?aoa?ao ia oaio:

Ana i?i aaeoa???

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea. Aei iaei?ino?oa iiaoaeiaaieo i?aai?ci?a, ye?
iiaeia aa/eoe eeoa ca aaeeeiai ca?eueoaiiy i?ae i?e?ineiiii, iaeaaeaoue
aaeoa???. O?aaeeoe?eii ?o aea/a? aioai?ea, iaeiae oea aeiyaea?i?
i?aai?cie (i?iea??ioe), ye? ?acii c neiueicaeaieie aiaei?inoyie
noaiiaeyoue oea?noai Ae?ia’yiee. ?ici??e aaeoa??e cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeaoue a?ae ciai?oi?o oiia ? eieeaathoueny a iaaeao a?ae /anoie
i?e?iiao?a aei e?eueeio i?e?iiao??a. Aeiaaeeia ?o noaiiaeoue 1 – 10 iei
(??aeei a?eueoa), oe?eia – 0,2 – 1 iei. A?eueo?noue c ieo iaeiiee?oeii?,
aea ? e ieo/ano? aaaaoiee?oeii? aeaee.

Ca oi?iith iaeiiee?oeii? aaeoa??? iiae?eythoueny ia eiee, aai
eoeyno?; iaee/ee (aaoeeee), ui iathoue oi?io oeee?iae?a; a?a??iie, ui
iathoue oi?io eiie; ni??eee – ni??aeueii aeaioo? iaee/ee.

Aeaye? aaeoa??? iathoue caeaoi?noue ?ooaoenue ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaeaooee?a, ye? aoaathoue a?eueoeie ca naio ee?oeio ? ? oiiaiueeeie
ae?inoeaie oeeoiieacie. E?euee?noue aeaeaooee?a o ??cieo aeae?a
iaiaeiaeiaa (iaeei, aeaa ? a?eueoa). *anoeia aaeoa??e (i?e?iaaeoa???)
?ooathoueny caaaeyee aeae?eaiith neeco (“?aaeoeaiee” ?oo). Ni??eeai
aeanoea? iinooiaeuei?, iayoieei-, ooiii?i-, oaeeaiiae?ai? ?ooe.

Aaeoe??aeueia ee?oeia ioi/aia u?eueiith iaieiieith, yea
neeaaea?oueny c aai?oeaetheice ? iaeoeio,a ?iiae? c a?eeiaeo ?a/iaei.
Caeaa?eueoiai iaieiiea ae?eoa neeciaith eainoeith, yea caoeua? aaeoa??th
a?ae iani?eyoeeaeo oiia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. I?ae iaieiieith
ciaoiaeeoueny oeeoiieaciaoe/ia iaia?aia, yea ioi/o? oeeoiieacio ee?oeie.
Oeeoiieacia aaeoa??e i?noeoue aoaeaaiaee – ae?eiaai ? e?ioiaeue, aee?e,
a?eee, i?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie, ?eainiie, aaeeeo e?euee?noue iaia?ai ?
iaia?aiieo no?oeoo? oiui. AeIE aaeoa??e ciaoiaeeoueny a iniaeea?e
yaea?i?e cii? ee?oeie, yeo iaceaathoue ioeeai?aeii. Iaaeiei ioeeai?aeo
ia ooai?th?oueny yaea?ii? iaia?aie. Eiee iathoue ii iaeiiio oaeiio
“yae?o”, a aaoeeee ii aeaa ? a?eueoa. An? aaeoa??? ia iathoue yaea?oey.

A?eueo?noue aaeoa??e aacaa?ai?, aeaye? c ieo iathoue /a?aiia, caeaia
? io?io?iaa caaa?aeaiiy, ui iia’ycaii c iayai?noth a ieo niaoeeo?/iiai
aaeoa??ioei?io?eo ? aaeoa??iio?io?eio.

Ca oa?aeoa?ii aeeaeaiiy aaeoa??? iiae?eythoueny ia aaoa?io?ioi? ?
aaoio?ioi?. Aaoa?io?ioi? aaeoa??? (?o a?eueo?noue), o naith /a?ao,
iiae?eythoueny ia nai?io?o?a ? neia?iio?a. Aaeoa???-nai?io?oe
aeeaeyoueny i?aai?/ieie ?aooeaie a?aeia?eeo ?ineei ? oaa?ei, i?iaeoeoaie
oa?/oaaiiy ethaeeie. Aiie ni?e/eiythoue aieooy ? a?iae?iiy
(oa?iaioaoe?th) i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei.

