Iiiyooy nenoaie, ye iaoeiaiai oa?i?ia

O naiiio caaaeueiiio e oe?ieiio ci?no? neiaa i?ae nenoaiiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu iaaeieeoiueiai ian ie?o ?icoi?thoue
oaeee iaoiae, i?e yeiio aiie ?icaeyaeathoueny ye /anoeie aai aeaiaioe
iaaiiai oe?e?niiai ooai?aiiy. Oe? /anoeie aai aeaiaioe, aca?iiae?th/e
iaeei c iaeiei, aecia/athoue iia?, oe?e?ni? aeanoeaino? nenoaie, ye?
a?aenooi? a ie?aieo ?? aeaiaio?a. Iaeiae oea i?aaeei canoiniaaii eeoa
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoai, ui neeaaeathoueny c iaeii??aeieo /anoei ?
iathoue oe?eeii iaaio no?oeoo?o. I?ioa, ia i?aeoeoe? ia??aeei aei nenoai
a?aeiinyoue noeoiiino? ??cii??aeieo ia’?eo?a, ia’?aeiaieo a iaeia oe?ea
aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaaii? iaoe.

Aieiaia, ui aecia/a? nenoaio, — oea aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iiae?y /anoei o
?aieao oe?eiai. sseui oaea aca?iiae?y ?nio?, oi i?eionoeii aiai?eoe i?i
nenoaio, oi/a nooi?iue aca?iiae?? ?? /anoei iiaea aooe ??cii?. Aa?oi
oaeiae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui eiaeiee ie?aiee ia’?eo, i?aaeiao aai
yaeua iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaaio oe?e?ni?noue, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c
/anoei, ? aeine?aeaeoaaoe ye nenoaio.

Iiiyooy nenoaie, ye ? nenoaiiee iaoiae o oe?eiio, oi?ioaaeiny iinooiiai,
o i??o oiai ye iaoea e i?aeoeea iiaiiaoaaee ??cieie oeiaie, aeaeaie e
oi?iaie oe?e?nieo ia’?aeiaiue i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu. Oaia? iai ia? aooe
aeieeaaei?oa iciaeiieoeny c ??cieie ni?iaaie ooi/iaiiy ye naiiai iiiyooy
nenoaie, oae ? noaiiaeaiiy nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo.

Niaoeeo?ea nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaaaaeaia aeua ?ioo?oeaia aecia/aiiy nenoaie aeineoue aeey oiai, uia
a?ae??ciyoe nenoaie a?ae oaeeo noeoiiinoae i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu, ye?
nenoaiaie ia ?. O iao?e e?oa?aoo?? aeey iacae inoaii?o ia ?nio?
niaoe?aeueiiai oa?i?ia. Oiio ie aoaeaii iicia/aoe ?o caiice/aiei c
aiaeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa?i?iii aa?aaaoe. Eoio eaiai?a iaa?yae /e
ooi-iaaoaeue iacaa nenoaiith, o oie /an ye o?ce/ia o?ei, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aaeeei? e?eueeino? aca?iiae?th/eo iieaeoe, aai o?i?/ia
niieoea, ooai?aia c aeae?eueeio aeaiaio?a, a oei a?eueoa aeeaee
i?aai?ci, iiioeyoe?th, aeae ? ?io? ni?aoiaa?enoaa aeeaeo ?noio onyeee
aoaea ?ioo?oeaii aaaaeaoe nenoaiith. *ei ie ea?o?iiny i?e a?aeianaii?
iaeieo noeoiiinoae aei nenoai, a ?ioeo — aei aa?aaao?a? I/aaeaeii, ui a
ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ie caoaaaeo?ii iaaio oe?e?ni?noue, ?aei?noue nenoaie
aeaiaio?a, o ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo oaea ?aei?noue ? aca?iica’ycie a?aenooi?
e onoaiiaeoe ?o aaaeei, oiio iiaa iiaeiia eoe i?i i?inoo noeoii?noue,
aai aa?aaao?, aeaiaio?a. Oaeei /eiii, aeey nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
oa?aeoa?ii naia oe?e?niee ?icaeyae, onoaiiaeaiiy aca?iiae?? neeaaeiaeo
/anoei aai aeaiaio?a noeoiiino?, iaca?aei?noue aeanoeainoae oe?eiai aei
aeanoeainoae /anoei. Oae, iai?eeeaae, aeiaaeeia o?ea, ui neeaaea? c
aeae?eueeio /anoei, oae naii ye ? eiai aaaa, iiaeooue aooe ciaeaeai?
i?aenoiiaoaaiiyi a?aeiia?aeii aeiaaeeie e aaa eiai /anoei. Ia a?aei?io
a?ae oeueiai oaiia?aoo?o aiaee, io?eiaio oeyoii ci?oaiiy ??cieo ??
ianya?a, iaa??oeo o ??ciiio nooiai?, ia iiaeia ia/eneeoe oaeei niiniaii.
Ia??aeei oiio aiai?youe, ui yeui aeanoeaino? i?inoeo noeoiiinoae
aaeeoeai?, oiaoi i?aenoiothoueny aai neeaaeathoueny ?c aeanoeainoae aai
aaee/ei ?oi?o /anoei, oi aeanoeaino? nenoai ye oe?e?nieo ooai?aiue
iaaaeeoeai?.

