Eiioeaioe?y iaiai?ioiino? e oa?iiaeeiai?ea

Iaea?eueo ??cea i?ioe??//y a 19 noie?oo? aeieeei i?ae eieeoiueith
o?ceeith e aaiethoe?eiith oai???th Aea?a?ia. sseui, iai?eeeaae, o
iaoai?eo an? i?ioeane i?aaenoaaeythoueny iai?ioieie, iicaaaeaieie nai??
?noi??? e ?icaeoeo, oi oai??y Aea?a?ia ia?aeiieeai aeiaaea, ui iia?
aeaee ?ineei ? oaa?ei aeieeathoue o oiae? aaiethoe?? a ?acoeueoao?
ai?ioueae ca ?nioaaiiy. O oe?e ai?iouea? aeaeeaathoue o? i?aai?cie, ye?
aeyaeythoueny e?aua i?enoiniaaieie aei oiia, ui ci?ieeeny,
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Ioaea, o aeea?e i?e?iae? an? i?ioeane ?
iaiai?ioieie. Oa ae naia iiaeia neacaoe a i?eioeei? e i?i
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i? e aoiai?oa?i? nenoaie, oi/a
aaiethoe?y a i?e?iae? a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ii iia?euei?oa, i?ae o
noni?euenoa?.

O?ceea iaaeeaeaeany aei aeicaieo cacia/aiiai aeua i?ioe??//y /a?ac
ia?aaeyae ? noai?aiiy ?yaeo i?ii?aeieo eiioeaioe?e, iaei??? c yeeo ?
?aeay i?i aaiethoe?th nenoai, aea ia oa?e iineeaiiy ?oiuei? i?aai?caoe??
e neeaaeiino?, a iaai?ioe, — oa?e aeaci?aai?caoe?? e ?oeioaaiiy nenoai.

Iiiyooy /ano a eeane/i?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe?

Aei aeieeiaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?ee iiiyooy /ano ii noo? aoei a?aenooi? a
eeane/i?e o?ceoe? a o?i aeae?, o yeiio aiii ?icaeyaea?oueny a ?aaeueiiio
aeeoo? e o iaoeao, ui aea/a? i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue o /an? e ia?
naith ?noi??th. Oi/a a yeino? ci?iii? /an aoiaeeoue a on? ??aiyiiy
eeane/ii? e eaaioiai? iaoai?ee, i?ioa aiii ia a?aeaeaa? aioo??oi? ci?ie,
ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a nenoai?. Naia oiio a ??aiyiiyo o?ceee eiai ciae
iiaeia i?iyoe ia cai?ioiee, oiaoi a?aeiineoe eiai ye iaeaooiueiio, oae ?
aei ieioeiai.

Iieiaeaiiy ?noioii ci?ieeiny i?ney oiai, ye o?ceea ai?eooe caeiyeany
aea/aiiyi oaieiaeo i?ioean?a, caeiie yeeo aoee noi?ioeueiaai? a
eeane/i?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe?. sseui eieeoiy aeeiai?ea iienoaaea caeiie ?ooo
o?e i?ae aieeaii ciai?oi?o nee, na?aeiii a?aeaie?eath/enue a?ae
aioo??oi?o ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iaoai?/ieo nenoaiao, oi
oa?iiaeeiai?ea ciooaia aoea aeine?aeaeoaaoe o?ce/i? i?ioeane i?e ??cieo
ia?aoai?aiiyo oaieiai? aia?a??. Iaeiae aiia ia aiae?co? aioo??oith
aoaeiao oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo nenoai, ye oea ?iaeoue noaoenoe/ia o?ceea, ui
?icaeyaea? oaieioo ye aaceaaeiee ?oo aaee/aciiai /enea iieaeoe.

