Eiioeaioe?y naiii?aai?caoe?? a iaooe?

O iao /an eiioeaioe?y naiii?aai?caoe?? iaea?aeo? ana a?eueoa iioe?aiiy
ia o?eueee a i?e?iaeiciaanoa?, aea e o nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?iiio
i?ciaii?. Ine?eueee a?eueo?noue iaoe aea/athoue i?ioeane aaiethoe??
nenoai, oi aiie ciooai? aiae?coaaoe e iaoai?cie ?oiuei?
naiii?aai?caoe??. Io /iio eiioeaioe?y naiii?aai?caoe?? noa? oaia?
ia?aaeeaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeeeiai eeano nenoai ? i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a ieo, ? yaeu. Cae/aeii i?ae ia?aaeeaiith a iaooe?
iathoue ia oaac? ooiaeaiaioaeueio oai??th, ui canoiniao?oueny aeey
iiyniaiiy oe?ieiai eiea yaeu, ui noaaeyoueny aei a?aeiia?aeii? iaeano?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?eeeaaeaie oaeeo oai??e iiaeooue neoaeeoe eeane/ia
iaoai?ea Iuethoiia aai aaiethoe?eia iaa/aiiy Aea?a?ia. Ca?ac cia/aiiy
iiiyooy ia?aaeeaie ua a?eueoa ?icoe?eeiny, ine?eueee aiii
canoiniao?oueny ia o?eueee aei ie?aieo iaoe, aea e aei
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Oeiiaeie i?eeeaaeaie
oaeeo i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo ia?aaeeai ? aeieeea i?aa?eo iacaae
e?aa?iaoeea e /aa?oue noie?ooy n?ia?aaoeea.

Oi?ioaaiiy ?aeae naiii?aai?caoe??

?aii? i?aeoiaee aei aea/aiiy naiii?aai?caoe?? a ie?aieo iaoeao ynii
iicia/eeeny ua a XVIII a. Aiie ca’ycai? ianaiia?aae c ae?yeuei?noth
iniiaiiieiaeieea eeane/ii? iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? Aaeaia Ni?oa (1723-1790),
ui o nai?e aieiai?e i?aoe? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo e i?e/eie
aaaaonoaa ia?iae?a» ynii ae?acea ?aeath i?i oa, ui niiioaiiee ii?yaeie
ia ?eieo ? ?acoeueoaoii aca?iiae?? ??cieo, /anoi i?ioeeaaeieo i?aaiaiue,
oe?eae ? ?ioa?an?a /eneaiieo eiai o/aniee?a. Naia oaea aca?iiae?y
i?eaiaeeoue aei anoaiiaeaiiy oiai i?eei ia ia?aaeaa/aiiai e
iacaieaiiaaiiai ii?yaeeo ia ?eieo, ui ae?aaea?oueny a ??aiiaac? iiieoo
oa i?iiiceoe??. Oeth aieiaio naith aeoieo A. Ni?o ae?acea o oi?i?
iaoaoi?e «iaaeaeeii? ?oee» , ui ?aaoeth? oe?ie ia ?eieo.

Eiaeia ie?aia ethaeeia iaiaaa?oueny aaeeaaoe na?e eai?oae oae, uia
i?iaeoeo iaa iaea?eueoo aa?o?noue. Cae/aeii aiia ? ia ia? ia oaac?
ni?eyoe noni?euei?e ei?eno? e ia ona?aeiieoue, iane?eueee ni?ey? ?e.
Aiia ia? ia oaac? eeoa aeanio aeaiaeo, i?e/iio a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aiia
iaaeaeeiith ?oeith iai?aaey?oueny aei iaoe, ui ia aoiaeeea a ?? iai??e.
Aeaath/e eeoa i?i nai? aeani? ?ioa?ane, aiia /anoi a?eueoa ae?th/ei
ia?acii neoaeeoue ?ioa?anai noni?euenoaa, /ei oiae?, eiee na?aeiii
i?aaia neoaeeoe ?i.

Aiaeia?/i? ?aea? uiaei naiii?aai?caoe?? ii?i ii?aeueiino? a noni?euenoa?
aeneiaethaaee a o?i aea noie?oo? oioeaiaenuee? ii?ae?noe, ye?
i?aee?anethaaee, ui i?eioeeie ii?aeueiiai iiaiaeaeaiiy ethaeae ia
noai?ththoueny i?aaeoaeyie, iie?oeeaie e ?ioeie noni?eueieie ae?y/aie, a
oi?iothoueny iia?eueii e iinooiiai a oiae? naiii?aai?caoe?? ethaeae i?ae
aieeaii oiia, ui ci?iththoueny, ?oiueiai aeeooy.

Aaaeeeai i?e oeueiio caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui ?aea? naiii?aai?caoe??,
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy e iie?ioaiiy ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo nenoai ?
noni?eueieo onoaiia caaaeai? a/ai? ca’ycothoue ?c aaiethoe?eieie
i?ioeanaie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. Cae/aeii,
iae/ano?oa ?aea? naiii?aai?caoe?? e aaiethoe?? ia aoee /?oei ? ynii
ae?aaeai?, aiie nei??oa aoee ?acoeueoaoii ?ioo?oeaiiai i?ic??iiy, /ei
no?iaiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioa, a?ae oeueiai ?oiy oe?ii?noue
ia ciaioo?oueny, oiio ui aiie i?aeaiooaaee ??oio aeey iaeaooi?o
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? e aaiethoe??.

