space-time continuum expressed in
axioms represented by five component vectors. Particles appear in his
research as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the
energy density are particularly high. Einstein treated subatomic
particles as objects embedded in the unified field, influencing it and
existing as an essential constituent of the unified field but not of it.
Einstein also investigated a natural generalization of symmetrical
tensor fields, treating the combination of two parts of the field as
being a natural procedure of the total field and not the symmetrical and
antisymmetrical parts separately. He researched a way to delineate the
equations and systems to be derived from a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variational_principle” \o “Variational
principle” variational principle .

Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research on a generalised
theory of gravitation and was ultimately unsuccessful in his attempts.

Einstein’s two-story house, white frame with front porch in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_revival” \o “Greek revival” Greek
revival style, in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeton%2C_New_Jersey” \o “Princeton,
New Jersey” Princeton (112 Mercer Street).

Final years

In 1948, Einstein served on the original committee which resulted in the
founding of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandeis_University” \o “Brandeis
University” Brandeis University . A portrait of Einstein was taken by
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yousuf_Karsh” \o “Yousuf Karsh”
Yousuf Karsh on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/February_11”
\o “February 11” February 11 of that same year. In 1952, the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel” \o “Israel” Israeli
government proposed to Einstein that he take the post of second
president. He declined the offer, and remains the only United States
citizen ever to be offered a position as a foreign head of state. On
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_30” \o “March 30” March
30 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953” \o “1953” 1953 ,
Einstein released a revised unified HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_%28physics%29” \o “Field (physics)”
field theory .

He died at 1:15 AM HYPERLINK
“http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ein.html” \o
“http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ein.html” [11] in Princeton
hospital HYPERLINK
“http://www.princetonhistory.org/museum_alberteinstein.cfm” \o
“http://www.princetonhistory.org/museum alberteinstein.cfm” [12] in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princeton%2C_New_Jersey” \o
“Princeton, New Jersey” Princeton, New Jersey , on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_18” \o “April 18” April 18 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1955” \o “1955” 1955 , leaving
the Generalized Theory of Gravitation unsolved. The only person present
at his deathbed, a hospital nurse, said that just before his death he
mumbled several words in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language” \o “German language”
German that she did not understand. He was HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremation” \o “Cremation” cremated
without ceremony on the same day he died at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trenton%2C_New_Jersey” \o “Trenton, New
Jersey” Trenton, New Jersey , in accordance with his wishes. His ashes
were scattered at an undisclosed location.

His HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_brain” \o “Human
brain” brain was preserved by Dr. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Stoltz_Harvey” \o “Thomas Stoltz
Harvey” Thomas Stoltz Harvey , the pathologist who performed the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autopsy” \o “Autopsy” autopsy
on Einstein. Harvey found nothing unusual with his brain, but in 1999
further analysis by a team at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McMaster_University” \o “McMaster
University” McMaster University revealed that his parietal HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operculum” \o “Operculum” operculum
region was missing and, to compensate, his inferior HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parietal_lobe” \o “Parietal lobe”
parietal lobe was 15% wider than normal HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_news.bbc.co.uk.381” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote news.bbc.co.uk.381” [13] . The inferior parietal
region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition,
and imagery of movement. Einstein’s brain also contained 73% more
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glial_cells” \o “Glial cells”
glial cells than the average brain.


Albert Einstein was much respected for his kind and friendly demeanor
rooted in his HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacifism” \o
“Pacifism” pacifism . He was modest about his abilities, and had
distinctive attitudes and fashions—for example, he minimized his
wardrobe so that he would not need to waste time in deciding on what to
wear. He occasionally had a playful sense of humor, and enjoyed
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sailing” \o “Sailing” sailing
and playing the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violin” \o
“Violin” violin . He was also the stereotypical ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absent-minded_professor” \o “Absent-minded
professor” absent-minded professor “; he was often forgetful of
everyday items, such as keys, and would focus so intently on solving
physics problems that he would often become oblivious to his
surroundings. In his later years, his appearance inadvertently created
(or reflected) another stereotype of scientist in the process: the
researcher with unruly white hair.

Religious views

Although he was raised HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish”
\o “Jewish” Jewish , he was not a believer in the religious aspect of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaism” \o “Judaism” Judaism ,
though he still considered himself a Jew. He simply admired the beauty
of nature and the universe. From a letter written in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language” \o “English language”
English , dated HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_24” \o
“March 24” March 24 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1954”
\o “1954” 1954 , Einstein wrote, “It was, of course, a lie what you
read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically
repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied
this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be
called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure
of the world so far as our science can reveal it.”