Aieooy – oea ?ic/aieaiiy a?ee?a, aee??a oa ?ioeo acioiai?nieo niieoe
i?ae ae??th ai?eieo aaeoa??e. A ?acoeueoao? aieooy aeae?eythoueny acioi-
? n??eiai?ni? niieoee, ye? iathoue iai?e?iiee caiao. Oeae i?ioean o
i?e?iae? a?ae?a?a? aaee/acio ?ieue, ine?eueee i/eua? iiaa?oith Caie?
a?ae o?oi?a oaa?ei oa ?ineeiieo ?aooie. Ooai?thaai? i?ae /an aieooy
io?oei? ?a/iaeie iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe io?o?iiy aai iaa?oue nia?oue ethaeae
? oaa?ei. O ca’yceo c oeei caai?iiaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?aeo aai ia ei?i
oaa?eiai i?iaeoeoe, a yeeo ? iciaee aieooy (niaoeeo?/iee caiao,
cie?aia). Uia caiia?aoe aieooth i?iaeoeo?a ? caeaii? iane, ?o
noa?ee?cothoue, nooaoue, ia?eiothoue, eiioyoue,nieyoue,caii?iaeothoue,
neeinothoue oiui. Oe? iaoiaee ia?iaee cieuothoue aieeuei? aaeoa??? oa
?oi? nii?e ? noai?ththoue oae? oiiae, ca yeeo aaeoa??? ia
?iciiiaeothoueny.

A?iae?iiy, aai oa?iaioaoe?y, — oea aiaa?iaia ?icuaieaiiy aoaeaaiae?a
i?ae ae??th oa?iaio?a aaeoa??e. Oeae i?ioean aeaaii aoa a?aeiiee
ethaeyi. Oi?iaeiaae oeny/ie?oue ethaee aeaioiaeyee aeii, aeei?enoiaoth/e
nie?oiaa a?iae?iiy, eaaneee ieiaee ? iai/? ca aeiiiiiaith
iiei/iieeneioiiai a?iae?iiy oiui.

Aaeoa???-ia?aceoe (iaeia c oi?i neia?ico) aeeaooue ca ?aooiie aeeaeo
i?aai?ci?a. Iaei? c ieo – oai?iaioai?i? ? iiaeooue nie/eieoe
caoai?thaaiiy oaa?ei ? ethaeeie (/oio, oeo, ooaa?eoeueic, ia?eoii?o,
iai?ia?o, aia?io, aiooe?ci, aaciao aaia?aio oa ?i.), ?io? ? i?e/eiith
?ineei. Oe? aaeoa??? ooai?ththoue nii?e, ye? iiaeooue caa??aaoe
caeaoi?noue aei ca?aaeaiiy o?eaaeee /an (aeanyoe ?ie?a).

Aeaye? aaoa?io?ioi? aaeoa??? a i?ioean? ?aiethoe?? ae?iaeee
caeaoi?noue aei neia?ico (ioooae?cio) c aeueie ?ineeiaie. Oea,
iai?eeeaae, acioo?enoth/? aaeoa???, ye? aeeaooue ia ei?aiyo aiaiaeo
?ineei, — aoeueai/eia? aaeoa???. Aiie iiaeeiathoue acio c a?oioo e
iia?o?y ? ia?aoai?ththoueny eiai ia niieoee, aeinooii? aeey aeei?enoaiiy
aiaiaeie ?ineeiaie, ye?, a naith /a?ao, iinoa/athoue aaeoa??yi
aoaeaaiaee oa i?ia?aeuei? nie?. Ca iaeei aaaaoaoe?eiee ia??iae
aoeueai/eia? aaeoa??? iaeiie/othoue aei 100 ea acioo ia 1 aa. Oea
a?aoiaothoue i?ae /an neeaaeaiiy ieai?a n?aici?i.