Aaiethoe?eia oai??y Aea?a?ia iineoaeeea iiooaeiei iiooiaoii aeey
?icai?oaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue i?i iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo ??cieo i?e?iaeieo ?
nioe?aeueieo nenoai. sseui o?ce/i? e o?i?/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaaaoi /iai aeaee aeey aiae?co no?oeoo?e e ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeaeo
nenoai, oi aaiethoe?eia eiioeaioe?y a?ieia?? cioneea o?cee?a ? o?i?e?a
ii-iiaiio aeyiooe ia ia’?eoe nai?o aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?e?iaeo a oe?eiio.
Aiie ciooai? aoee caaaeaoe ia oa aeeaiea i?ioe??//y, ui ?nioaaei i?ae
?oi?ie iiaeyaeaie e aacnoii?aieie oaeo ? oai?aoe/ii ia??oioiaaieie
oaa?aeaeaiiyie aea?a?i?anueei? aaiethoe?eii? oai???. Oi?ioaaiiy ?aeae
naiii?aai?caoe?? o o?ceeo aoei i?iaeeeoiaaii naia i?aaiaiiyi ia?aai?ioe
cacia/aia i?ioe??//y, ui na?ae/eei i?i oa, ui aeaye? ?? iniiai? iiiyooy
e i?eioeeie iathoue caiaaeoi ?aeaae?ciaaiee oa?aeoa? ? iaaaeaeaaoii
a?aeia?aaeathoue aeine?aeaeoaaio ?aaeuei?noue.

Ianaiia?aae iiiyooy i?i iai?ioi? i?ioeane, ui i?oeii caoaa?aeeany a
iaoai?eo, ia a?aoiaoaaei ?aaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?ioeano ci?i o i?e?iae?.
Ae?enii, aeey iaoai?/iiai iieno i?ioean?a aeineoue caaeaoe eeoa
ii/aoeia? eii?aeeiaoe e oaeaee?noue o?ea, ui ?ooa?oueny. Oiae? ca
aeiiiiiaith nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue, ui iienothoue ?oo,
iiaeia iaeiicia/ii aecia/eoe iieiaeaiiy o?ea a aoaeue-yeee iiiaio ye o
ieioeiio, oae ? a nueiaiaeaii?. Oiio oaeoi? /ano ii noo? ni?aae ia ia?
i?yeiai cia/aiiy a iaoai?eo.

Oaea oyaeaiiy ae?ae ni?iuo? aeanoeaino? ?aaeueieo i?ioean?a, ? a
na?aaeei? ieioeiai noie?ooy o?ceee o ca’yceo c aea/aiiyi oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a ciooai? aoee aaanoe oaeoi? /ano, ui a?aeaeaaa ae ?aaeuei?
ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a oiae? aaiethoe?? nenoaie. Aea oyaeaiiy i?i
aaiethoe?th a eeane/i?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe?, ui aea/a? ?cieueiaai? nenoaie,
aoei cian?i /oaei iaoai?oe?. O oie aea /an aaiethoe?y a oa?iiaeeiai?eo
?icoi?eany cian?i ?iaeoa, /ei o a?ieia??. Ni?aaae?, yeui a oai???
Aea?a?ia aaiethoe?y i?eaaea aei aaeineiiaethaaiiy e oneeaaeiaiiy aeeaeo
nenoai o ?acoeueoao? ?oiuei? aaeaioaoe?? aei oiia, ui ci?iththoueny,
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oi a eeane/i?e o?ceoe? aiia ca’ycoaaeany c
aeaci?aai?caoe??th e ?oeioaaiiyi nenoaie. Oaea oyaeaiiy aeieeaaei ?c
ae?oaiai ii/aoeo oa?iiaeeiai?ee, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai cae?eoa nenoaia
iinooiiai aaiethoe?iio? oa?e aaceaaeaey e aeaci?aai?caoe??

??cea i?ioe??//y i?ae a?ieia?/iith e o?ce/iith aaiethoe??th aaeaeiny
aeicaieeoe o?eueee i?ney oiai, eiee o?ceea caa?ioeany aei iiiyooy
a?aee?eoi? nenoaie, oiaoi nenoaie, ui iai?ith?oueny c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai ?a/iaeiith, aia?a??th e ?ioi?iaoe??th. Ca iaaieo oiia o
a?aee?eoeo nenoaiao iiaeooue aeieeiooe i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe?? a
?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaiiy iiai? aia?a?? e ?a/iaeie cciai?, aai
?icn?thaaiiy, aeei?enoaii? a nenoai? aia?a??. Oaeei /eiii, aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe??
ao?eio?oueny a aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? nenoaie c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai.