He also said (in an essay reprinted in Living Philosophies, vol. 13
(1931)): “A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate,
our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty,
which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds—it
is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity; in
this sense, and this [sense] alone, I am a deeply religious man.”

The following is a response made to HYPERLINK
n=edit” \o “Rabbi Herbert Goldstein” Rabbi Herbert Goldstein of the
n=edit” \o “International Synagogue” International Synagogue in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City” \o “New York
City” New York which read, “I believe in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baruch_Spinoza” \o “Baruch Spinoza”
Spinoza’s God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what
exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of
human beings.” After being pressed on his religious views by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Buber” \o “Martin Buber” Martin
Buber , Einstein exclaimed, “What we [physicists] strive for is just to
draw His lines after Him.” He also quoted once “When I read the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita” \o “Bhagavad
Gita” Bhagavad Gita , I ask myself how God created the universe.
Everything else seems superfluous.” Summarizing his religious beliefs,
he once said: “My religion consists of a humble admiration of the
illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we
are able to perceive with our frail and feeble mind.”

Einstein was an Honorary Associate of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationalist_Press_Association” \o
“Rationalist Press Association” Rationalist Press Association
beginning in 1934.

Political views

Einstein and the chairman of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union” \o “Soviet Union” Soviet
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Anti-Fascist_Committee”
\o “Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee” Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Mikhoels” \o “Solomon
Mikhoels” Solomon Mikhoels , 1943

Einstein considered himself a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacifism” \o “Pacifism” pacifist
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_www.amnh.org.382” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote www.amnh.org.382” [14] and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanitarianism” \o “Humanitarianism”
humanitarian HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein”
\l “endnote_www.amnh.org.383” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote www.amnh.org.383” [15] , and in later years, a
committed democratic HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism” \o “Socialism” socialist . He
once said, “I believe HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahatma_Gandhi” \o “Mahatma Gandhi”
Gandhi’s views were the most enlightened of all the political men of
our time. We should strive to do things in his spirit: not to use
violence for fighting for our cause, but by non-participation of
anything you believe is evil.” Einstein’s views on other issues,
including socialism, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCarthyism” \o “McCarthyism” McCarthyism
and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism” \o “Racism”
racism , were controversial (see HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_on_socialism” \o “Einstein on
socialism” Einstein on socialism ). In a 1949 article, Albert Einstein
described the “predatory phase of human development”, exemplified by a
chaotic HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalism” \o
“Capitalism” capitalist society, as a source of evil to be overcome.
He disapproved of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totalitarian” \o “Totalitarian”
totalitarian regimes in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union” \o “Soviet Union” Soviet
Union and elsewhere, and argued in favor of a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy” \o “Democracy” democratic
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist” \o “Socialist”
socialist system which would combine a planned economy with a deep
respect for human rights. Einstein was a co-founder of the liberal
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Democratic_Party” \o
“German Democratic Party” German Democratic Party .

Einstein was very much involved in the Civil Rights movement. He was a
close friend of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Robeson”
\o “Paul Robeson” Paul Robeson for over 20 years. Einstein was a
member of several civil rights groups (including the Princeton chapter
of the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NAACP” \o “NAACP”
NAACP ) many of which were headed by Paul Robeson. He served as co-chair
with HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Robeson” \o “Paul
Robeson” Paul Robeson of the American Crusade to End Lynching. When
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W.E.B._DuBois” \o “W.E.B.
DuBois” W.E.B. DuBois was frivolously charged with being a communist
spy during the McCarthy era while he was in his 80s, Einstein
volunteered as a character witness in the case. The case was dismissed
shortly after it was announced that he was to appear in that capacity.
Einstein was quoted as saying that “racism is America’s greatest

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Bureau_of_Investigation” \o
“Federal Bureau of Investigation” FBI kept a 1,427 page file on his
activities and recommended that he be barred from immigrating to the
United States under the HYPERLINK
it” \o “Alien Exclusion Act” Alien Exclusion Act , alleging that
Einstein “believes in, advises, advocates, or teaches a doctrine which,
in a legal sense, as held by the courts in other cases, ‘would allow
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchy_%28word%29” \o “Anarchy
(word)” anarchy to stalk in unmolested’ and result in ‘government in
name only'”, among other charges. They also alleged that Einstein “was a
member, sponsor, or affiliated with thirty-four communist fronts between
1937-1954” and “also served as honorary chairman for three communist
organizations.” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_foia.fbi.gov.384” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote foia.fbi.gov.384” [16] It should be noted that many
of the documents in the file were submitted to the FBI, mainly by
civilian political groups, and not actually written by FBI officials.