O?aaa, iaeiae, a?aecia/eoe, ui ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae nenoaiaie e
aa?aaaoaie, aai i?inoeie noeoiiinoyie, ia? iaaaniethoiee, a a?aeiiniee
oa?aeoa? ? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, ye i?aeoiaeyoue aei aeine?aeaeaiith
noeoiiino?. Aaeaea iaa?oue eoio eaiai?a iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeayeo
nenoaio, aeaiaioe yei? aca?iiae?thoue ca caeiiii anana?oiueiai oyae?iiy.
I?ioa, ooo ie ia aeyaey?ii aeieeiaiiy iiaeo oe?e?nieo aeanoeainoae, ye?
aeanoea? ni?aaaei?i nenoaiai. Oey a?aei?oia iciaea nenoai, ui iieyaa? a
iayaiino? a ieo iiaeo nenoaiieo aeanoeainoae, ui aeieeathoue aiane?aeie
aca?iiae?? o?eaeoeyoee?oi?o ?oi?o /anoei aai aeaiaio?a, caaaeaee aa?oi
iaoe ia oaac? i?e ?oiueiio aecia/aii?.

A inoaii? ?iee aaeeaaei /eiaei ni?ia aeaoe eia?/ia aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
nenoaie. Ine?eueee a eia?eo oeiiaei niiniaii ? aecia/aiiy /a?ac
iaeaeeae/ee ??ae ? aeaeiao a?aei?ii?noue, ino?eueee ye ?iaeiaa iiiyooy
cae/aeii aeae?aeeny iaea?eueo caaaeuei? iiiyooy iaoaiaoeee e iaa?oue
o?einio??. O no/ani?e iaoaiaoeoe? oaeei iiiyooyi oaaaea?oueny iiiyooy
aace?/?, oaaaeaia iai?ee?ioe? ieioeiai noie?ooy i?iaoeueeei iaoaiaoeeii
Aai?aii Eaioi?ii (18451918), ui iicia/a? aoaeue-yeo noeoii?noue
ia’?eo?a, ui aieiae?thoue aeayeith caaaeueiith aeanoea?noth. Oiio ?.
Oaeaeaeei ? A. Oie nei?enoaeeny iiiyooyi aace?/? aeey eia?/iiai
aecia/aiiy nenoaie.

Nenoaia — oea aace?/ ia’?eo?a ?acii c a?aeiineiaie i?ae ia’?eoaie e i?ae
?oi?ie ao?eaooaie (aeanoeainoyie).

Oaea aecia/aiiy ia iiaeia iacaaoe ei?aeoiei oi/a a oiio, ui an?eye?
noeoiiino? ia’?eo?a iiaeia iacaaoe aace?/aie e aeey aaaaoueio c ieo
iiaeia anoaiiaeoe iaai? noinoiee i?ae ia’?eoaie, oae ui aeaeiaa
a?aei?ii?noue aeey nenoai (differentia specified), ia cacia/aia. Ni?aaa,
iaeiae, ia no?eueee o oi?iaeuei?e iaei?aeoiino? aecia/aiiy, ne?eueee a
eiai ci?noiai?e iaa?aeiia?aeiino? ae?eniino?. Ni?aaae?, o iueiio ia
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia’?eoe, ui noaiiaeyoue nenoaio, aca?iiae?thoue i?ae
niaith oaeei /eiii, ui iaoiiaeththoue aeieeiaiiy iiaeo, oe?e?nieo,
nenoaiieo aeanoeainoae. I/aaeaeii, oaea a?aie/ii oe?iea iiiyooy, ye
nenoaio, ia iiaeia aecia/eoe /enoi eia?/ii /a?ac ?io? iiiyooy. Eiai
aa?oi aeciaoe aeo?aeiei ? iaaecia/oaaiei iiiyooyi, ci?no yeiai iiaeia
iiynieoe ca aeiiiiiaith i?eeeaae?a. Naia oae cae/aeii iaaeoiaeyoue o
iaooe?, eiee aeiaiaeeoueny iaoe ni?aaa c aeo?aeieie, ia?a?nieie ??
iiiyooyie, iai?eeeaae, c aace?//th a iaoaiaoeeo aai ianith e ca?yaeii o
o?ceeo.

Aeey e?auiai ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee nenoai iaiao?aeii ?icaeyiooe nii/aoeo
?oith aoaeiao e no?oeoo?o, a iio?i ?oith eeaneo?eaoe?th.

Aoaeiaa nenoaie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oeie eiiiiiaioaie, c yeeo aiia
ooai?aia. Oaeeie eiiiiiaioaie ?: i?aenenoaie, /anoeie aai aeaiaioe
nenoaie caeaaeii a?ae oiai, ye? iaeeieoe? i?eeiathoueny ca iniiao
?iciiae?eo.

— I?aenenoaie noaiiaeyoue iaea?eueo? /anoeie nenoaie, ye? iathoue iaaio
aaoiiiii?noue, aea a oie aea /an aiie i?aeeaae? e oi?aaeythoueny
nenoaiith. Cae/aeii i?aenenoaie aeae?eythoueny a iniaeeaei ia?acii
i?aai?ciaai? nenoaie, ye? iaceaathoueny ???a?o?/ieie.