Aei anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueiiai iiaeyaeo ia i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe?? ??ci?
a/ai? eoee ??cieie oeyoaie. Aaoi? naiiai oa?i?ia «n?ia?aaoeea»
i?iaoeueeee o?cee Aa?iai Oaeai, ui i?aoethaaa o eaai?aoi??yo o??ie Aaeea
iaae iiaeie aeaea?aeaie na?oea, aeine?aeaeoaaa iaoai?cie eiiia?aoeaieo
i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o eaca??. A?i c’ynoaaa, ui /anoee, ui
noaiiaeyoue aeoeaia na?aaeiaeua ?aciiaoi?a, i?ae aieeaii ciai?oiueiai
na?oeiaiai iiey ii/eiathoue eieeaaoeny a iaei?e oac?. O ?acoeueoao?
oeueiai i?ae ieie anoaiiaeth?oueny eiaa?aioia, aai iiaiaeaeaia,
aca?iiae?y, ui i?eaiaeeoue a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo aei ?o
eiiia?aoeaiiai, aai eieaeoeaiiio, iiaiaeaeaiith.

Iaeiae ia ii/aoeo, ii eiai aeaniiio aeciaiith, a?i ynii ia ?icoi?a, ui
iiae?ai? i?ioeane iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny e a ?ioeo nenoaiao, a eaca? —
eeoa iaeei c oeiiaeo ?oi?o i?aaenoaaiee?a.

Aeaeiee oai?aoee naiii?aai?caoe?? ?.?. I?eaiaeei i?eeoia aei nai?o ?aeae
c aiae?co niaoeeo?/ieo o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy
iaaieo i?inoi?iaeo no?oeoo? ?c /anii i?e ci?i? eiioeaio?aoe?? ?aaaoth/eo
?a/iaei. ?acii c? nai?ie ni?a?ia?oieeaie a?i iiaoaeoaaa iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue oaeeo ?aaeoe?e, ye? aia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aoee aea/ai?
a/aieie A. Aaeioniaei ? I. AEaaioeinueeei

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith iiaeae? noaea iae?i?eia oa?iiaeeiai?ea, ui aea/a?
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iae?i?eieo ia??aiiaaaeo nenoaiao i?ae
aieeaii oeoeooaoe?e. sseui oaea nenoaia aeeo/aia a?ae e?aiee
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae, oi aeieeath/? a i?e oeoeooaoe?? a
?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? ?c na?aaeiaeuai aoaeooue i?aeneethaaoeny e
c?aooith i?eaaaeooue aei ?oeioaaiiy eieeoiueiai ii?yaeeo aai no?oeoo?e,
a oei naiei ? aei aeieeiaiiy iiai? nenoaie. No?oeoo?e e nenoaie, ui
aeieeathoue i?e oeueiio, ?.?. I?eaiaeei iacaaa aeeneiaoeaieie, ine?eueee
aiie ooai?ththoueny ca ?aooiie aeeneiaoe??, aai ?icn?thaaiiy, aia?a??,
aeei?enoaiith nenoaiith, ? iaea?aeaiiy c iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
iiai?, na?aei? aia?a??. Ca aeine?aeaeaiiy c oa?iiaeeiai?ee aeeneiaoeaieo
no?oeoo? ?.?. I?eaiaeeio aoea i?enoaeaeaia Iiaae?anueea i?ai?y ii o?i??.

?ioee aeaeiee oai?aoee naiii?aai?caoe?? i?iaoeueeee o/aiee I. Aeaai
ia?aeiieeai aeia?a, ui a?aee?eoee *. Aea?a?iii i?eioeei aeiai?o
i?iaeiaaeo? caa??aaoe nai? cia/aiiy e ia i?e?i??ai?. Oiio a?i iaa an?
i?aenoaae caoaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aaiacen aeeooy ? ?acoeueoao i?ioeano
aeiai?o, ui a?aeaoaa? ia iieaeoey?iiio ??ai?. A?i iieacaa, ui neeaaei?
i?aai?/i? no?oeoo?e c aaeaioaoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeieeathoue
caaaeyee aaiethoe?eiiio i?ioeano aeiai?o, o yeiio aaeaioaoe?y
iioei?co?oueny naieie no?oeoo?aie. Ia?aaeoiiaaie aeey cae?eniaiiy oaei?
naiii?aai?caoe?? iae?iiieaeoe ? aca?iiae?y nenoaie ?c na?aaeiaeuai aai
a?aee?eo?noue aeey iai?io ?a/iaeiith e aia?a??th, aaoieaoae?c, iooaoe??
e i?e?iaeiee aeia??.

Ia ii/aoeo 1960-o ??. A. Ei?aioe, aea/ath/e eiii’thoa?i? iiaeae?
i?i?ieoaaiiy iiaiaee, i?eeoia aei aaaeeeaiai a?aee?eooy, ui ??aiyiiy, ui
iienothoue i?ioeane, i?e iaeaea oeo aea naieo ii/aoeiaeo oiiaao
i?eaiaeyoue aei cian?i ??cieo ?acoeueoao?a. A oea na?ae/eei i?i oa, ui
aeaoa?i?i?nonueea nenoaia ??aiyiue aeyaey? oaioe/ia iiaiaeaeaiiy.
Ca?aene aoa c?iaeaiee aeniiaie, ui oain oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiei
ii?yaeeii, ui, iaeiae, ia? a?eueoa neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. Eiai iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye aeae ?aaoey?ii? ia?aaoey?iino?.