Aaoio?ioi? aaeoa??? – oea aaeoa???, ui iiaeooue neioacoaaoe i?aai?/i?
?a/iaeie c iai?aai?/ieo o ?acoeueoao? oioineioaco (oioio?ioi?) aai
oaiineioaco (oaiio?ioi?). Aei oioio?ioieo iaeaaeaoue io?io?ia? e caeai?
n??eiaaeoa???, ye? neioacothoue neeaaeia? /anoeie naiai o?ea c
i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei ? aoaeaeeneiai aaco, a aia?a?th aeei?enoiaothoue
na?oeiao. Oaiio?ioi? aaeoa???, aai oaiineioaoeee, aeeaeyoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith oaiineioaco, ine?eueee i?aai?/i? ?a/iaeie neioacothoueny c
iai?aai?/ieo ca ?acoiie aia?a?? o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue
?io?eo?eoth/?, cae?ci- ? n??eiaaeoa???. ssaeua oaiineioaco o aaeoa??e
a?aee?ea o 1887?. N.I. Aeiia?aaenueeee.

I?o?eo?eoth/? aaeoa??? ?icuaieththoue ai?ae ? aiiii?ei? nie? aei
i?o?ao?a, ye? canaiththoueny ?ineeiaie. Oe? aaeoa??? iioe?ai? o
aiaeieiao ? a?oioao. Ae?yeuei?noue cae?ciaaeoa??e iieyaa? a ia?aoai?aii?
ieneaeo cae?ca(??)(Fe ; FeCO ) ia ieneae cae?ca(???)(Fe ; Fe(OH)
).Aiie aeeaooue o nieiieo ? i??nieo aiaeieiao, aa?o/e o/anoue o
eieiia?ao cae?ca a i?e?iae?. N??eiaaeoa??? oaeiae aeeaooue o nieiieo ?
i??nieo aiaeieiao. Aiie ieeniththoue n??eiaiaeaiue oa ?io? niieoee
n??ee.

Ca a?aeiioaiiyi aei eenith aaeoa??? iiae?eythoue ia aea? a?oie:
aa?iae ? aiaa?iae. Aa?iae aeei?enoiaothoue aeey aeeoaiiy a?eueiee
eenaiue aoiinoa?e. Aiaa?iae ?inoooue ? ?iciiiaeothoueny a na?aaeiaeu?
aac eenith. Aiie ae?noathoue aia?a?th ai?ioean? aiaa?iaiiai ?icuaieaiiy
i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, iaeiie/oth/e ??ci? i?ii?aei? i?iaeoeoe – nie?o,
iiei/io eeneioo, ae?oea?ei oa ?io? ?a/iaeie.

?iciiiaeaiiy aaeoa??e. Aaeoa??? ?iciiiaeothoueny, ye i?aaeei,
aacnoaoaaei oeyoii – iiae?eii iaoa?einueei? ee?oeie ia aea? aei/??i?.
Iiae?e a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoaea oeaeei ? eiio ia?aaeo? ?aie?eaoe?y AeIE. Ca
ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeaye? aaeoa??? ae?eyoueny eiaei? 20 – 30 oa. ?iiae?
aea? aaeoa??? ceeaathoueny iaeia c iaeiith. I?ae /an oaeiai ceeooy i?ae
ieie ooai?th?oueny oeeoiieaciaoe/iee i?noie, ii yeiio ?a/iaeie iaei???
ee?oeie ia?aoiaeyoue a ?ioo. Oaeee i?ioean iaaaaeo? noaoaaa
?iciiiaeaiiy.

Ca iani?eyoeeaeo oiia (ianoa/a ?ae?, iiaiaei? oiiae, io?o?iiy
na?aaeiaeua i?iaeoeoaie aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aaeoa??e) aaaaoi aaeoa??e
caeaoi? noeneaoeny, ao?a/aoe aiaeo ? ia?aoiaeeoe a noai niieith aei
ianoaiiy i?eyoeeaeo oiia. Aeaye? aeaee aaeoa??e ca iani?eyoeeaeo oiia
oi?iothoue nii?e, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith no?ee?noth. Oe? oi?ie
aaeoa??e aeo?eiothoue o?eaaea eei’yo?iiy, aenoooaaiiy, caii?iaeoaaiiy,
ae?th ??cieo o?i?/ieo ?a/iaei.

Iioe?aiiy aaeoa??e o iia?o??, a?oio?, aiae?, aeeaeo i?aai?ciao. sse
aa?iai?, oae ? aiaa?iai? aaeoa??? iaaecae/aeii iioe?ai? a i?e?iae?. Aiie
o?aieythoueny a a?oio?, aiae?, aeeaeo ? ia?oaeo i?aai?ciao. *enei
aaeoa??e o iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? ci?ith?oueny i?ae aieeaii ??cieo
oaeoi??a (?inieyoe?y,ia?ia?oie a?oioo oiui).