In 1939, Einstein signed a letter, written by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le%C3%B3_Szil%C3%A1rd” \o “Leo Szilard”
Leo Szilard , to HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt” \o “Franklin D.
Roosevelt” President Roosevelt arguing that the United States should
start funding research into the development of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapon” \o “Nuclear weapon”
nuclear weapons .

Einstein opposed tyrannical forms of government, and for this reason
(and his Jewish background), opposed the Nazi regime and fled Germany
shortly after it came to power. At the same time, Einstein’s HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchist” \o “Anarchist” anarchist
nephew HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Einstein” \o “Carl
Einstein” Carl Einstein , who shared many of his views was fighting the
fascists in the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War” \o “Spanish Civil War”
Spanish Civil War . Einstein initially favored construction of the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bomb” \o “Atomic bomb”
atomic bomb , in order to ensure that HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler” \o “Adolf Hitler” Hitler
did not do so first, and even sent a letter HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_hypertextbook.com.385” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote hypertextbook.com.385” [17] to President HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt” \o “Franklin D.
Roosevelt” Roosevelt (dated HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_2” \o “August 2” August 2 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1939” \o “1939” 1939 , before
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II” \o “World War II”
World War II broke out, and probably written by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le%C3%B3_Szil%C3%A1rd” \o “Leo Szilard”
Leo Szilard ) encouraging him to initiate a program to create a nuclear
weapon. Roosevelt responded to this by setting up a committee for the
investigation of using HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium” \o “Uranium” uranium as a
weapon, which in a few years was superseded by the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan_Project” \o “Manhattan Project”
Manhattan Project .

After the war, though, Einstein lobbied for HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_disarmament” \o “Nuclear
disarmament” nuclear disarmament and a HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_government” \o “World government”
world government : “I do not know how the Third World War will be
fought, but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth—rocks!”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_calaprice173” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote calaprice173” [18]

Einstein was a supporter of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zionism” \o “Zionism” Zionism . He
supported Jewish settlement of the ancient seat of Judaism and was
active in the establishment of the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_University” \o “Hebrew University”
Hebrew University in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem” \o “Jerusalem” Jerusalem ,
which published (1930) a volume titled About Zionism: Speeches and
Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein, and to which Einstein bequeathed
his papers. However, he opposed nationalism and expressed skepticism
about whether a Jewish nation-state was the best solution. He may have
imagined Jews and Arabs living peacefully in the same land. In later
life, in 1952, he was offered the post of second president of the newly
created state of HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel” \o
“Israel” Israel , but declined the offer, claiming that he lacked the
necessary people skills. Einstein was disturbed by the violence taking
place in the Palestine after the Second World War and expressed that he
was disappointed with the Jewish Ultra-Nationalist Organization (
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irgun” \o “Irgun” Irgun and
Stern Gang). Nonetheless, Einstein remained deeply committed to the
welfare of Israel and the Jewish people for the rest of his life.

Einstein, along with HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Schweitzer” \o “Albert Schweitzer”
Albert Schweitzer and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrand_Russell” \o “Bertrand Russell”
Bertrand Russell , fought against nuclear tests and bombs. As his last
public act, and just days before his death, he signed the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russell-Einstein_Manifesto” \o
“Russell-Einstein Manifesto” Russell-Einstein Manifesto , which led to
ffairs” \o “Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs” Pugwash
Conferences on Science and World Affairs . His letter to Russell read:

Dear Bertrand Russell,

Thank you for your letter of April 5. I am gladly willing to sign your
excellent statement. I also agree with your choice of the prospective

With kind regards, A. Einstein

Popularity and cultural impact

Einstein’s popularity has led to widespread use of Einstein in
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising” \o “Advertising”
advertising and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merchandising” \o “Merchandising”
merchandising , including the registration of “Albert Einstein” as a
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trademark” \o “Trademark”
trademark .