Ie aa/eii ca?aene, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? ia
ii/aoeo 1960-o ??. iaiaaeoaaeeny ie?aieie i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaeie e
?iaeaia?ieie aeenoeeie?iaie. Nai? aeine?aeieee ia iaaeaaaee ?i
ocaaaeueithth/iai oa?aeoa?o e oiio i?ooi oiae? ia ia?aaeaa/aa, ui c ieo
a 70-o ??. noi?io?oueny ?aeeia ia?aaeeaia i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeiae iinooiiai a/ai? o nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo noaee
aeoiaeeoe ca ?aiee nai?o aeenoeeie?i, ii/aee caoaaaeoaaoe aiaeia?th i?ae
iiiyooyie e ??aiyiiyie, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny aeey aiae?co ??cieo ii
eiie?aoiiio ci?no? i?ioean?a. Oaeei /eiii, iia?eueii, aea iaooeeueii
oi?ioaaeiny ia?aeiiaiiy, ui o an?o oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?nio? ?aeeia
eiioeaiooaeueia yae?i, ui neoaeeoue caaaeueiith ?oiueith iniiaith. O
nooiino? naia oea yae?i e noaiiaeoue ia?aaeeaio aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
naiii?aai?caoe??.

Iaeiae aiii ia?aoai?eeiny a oaeo ia?aaeeaio o?eueee a oiiaao iaaiiai
iaoeiaiai e nioe?aeueiiai ee?iaoo, ui aeiee a 1970-a ?iee, eiee e o
iaooe? e o nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo? eoia iiooe iiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe??
aeine?aeieoeueei? e noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?. O iaooe? oae? iiooee
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny a?aeiiaith a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a
?aaeoeoe?iiecia, eiee neeaaei? i?ioeane iaiaaaeeny caanoe aei i?inoei ?
aeaiaioa?iei, a oei naiei ?aii?oaaee ?oi? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?. O
nenoai? ooai?aiiy nooaeaioe aeiaaaee a?aeiiae a?ae canoa??eeo iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy, iaaeaiiy ?i a?eueoi? aie? e naiino?eiino?.

Aeey iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy oeueiai /ano iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei aoa ia?ao?ae
a?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo i?aaeiao?a ? i?ioean?a aei aea/aiiy ?oi?o
oe?e?nieo nenoai, a?ae ?icaeyaeo ?oiueiai aoooy e ?nioaaiiy — aei
aiae?co ?oiueiai aeieeiaiiy e ?icaeoeo. Oaeee ia?ao?ae /?oei ae?aaeaiee
o iiaiio nenoaiiiio iaoiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui iaea?aeaa oe?iea
iioe?aiiy i?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie o oi?i? eiiieaenieo ?
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ? e?aa?iaoeea e i?ci?oa aeieeea
n?ia?aaoeea ?icaeaathoueny a ?one? caaaeueiiai nenoaiiiai ?ooo iaoee,
aeine?aeaeoth/e oae? iaeaaaeeea?o? aniaeoe nenoai, ye ?oiy aeeiai?/ia
no?ee?noue, naiii?aai?caoe?y e i?aai?caoe?y e iniaeeai iaoai?ci
aeieeiaiiy iiaeo nenoaiieo yeinoae.

?c e?aiee ci?o, ui oe?eaaeoue ian, a?aei?ii?noue e?aa?iaoeee a?ae
n?ia?aaoeee iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o o?i, ui ia?oa aeoeaioo? oaaao ia
aiae?c? aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae a nenoaiao, ui naiii?aai?cothoueny. Oiio
aiia iie?a?oueny ia i?eioeei iaaaoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai anyea a?aeoeeaiiy nenoaie ei?aeoo?oueny ea?oth/ei
i?eno?i?i i?ney iaea?aeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oea. O oeueiio ci?no?
i?eionoeii, iaaooue, oaeiae aiai?eoe i?i naiii?aai?caoe?th, aea ooo oey
naiii?aai?caoe?y caeeaaeaia a nenoaio naiith i?e?iaeith, ye oea aeaeii
ia i?eeeaae? aiiainoaco o ooieoe?iioaaii? aeeaeo nenoai, aai aiia
cacaeaeaa?aeue ieaio?oueny e eiino?oth?oueny ethaeeiith, iai?eeeaae, a
aaoiiaoao ? ?ioeo iiae?aieo i?eno?iyo.

O n?ia?aaoeoe? ia i?ioeaaao e?aa?iaoeoe? aeine?aeaeothoueny iaoai?cie
aeieeiaiiy iiaeo noai?a, no?oeoo? ? oi?i o i?ioean? naiii?aai?caoe??, a
ia caa?aaeaiiy aai i?aeo?eiee noa?eo oi?i. Naia oiio aiia iie?a?oueny ia
i?eioeei iiceoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, eiee ci?ie, ui aeieeee a
nenoai?, ia i?eaeooothoueny aai ei?aeoothoueny, a, iaaiaee, iinooiiai
iaeiie/othoueny e c?aooith i?eaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy noa?i? e
aeieeiaiith iiai? nenoaie.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a, ui naiii?aai?cothoueny, o e?oa?aoo??
aaeeaathoueny ??ci? oa?i?ie, ii/eiath/e a?ae n?ia?aaoe/ieo ? e?i/ath/e
iae?i?eieie ia??aiiaaaeie nenoaiaie aai iaa?oue nenoaiaie aaoi
iiaoe/ieie aai ui naiiiiiaeththoueny. Aea a oe?eiio an? aiie
ae?aaeathoue oo naio ?aeath, oiio ui iiaa a ieo ?aea i?i nenoaie, ui ?
nenoaiaie a?aee?eoeie, ui ia?aaoaathoue oaeaeei? a?ae e?aiee
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae.

