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Температура, її вплив та природні процеси

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?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

Oaiia?aoo?a, ?? aieea

ia i?e?iaei? i?ioeane

Iiiyooy oaiia?aoo?e.

Oaiia?aoo?a – oea aeineoue aaaeeeaa oa?aeoa?enoeea oa?iiaeeiai?/ii?
nenoaie. Aiia aecia/a? nooi?iue iaa??oino? o?e ? ? i??ith ?ioaineaiino?
oaieiaiai ?ooo.

Aioo??oi? ia?aiao?e nenoaie iiae?eythoueny ia ?ioaineai? oa aenoaineai?.
Ia?aiao?e oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? nenoaie, ye? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae iane aai
/enea /anoeiie a nenoai?, iaceaathoue ?ioaineaieie.

Oaiia?aoo?a ae?aaea? noai aioo??oiueiai ?ooo ??aiiaaaeii? nenoaie
iacaeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? /anoeiie a ieo.

Oiio oaiia?aoo?a ? ?ioaineaiei ia?aiao?ii.? a oeueiio ?icoi?ii? aiia ?
i??ith ?ioaineaiino? oaieiaiai ?ooo.

Aenaineai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e – oea ia?aiao?e, ye? i?iii?oe?ei?
ian? aai /eneo /anoeiie aeaii? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? nenoaie.

?oi? cia/aiiy aei??aith? noi? cia/aiue oaeeo naieo ia?aiao??a ie?aieo
/anoei nenoaie. Aei oaeeo ia?aiao??a iaeaaeaoue ia’?i, aia?a?y oa ?io?.

Aaniethoia oa?iiaeeiai?/ia oeaea.

Aaniethoia oa?iiaeeiai?/ia oeaea ? iniiaiith oaiia?aoo?iith oeaeith o
o?ceoe?. Aiia iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? ae?oaiai caeiio oa?iiaeeiai?ee. Oeth
oeaeo iaceaathoue oaeiae oeaeith Eaeuea?ia. Iaeeieoeath oa?iiaeeiai?/ii?
oeaee ? eaeuea?i. A N? oiiaeeenue oeaeo oaiia?aoo? aecia/aoe ca iaeiith
?aia?iith, ca yeo acyoi iio??eio oi/eo aiaee. Oaiia?aoo?o iio??eii?
oi/ee aiaee i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe oaeith ,ui aei??aitha 273,16 E. Eaeuea?i –
oea 1\273,16 /anoeia oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? oaiia?aoo?e iio??eii? oi/ee aiaee.

Ioaea, iaeeieoey oaiia?aoo?e aecia/a?oueny ye 1\273,16 oaiia?aoo?iiai
?ioa?aaeo i?ae iio??eiith oi/eith aiaee ? oi/eith aaniethoiiai ioey
oaiia?aoo?, yea ia ? ?aia?iith, a ? oaiia?aoo?ith ia 273,16 E ieae/ith
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e iio??eii? oi/ee aiaee.

Aenia?aiaioaeuei? oo?oaeiaiiy aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo? ca aaniethoiith
oa?iiaeeiai?/iith oeaeith i?eaaee aei iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy
I?aeia?iaeii? oaiia?aoo?ii? oeaee (1968 ?.).

Aiia iniiaaia ia iaeeiaaeeyoe oaiia?aoo?ieo oi/eao, ui aeia?a
a?aeoai?ththoueny, yeei i?eienothoueny eiie?aoi? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?
(ia?aeii? ?aia?i? oi/ee ). I?ae ia?aeiieie ?aia?ieie oi/eaie
oaiia?aoo?ia oeaea anoaiiaeth?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioa?iieyoe?eieo
oi?ioe, ye? ae?aaeathoue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith ?iieacaie
noaiaea?oieo oa?iiiao??a (ieaoeiiaee oa?iiiao? ,ieaoeiiai ?iae??aa
oa?iiia?a, iioe/iee i??iiao?), ye? a?aaeoeiaai? ii oeeo ?aia?ieo oi/eao.
Any iaeanoue oaiia?aoo?, yea ioiieth?oueny I?aeia?iaeiith i?aeoe/iith
oeaeith, iiae?ey?oueny ia ?yae ?ioa?aae?a, a eiaeiiio c yeeo
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny nai? iaoiaee a?aeoai?aiiy oaiia?aoo? ? nai?
?ioa?iieyoe?ei? oi?ioee.

Oaiia?aoo?a Oeaeuen?y aecia/a?oueny ae?acii t = T – T0, aea O0=273,16
E.

Iaeeieoey, yea aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
Oeaeuen?y, ? a?aaeon Oeaeuen?y (N0). ??cieoeth oaiia?aoo? ae?aaeathoue o
eaeuea?iao; ?? iiaeia aecia/aoe oaeiae o a?aaeonao Oeaeuen?y.

P&C By Shestopol Rusian All Rights Reservd

IaOEIA Eenoiiaae 1997

Aaniethoiee ioeue.