The photo (detail from the original) of this humorous expression was
taken during Einstein’s HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birthday” \o “Birthday” birthday on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_14” \o “March 14” March
14 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1951” \o “1951” 1951 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Press_International” \o
“United Press International” UPI


Albert Einstein has become the subject of a number of novels,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film” \o “Film” films and
plays, including HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Roeg”
\o “Nicolas Roeg” Nicolas Roeg ‘s film HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insignificance_%28film%29” \o
“Insignificance (film)” Insignificance , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Schepisi” \o “Fred Schepisi” Fred
Schepisi ‘s film HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I.Q._%28film%29” \o “I.Q. (film)” I.Q. ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Lightman” \o “Alan
Lightman” Alan Lightman ‘s novel Einstein’s Dreams, and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Martin” \o “Steve Martin” Steve
Martin ‘s comedic play ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picasso_at_the_Lapin_Agile” \o “Picasso at
the Lapin Agile” Picasso at the Lapin Agile “. He was the subject of
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Glass” \o “Philip Glass”
Philip Glass ‘s groundbreaking 1976 HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opera” \o “Opera” opera HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_on_the_Beach” \o “Einstein on the
Beach” Einstein on the Beach . Since 1978, Einstein’s humorous side has
been the subject of a live stage presentation HYPERLINK
\o “Albert Einstein: The Practical Bohemian” Albert Einstein: The
Practical Bohemian , a one man show performed by actor HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ed_Metzger&action=edit” \o
“Ed Metzger” Ed Metzger .

He is often used as a model for depictions of HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mad_scientists” \o “Mad scientists”
eccentric scientists in works of fiction; his own character and
distinctive hairstyle suggest eccentricity, or even lunacy and are
widely copied or exaggerated. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_%28magazine%29” \o “Time (magazine)”
TIME magazine writer Frederic Golden referred to Einstein as “a
cartoonist’s dream come true.”

On Einstein’s 72nd birthday in 1951, the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UPI” \o “UPI” UPI photographer Arthur
Sasse was trying to coax him into smiling for the camera. Having done
this for the photographer many times that day, Einstein stuck out his
tongue instead HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_www.mentalfloss.com.386” \o
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert Einstein#endnote
www.mentalfloss.com.386” [19] . The image has become an icon in pop
culture for its contrast of the genius scientist displaying a moment of
levity. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahoo_Serious” \o
“Yahoo Serious” Yahoo Serious , an Australian film maker, used the
photo as an inspiration for the intentionally anachronistic movie
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young_Einstein” \o “Young
Einstein” Young Einstein .


Einstein bequeathed his estate, as well as the use of his image (see
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_rights” \o
“Personality rights” personality rights ), to the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_University_of_Jerusalem” \o “Hebrew
University of Jerusalem” Hebrew University of Jerusalem . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l “endnote_aip.org.387”
\o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert Einstein#endnote aip.org.387”
[20] Einstein actively supported the university during his life and
this support continues with the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royalties” \o “Royalties” royalties
received from licensing activities. HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Roger_Richman_Agency” \o “The Roger
Richman Agency” The Roger Richman Agency HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licence” \o “Licence” licences the
commercial use of the name “Albert Einstein” and associated imagery and
likenesses of Einstein, as HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agent” \o “Agent” agent for the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_University_of_Jerusalem”
\o “Hebrew University of Jerusalem” Hebrew University of Jerusalem . As
head licensee the agency can control commercial usage of Einstein’s name
which does not comply with certain standards (e.g., when Einstein’s name
is used as a HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trademark” \o
“Trademark” trademark , the ™ symbol must be used HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l “endnote_refbot.388”
\o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert Einstein#endnote refbot.388”
[21] ). As of May, 2005, the Roger Richman Agency was acquired by
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corbis” \o “Corbis” Corbis .


Einstein on the cover of TIME as Person of the Century.

Einstein has received a number of posthumous honors. For example:

In 1992, he was ranked #10 on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_H._Hart” \o “Michael H. Hart”
Michael H. Hart ‘s HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_100” \o
“The 100” list of the most influential figures in history .

In 1999, he was named Person of the Century by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_%28magazine%29” \o “Time (magazine)”
TIME magazine.

The year 2005 was designated as the ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Year_of_Physics” \o “World Year of
Physics” World Year of Physics ” by HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNESCO” \o “UNESCO” UNESCO for its
coinciding with the centennial of the ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annus_Mirabilis_Papers” \o “Annus
Mirabilis Papers” Annus Mirabilis ” papers, celebrated at the
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_Symposium” \o “Einstein
Symposium” Einstein Symposium .