Oi/a aeey an?o ?o iiee ia ?nio? ?aeeiee ooiaeaiaioaeueii? oai???, o
caaaeueio ia?aaeeaio ?o ii?aeio? i?eiaeaaei?noue aei neeaaeii
i?aai?ciaaieo nenoai.

Naiii?aai?caoe?y ye iniiaa aaiethoe??

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?aea? aaiethoe??, ii/eiath/e a?ae einiiaii?/ii?
a?iioace Eaioa e e?i/ath/e aaiethoe?eiith oai???th Aea?a?ia, iaea?aeaee
oe?iea aeciaiiy a iaooe?, i?ioa aiie oi?ioethaaeeny nei??oa a
?ioo?oeaieo, /ei oai?aoe/ieo oa?i?iao. Oiio a ieo aaaeei aoei aeyaeoe
oie caaaeueiee iaoai?ci, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai cae?enith?oueny
aaiethoe?y. sse a?aecia/aeiny aeua, aieiaiith ia?aoeiaeith ooo neoaeeei
??cea i?ioenoaaeaiiy aeeaeo nenoai iaaeeaei, noni?eueieo — i?e?iaeiei. A
iniia? oaeiai i?ioenoaaeaiiy eaaeaee caiaaeoi aano?aeoi?, a oiio
iaaaeaeaaoi? iiiyooy e i?eioeeie eeane/ii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee i?i
?cieueiaai? e ??aiiaaaei? nenoaie. Naia oiio aaiethoe?y o?ce/ieo nenoai
ca’ycoaaeany c ?oiueith aeaci?aai?caoe??th, ui noia?a/eei
caaaeueiii?eeiyoei o a?ieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo iaoeao oyaeaiiyi i?i
aaiethoe?th.

Uia aeicaieeoe aeieeea aeeaiea i?ioe??//y i?ae eeane/iith
oa?iiaeeiai?/iith aaiethoe??th, c iaeiiai aieo, ? aaiethoe??th
a?ieia?/ii? e nioe?aeueii?, c ?ioee, — o?ceee ciooai? aoee a?aeiiaeoeny
a?ae ni?iuaieo iiiyoue ? noai ? cai?noue ieo oaanoe iiiyooy i?i
a?aee?eo? nenoaie e iaiai?ioi? i?ioeane. Caaaeyee oeueiio aeyaeeiny
iiaeeeaei ?icaeoe iiao iae?i?eio e ia??aiiaaao oa?iiaeeiai?eo
iaiai?ioieo i?ioean?a, ui noaea iniiaith no/anii? eiioeaioe??
naiii?aai?caoe??.

Naiii?aai?caoe?y a aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo?ao

*eneaii? i?eeeaaee naiii?aai?caoe?? a a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo, oaieiaeo ?
?ioeo o?ce/ieo nenoaiao, ia aiai?y/e aaea i?i nenoaie aeeai? i?e?iaee,
o/ai? caoaaaeoaaee aeaaii. Aea a neeo iiaeyae?a, ui aeii?ioaaee a iaooe?
naiai /ano, aiie iii?inoo ia caoaaaeoaaee ?o aai iaiaaaeeny iiynieoe ca
aeiiiiiaith ?nioth/eo oiae? iiiyoue ? i?eioeei?a.

Ine?eueee a iaooe? XVII — ia?oi? iieiaeie XIXno. aeii?ioaaea
iaoai?noe/ia ia?aaeeaia, ino?eueee a i?e an? i?ioeane iaiaaaeeny
iiynieoe oeyoii a?aeiiino? ?o aei caeii?a iaoai?/iiai ?ooo iaoa??aeueieo
/anoie. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui oe? /anoee iiaeooue ?ooaoeny, ia
aca?iiae?th/e iaeei c iaeiei, a naia aieiaia — ?oi? iieiaeaiiy e
oaeaee?noue ?ooo aoaeooue oi/ii e iaeiicia/ii iaaieie a aoaeue-yeee
iiiaio o ieioeiio, nueiaiaeaii? e iaeaooiueiio, yeui caaeai? ?oi?
ii/aoeiaa iieiaeaiiy e oaeaee?noue. Ioaea, o oaeiio iaoai?/iiio iien?
/an ia ia? i?yeiai cia/aiiy e oiio eiai ciae iiaeia i?iyoe ia cai?ioiee.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai iiae?ai? i?ioeane noaee iaceaaoe iai?ioieie. O
aeayeeo aeiaaeeao, eiee iiaa eaea i?i aeayeeo ? uiaei ?cieueiaaieo ae?oa
a?ae ae?oaa o?eao ? nenoaiao, oaeee aano?aeoiee i?aeo?ae iiaea aeyaeoeny
aeioe?eueiei ? ei?eniei. Iaeiae o a?eueoino? ?aaeueieo aeiaaee?a
aeiaiaeeoueny a?aoiaoaaoe ci?io nenoai o /an?, oiaoi iaoe ni?aaa c
iaiai?ioieie i?ioeanaie.