Oa?iiaeeiai?ea aeieeea c ocaaaeueiaiiy /eneaiieo oaeo?a, ui iienothoue
yaeua ia?aaea/?, iioe?aiiy e ia?aoai?aiiy oaiea. Naiei i/aaeaeiei ? oie
oaeo, ui iioe?aiiy oaiea yaey? niaith iaiai?ioiee i?ioean. Aeia?a
a?aeiii, iai?eeeaae, ui oaiei, ui aeieeei a ?acoeueoao? oa?oy aai
aeeiiaiiy ?ioi? iaoai?/ii? ?iaioe, ia iiaeia ciiao ia?aoai?eoe a
aia?a?th e iio?i aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ?iaioe. Ia iaio
a?aeiii, ui oaiei ia?aaea?oueny a?ae aa?y/iai o?ea aei oieiaeiiai, a ia
iaaiaee.

C ?ioiai aieo, oeyoii oi/ieo aenia?eiaio?a aoei aeiaaaeaii, ui oaieiaa
aia?a?y ia?aoai?th?oueny a iaoai?/io aia?a?th a no?iai iaaieo
e?eueeinoyo. ?nioaaiiy oaeiai iaoai?/iiai aea?aaeaioa aeey oaieioe
na?ae/eei i?i ?? caa?aaeaiiy. An? oe? /eneaii? oaeoe e ciaeoee nai?
ocaaaeueiaiiy e oai?aoe/ia iiyniaiiy a caeiiao eeane/ii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee:

sseui aei nenoaie i?aeaiaeeoue oaiei Q ? iaae iath ae?iaey?oueny ?iaioa
W, oi aia?a?y nenoaie c?inoa? aei aaee/eie U: U= Q + W.

Oeth aia?a?th iaceaathoue aioo??oiueith aia?a??th nenoaie, ? aiia
iieaco?, ui oaiei, io?eiaia nenoaiith, ia cieea?, a cao?a/a?oueny ia
ca?eueoaiiy aioo??oiuei? aia?a?? e ae?iaieoeoai ?iaioe, oiaoi Q= U-W.

I?ioean, ?aeeiei ?acoeueoaoii yeiai aoei a aeeo/aiiy oaiea c ?aca?aoa?a,
iaiiaeeeaee.

Iaaaaeai? oi?ioethaaiiy a?aeaeaathoue ca’yceo, ye? ?niothoue i?ae
oaieiaith aia?a??th e io?eiaii? ca ?? ?aooiie ?iaioith. O ia?oiio caeii?
iiaa eaea i?i caa?aaeaiiy aia?a??, o ae?oaiio — i?i iaiiaeeea?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa ?iaioe aeiyoeiai ca ?aooiie aeeo/aiiy oaiea c iaeiiai
?aca?aoa?a i?e iino?ei?e oaiia?aoo??. Iai?eeeaae, ia iiaeia c?iaeoe
?iaioo ca ?aooiie ioieiaeaeaiiy ica?a, ii?y aai ?ioiai ?aca?aoa?a i?e
noae?e oaiia?aoo??. Oaeei /eiii, ae?oaee caeii, aai ii/aoie
oa?iiaeeiai?ee, iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe i?ino?oa, ye oia?oa oea c?iaea
o?aioeocueeee o/aiee Naaee Ea?ii (1796-1832).

Iaiiaeeeai cae?enieoe i?ioean, ?aeeiei ?acoeueoaoii yeiai aoei a
ia?aoai?aiiy oaiea a ?iaioo i?e iino?ei?e oaiia?aoo??.

?iiae? oeae caeii ae?aaeathoue o ua a?eueo i?ino?e oi?i?:

Oaiei ia iiaea ia?aoaeoe ieiia?eueii a?ae oieiaeiiai o?ea aei aa?y/iai.

Iaaeae? i?iaoeueeee o?cee ?oaeieueo Eeaoceon (1822-1888) aeei?enoiaoaaa
aeey oi?ioethaaiiy ae?oaiai caeiio oa?iiaeeiai?ee iiiyooy aio?ii??, ui
caiaeii aano??enueeee o?cee Ethaea?a Aieueoeiai (18441906) ?ioa?i?aooaaa
o oa?i?iao ci?ie ii?yaeeo a nenoai?. Eiee aio?ii?y nenoaie c?inoa?, oi
a?aeiia?aeii i?aeneeth?oueny aaceaaeaey a nenoai?. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo
ae?oaee caeii oa?iiaeeiai?ee iinooeth?:

Aio?ii?y caieiooi? nenoaie, oiaoi nenoaie, ui ia iai?ith?oueny c
ioi/aiiyi i? aia?a??th i? ?a/iaeiith, iino?eii c?inoa?.