— Aeaiaioaie /anoi iaceaathoue iaeiaio? iaeeieoe? nenoaie, oi/a a
i?eioeei? aoaeue-yeo /anoeio iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeaiaio, yeui
a?aeaie?eoeny a?ae ?oiueiai ?ici??o. sse oeiiaee i?eeeaae iiaeia
i?eaanoe ethaenueeee i?aai?ci, ui neeaaea?oueny c ia?aiai?, aeeoaeueii?,
o?aaii? e ?ioi? i?aenenoai, /anoi iaceaaieo i?inoi nenoaiaie. O naith
/a?ao i?aenenoaie i?noyoue o nai?io neeaae? iaai? i?aaie, ye?
neeaaeathoueny ?c oeaiei, a oeaieie — ?c ee?oei, a ee?oeie — c iieaeoe.
Aaaaoi aeeaeo ? nioe?aeueieo nenoai iiaoaeiaai? ii oaeiio ae
???a?o?/iiio i?eioeei?, aea eiaeiee ??aaiue i?aai?caoe??, iath/e a?aeiio
aaoiiiii?noue, o oie aea /an i?aeeaaeee iiia?aaei?e, a?eueoa aenieiio
??aith. Oaeee o?niee aca?iica’ycie, aca?iiae?y i?ae ??cieie eiiiiiaioaie
caaacia/othoue nenoai? ye oe?e?niiio, ?aeeiiio ooai?aiith iaee?au? oiiae
aeey ?nioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo.

No?oeoo?ith nenoaie iaceaathoue noeoii?noue oeo niaoeeo?/ieo
aca?iica’yce?a ? aca?iiae?e, caaaeyee yeei aeieeathoue iia? oe?e?ni?
aeanoeaino?, aeanoea?e o?eueee nenoai? e a?aenooi? a ie?aieo ??
eiiiiiaio?a. O cao?aei?e e?oa?aoo?? oae? aeanoeaino? iaceaathoue
aia?aeaeaioieie, ui aeieeathoue o ?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? e aeanoea?
o?eueee nenoaiai. Caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoiiai oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae?? i?ae
eiiiiiaioaie ie ?ic??ciy?ii ??ci? oeie nenoai: aeaeo?iiaai?oi?, aoiii?,
yaea?i?, o?i?/i?, a?ieia?/i? e nioe?aeuei?. O ?aieao oeeo oei?a iiaeia o
naith /a?ao ?icaeyaeaoe ie?ai? aeaee nenoai. O i?eioeei? aei eiaeiiai
ie?aiiai ia’?eoa iiaeia i?ae?eoe ?c nenoaiii? oi/ee ci?o, ine?eueee a?i
yaey? niaith iaaia oe?e?nia ooai?aiiy, caeaoia aei naiino?eiiai
?nioaaiiy. Oae, iai?eeeaae, iieaeoea aiaee, ooai?aia ?c aeaio aoii?a
aiaeith e iaeiiai aoiia eenith, yaey? niaith nenoaio, eiiiiiaioe yei?
aca?iicaeaaei? neeaie aeaeo?iiaai?oii? aca?iiae??. Aanue iaaeieeoi?e ian
ie?, eiai i?aaeiaoe, yaeua e i?ioeane aeyaeythoueny noeoii?noth
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo ii eiie?aoi?e i?e?iae? e ??aith i?aai?caoe?? nenoai.
Eiaeia nenoaia a oeueiio na?o? aca?iiae?? c ?ioeie nenoaiaie.

Aeey a?eueoa ?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy cae/aeii aeae?eythoue o?
nenoaie, c yeeie aeaia nenoaia aca?iiae?? aaciina?aaeiuei ? ye?
iaceaathoue ioi/aiiyi aai ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai nenoaie. An? ?aaeuei?
nenoaie a i?e?iae? e noni?euenoa? ?, ye ie aaea cia?ii, a?aee?eoeie e,
ioaea, aca?iiae?th/eie c ioi/aiiyi oeyoii iai?io ?a/iaeiith, aia?a??th e
?ioi?iaoe??th. Oyaeaiiy i?i cae?eoee, aai ?cieueiaaii?, nenoai? ?
aeaeaei, ui eaea aano?aeoe??th, ? oiio ui ia a?aeaeaa? aaeaeaaoii
?aaeuei?noue, ine?eueee i?yea ?aaeueia nenoaia ia iiaea aooe ?cieueiaaia
a?ae aieeao ?ioeo nenoai, ui noaiiaeyoue ?? ioi/aiiy. O iai?aai?/i?e
i?e?iae? a?aee?eo? nenoaie iiaeooue iai?ithaaoeny c ioi/aiiyi aai
?a/iaeiith, ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny a o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?yo, aai aia?a??th,
eiee nenoaia iiaeeia? na?aeo aia?a?th c ioi/aiiy e ?icn?th? a i?e
«a?aei?aoeueiaaio» aia?a?th o aeaeyae? oaiea. O aeea?e i?e?iae? nenoaie
iai?iththoueny c ioi/aiiyi, e??i ?a/iaeie e aia?a??, oaeiae ?
?ioi?iaoe??th, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? a?aeaoaa?oueny ea?oaaiiy, a oaeiae
ia?aaea/a niaaeei?iieo iciae a?ae i?aai?ci?a aei ?oi?o iauaaee?a.
Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iai?i ?ioi?iaoe??th caeiaoaa? a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? eoeueoo?ii-aoiai?oa?ieo nenoaiao, aea a?i ?
iniiaith aeey an??? eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeae.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y nenoai iiaea ae?iaeyoeny ii naieo ??cieo i?aenoaaao
?iciiae?eo. Ianaiia?aae, an? nenoaie iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia iaoa??aeuei? e
?aeaaeuei?, aai eiioeaiooaeuei?. Aei iaoa??aeueieo nenoai noaaeoueny
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue nenoai iai?aai?/iiai, i?aai?/iiai e nioe?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o. An? iaoa??aeuei? nenoaie o naith /a?ao iiaeooue aooe
?icae?eai? ia iniiai? eeane a?aeiia?aeii aei o?e oi?i? ?ooo iaoa???, ui
aiie i?aaenoaaeythoue. O ca’yceo ?c oeei cae/aeii ?ic??ciythoue
a?aa?oaoe?ei?, o?ce/i?, o?i?/i?, a?ieia?/i?, aaieia?/i?, aeieia?/i? e
nioe?aeuei? nenoaie. Na?aae iaoa??aeueieo nenoai aeae?eythoue oaeiae
ooo/i?, niaoe?aeueii noai?ai? noni?euenoaii, oaoi?/i? e oaoiieia?/i?
nenoaie, ui neoaeaoue aeey ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??aeueieo aeaa.