sse ie aaea a?aecia/aee aeua, oia?oa oae? i?ioeane noaee aea/aoeny a
oa?iiaeeiai?eo, ui ii/aoeo aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?eioeeiiai a?aei?ii? a?ae
iaoai?/ieo oaieia? yaeua. Oaiei ia?aaea?oueny a?ae iaa??oiai o?ea aei
oieiaeiiai, a ia iaaiaee. ?c /anii aiii ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?ey?oueny a
o?e? aai iaaeieeoiueiio i?inoi??. An? oe? iaei?ino?o? yaeua ia iiaeia
aoei iienoaaoe aac iae?eo oaeoi?a /ano. Ia oaeee oaiiiaiieia?/ii? iniia?
aoee noi?ioeueiaai? aeo?aei? ii/aoee aai caeiie eeane/ii?
oa?iiaeeiai?ee, na?aae yeeo iaeaaaeeea?oo ?ieue a?a? caeii aio?ii??.
Iiiyooy aio?ii?? oa?aeoa?eco? oo /anoeio niiaiaii? aia?a?? nenoaie, ui
ia iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ?iaioe. Oiio ia a?aei?io
a?ae a?eueii? aia?a?? aiia yaey? niaith aeaa?aaeiaaio, a?aei?aoeueiaaio
aia?a?th. sseui iicia/eoe a?eueio aia?a?th /a?ac F, aio?ii?th — S, oi
iiaia aia?a?y nenoaie A aoaea aei??aith?

E=F+ST,

aea O — aaniethoia oaiia?aoo?a ii Eaeuea?i?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ae?oaiai caeiio oa?iiaeeiai?ee, aio?ii?y a caieioo?e
nenoai? iino?eii c?inoa? e a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo i?aaia aei naiai
iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy. Ioaea, ii nooiai? c?inoaiiy aio?ii?? iiaeia
noaeeoe i?i aaiethoe?th caieiooi? nenoaie, a oei naiei ? i?i /an ??
ci?ie. Oae oia?oa o o?ce/io iaoeo aoee oaaaeai? iiiyooy /ano e
aaiethoe??, iia’ycai? c? ci?iith nenoai. Aea iiiyooy aaiethoe?? a
eeane/i?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe?, ye ie aaea a?aecia/aee aeua, ?icaeyaea?oueny
cian?i ?iaeoa, /ei o caaaeueiii?eeiyoiio ci?no?. Oea noaei oe?eeii
i/aaeaeiei i?ney oiai, eiee i?iaoeueeee o/aiee E. Aieueoeiai (1844-1906)
noaa ?ioa?i?aooaaoe aio?ii?th ye i??o aaceaaeaey a nenoai?. Oaeei /eiii,
ae?oaee caeii iiaeia aoei oaia? noi?ioethaaoe oae: caieiooa nenoaia,
iaaeaia naii? nia?, i?aaia aei aeinyaiaiiy iaea?eueo ?iia??iiai noaio,
ui iieyaa? a ?? iaeneiaeuei?e aeaci?aai?caoe??. Oi/a /enoi oi?iaeueii
aeaci?aai?caoe?th iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye naiii?aai?caoe?th c iaaaoeaiei
ciaeii aai naiiaeaci?aai?caoe?th, i?ioa oaeee iiaeyae i?/iai caaaeueiiai
ia ia? c? ci?noiaiith ?ioa?i?aoaoe??th naiii?aai?caoe?? ye i?ioeano
noaiiaeaiiy ye?nii iiaiai, a?eueoa aenieiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo nenoaie. Aea
aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii aoei a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae oaeeo aano?aeoe?e, ye
?cieueiaaia nenoaia e ??aiiaaaeiee noai.

Oei /anii eeane/ia oa?iiaeeiai?ea naia ia ieo naia e iie?aeany e oiio
?icaeyaeaea, iai?eeeaae, /anoeiai a?aee?eo? nenoaie aai, ui
ia?aaoaathoue iiaeeco a?ae e?aiee oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae ye aeiaaeee
?cieueiaaieo ??aiiaaaeieo nenoai. I/aaeaeii, ui aeey iiyniaiiy i?ioean?a
naiii?aai?caoe?? iaiao?aeii aoei aaanoe iia? iiiyooy e i?eioeeie, ye? a
aaeaeaaoii iienoaaee ?aaeuei? i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe??, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a i?e?iae? e noni?euenoa?.