A oea icia/a?, ui oae? nenoaie aaiethoe?iiothoue oa?e ca?eueoaiiy a ieo
aaceaaeaey, oaino e aeaci?aai?caoe??, iiee ia aeinyaiooue e?aiee
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae, o ye?e onyea ae?iaieoeoai ?iaioe noa?
iaiiaeeeaei.

Ine?eueee i?i ci?io nenoai o eeane/i?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe? ie iiaeaii
noaeeoe ii ca?eueoaiith ?oiuei? aio?ii??, oa inoaiiy e aenooia? ye
nai???aeia no??ea /ano. O iaoai?/ieo i?ioeanao i? i?i yeee ?aaeueiee /an
aiai?eoe ia aeiaiaeeoueny. Caaeaaoe a ieo ii/aoeiaee noai (eii?aeeiaoe e
?iioeuene), iiaeia, a?aeiia?aeii aei ??aiyiue ?ooo, iaeiicia/ii
aecia/eoe aoaeue-yeee ?ioee ?? noai o iaeaooiueiio aai ieioeiio. Oiio
/an o ieo aenooia? i?inoi ye ia?aiao?, ciae yeiai iiaeia i?iyoe ia
cai?ioiee, ? a oaeee niin?a iiaa?iooeny aei ia?a?niiai noaio nenoaie.
I?/iai iiae?aiiai ia cono??/a?oueny a oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioeanao, ye? ?
iaiai?ioieie ii nai?e i?e?iae?.

Oa?iiaeeiai?ea aia?oa aaaea o o?ceeo iiiyooy /ano a aeineoue nai???aei?e
oi?i?, a naia iaiai?ioiiai i?ioeano c?inoaiiy aio?ii?? a nenoai?. *ei
aeua aio?ii?y nenoaie, oei a?eueoee /aniaee i?ii?aeie i?ieoea nenoaia o
nai?e aaiethoe??.

I/aaeaeii, ui oaea iiiyooy i?i /an ? iniaeeai i?i aaiethoe?th nenoaie
aeiei??iii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iiiyooy aaiethoe??, ui eaaeaei a iniia?
oai??? Aea?a?ia. O oie /an ye o aea?a?i?anuee?e oai??? iioiaeaeaiiy
iiaeo aeae?a ?ineei ? oaa?ei oeyoii i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o aaiethoe?y
ni?yiiaaia ia aeaeeaaiiy a?eueoa c?iaeaieo i?aai?ci?a ? oneeaaeiaiiy
?oiuei? i?aai?caoe??, o oa?iiaeeiai?eo aaiethoe?y ca’ycoaaeany c
aeaci?aai?caoe??th nenoai. Oea i?ioe??//y caeeoaeiny iaaeicaieaiei aae
aei 60-o ??. iaoiai noie?ooy, iiee ia c’yaeeany iiaa, ia??aiiaaaa
oa?iiaeeiai?ea, ui iie?a?oueny ia eiioeaioe?th iaiai?ioieo i?ioean?a.

Eeane/ia oa?iiaeeiai?ea aeyaeeany iacaeaoii? ae??oeoe e einiieia?/i?
i?iaeaie oa?aeoa?o i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o Anana?o?. Ia?oo
ni?iao iioe?eoe caeiie oa?iiaeeiai?ee ia Anana?o ii/aa iaeei ?c
caniiaiee?a oe??? oai??? — ?. Eeaoceon, ui aenoioa aeaa iinooeaoe:

— aia?a?y Anana?oo caaaeaee iino?eia;