An? oe? nenoaie iaceaathoueny iaoa??aeueieie oiio, ui ?oi?e ci?no ?
aeanoeaino? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae noa’?eoa, ui i?cia?, ui iiaea ona aeeaoa,
iiai?oa e oi/i?oa i?ciaaaoe ?oi? aeanoeaino? e caeiiii??iino? a
noai?thaai? ?i eiioeaiooaeueieo nenoaiao. Inoaii? iaceaathoueny
?aeaaeueieie oiio, ui yaeythoue niaith a?aeaeooy iaoa??aeueieo, ui
ia’?eoeaii ?niothoue o i?e?iae? e noni?euenoa? nenoai.

Iaea?eueo oeiiaei i?eeeaaeii eiioeaiooaeueii? nenoaie ? iaoeiaa oai??y,
ui ae?aaea? ca aeiiiiiaith nai?o iiiyoue, ocaaaeueiaiue ? caeii?a
ia’?eoeai?, ?aaeuei? ca’ycee e a?aeiineie, ui ?niothoue o eiie?aoieo
i?e?iaeieo ? nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao. Nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? iaoeiai? oai???
ae?aaea?oueny a nai?e ?? iiaoaeia?, eiee ie?ai? ?? iiiyooy e noaeaeaiiy
ia i?inoi ia?a?aoiaothoueny ye iio?aieei, a ii?aeiothoueny a ?aieao
iaaii? oe?e?nii? no?oeoo?e. O oeeo oe?eyo cae/aeii aeae?eythoueny o?ioe
iniiaieo, aai ia?a?nieo, iiiyoue, ia iniia? yeeo ca i?aaeeaie eia?ee
aecia/athoueny ?io? — iio?aei?, aai aoi?eii?, iiiyooy. Aiaeia?/ii
oeueiio na?aae an?o noaeaeaiue oai??? aeae?athoueny aeaye? aeo?aei?, aai
iniiai?, noaeaeaiiy, ye? a iaoaiaoe/ieo oai??yo iaceaathoueny aen?iiaie,
a a i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaeo — caeiiaie aai i?eioeeiaie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o
eeane/i?e iaoai?oe? oaeeie iniiaieie noaeaeaiiyie ? o?e iniiaieo caeiie
iaoai?ee, o niaoe?aeuei?e oai??? a?aeiiniino? — i?eioeeie noaeino?
oaeaeeino? na?oea e a?aeiiniino?. O iaaeiiieo oai??yo o?ceee
a?aeiia?aei? caeiie /anoi ae?aaeathoueny ca aeiiiiiaith nenoai ??aiyiue,
ye oea cae?eniaii aiae?enueeei o?ceeii Ae.E. Iaenaaeeii (18311879) o
eiai oai??? aeaeo?iiaaiaoecio. O a?ieia?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo oai??yo
cae/aeii iaiaaeothoueny neiaanieie oi?ioethaaiiyie caeii?a. Ia i?eeeaae?
aaiethoe?eii? oai??? *. Aea?a?ia ie aa/eee, ui ?? iniiaiee ci?no iiaeia
ae?aceoe ca aeiiiiiaith o?ueio iniiaieo i?eioeei?a aai iaa?oue ?aeeiiai
i?eioeeio i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o.

Ana iaoa ciaiiy ia o?eueee a aaeoc? iaoee, aea e a ?ioeo noa?ao
ae?yeueiino? ie i?aaiaii iaaiei /eiii nenoaiaoecoaaoe, uia noaa ynii?
eia?/iee aca?iica’ycie ie?aieo noaeaeaiue, a oaeiae an??? no?oeoo?e
ciaiiy a oe?eiio. Ie?aia, ?cieueiaaia noaeaeaiiy ia i?aaenoaaey?
iniaeeaiai ?ioa?ano aeey iaoee. O?eueee oiae?, eiee eiai aaea?oueny
eia?/ii ca’ycaoe c ?ioeie aeaiaioaie ciaiiy, cie?aia ?c noaeaeaiiyie
oai???, aiii iaaoaa? iaaiiai naino e cia/aiiy. Oiio iaeaaaeeea?oa
ooieoe?y iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy neeaaea?oueny naia a nenoaiaoecaoe?? anueiai
iaeiie/aiiai ciaiiy, i?e ye?e ie?ai? noaeaeaiiy, ui ae?aaeathoue ciaiiy
i?i eiie?aoi? oaeoe, ii?aeiothoueny a ?aieao iaaii? eiioeaiooaeueii?
nenoaie.