Iaea?eueo ooiaeaiaioaeueiei c ieo, ye ie aaea cia?ii, ? iiiyooy
a?aee?eoi? nenoaie, ui caeaoia iai?ithaaoeny c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai
?a/iaeiith, aia?a??th aai ?ioi?iaoe??th. Ine?eueee i?ae ?a/iaeiith e
aia?a??th ?nio? aca?iica’ycie, ino?eueee iiaeia neacaoe, ui nenoaia a
oiae? nai?? aaiethoe?? ?iaeoue aio?ii?th, ui, iaeiae, ia iaeiie/o?oueny
a i?e, a a?aeaeaey?oueny e ?icn?th?oueny a iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeu?.
Cai?noue ?? ?c na?aaeiaeua iaaeoiaeeoue na?aea aia?a?y e naia aiane?aeie
oaeiai aacia?a?aiiai iai?io aio?ii?y nenoaie iiaea ia c?inoaoe, a
caeeoaoeny iaci?iii? aai iaa?oue ciaiooaaoeny. Ca?aene noa? yniei, ui
a?aee?eoa nenoaia ia iiaea aooe ??aiiaaaeii?, oiio ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeiaaa? aacia?a?aiiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aia?a?? e ?a/iaeie ?c ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, aiane?aeie /iai ia??aiiaaaa a nenoai? i?aeneeth?oueny. A
inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo eieeoi?e aca?iica’ycie i?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie,
oiaoi ?? eieeoiy no?oeoo?a, ?oeio?oueny. I?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie
aeieeathoue iia? eiaa?aioi?, aai iiaiaeaeai?, a?aeiineie, ye?
i?eaaaeooue aei eiiia?aoeaieo i?ioean?a ? aei eieaeoeaiiio iiaiaeaeaiith
?? aeaiaio?a. Oae noaiaoe/ii iiaeooue aooe iienai? i?ioeane
naiii?aai?caoe?? o a?aee?eoeo nenoaiao, ye? iia’ycai? c aeeneiaoe??th,
aai ?icn?thaaiiyi, aio?ii?? a iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua.

?niothoue oaeiae aeiaaeee naiii?aai?caoe?? ?ioiai oeio, o yeeo ia?ao?ae
aei iiaeo no?oeoo? ia iia’ycaiee c aeeneiaoe??th. Iai?eeeaae,
ca?eueooth/e iai?? aiaee oeyoii a?aee?eooy aiaeii?ia?aeiiai e?aia, ie
iiaeaii niinoa??aaoe ia?ao?ae a?ae ieaaiiai eai?ia?iiai ieeio ??aeeie
aei ao?oeeaiai oo?aoeaioiiai. ?iiae? niinoa??aathoueny iaa?oue aeiaaeee,
eiee aeieeiaiiy iiaeo no?oeoo? a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
aio?ii?? naii? nenoaie. Oae a?aeaoaa?oueny, iai?eeeaae, i?ioean
ooai?aiiy e?enoae?a c ??aeeie, ni?aeieo ieano?aoe?a ? a?ieia?/ieo
iaia?ai.

Iaeiae o oeae /an iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an ? iniiaia cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue,
cae/aeii, aeeneiaoeai? no?oeoo?e. sse c?acie aeey iiaoaeiae oai?aoe/ii?
iiaeae? oaeeo no?oeoo?, iacaaiiai a?thnaeyoi?ii, iineoaeeee, niaoeeo?/i?
o?i?/i? ?aaeoe??, aea/ai? iaoeie a/aieie A. Aaeioniaei ? I.
AEaaioeinueeei. Oae? ?aaeoe?? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ooai?aiiyi iniaeeaeo
i?inoi?iaeo no?oeoo? ? a?aeaoaathoueny ca ?aooiie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iiaeo
o?i?/ieo ?aaaaio?a ? aeaeaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??. Aaaeeeaith ?oiueith
iniaeea?noth ? oaeiae i?enooi?noue eaoae?caoi??a, ye? ni?eythoue
i?enei?aiith oiaeo ?aaeoe??.

Aaiethoe?y e oai??y nenoai

Nenoaiiee ?oo, ui iaea?aeaa oe?iea iioe?aiiy a iaooe? i?ney Ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie, noaaeoue nai?th iaoith caaacia/eoe oe?e?niee iiaeyae ia
ie?, iie?i/eoe c aocueeei aeenoeeie?ia?iei i?aeoiaeii aei eiai i?ciaiiy
e ni?eyoe ?icai?oaiith aace?/? i?ia?ai ii i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiio
aeine?aeaeaiith eiiieaenieo i?iaeai. Naia a ?aieao oeueiai ?ooo
noi?ioaaeeny oae? iaeaaaeeea?o? iai?yiee i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye e?aa?iaoeea e n?ia?aaoeea.