Among Einstein’s many namesakes are:

a unit used in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photochemistry”
\o “Photochemistry” photochemistry , the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_%28unit%29” \o “Einstein (unit)”
einstein .

the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_element” \o
“Chemical element” chemical element 99, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einsteinium” \o “Einsteinium” einsteinium

the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroid” \o “Asteroid”
asteroid HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_Einstein” \o
“2001 Einstein” 2001 Einstein .

ction=edit” \o “Albert Einstein Peace Prize” Albert Einstein Peace
Prize .

the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l “endnote_refbot.389”
\o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert Einstein#endnote refbot.389”
[22] was named after Einstein upon his death in 1955.

the Albert Einstein Medical Center HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein” \l
“endnote_www.einstein.edu.390” \o “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert
Einstein#endnote www.einstein.edu.390” [23] in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philadelphia” \o “Philadelphia”
Philadelphia , PA.

ection=21” \o “Albert Einstein” edit ]


HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Blair_Bolles” \o
“Edmund Blair Bolles” Edmund Blair Bolles (April 2004). Einstein
Defiant: Genius versus Genius in the Quantum Revolution, National
Academy Press. HYPERLINK
089980” ISBN 0309089980 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_W._Clark” \o “Ronald W.
Clark” Ronald W. Clark (1971). Einstein: The Life and Times, Avon.
441233” ISBN 0-380-44123-3 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Pais” \o “Abraham
Pais” Abraham Pais (1982). Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the
Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford: Oxford University Press. HYPERLINK
204387” ISBN 0-19-520438-7 . This is the definitive scientific

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Pais” \o “Abraham
Pais” Abraham Pais (1994). Einstein Lived Here, Oxford: Oxford
University Press. HYPERLINK
539940” ISBN 0198539940 . This book discusses non-science aspects of
Einstein; marriages, affairs, illegitimate daughter, public image.

“http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_Stachel&action=edit” \o
“John Stachel” John Stachel (1998-03-30). Einstein’s Miraculous Year:
Five Papers That Changed the Face of Physics, Princeton University
059381” ISBN 0691059381 .

\o “Peter D. Smith” Peter D. Smith (2003). Einstein (Life & Times
Series), Haus Publishing. HYPERLINK
341152” ISBN 1904341152 .

Alberto A Martinez (April 2004). HYPERLINK
“http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/4/2” \o
“http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/4/2” Arguing about Einstein’s
wife . Physics World. URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_23” \o “November 23” 11-23 .

Sandra Ionno Butcher (March 2005) HYPERLINK
“http://www.pugwash.org/publication/phs/phslist.htm” \o
“http://www.pugwash.org/publication/phs/phslist.htm” The Origins of the
Russell-Einstein Manifesto .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_A._Pickover” \o
“Clifford A. Pickover” Clifford A. Pickover ( HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_9” \o “September 9” 09-09 ).
Sex, Drugs, Einstein, and Elves: Sushi, Psychedelics, Parallel
Universes, and the Quest for Transcendence, Smart Publications.
572179” ISBN 1890572179 . — Discusses the final disposition of
Einstein’s brain, hair, and eyes as well as the importance of Einstein
and his work in the shaping of science and culture.

\o “Albert Einstein Memorial, Washington DC” Albert Einstein Memorial,
Washington DC at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Academy_of_Sciences” \o “National
Academy of Sciences” National Academy of Sciences in HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington%2C_DC” \o “Washington, DC”
Washington, DC

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_autism” \o “” ^
 Muir, Hazel, “ HYPERLINK
“http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3676” \o
“http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3676” Einstein and Newton
showed signs of autism ”, HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Scientist” \o “New Scientist” New
Scientist , 2003-04-30. URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006” \o “2006” 2006 – HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_4” \o “January 4” 01-04 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_privatelives1” \o “”
^   HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_privatelives2”
\o “” ^   Roger Highfield, Paul Carter (1993). The Private Lives of
Albert Einstein, faber and faber, London, Boston. HYPERLINK
171702” ISBN 0-571-17170-2 (US ed. HYPERLINK
110472” ISBN 0312110472 ).