— aio?ii?y Anana?oo caaaeaee c?inoa?. sseui i?eeiyoe ae?oaee iinooeao,
oi iaiao?aeii aeciaoe, ui an? i?ioeane o Anana?o? ni?yiiaai? oa?e
aeinyaiaiiy noaio oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae, ui a?aeiia?aea? iaeneioio
aio?ii??, a ioaea, noaio, oa?aeoa?iiai iaea?eueoei nooiaiai oaino,
aaceaaeaey e aeaci?aai?caoe??. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo o Anana?o? ianooieoue
oaieiaa nia?oue ? i?yea ei?enia ?iaioa a i?e c?iaeoe aoaea ia iiaeia.
Oae? iioio?? i?iaiice cono??ee e?eoeeia? c aieo ?yaeo aeaeaoieo o/aieo ?
o?einio?a, aea a na?aaeei? ieioeiai noie?ooy aoei ua iaei iaoeiaeo
a?aoiaio?a aeey ni?inooaaiiy aeoiee ?. Eeaoceona e ia??oiooaaiiy
aeueoa?iaoeaiiai iiaeyaeo. Aeaye? aaoi?e i?eioneaee, ui ii?yae c
aio?iieeieie i?ioeanaie a i?e?iae? a?aeaoaathoueny aio?aio?iieei?
i?ioeane, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ianoaiith «oaieiai? nia?o?» o Anana?o?.
?io? aeneiaethaaee noii?a o i?aaii??iino? iioe?aiiy iiiyoue
oa?iiaeeiai?ee, cie?aia aio?ii??, c ie?aieo nenoai ia Anana?o o oe?eiio.
Aea o?eueee iaeeieoe? aeiaaaeoaaeeny, ui naia iiiyooy cae?eoi?, aai
?cieueiaaii?, nenoaie ? aeaeaei, ui eaea aano?aeoe??th, ui ia a?aeaeaa?
?aaeueiee oa?aeoa? nenoai, ye? cono??/athoueny a i?e?iae?.

A?aee?eo? nenoaie e iiaa oa?iiaeeiai?ea

Ia a?aei?io a?ae cae?eoeo, aai ?cieueiaaieo, a?aee?eo? nenoaie
iai?iththoueny c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai aia?a??th, ?a/iaeiith e
?ioi?iaoe??th. An? ?aaeuei? nenoaie ? naia a?aee?eoeie. O iai?aai?/i?e
i?e?iae? aiie iai?iththoueny ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai, ui oaeiae
neeaaea?oueny c ??cieo nenoai, ui aieiae?thoue aia?a??th e ?a/iaeiith. O
nioe?aeueieo ? aoiai?oa?ieo nenoaiao aei oeueiai aeiaea?oueny iai?i
?ioi?iaoe??th. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iai?i cae?enith?oueny oaeiae o a?ieia?/ieo
nenoaiao, cie?aia i?e ia?aaea/? aaiaoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

O a?aee?eoeo nenoaiao oaeiae ae?iaey?oueny aio?ii?y, ine?eueee a ieo
a?aeaoaathoueny iaiai?ioi? i?ioeane, aea aio?ii?y a oeeo nenoaiao ia
iaeiie/o?oueny, ye o cae?eoeo nenoaiao, a aeaiaeeoueny a iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua. Ine?eueee aio?ii?y oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue aaceaaeaey a
nenoai?, ino?eueee iiaeia neacaoe, ui a?aee?eo? nenoaie aeeaooue ca
?aooiie caiice/aiiy ii?yaeeo ?c ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

A?aee?eo? nenoaie e ia??aiiaaaa oa?iiaeeiai?ee

Eeane/ia oa?iiaeeiai?ea o nai?io aiae?c? nenoai cia/iith i??ith
aano?aaoaaeany a?ae ?oiuei? ?aaeueii? neeaaeiino?, cie?aia,
a?aeaie?eaeany a?ae ?oiuei? aca?iiae?? ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai. Oiio
?? aeo?aeia iiiyooy cae?eoi?, aai ?cieueiaaii?, nenoaie ia a?aeaeaaei
ae?eniiai iieiaeaiiy ?a/ae ? i?eaiaeeei aei i?ioe??//y c ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue o a?ieia?? e nioe?aeueieo iaoeao. Ae?enii, aaiethoe?eia
oai??y Aea?a?ia na?ae/eea, ui aeeaath/e i?e?iaea ?icaeaa?oueny a
iai?yieo aaeineiiaeaiiy e oneeaaeiaiiy iiaeo aeae?a ?ineei ? oaa?ei.
?noi??y, nioe?ieia?y, aeiiii?ea e ?io? nioe?aeuei? e aoiai?oa?i? iaoee
iieacoaaee, ui a noni?euenoa?, iacaaaeath/e ia ie?ai? ce?ca?e e ?oo
iacaae, o oe?eiio niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae i?ia?an.