E?euee?noue aaeoa??e a 1a a?oioo iiaea aeinyaoe nioaiue i?eueeii?a
?iaa?oue e?eueeio i?euey?ae?a ? caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio a?oioo. Iaeiaioa ?o
i?noeoueny a i?aecieenoeo oe?eeiieo a?oioao, iaea?eueoa – a
ieoeueoo?aiiio /i?iicai?. Aaeoa??? i?iieeathoue o a?oio ia aeeaeio aei
5i. I?e?ioei?a ? iaeiei c oaeoi??a, ui ni?eythoue ooai?aiith a?oioo.

O aiae? ??cieo aiaeiei e?euee?noue aaeoa??e aoaa? aeaui iaioith, i?ae
o a?oio?. Oae, a 1ie aiaee i?noeoueny a?ae 5 aei 100 oen.aaeoa??aeueieo
ee?oei. Iaeiaioa aaeoa??e o aiae? a?oac?ainueeeo naa?aeeiaei ? aeaea?ae,
aaaaoi – o a?aee?eoeo aiaeieiao ? ??/eao. Iaea?eueoa aaeoa??e
niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeeco aa?aaa o aa?oi?o oa?ao aiaee.

Iniaeeai caa?oaeiaia aiaea a?aee?eoeo aiaeiei o oeo i?noeyo, eoaee
iio?aieythoue no?/i? aiaee. Naia ooo /anoi cono??/athoueny oai?iaioai?i?
aaeoa???.

Oiia?o?? aaeoa??e i?noeoueny ua iaioa, i?ae o aiae?. Caa?oaeiaiiy
iia?o?y aaeoa??yie caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio i?e/ei (ii?e ?ieo,
aaia?ao?/ii? ciie oiui). Iaea?eueoa aaeoa??e iae?/othoue o cae?eoeo
i?ei?uaiiyo, aea ?o iiaea neoi/oaaoenue aei 300oen. a 1ii .On?euenuee?e
i?noeaaino? iia?o?y /eno?oa, i?ae o i?nuee?e. I?aeoe/ii iaia? aaeoa??e o
niniiaeo ? eaae?iaeo e?nao, ine?eueee aeae?ethaai? oaieieie aea?aaaie
o?oiioeeaee aaeaathoue aai i?eai?/othoue ??no ? ?iciiiaeaiiy an?o aeae?a
aaeoa??e.

Ia o?e? caei?iaeo ethaeae ? oaa?ei, a oaeiae o ??cieo i?aaiao
caaaeaee cono??/a?oueny aaaaoi aeae?a aaeoa??e . I?ae?aoiaaii,ui ia
oe??? ethaeeie iiaea aooe aaee/acia e?euee?noue aaeoa??e (a?ae 75 10
aei 1212 10 aecaiiey??a). Iniaeeai aaaaoi aaeoa??e, o oiio /ene? e
oai?iaioai?ieo, ia oe??? ethaeeie, yeui aiia ia aeio?eio?oueny i?aaee
a?a??ie.A?aee?eo? /anoeie o?ea ethaeeie caa?oaeiththoueny ??cieie
aeaeaie nai?io?oieo ? iaoiaaiieo (oai?iaioai?ieo) aaeoa??e cia/ii
/ano?oa, i?ae cae?eo?. I?aeoe/ii a?euei? a?ae aaeoa??e o? i?aaie
caei?iaeo ethaeae ? oaa?ei, ye? ia iathoue ca’yceo ?c ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuai (i’yce, aieiaiee ? nieiiee iicie,e?ia oiui).

?ieue aaeoa??e o i?e?iae? ? ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?.Aeua oaea
cacia/aeany aaaeeeaa ?ieue aaaaoueio aeae?a aaeoa??e o i?ioeanao aieooy
oa ??cieo oei?a a?iae?iiy,oiaoi o aeeiiaii? nai?oa?ii? ?ie? ia caie?.
Aaeoa??? oaeiae iathoue aaeeea cia/aiiy o eieiia?ao aoaeaoeth, eenith,
aiaeith, acioo, oinoi?o, n??ee, eaeueoe?th oa ?ioeo aeaiaio?a. Aaaaoi
aeae?a aaeoa??e ni?eythoue aeoeai?e o?enaoe?? aoiinoa?iiai acioo ?
ia?aaiaeyoue eiai a i?aai?/io oi?io,ui i?aeaeuo? ?iaeth/?noue
a?oio?a.Iniaeeai aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue aaeoa???,ui ?iceeaaeathoue
oeaetheico e iaeoeiia? ?a/iaeie,ye? ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii aoaeaoeth aeey
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a?oioo.