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_www.ipi.ch.376” \o
“” ^   HYPERLINK “http://www.ipi.ch/E/institut/i1.shtm” \o
“http://www.ipi.ch/E/institut/i1.shtm” the institute / IPI / Federal
Institute of Intellectual Property . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_Galison368” \o “” ^
  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Galison” \o “Peter
Galison” Peter Galison (Winter 2000). Einstein’s Clocks: The Question
of Time. Critical Inquiry 26 (2): 355-389, on 368.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_physicsweb.org.377”
\o “” ^   HYPERLINK “http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/4/2” \o
“http://physicsweb.org/articles/world/17/4/2” Arguing about Einstein’s
wife (April 2004) – Physics World – PhysicsWeb (See above) . URL
accessed on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o
“November 21” November 21 , HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_Galison370” \o “” ^
  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Galison” \o “Peter
Galison” Peter Galison (Winter 2000). Einstein’s Clocks: The Question
of Time. Critical Inquiry 26 (2): 355-389, on 370.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“ref_www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl.378” \o “” ^   HYPERLINK
“http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/Einstein_archive/” \o
“http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/Einstein archive/” Einstein
archive at the Instituut-Lorentz . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_gtalumni.org.379” \o
“http://gtalumni.org/StayInformed/magazine/sum98/einsrefr.html” \o
Einstein’s Refrigerator . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_www.uspto.gov.380”
\o “” ^   HYPERLINK
.htm” \o
htm . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_news.bbc.co.uk.381”
\o “” ^   HYPERLINK “http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/371698.stm”
\o “http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/371698.stm” BBC News :
Sci/Tech : Why size mattered for Einstein . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_www.amnh.org.382” \o
“http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/einstein/peace/index.php” \o
“http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/einstein/peace/index.php” Einstein :
American Museum of Natural History . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_www.amnh.org.383” \o
“http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/einstein/global/index.php” \o
“http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/einstein/global/index.php” Einstein :
American Museum of Natural History . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_foia.fbi.gov.384” \o
“” ^   HYPERLINK “http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/einstein.htm” \o
“http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/einstein.htm” Federal Bureau of
Investigation – Freedom of Information Privacy Act . URL accessed on
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21”
November 21 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005”
2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“ref_hypertextbook.com.385” \o “” ^   HYPERLINK
“http://hypertextbook.com/eworld/einstein.shtml” \o
“http://hypertextbook.com/eworld/einstein.shtml” Einstein’s Letters to
Roosevelt . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“ref_www.mentalfloss.com.386” \o “” ^   HYPERLINK
“http://www.mentalfloss.com/archives/archive2003-03-14.htm” \o
mental_floss library . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_aip.org.387” \o “”
^   HYPERLINK “http://aip.org/history/esva/einuse.htm” \o
http://aip.org/history/esva/einuse.htm . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_refbot.388” \o “” ^
“http://www.albert-einstein.net/styleguide-readonly/brand.html” \o
“http://www.albert-einstein.net/styleguide-readonly/brand.html” ALBRT
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_calaprice173” \o “”
^   Calaprice, Alice (2005). The new quotable Einstein, 173, Princeton
University Press. HYPERLINK
120757” ISBN 0-691-12075-7 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l “ref_refbot.389” \o “” ^
  HYPERLINK “http://www.aecom.yu.edu” \o “http://www.aecom.yu.edu”
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University . URL accessed
on HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November
21” November 21 , HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o
“2005” 2005 .

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/” \l
“ref_www.einstein.edu.390” \o “” ^   HYPERLINK
“http://www.einstein.edu/facilities/aemc/” \o
“http://www.einstein.edu/facilities/aemc/” Albert Einstein Medical
Center . URL accessed on HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_21” \o “November 21” November 21
, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005” \o “2005” 2005 .

Works by Albert Einstein

Clay portrait of Einstein by the sculptor HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshe_Ziffer” \o “Moshe Ziffer” Moshe

“http://www.worldscibooks.com/phy_etextbook/4454/4454_chap1.pdf” \o
“http://www.worldscibooks.com/phy etextbook/4454/4454 chap1.pdf” The
Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields . (PDF)

Ideas & Opinions HYPERLINK
003937” ISBN 0517003937

The World As I See It HYPERLINK
50711X” ISBN 080650711X (translation of “Mein Weltbild”)

y” \o “wikisource:Relativity: The Special and General Theory”
Relativity: The Special and General Theory . HYPERLINK
884410” ISBN 0517884410 ( HYPERLINK
“http://www.gutenberg.net/browse/BIBREC/BR5001.HTM” \o
“http://www.gutenberg.net/browse/BIBREC/BR5001.HTM” Project Gutenberg
E-text )

” HYPERLINK “http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/” \o
“http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/” On the
Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annalen_der_Physik” \o “Annalen der
Physik” Annalen der Physik . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_30” \o “June 30” June 30 ,
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1905” \o “1905” 1905

” HYPERLINK “http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/E_mc2/www/” \o
“http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/E mc2/www/” Does the Inertia
of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? ” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annalen_der_Physik” \o “Annalen der
Physik” Annalen der Physik . HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_27” \o “September 27″ September
27 , 1905.