Oai??y nenoai o o?i aeae?, ye aiia i?aaenoaaeaia aano??enueeei
a?ieiaii-oai?aoeeii Ethaea?aii oei Aa?oaeaio? (1901-1972) ? eiai
iine?aeiaieeaie, i???ioo?oueny a oe?eiio ia i?aeo?eieo e caa?aaeaiiy
noaa?eueiino? e no?eeino? aeeiai?/ieo nenoai. Iai oaea aeiaiaeeeiny
aeacoaaoe, ui e?aa?iaoe/ia naiii?aai?caoe?y oaoi?/ieo nenoai
?aaoethaaiiy iaoe?eaia ia caa?aaeaiiy ?oiuei? aeeiai?/ii? no?eeino? ca
aeiiiiiaith iaaaoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo. Iiaa, a?eueoa caaaeueia
aeeiai?/ia oai??y nenoai iiaeiia, iaaooue, iie?aoeny ia o?
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? aoee aeinyaioo? a iae?i?ei?e
oa?iiaeeiai?oe? e ianaiia?aae o oai??? aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo?. Aaeaea
iie?ath/enue ia eieeoi? oyaeaiiy ??aiiaaaeii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee, ia iiaeia
c?icoi?oe iaoai?cio aeieeiaiiy iiaiai ii?yaeeo e no?oeoo?, a ioaea, ?
ni?aaaeiuei? aaiethoe?? nenoai, iia’ycaii? c aeieeiaiiyi iiaiai a
?icaeoeo. Io /iio no/ani? aaoi?e caa?ioeeny aei oai??? aeeneiaoeaieo
no?oeoo? ? n?ia?aaoeee aeey iiyniaiiy i?ioean?a aaiethoe??. Cae/aeii,
oey oai??y ia iiaea ua ia??oiooaaoe ?yae iaeaaaeeea?oeo iieiaeaiue
aaiethoe??, iniaeeai eiee iiaa caoiaeeoue i?i einiieia?/io aaiethoe?th,
aca?iiae?th i?ioean?a i?aai?caoe?? e aeaci?aai?caoe?? e aeayeeo ?ioeo.
Aea aiia aea? eeth/ aei ?icoi?iiy aaaaoueio aaaeeeaeo aaiethoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a aeea?e i?e?iae?, a nai aieiaia —
aeiiiiaaa? anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie i?ae iaaeeaith e aeeaith i?e?iaeith oeyoii
aiae?co oi?i iiia?aae a?ioe/ii? aaiethoe??, aeieeiaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo
aeeaeo nenoai c i?aai?/ieo iae?iiieaeoe.

sseui naiii?aai?caoe?y a iaei?ino?o?e oi?i? iiaea aeieeiooe aaea o
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo nenoaiao, oi oe?eeii ia??oioiaaii i?eionoeoe, ui a?eueoa
nenoaie iiaee c’yaeoeny oaeiae o ?acoeueoao? niaoeeo?/iiai, ye?nii
a?aei?iiiai a aaaaoueio a?aeiineiao, aea ?iaeeiiiai ii oa?aeoa??
i?ioeano naiii?aai?caoe??. ?c oeueiai iiaeyaeo e aeieeiaiiy aeeooy ia
Caie? iaa?yae /e iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye oi?eaeueia e oe?ae iaeieiia??io
iiae?th, ye caoaa?aeaeoaaa, iai?eeeaae, a?aeiiee o?aioeocueeee a?ieia
AEae Iiii. Iacaaaeath/e ia ae?ae ??aeea niieo/aiiy oaeoi??a, aeieeiaiiy
aeeooy ia Caie? i?aaenoaaey? i?ioa caeiiii??iee ?acoeueoao o?eaaeiai
i?ioeano aaiethoe??.

Oiio oe?eeii i?aaaeiiiae?aia aeiiouaiiy, ui i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe??
iiaeooue noaoe iniiaith aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aace?/? an?eyeeo
aaiethoe?eieo i?ioean?a. I?aaaea, i?e oeueiio aeneiaeththoueny
iiaithaaiiy, /e ia aaaea oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ?aaeoeoe?iiecio aai iaa?oue
aei o?ceeae?cio, oiaoi iiyniaiith aeanoeainoae ? caeiiii??iinoae nenoai
caeiiii??iinoyie i?inoeo o?ce/ieo nenoai. I?ioe oaeiai iiaithaaiiy
iiaeia aenoiooe ?yae ia?aeiieeaeo a?aoiaio?a. Ii/aoe c oiai, ui oai??y
aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? ?c naiiai ii/aoeo iinooeth?, ui ciiao aeieeath/?
no?oeoo?e e nenoaie ooai?youeny a ?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy eieeoi?o
neiao??e, no?oeoo? ? ii?yaeeo, oae ui i?i a?aeii?noue aei ieo iiaeo
no?oeoo? ia iiaea aooe iiae. E??i oiai, aiai?y/e i?i eaoae?oe/i?
aeeneiaoeai? no?oeoo?e ye iniiae ??cieo oi?i aaiethoe??, oai?aoeee
n?ia?aaoeee caa?oathoue oaaao ia no?eueee ia i?inoo ?oith iiae?ai?noue,
ne?eueee ia aeeaiea nii??aeiaiiy a ?oi?e iniia? iaoai?cio
naiii?aai?caoe??.

E?oa?aoo?a

1.Aaeaeaiei I. I. Aaiethoe?y iiiyooy iaoee: Noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoie
ia?oeo iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai. — E., 1998

2.Eie?a A. Ia?ene ?noi??? o?einionueei? aeoiee: I?i aieea o?einionueeeo
eiioeaioe?e ia ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo oai??e. — E., 2002

3.Oieoii Aeae. Oaiaoe/iee aiae?c iaoee. — E., 2003

4.Oiaeia A.A. Ea?oa Ciaiee (Iao/iay Ea?oeia Ie?a). — I, 2005.

5.Iia?ei A. E. AEeciue, aa i?e?iaea, i?ienoiaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea – I.,
1994

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