Noeueoao?aaeoeoth/? aaeoa??? aa?ooue o/anoue a ooai?aii? iaooe ?
n??eiaiaeith a e?eoaaeueieo a?ycyo, a?oioao ? ii?yo. Oae, iane/aiee
n??eiaiaeiai oa? aiaee a *i?iiio ii?? ? ?acoeueoaoii aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
noeueoao?aaeoeoth/eo aaeoa??e. Ae?yeuei?noue oeeo aaeoa??e o a?oioao
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy niaee ? niaeiaiai caniethaaiiy a?oio?a.
Noeueoao?aaeoeoth/? aaeoa??? ia?aaiaeyoue iiaeeai? ?a/iaeie a a?oioao
?eniaeo ieaioaoe?e o oi?io, aeinooiio aeey ei?ai?a oe??? eoeueoo?e. Oe?
aaeoa??? iiaeooue ni?e/eithaaoe ei?ic?th iaoaeaaeo i?aecaiieo ?
i?aeaiaeieo nii?oae.

Caaaeyee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aaeoa??e a?oio ca?eueiy?oueny a?ae
aaaaoueio oe?aeeeaeo i?iaeoeo?a ? iane/o?oueny oe?iieie iiaeeaieie
?a/iaeiaie. Aaeoa??ei? i?aia?aoe oni?oii aeei?enoiaothoue aeey ai?ioueae
c aaaaoueia aeaeaie eiiao-oe?aeiee?a.

Aaaaoi aeae?a aaeoa??e aeei?enoiaothoue o ??cieo aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino? aeey aeiaoaaiiy aoeaoiio, aoeeiaiai e aooeeiaiai nie?o?a,
ioeoiai? eeneioe, oa?iaio?a, ai?iii?a, a?oai?i?a, aioea?ioee?a oiui.

Caaaeyee oni?oai aaiii? ?iaeaia??? iei? c’yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue
oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoeiao iaee/eo aeey ae?iaeaiiy ?inoe?io,
?ioa?oa?iio, a aiaeiaa? aaeoa??? – aeey iaea?aeaiiy ei?iiaiai ?
oa?/iaiai a?ee?a. Aac aaeoa??e iaiiaeeea? i?ioeane aeoaeaiiy oe??e,
noo?iiy eenoe?a othothio, aeaioiaeaiiy oiaeo, eao/oeo, eaae, ii/?iiy
eiiiiaeue, eueiio oa ?ioeo eoaiaieieienoeo ?ineei, eaaoaiiy eaionoe,
i/euaiiy aiaee oiui.

Oai?iaioai?i? aaeoa??? ? ai?ioueaa c ieie. Aeua iaceaaeeny aaeoa???,
ye? ni?e/eiththoue ??ci? ?ioaeoe?ei? oai?iae ethaeeie e oaa?ei. I?ae /an
eiaeii? ?ioaeoe?eii? oai?iae icaei?ia/? caoiaee i?iaiaeyoue
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii. sseui a ai?iouea? c aeeooa???th oa ?ioeie oai?iaaie
aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a ae??oaeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?aei uaieaiiy, oi i?e
ooaa?eoeueic? – e?eoaaiiy niaoe?aeueieie i?aia?aoaie a ii?aeiaii? c
a?a??i?/iei ?aaeeiii ? noai?aiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaieo e?ea?aiue,
aeeniaina??a ? naiaoi???a. Ai?ioueaa c eeoeiaeie ?ioaeoe?yie
(aaeoa??aeueia aeecaioa??y, naeueiiiaeueice oiui) iieyaa? o e?eoaaii?
oai?eo, ioi?ii? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy caoaeieeaie
oai?ia oa i?aeaeuaiiy nai?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy. O ?ac? e?ia’yieo
?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia (aeneiiee ? iiai?ioiee oeoe oa ?i.) icaei?ia/?
caoiaee ni?yiiaai? ia aeyaeaiiy e e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ethaeae ? oaa?ei oa
cieuaiiy ia?aiiniee?a.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a:

Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee “A?ieia?y” – I.A.Na?aa?yeiaa, E.?.Eai?aaoeue.
(aeaeaiiy o?ao? 2001?.).

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