“http://alberteinstein.info/gallery/pdf/CP6Doc3_English_pp16-18.pdf” \o
“http://alberteinstein.info/gallery/pdf/CP6Doc3 English pp16-18.pdf”
Inaugural Lecture to the Prussian Academy of Sciences .” 1914. [PDF]

” HYPERLINK “http://hem.bredband.net/b153434/Works/Einstein.htm” \o
“http://hem.bredband.net/b153434/Works/Einstein.htm” The Foundation of
the General Theory of Relativity .” HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annalen_der_Physik” \o “Annalen der
Physik” Annalen der Physik , 49. 1916.

” HYPERLINK “http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nobel_Lecture_Physics_1921”
\o “wikisource:Nobel Lecture Physics 1921″ Fundamental ideas and
problems of the theory of relativity .” 1921 Nobel Lecture in Physics.
Nordic Assembly of Naturalists at Gothenburg, 11 July 1923.

Einstein A., Lorenz H. A., Weyl H. and Minkowski H. The Principle of
Relativity. Trans. W. Perrett and HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Barker_Jeffery” \o “George Barker
Jeffery” G. B. Jeffery . New York: Dover Publications, 1923.

” HYPERLINK “http://www.monthlyreview.org/598einst.htm” \o
“http://www.monthlyreview.org/598einst.htm” Why Socialism? ”
HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monthly_Review” \o “Monthly
Review” Monthly Review . May 1949.

On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation . April, 1950.

Used links

HYPERLINK “http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Albert+Einstein” \o
“http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Albert Einstein” Works by Albert
Einstein at HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Gutenberg” \o “Project Gutenberg”
Project Gutenberg

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_in_Physics” \o
“Nobel Prize in Physics” Nobel Prize in Physics : HYPERLINK
“http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1921/press.html” \o
“http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1921/press.html” The Nobel Prize
in Physics 1921 — HYPERLINK
“http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1921/index.html” \o
“http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1921/index.html” Albert Einstein

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annalen_der_Physik” \o
“Annalen der Physik” Annalen der Physik : HYPERLINK
“http://gallica.bnf.fr/Catalogue/noticesInd/FRBNF34462944.htm” \l
“listeUC” \o
Works by Einstein digitalized at The University of Applied Sciences in
Jena (Fachhochschule HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jena” \o
“Jena” Jena )

S. Morgan Friedman, ” HYPERLINK “http://www.westegg.com/einstein/” \o
“http://www.westegg.com/einstein/” Albert Einstein Online
“—Comprehensive listing of online resources about Einstein.

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TIME_magazine” \o “TIME
magazine” TIME magazine 100: HYPERLINK
“http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/einstein.html” \o
Albert Einstein

Audio excerpts of famous speeches: HYPERLINK
“http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein1.ram” \o
“http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein1.ram” E=mc2 and
relativity , HYPERLINK
“http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein2.ram” \o
Impossibility of atomic energy , HYPERLINK
“http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein3.ram” \o
“http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/audio/einstein3.ram” arms race
(From Time magazine archives)

l” \o
l” Biography at the HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MacTutor_archive” \o “MacTutor archive”
MacTutor archive

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leiden_University” \o “Leiden
University” Leiden University : HYPERLINK
“http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/Einstein_archive/” \o
“http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/Einstein archive/” Einstein

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBS” \o “PBS” PBS :
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/psources/ps_einstein.html” \o
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/truman/psources/ps einstein.html”
Einstein’s letter to Roosevelt

PBS HYPERLINK “http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/einstein/” \o
“http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/einstein/” NOVA—Einstein

PBS HYPERLINK “http://www.pbs.org/opb/einsteinswife/” \o
“http://www.pbs.org/opb/einsteinswife/” Einstein’s wife : Mileva Maric

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FBI” \o “FBI” FBI :
HYPERLINK “http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/einstein.htm” \o
“http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/einstein.htm” FBI files —investigation
regarding affiliation with the Communist Party

furt_am_Main” \o “Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am
Main” University of Frankfurt : HYPERLINK
“http://www.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de/~jr/physpiceinfam.html” \o
“http://www.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de/~jr/physpiceinfam.html” Einstein
family pictures

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salon.com” \o “Salon.com”
Salon.com : HYPERLINK
“http://dir.salon.com/people/feature/2000/07/06/einstein/index.html” \o
Did Einstein cheat?