?io? eeaneo?eaoe?? ye i?aenoaaa ?iciiae?eo ?icaeyaeathoue iciaee, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai nenoaie, ?? iiaiaeaeaiiy, aca?iiae?y c ioi/aiiyi,
oe?eani?yiiaai?noue ? ia?aaeaa/oaai?noue iiaiaeaeaiiy e ?io?
aeanoeaino?.

Iaea?eueo i?inoith eeaneo?eaoe??th nenoai ? ?iciiae?e ?o ia noaoe/i? e
aeeiai?/i?, eio?a o a?aeii?e ia?? oiiaii, oiio ui ana o na?o? ia?aaoaa?
a iino?ei?e ci?i? e ?on?. Ine?eueee, iaeiae, o aaaaoueio yaeuao ie
?ic??ciy?ii noaoeeo e aeeiai?eo, oi caea?oueny aeioe?eueiei ?icaeyaeaoe
niaoe?aeueii oaeiae noaoe/i? nenoaie.

Na?aae aeeiai?/ieo nenoai cae/aeii aeae?eythoue aeaoa?i?i?nonuee? e
noioanoe/i? (?iia??i?ni?) nenoaie. Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y ??oioo?oueny ia
oa?aeoa?? i?i?ieoaaiiy aeeiai?ee iiaiaeaeaiiy nenoai. sse a?aecia/aeiny
a iiia?aaei?o aeaaao, i?i?ieoaaiiy, caniiaai? ia aea/aii? iiaiaeaeaiiy
aeaoa?i?i?nonueeeo nenoai, iathoue oe?eeii iaeiicia/iee ? aeinoia??iee
oa?aeoa?. Naia oaeeie nenoaiaie ? aeeiai?/i? nenoaie, aeine?aeaeoaai? a
iaoai?eo e ano?iiii??. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ieo noioanoe/i? nenoaie, ye?
iae/ano?oa iaceaathoue eiia??iinii-noaoenoe/ieie, iathoue ni?aao c
ianiaeie aai iiaoi?thaaieie aeiaaeeiaeie iiae?yie ? yaeuaie. Oiio
i?i?ieoaaiiy a ieo iathoue ia aeinoia??iee, a eeoa ?iia??i?niee
oa?aeoa?.

Ii oa?aeoa?? aca?iiae?? c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai ?ic??ciythoue, ye
a?aecia/aeiny aeua, nenoaie a?aee?eo? e cae?eo? (?cieueiaai?), a ?iiae?
aeae?eythoue oaeiae /anoeiai a?aee?eo? nenoaie. Oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y
iineoue a iniiaiiio oiiaiee oa?aeoa?, oiio ui oyaeaiiy i?i cae?eo?
nenoaie aeieeei a eeane/i?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe? ye iaaia aano?aeoe?y, ui
aeyaeeany ia a?aeiia?aeii? ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?, o ye?e ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue, yeui ia an? nenoaie, ? a?aee?eoeie.

Aaaaoi nenoai, ui cono??/athoueny a nioe?aeueiiio na?o?, ?
oe?eani?yiiaaieie, oiaoi i???ioiaaieie ia aeinyaiaiiy iaei??? aai
aeae?eueeio oe?eae, i?e/iio a ??cieo i?aenenoaiao ? ia ??cieo ??aiyo
i?aai?caoe?? oe? iaoe iiaeooue aooe ??cieie e iaa?oue i?eeoe a eiioe?eo
iaeei c iaeiei.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y nenoai aea? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyiooe aace?/ ?nioth/eo o
iaooe? nenoai ?ao?iniaeoeaii e oiio ia i?aaenoaaey? aeey aeine?aeieea
oaeiai ?ioa?ano, ye aea/aiiy iaoiaeo e ia?niaeoea nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo a
eiie?aoieo oiiaao eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Iaoiae ? ia?niaeoeae nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