Ia i?ioeaaao oeueiio eeane/ia oa?iiaeeiai?ea caoaa?aeaeoaaea, ui o?ce/i?
e ?io? nenoaie iaaeeai? i?e?iaee aaiethoe?iiothoue o iai?yieo iineeaiiy
?oiueiai aaceaaeaey, ?oeioaaiiy e aeaci?aai?caoe??. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo
noaaaei iac?icoi?eei, yeei ia?acii c iaaeeai? i?e?iaee, nenoaie yei?
iathoue oaiaeaioe?th aei aeaci?aai?caoe??, iiaea c’yaeoeny eiee-aai
aeeaath/e i?e?iaea, aea nenoaie, iaai?ioe, i?aaiooue aei
aaeineiiaethaaiiy e oneeaaeiaiiy nai?? i?aai?caoe??. Ana oea iieacoaaei,
ui ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eeane/ii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee ia?aaoaaee a
yaiiio i?ioe??//? c oei, ui aoei aa?ii a?aeiii c a?ieia??, ?noi???,
nioe?ieia?? e ?ioeo noni?eueieo iaoe.

Aaaeeeai oaeiae i?aee?aneeoe, ui nai? iiiyooy /ano e aaiethoe??
ii-??ciiio ?ioa?i?aooaaeeny a eieeoi?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe?, c iaeiiai aieo,
? a a?ieia??, nioe?ieia?? e ?noi???, c ?ioi?. Ni?aaae?, oae caaia no??ea
/ano ca’ycoaaeany a oa?iiaeeiai?eo c? c?inoaiiyi aio?ii?? nenoaie, c
iineeaiiyi ?? aaceaaeaey e aeaci?aai?caoe??, oiae? ye o a?ieia?? e
nioe?ieia?? aiia ?icaeyaeaeany, iaaiaee, c iiaeyaeo noaiiaeaiiy e
oaeineiiaethaaiiy nenoaie, ca?eueoaiiy a i?e ii?yaeeo e i?aai?caoe??.
sseui aaiethoe?y a iaaeea?e i?e?iae? aeoeoia/oaaeany ye iinooiiaee ?oo
nenoai aei ?oiueiai ?oeioaaiiy e aeaci?aai?caoe??, oi a aeea?e i?e?iae?,
iaaiaee, ye iia?eueiee iinooiaeueiee ?oo aei iineeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
nenoai, ?oiueiio aaeineiiaethaaiith e oneeaaeiaiith. Iaaea?ia ae
iacaaa?ii i?ney oiai ye aoa noi?ioeueiaaiee ae?oaee ii/aoie
oa?iiaeeiai?ee, c’yaeeeny iioio?? i?iaiice i?i «oaieiao nia?oue»
Anana?oo.

O /iio ae iieyaathoue i?e/eie oaeiai i?ioenoaaeaiiy oi/ie ci?o ia
iiiyooy /ano e aaiethoe??? sse iiaeia aoei aeicaieeoe i?ioe??//y, ui
aeieeei i?ae iiaeaiiyie eeane/ii? oa?iiaeeiai?ee e a?ieia??, nioe?ieia??
e ?noi???? I/aaeaeii, ui aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii aoei ia?aaeyiooe o?
aeo?aei? iiiyooy e i?eioeeie, yeeo aeio?eioaaeany noa?a, eeane/ia
oa?iiaeeiai?ea, oiio ui aiie ia a?aeiia?aeaee ae?eniino?, iaoei
niinoa?aaeaiiyi, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoai aeine?aeaeaiue o a?ieia?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueieo iaoeao. Aeina?ae ? i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue na?ae/eee, ui
iiiyooy cae?eoi?, aai ?cieueiaaii?, nenoaie yaey? niaith aeaeaei, ui
eaea aano?aeoe?th, ? oiio aiia caiaaeoi ni?iuo? ae?eni?noue, ine?eueee a
i?e aaaeei aai iaa?oue iaiiaeeeai ciaeoe nenoaie, ye? a ia aca?iiae?yee
c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai, ui neeaaea?oueny oaeiae ?c nenoai. Oiio a
iia?e oa?iiaeeiai?oe? i?noea cae?eoi?, ?cieueiaaii?, nenoaie caeiyei
i?eioeeiiai ?ioa ooiaeaiaioaeueia iiiyooy a?aee?eoi? nenoaie, ui caeaoia
iai?ithaaoeny c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai ?a/iaeiith, aia?a??th e
?ioi?iaoe??th.