Aeey oiai uia o aeai?e nenoai? iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue iaaia o?i?/ia
?aaeoe?y, a i?e iiaeii? aooe iaeaaei? ia?aaeoiiae nooi o?i?/iiai ?iaeo
oa ia?aaoaaiiy ?? o a?aeiia?aeiiio o?ce/iiio noai?. Noeoii?noue o?ce/ieo
oa o?i?/ieo oiia, ye? noai?ththoue iiaeeea?noue o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe?? a
aeai?e nenoai? iaceaathoue o?i?/iith nii??aeiai?noth. Aeey i?aeoe/ieo
oe?eae oeueiio nooi ye?niiio aecia/aiith o?aaa iinoaaeoe o
a?aeiia?aei?noue iaaio aaee/eio,yea aoea a e?euee?niith i??ith o?i?/ii?
nii??aeiaiino? oae, uia ?? /eneiaa cia/aiiy oa?aeoa?ecoaaei
?ioaineai?noue o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe??, a ?? ciae – iai?yi. Ia?oo ni?iao
ciaeoe i??o o?i?/ii? nii??aeiaiino? c?iaea E.-TH. Oiinai o 1853 ?ioe?.
A?i i?eionoea, ui ca oaeo i??o ne?ae a?aoe oaieiaee aoaeo ?aaeoe??.
Aaio-Aioo c’ynoaaa, ui ni?aaaeiueth i??ith o?i?/ii? nii??aeiaiino? ? ia
oaieioa ?aaeoe?? , ui aei??aitha ciaioaiith aioo??oiue? aia?a?? nenoaie,
a iaeneiaeueia ?iaioa, aeeiioaaia o?i?/ieie aca?iiae?yie a iai?ioiiio
i?ioean?. Ine?eueee o?i?/i/ aca?iiae??, ye iieaco? aeine?ae, caeaaeaoue
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, oi oey ?iaioa iaeiicia/ii aecia/aoeiaoueny o?eueee i?e
oiia? noaei? oaiia?aoo?e, oiaoi aiia aei??aith? ciaioaiith a?eueii?
aia?a?? nenoaie.

Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe aenia?aiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaaae?iee
?a/iaeie i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao, A.-A. Ia?ino noi?ioethaaa o?ao?e
caeii oa?iiaeeiai?ee oae: i?e iaaeeaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e aei aaniethoiiai
ioey aio?ii?y aoaeue-yei? ??aiiaaaeii? nenoaie i?e ?cioa?i?/ieo
i?ioeanao ia?anoa? caeaaeaoe a?ae oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a noaio ?
i?e O – > 0 iaaoaa? oo naio noaeo aeey an?o nenoai, yeo iiaeia aaaaeaoe
oaeith, ui aei??aith? ioeth. I. Ieaie i?eionoea, ui iiaeeco aaniethoiiai
ioey ia? i?noea ia o?eueee iaci?ii?noue aio?ii?? a aeia?eueiiio
?cioa?i?/iiio i?ioean?, a e ui naia aio?ii?y ia?aoai?th?oueny a ioeue
i?e aaniethoiiio ioe? oaiia?aoo?,oiaoi

lim S = 0 O – > 0

I?e oeueiio I.Ieaie iioe?ea oea oaa?aeaeaiiy c aeiaaeeo eiiaeeiniaaieo
nenoai, ye? o?eueee ? ?icaeyaeaa A.-A.Ia?ino, ia aeia?euei? nenoaie.
Aeacaia oi?ioea – oea iaea?eueo caaaeueia ae?aaeaiiy o?aoueiai caeiio
oa?iiaeeiai?ee.

C o?aoueai caeiio oa?iiaeeiai?ee aeieeaa? aaciina?aaeiuei iieiaeaiiy i?i
iaaeinyaei?noue aaniethoiiai ioey oaiia?aoo?.Oea iieiaeaiiy aeieeaa? c
oiai oaeoo, ui an? o?ce/i? iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?
a?oioo?oueny ia canoinoaaii? aae?aaaoieo i?ioean?a, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei
ioieiaeaeaiiy nenoai, ui aeeiiothoue oe? i?ioeane. I?ioa i?e iaaeeaeaii?
aei aaniethoiiai ioey a?aei?ii?noue i?ae ae?aaaoieie e ?cioa?i?/ieie
i?ioeanaie aeaaeae? ciaioo?oueny ? a oi/oe? aaniethoiiai ioey cian?i
cieea?. Oaeei /eiii, c iaaeeaeaiiyi aei aaniethoiiai ioey aoaeo
aae?aaaoiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy noa? ana ieae/ei, iiee cian?i ia cieea?.
Ioaea, iiaeia o?eueee aneiiioe/ii iaaeeaeaoeny aei aaniethoiiai ioey,
i?eiee eiai ia aeinyaath/e.

Canoinoaaiiy iecueei? oaiia?aoo?e a a?ieia??.