O iayai?e oi?i? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae o iaei?ino?oiio aeae? canoiniaoaaany
a iaooe? ?c naiiai ii/aoeo ?? aeieeiaiiy. Iaa?oue oiae?, eiee aiia
caeiaeany iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi ia?a?niiai oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, ?aeay nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? ?aeiino? eaaeaea a iniia? ?? iiooe?a
? iiaoaeiae iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Iaeiae aeieeiaiiy nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo ye
iniaeeaiai niiniao aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoi ooi a?aeiinyoue a/anii Ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie, eiee a/ai? cooiaoioeeny ?c i?iaeaiaie eiiieaeniiai
oa?aeoa?o, ye? aeiaaathoue iae?eo aca?iica’yceo e aca?iiae?? aaaaoueio
oaeoi??a o ?aieao oe?eiai. Aei oaeeo i?iaeai noaaeeeny, cie?aia,
ieaioaaiiy e i?iaaaeaiiy ai?iieo iia?aoe?e, ieoaiiy iinoa/aiiy e
i?aai?caoe?? a?i??, i?eeiyooy ??oaiue o neeaaeieo oiiaao ? o.i. Ia oe?e
iniia? aeieeea iaeia c ia?oeo nenoaiieo aeenoeeie?i, iacaaia
aeine?aeaeaiiyi iia?aoe?e. Canoinoaaiiy nenoaiieo ?aeae aei aiae?co
aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ni?eyei aeieeiaiith oai??? ?ai? ?
oai??? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue. Iaaooue, naiei cia/iei e?ieii o oi?ioaaii?
?aeae nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo aoea iiyaa e?aa?iaoeee ye caaaeueii? oai???
ea?oaaiiy a oaoi?/ieo nenoaiao, aeeaeo i?aai?ciao ? noni?euenoa?. O i?e
iaea?eueoa /?oei aeaeiee iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo ii
eiie?aoiiio ci?no? nenoai ea?oaaiiy. Oi/a ie?ai? oai??? ea?oaaiiy
?nioaaee e o oaoi?eo, ? a a?ieia??, ? a nioe?aeueieo iaoeao, i?ioa
?aeeiee, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee i?aeo?ae aeaa iiaeeea?noue ?ice?eoe
a?eueoa aeeaie? e caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ea?oaaiiy, ye? caooeyeeny
ianith ae?oai?yaeieo aeaoaeae i?e eiie?aoiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?eaaoieo
nenoai ea?oaaiiy. O ?aieao e?aa?iaoeee aia?oa aoei ynii iieacaia, ui
i?ioean ea?oaaiiy ?c naii? caaaeueii? oi/ee ci?o iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
i?ioean iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, ia?aaea/? e ia?aoai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??. Naia ae
ea?oaaiiy iiaeia a?aeia?aceoe ca aeiiiiiaith iaaii? iine?aeiaiino?
oi/ieo i?eienaiue — aeai?eoi?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo cae?enith?oueny
aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe. I?ney oeueiai aeai?eoie aoee aeei?enoai?
aeey ??oaiiy ??cieo ?ioeo caaaeaiue ianiaiai oa?aeoa?o, iai?eeeaae,
ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oieie iioieaie, oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie a iaoaeo?a??
e iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, i?aai?caoe?? iinoa/aiiy e caooo i?iaeoeoe??,
?aaoethaaiiy ?ooo e /eneaiieo iiae?aieo i?ioean?a.

Iiyaa oaeaeeiae?th/eo eiii’thoa??a c’yaeeiny o??th iaiao?aeiith
oaoi?/iith aacith, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? iiaeia ia?iaeyoe ??ciiiai?oi?
aeai?eoi?/ii iienai? i?ioeane. Aeai?eoi?caoe?y e eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y
oe?eiai ?yaeo ae?iaie/i-oaoi?/ieo, oi?aae?inueeeo ? ?ioeo i?ioean?a
c’yaeeeny, ye a?aeiii, iaeiei c? neeaaeaieo aeaiaio?a no/anii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaiethoe??, ui ca’ycaea ai?aeeii iia? aeinyaiaiiy
iaoee c ?acoeueoaoaie ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee.

Uia e?aua c?icoi?oe nooi?noue nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo, iaiao?aeii ?c naiiai
ii/aoeo a?aecia/eoe, ui iiiyooy, oai??? e iiaeae?, ia ye? a?i
iie?a?oueny, canoiniai? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu an?eyeiai
eiie?aoiiai ci?noo. O oeeo oe?eyo aeiaiaeeoueny aano?aaoaaoeny a?ae
oeueiai eiie?aoiiai ci?noo ie?aieo, /anoie nenoai ? aeyaeyoe oa
caaaeueia, ?noioia, ui aeanoeai an?i nenoaiai iaaiiai ?iaeo. Iaea?eueo
caaaeueiei i?eeiiii aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe neoaeeoue iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? a?aeia?aaeathoueny
iaea?eueo ?noioi? e?euee?ni? e no?oeoo?i? ca’ycee i?ae aeaiaioaie
aeayeeo ?iaeeiieo nenoai. Iio?i oey iiaeaeue ?ic?aoiao?oueny ia
eiii’thoa?? e ?acoeueoaoe ia/eneaiue ??aiythoueny c aeaieie
niinoa?aaeaiue ? aenia?eiaio?a. Aeieeath/? ?ica?aeiino? onoaa?oueny
aianaiiyi aeiiiaiaiue ? ci?i o ia?a?nio iiaeaeue.

Caa?oaiiy aei iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeeeoo?oueny naiei oa?aeoa?ii
nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue, o i?ioean? yeeo aeiaiaeeoueny iaoe ni?aaa:

— c iaea?eueo caaaeueieie aeanoeainoyie e a?aeiineiaie ??ciiiai?oieo
eiie?aoieo, /anoie nenoai;

— ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo, ui iia?o? aeaiia aai
aeae?eueeiia ci?iieie, nenoaiiee iaoiae i?eionea? aiae?c oe?ei? aace?/?
ci?iieo. Ca’ycie i?ae oeeie /eneaiieie ci?iieie, ae?aaeaiith iiaith
??cieo ??aiyiue ? ?oi?o nenoai, ? yaey? niaith iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue. Oey
iiaeaeue nii/aoeo aenoaa?oueny ye aeayea a?iioaca, ui iaaeae? iiaeiia
aooe ia?aa??aia ca aeiiiiiaith aeina?aeo.