Iaeia c ia?oeo aecia/aiue oeueiai iiiyooy iaeaaeeoue aeaeaoiiio
aano??enueeiio o?ceeia? A?aeio O?aaeeiaa?o (1887-1961), ui noi?ioethaaa
eiai o nai?e eiec? «Ui oaea aeeooy? C iiaeyaeo o?ceea». O i?e a?i ynii
aeacaa, ui caeiie o?ceee eaaeaoue a iniia? ooai?aiiy a?ieia?/ieo
no?oeoo?, ? i?aee?aneea, ui oa?aeoa?ia ?ena a?ieia?/ieo nenoai
neeaaea?oueny a iai?i? aia?a??th e ?a/iaeiith c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai. A?i ienaa:

Can?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai i?aai?ci i?aeo?eio? naaa iino?eii ia
aeineoue aenieiio ??ai? aii?yaeeiaaiino? (aei??aith? ia aeineoue
iecueeiio ??ai? aio?ii??), o ae?eniino? neeaaea?oueny a aacia?a?aiiio
aeoyao aii?yaeeiaaiino? c iaaeieeoiueiai eiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aca?iiae?th/e ?c na?aaeiaeuai, a?aee?eoa nenoaia ia iiaea caeeoaoeny
caieiooi?, oiio ui aiia ciooaia caiice/eoe cciai? aai iiao ?a/iaeio aai
na?aeo aia?a?th e iaeii/anii aeaiaeeoe a na?aaeiaeua aeei?enoaia
?a/iaeia e a?aei?aoeueiaaia aia?a?y.

Aea ia a?aei?io a?ae cae?eoeo nenoai oey aio?ii?y, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
nooi?iue aaceaaeaey a nenoai?, ia iaeiie/o?oueny a i?e, a
a?aeaeaey?oueny a iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua. Oea icia/a?, ui aeei?enoaia,
a?aei?aoeueiaaia aia?a?y ?icn?th?oueny a iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeu? e
cai?noue ?? ?c na?aaeiaeua aeoyaa? iiaa, na?aea aia?a?y, caeaoia ?iaeoe
ei?enio ?iaioo.

Oaeiai ?iaeo iaoa??aeuei? no?oeoo?e, caeaoi? ?icn?thaaoe, aia?a?th,
iaceaathoueny aeeneiaoeaieie. Ca?aene noa? yniei, ui a?aee?eoa nenoaia
ia iiaea aooe ??aiiaaaeii?, oiio ui ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiaaa?
aacia?a?aiiai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ?c ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua aia?a?? aai
?a/iaeie, aaaaoiai aia?a??th. O ?acoeueoao? oaei? aca?iiae?? nenoaia, ye
oeaco? O?aaeeiaa?, aeoyaa? ii?yaeie c iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua e oei
naiei aiineoue aaceaaeaey a oea na?aaeiaeua.

I/aaeaeii, ui c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi iiai? aia?a?? aai ?a/iaeie
ia?aaiiaaaei?noue o nenoai? c?inoa?. A inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo eieeoi?e
aca?iica’ycie i?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie, ui aecia/a? ?? no?oeoo?o,
?oeio?oueny. I?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie aeieeathoue iia? ca’ycee, ye?
i?eaiaeyoue aei eiiia?aoeaieo i?ioean?a, oiaoi aei eieaeoeaiiai
iiaiaeaeaiiy ?? aeaiaio?a. Oae noaiaoe/ii iiaeooue aooe iienai? i?ioeane
naiii?aai?caoe?? o a?aee?eoeo nenoaiao.