“http://www.germanheritage.com/biographies/atol/einstein.html” \o
“http://www.germanheritage.com/biographies/atol/einstein.html” Albert
Einstein Biography from “German-American corner: History and Heritage”

HYPERLINK “http://www.alberteinstein.info/” \o
“http://www.alberteinstein.info/” Official Einstein Archives Online

HYPERLINK “http://www.alberteinstein.info/manuscripts/index.html” \o
“http://www.alberteinstein.info/manuscripts/index.html” Einstein’s

HYPERLINK “http://www.albert-einstein.org/” \o
“http://www.albert-einstein.org/” Albert Einstein Archive

HYPERLINK “http://www.einstein.caltech.edu/” \o
“http://www.einstein.caltech.edu/” Einstein Papers Project

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Planck_Institute” \o “Max
Planck Institute” Max Planck Institute : HYPERLINK
“http://living-einstein.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/living_einstein” \o
“http://living-einstein.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/living einstein” Living

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Institute_of_Physics”
\o “American Institute of Physics” American Institute of Physics :
HYPERLINK “http://www.aip.org/history/einstein/index.html” \o
“http://www.aip.org/history/einstein/index.html” Albert Einstein
includes his life and work, audio files and full site available as a
downloadable PDF for classroom use

“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Museum_of_Natural_History” \o
“American Museum of Natural History” American Museum of Natural History
: HYPERLINK “http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/einstein/index.php” \o
“http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/einstein/index.php” Albert Einstein

HYPERLINK “http://www.aeinstein.org” \o “http://www.aeinstein.org”
The Albert Einstein Institution

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Economist” \o “The
Economist” The Economist : HYPERLINK
“http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=3518580” \o
“http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story id=3518580” “100 years
of Einstein”

[email protected]: HYPERLINK
“http://www.physics2005.org/events/einsteinathome/index.html” \o
Distributed computing project searching for gravitational waves
predicted by Einstein’s theories

World Year of Physics 2005 HYPERLINK “http://www.physics2005.org” \o
“http://www.physics2005.org” A celebration of Einstein’s Miracle Year

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guardian” \o “The
Guardian” The Guardian : HYPERLINK
“http://www.guardian.co.uk/japan/story/0,7369,1521314,00.html” \o
Einstein’s pacifist dilemma revealed

HYPERLINK “http://www.monthlyreview.org/598einst.htm” \o
“http://www.monthlyreview.org/598einst.htm” Why socialism? – Albert
Einstein, Monthly review, 1949-05 ( HYPERLINK
original manuscript ).

HYPERLINK “http://www.muppetlabs.com/~breadbox/txt/al.html” \o
“http://www.muppetlabs.com/~breadbox/txt/al.html” Einstein’s theory of
relativity, in words of four letters or fewer

HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabindranath_Tagore” \o
“Rabindranath Tagore” Rabindranath Tagore’s HYPERLINK
“http://www.schoolofwisdom.com/tagore-einstein.html” \o
“http://www.schoolofwisdom.com/tagore-einstein.html” Conversation with

et%20Union%20%201930-1931” \o
Protest against the suppression of Hebrew in the Soviet Union 1930-1931

HYPERLINK “http://www.einsteinonrace.com/” \o
“http://www.einsteinonrace.com/” Einstein on Race

\o “http://www.stn-international.de/archive/stn brochures/einstein
e.pdf” Einstein brochure (PDF), 100 years special theory of relativity

Retrieved from ” HYPERLINK
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein ”

bert_Einstein” \o “Special:Categories” Categories : HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:1879_births” \o “Category:1879
births” 1879 births | HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:1955_deaths” \o “Category:1955
deaths” 1955 deaths | HYPERLINK
“http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Albert_Einstein” \o
“Category:Albert Einstein” Albert Einstein | HYPERLINK
y” \o “Category:Contributors to general relativity” Contributors to

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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