I/aaeaeii, ui ia?o i?ae iiaoaeoaaoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue yei?-iaaoaeue
nenoaie, iaiao?aeii aeyaeoe oa caaaeueia, ye?nii iaeii??aeia, ui
aeanoeai ??ciei aeaeai iaeiioeiieo nenoai. Aeioe iiee nenoaie ia
aoaeooue aea/ai? ia ye?niiio ??ai?, i? i?i yeo e?euee?nio iaoaiaoe/io
iiaeaeue ia iiaea aooe iiae. Aaeaea aeey oiai uia ae?aceoe aoaeue-ye?
caeaaeiino? a iaoaiaoe/i?e oi?i?, iaiao?aeii ciaeoe a ??cieo eiie?aoieo
nenoai, i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu iaeii??aei? aeanoeaino?, iai?eeeaae, ?ici??e,
ianya, aaaa e o.i. Ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aii? iaeeieoe? aei??o oe?
aeanoeaino? iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae? /enae ? iio?i ae?aceoe
a?aeiineie i?ae aeanoeainoyie ye caeaaeiino? i?ae ?oi?ie iaoaiaoe/ieie
??aiyiiyie, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue, ? ooieoe?yie. Iiaoaeiaa iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? ia? ?noioia ia?aaaaa ia?aae i?inoei iienii nenoai o ye?nieo
oa?i?iao oiio, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ?iaeoe oi/i? i?iaiice i?i
iiaiaeaeaiiy nenoai, ye? iaaaaaoi eaaoa ia?aa??eoe, /ei aeineoue
iaaecia/ai? e caaaeuei? ye?ni? i?i?ieoaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, i?e
iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaii? nenoai iaea?eueoa yne?aai i?iyaey?oueny
aoaeoeai?noue ?aeiino? ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? iaa?no?aeueiee oeyo ?icaeoeo no/aniiai iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy.

Caa?iaiiny oaia? aei ieoaiiy i?i ia?aaaae e ia?niaeoeae nenoaiiiai
iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ianaiia?aae iii?oeii, ui aeieeiaiiy naiiai nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo ? eiai
canoinoaaiiy a i?e?iaeiciaanoa? e ?ioeo iaoeao ciaiaiothoue cia/ii
c?ineo c??e?noue no/aniiai aoaio ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo. Ia?o i?ae iaoea
ciiaea ia?aeoe aei oeueiai aoaio, aiia iiaeiia aoea aeine?aeaeoaaoe
ie?ai? noi?iie, iniaeeaino?, aeanoeaino? e a?aeiineie oeo aai ?ioeo
i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu, aea/aoe /anoeie o a?aeaie?eaii? a?ae oe?eiai, i?inoi?
ie?aii a?ae neeaaeiiai. Oaeiio ia??iaeo a?aeiia?aeaa aeenoeeie?ia?iee
i?aeo?ae, eiee eiaeia iaoea cina?aaeaeoaaea anth oaaao ia aeine?aeaeaii?
niaoeeo?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iath eiea yaeu. Caiaeii
noaei i/aaeaeiei, ui oaeee i?aeo?ae ia aea? iiaeeeaino? ?ice?eoe a?eueoa
aeeaie? caeiiii??iino?, aeanoeaiio oe?ieiio eeano aca?iicaeaaeieo yaeu,
ia aiai?y/e aaea i?i oa, ui a?i caeeoa? a o?i? aca?iica’ycie, ui ?nio?
i?ae ??cieie eeanaie yaeu, eiaeiee c yeeo aoa i?aaeiaoii a?aeiniaeaiiai
aea/aiiy ie?aii? iaoee.

I?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee i?aeo?ae, ui ia?ai?iea aeenoeeie?ia?iee, noaa, ye
ie aa/eee, ona oe?oa canoiniaoaaoeny aeey anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae,
aeanoeaei ??ciei iaeanoyi yaeu, ? iaea?aeaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o
??cieo oi?iao nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue ye o i?ioean? naiai noaiiaeaiiy,
oae ? a eiie?aoieo aeiaeaoeao. Nenoaiiee iaoiae i?ieoia ??ci? aoaie, ui
a?aeaeeiny ia nai?e oa?i?iieia??, ui, ia aeaeue, ia a?ae??ciy?oueny
?aei?noth. C iiaeyaeo i?aeoe/ii? cia/eiino? iiaeia aeae?eeoe:

— nenoaiioaoi?eia?, ui caeia?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiyi, i?iaeooaaiiyi ?
eiino?othaaiiyi iia?oi?o oaoi?/ieo nenoai, o yeeo o?aoiaothoueny ia
o?eueee ?iaioa iaoai?ci?a, aea e ae?? ethaeeie-iia?aoi?a, ea?oth/iai
ieie. Oeae iai?yiie ?ic?iaey? aeaye? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? e
naiii?aai?caoe??, aeyaeai? e?aa?iaoeeith, ? a oeae /an caeiaoaa? ana
a?eueoa cia/aiiy o ca’yceo ?c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi nenoai, o oiio /ene? e
eiii’thoa??a, ui i?aoeththoue o ?aaeei? ae?aeiao c aeine?aeieeii;

— aaaeeeaith iaeanoth canoinoaaiiy nenoaiieo ?aeae ? nenoaiiee aiae?c,
ui caeia?oueny aea/aiiyi eiiieaenieo ? aaaaoi??aiaaeo nenoai. Oi/a oae?
nenoaie cae/aeii neeaaeathoueny c aeaiaio?a ??cii??aeii? i?e?iaee, aea
aiie iaaiei /eiii ca’ycai? e aca?iiae?thoue iaeei c iaeiei ? oiio
aeiaaathoue oe?e?niiai, nenoaiiiai aiae?co. Aei ieo noaaeoueny,
iai?eeeaae, nenoaia i?aai?caoe?? no/anii? oaa?eee aai caaiaeo, o yeeo o
?aeeia oe?ea ia’?aeiai? ae?iaieoeoai, iinoa/aiiy ne?iaeiith, caoo
oiaa??a ? ?io?ano?oeoo?a;