Iecuee? oaiia?aoo?e a a?ieia?? canoiniaothoueny cie?aia i?e aea/aii?
aoaeiae ee?oei oa ?o i?aaiae, a naia a aeaeo?iii?e i?e?ineii?? i?ae /an
oae caaiiai a?aeeiethaaiiy.

O?aaiaio oeaieie oaeaeei caii?iaeothoue i?e aeoaea iecuee?e oaiia?aoo??
( aeecueei -100 N0 ) , iio?i ?icii?iaeo?oueny , i?ney oeueiai ca
aeiiiiiaith iaaecae/aeii oiieiai eaca oeaieia ?iceieth?oueny ai?iaeiaae
neaai c’?aeiaieo /anoei, yeeie /anoi yaeythoueny ee?oeii? iaia?aie.
I?aia?ao aeo?eiothoue aoieiae? a oiiaao aenieiai ?ic??aeaeaiiy ( aaeooi?
) ; a oeeo oiiaao e?ae a?aeaaiy?oueny caeeoath/e neieioo iiaa?oith.

?aie?eo oe??? iiaa?oi? noai?ththoue oeyoii inaaeaeaiiy ia ia? oa?o
aoaeaoeth. Ia oeth ?aie?eo c aoaeaoeth iaieey?oueny aaaeeee iaoae , a
oeaieie i?ae ?aie?eith ?oeiothoueny, ye i?aaeei ae??th neeueieo eeneio
i?e ii?iaeueiiio aoiinoa?iiio oeneo. Oeae iaoiae a aeoaea c?o/iei i?e
aea/aii? no?oeoo?e iaia?aie ee?oei . Eiai c?o/i?noue iieyaa? a oiio , ui
aeea? oeaieie oaeaeei a?aeia?athoue , ia i?aeaeath/enue o?i?/i?e
ia?iaoe?, ui iiaea iioeiaeeoe ?? no?oeoo?o. Aeoaea iiaeeeai, ui oae?
ee?oeie caa??aathoue naith iiia?aaeith ( i?eaeeoo?ao oi?io ) oei naiei
i?aeoaa?aeaeoth/e aeai?, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo
a?noieia?/ieo iaoiaeee.

Iecuee? oaiia?aoo?e a aeaeo?ii?oe?.

Aoei aeine?aeaeaii, ui aeaye? oa?aeoa?i? iaiaoaee ca iaaieo oiia
iiaeooue i?iyaeyoe iaoae?/i? aeanoeaino?. A naia i?e iaaeiecuee?e
oaiia?aoo?? oa aenieiio oeneo, iai?eeeaae , /a?aiiee oinoi? iaaoaa?
iaoae?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Ia iaio oe?eaa? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? aeey
e?aii?y oa aoaeaoeth. sseui oe? iaiaoaee i?aeaeaoe aenieiio oeneo ,(
aeecueei 10000 I?a ) oi aiie iaeaeaa ia?aoiaeyoue aei iaoae?/iiai noaio.

Iniaeeai oe?eaaeie ? i?eiouaiiy i?i iaoae?/i? aeanoeaino? aiaeith. sse
a?aeiii, ca ii?iaeueieo oiia aiaeaiue – aac, i?e oaiia?aoo?? -2530 a?i
c??aeaeo?oueny, a i?e 2590 ia?aoiaeeoueaei oaa?aeiai noaio .I?ioa o aneo
o?ueio noaiao aiaeaiue – yaiee iaiaoae. I?ioa, ca?aeii c no/aniith
oai???th oaa?aeiai o?ea, i?e aeinoaoiuei aenieiio oeneo oa iecuee?e
oaiia?aoo?? an? ?a/iaeie ia?aoiaeyoue aei iaoae?/iiai noaio. A?aeii?
oaeiae oiiae i?e yeeo iiaeiai a?aeaooenue oaeee ia?ao?ae o aiaeith: oene
(a?ey 200000I?a ) ? oaiia?aoo?a – 2600. Ua cian?i iaaeaaii oae? oiiae
aoee ca iaaeath aenia?aiaioaeueieo iiaeeeainoae. Ca oeeo oiia aiaeaiue ?
iaaei?ia?aeieeii (eiaiaeaeo?e/iee ii?? ??aiee ioeaa?). sseae
iaaei?ia?aei?noue iiaeia aoei caa?aaoe i?e ii?iaeueieo oiiaao , oi
iaaei?ia?aeieee iiaeia aoei a aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ia?aaea/? aia?a?? aac
ao?ao, ui aacia?a/ii i?ecaeei a aei ?aaiethoe?eieo ci?i a aeaeo?ii?oe?.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a:

Iieaeoey?ia a?ieia?y ee?oeie ?.A??i I.Noaoo I. Oaeei?

Caaaeueia O?ceea A.Aeouaiei I.Eo/a?oe

Prof. Dr. sc. tecn. Manfred Beckert Welt der metalle

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