Nenoaie a oi/iiio ci?no? neiaa, ui aea/athoue niaoeeo?/i? aeanoeaino?
ia’?eo?a ?aeeii? i?e?iaee, iai?eeeaae, o?ce/i?, o?i?/i?, a?ieia?/iee ?
nioe?aeuei?, noaiiaeyoue iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeey iaoee.

sseui nenoaiioaoi?ea e nenoaiiee aiae?c oaeoe/ii ? aeiaeaoeaie aeayeeo
nenoaiieo ?aeae a iaeano? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, o?ainii?oo,
oaoiieia?? e ?ioeo aaeocae ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, oi oai??y nenoai
aeine?aeaeo? caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? nenoai, aeine?aeaeoaaieo o
i?e?iaeieo, oaoi?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao.

Iiaea aeieeiooe ieoaiiy: yeui eiie?aoi? aeanoeaino? caaaeaieo aeua
nenoai aea/athoueny a ie?aieo iaoeao, oa iaa?ui iio??aiee iniaeeaee
nenoaiiee iaoiae? Uia i?aaeeueii a?aeiia?noe ia iueiai, iaiao?aeii ynii
aeacaoe, ui naia aea/athoue eiie?aoi? iaoee e oai??y nenoai, eiee
canoiniaothoueny aei iaei??? e o?e aea iaeano? yaeu. sseui aeey o?ceea,
a?ieiaa aai nioe?ieiaa aaaeeeai ?ice?eoe eiie?aoi?, niaoeeo?/i? ca’ycee
e caeiiii??iino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai, oi caaaeaiiy oai?aoeea nenoai
iieyaa? a oiio, uia aeyaeoe iaea?eueo caaaeuei? aeanoeaino? e a?aeiineie
oaeeo nenoai, iieacaoe, ye i?iyaeythoueny a ieo caaaeuei? i?eioeeie
nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, i?e nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? eiaeia
eiie?aoia nenoaia aenooia? ye ie?aiee aeiaaeie caaaeueii? oai??? nenoai.

Aiai?y/e i?i caaaeueio oai??th nenoai, aa?oi a?aeaeaaaoe nia? yniee ca?o
i?i oa?aeoa? ?? ni?eueiino?. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui a inoaii? ?iee
aenoaa?oueny /eiaei i?iaeo?a iiaoaeiae oaei? caaaeueii? oai???,
i?eioeeie e oaa?aeaeaiiy yei? i?aoaiaeothoue ia oi?aa?naeuei?noue. Iaeei
c ?i?oe?aoi??a noai?aiiy iiae?aii? oai??? aano??enueeee a?ieia-oai?aoee
E. oii Aa?oaeaio?, yeee c?iaea cia/iee aianie o iioe?aiiy nenoaiieo
?aeae, oi?ioeth? ?? caaaeaiiy a oaeee niin?a: i?aaeiao oe??? oai???
noaiiaeoue onoaiiaeaiiy e aeniiaie oeo i?eioeei?a, ye? ni?aaaaeeea? aeey
«nenoai» o oe?eiio… Ie iiaeaii caaeaoeny ieoaiiyi i?i i?eioeeie,
canoiniaieo aei nenoai acaaae?, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o o?ce/ii?, a?ieia?/ii?
aai nioe?aeueii? i?e?iaee. sseui ie iinoaaeii oaea caaaeaiiy e
i?aeoiaeyuee ia?ac aecia/eii iiiyooy nenoaie, oi aeyaeii, ui ?niothoue
iiaeae?, i?eioeeie e caeiie, ye? canoiniai? aei ocaaaeueiaieo nenoai
iacaeaaeii a?ae ?oiueiai i?eaaoiiai aeaeo, aeaiaio?a aai nee.

sseee oa?aeoa? iiaeiia iaoe ia i?inoi caaaeueia, a ii noo? ni?aae
oi?aa?naeueia oai??y nenoai? I/aaeaeii, uia noaoe canoiniaii? oaea
oai??y iiaeiia aano?aaoaaoeny a?ae aoaeue-yeeo eiie?aoieo, i?eaaoieo ?
iniaeeaeo aeanoeainoae ie?aieo nenoai. Aea a oaeiio aeiaaeeo c ??
iiiyoue ? i?eioeei?a iaiiaeeeai eia?/ii aeaanoe eiie?aoi? aeanoeaino?
ie?aieo nenoai, ye ia oeueiio iaiieyaathoue i?eoeeueieee caaaeueii?, aai
e?aua neacaoe, oi?aa?naeueii? oai???. ?ioa ni?aaa, ui aeaye? caaaeuei?
nenoaii? iiiyooy e i?eioeeie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey e?auiai
?icoi?iiy e iiyniaiiy eiie?aoieo nenoai.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. Aiinianueeee N. A. No/ania i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaa ea?oeia ie?o. — E.,
2003

2.Aaeeae A. E?aoea ?noi??y i?e?iaeieo iaoe. — E., 1997

3.Aa?iae Aeae. Iaoea a ?noi??? noni?euenoaa. — E., 1998

4.Aeaiiaiai O. ?noi??y i?e?iaeiciaanoaa. I?e?iaeie/? iaoee a ?oiueiio
?icaeoeo e aca?iiae??. — E., 1998

5.Noaiei A. N. Noaiiaeaiea iao/iie oai?ee. – Ieine., 1976

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