Iai/iith ?ethno?aoe??th i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? iiaea neoaeeoe ?iaioa
eaca?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia iaea?aeoaaoe iiooaei? iioe/i?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Ia aaeath/enue o aeaoae? eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy,
a?aecia/eii, ui oaioe/i? eieeaaeuei? ?ooe o?eaeoeyoee?oi?o eiai /anoie
caaaeyee iaaeoiaeaeaiith aia?a?? cciai?, i?e aeinoaoi?e eiai
«iaea/oaaii?» i?eaiaeyoueny a iiaiaeaeaiee ?oo. Aiie ii/eiathoue
eieeaaoeny a iaeiaeia?e oac? e aiane?aeie oeueiai iiooaei?noue eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy aaaaoi?aciai ca?eueoo?oueny. Oeae i?eeeaae na?ae/eoue,
ui a ?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? ?c na?aaeiaeuai ca ?aooiie iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiai? aia?a?? eieeoi? aeiaaeeia? eieeaaiiy aeaiaio?a oaei?
nenoaie, ye eaca?, ia?aoai?ththoueny a eiaa?aioiee, iiaiaeaeaiee
eieaeoeaiee ?oo. Ia oe?e iniia? aeieeathoue eiiia?aoeai? i?ioeane e
a?aeaoaa?oueny naiii?aai?caoe?y nenoaie.

Aea/ath/e i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a eaca??,
i?iaoeueeee o?cee Aa?iai Oaeai (?. 1927) iacaaa iiaee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiue n?ia?aaoeeith, ui a ia?aeeaae? c aeaaiueia?aoeueeiai
icia/a? ni?eueio ae?th, aai aca?iiae?y, ? aeia?a ia?aaea? ci?no ? oe?eue
iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy yaeu.

?ioei i?eeeaaeii iiaea neoaeeoe naiii?aai?caoe?y, ui aeieea? a o?i?/ieo
?aaeoe?yo. O ieo aiia iia’ycaia c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi cciai? iiaeo
?aaaaio?a, oiaoi ?a/iaei, ui caaacia/othoue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?aaeoe??, c
iaeiiai aieo, ? aeaaaeaiiy a iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??,
c ?ioi? noi?iie. Ciai? naiii?aai?caoe?y i?iyaey?oueny ooo o iiya? a
??aeeiio na?aaeiaeu? eiioeaio?e/ieo oaeeue aai a ia??iaee/i?e ci?i?
oea?oo ?ic/eio, iai?eeeaae, ?c neiueiai ia /a?aiiee ? iacaae («o?i?/i?
aiaeeiieee»). Oe? ?aaeoe?? aia?oa aoee aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/ai?
a?o/eciyieie a/aieie A. Aaeioniaei ? A. AEaaioeinueeei. Ia ?oi?e
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e iniia? aaeuea?enueeeie a/aieie ia /ie? ?. ?.
I?eaiaeeiei (?in?yieiii ii iioiaeaeaiith, ?. 1917 ?.) aoea iiaoaeiaaia
oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue, iacaaia a?thnnaeyoi?ii (ii ?i’th noieeoe? Aaeuea??
— A?thnnaey). Oey iiaeaeue eyaea a iniiao aeine?aeaeaiue iiai?
oa?iiaeeiai?ee, ui /anoi iaceaathoue ia??aiiaaaith, aai iae?i?eii?. sse
a?aecia/a? E. ?. I?eaiaeei:

Ia?ao?ae a?ae oa?iiaeeiai?ee (a??i?oa oa?iinoaoeee) ??aiiaaaeieo noai?a
aei oa?iiaeeiai?ee ia??aiiaaaeo i?ioean?a, aacnoii?aii, ciaiaio? i?ia?an
o ?icaeoeo ?yaeo aaeocae iaoee.

I?i ??aiiaaao e ia??aiiaaao nenoai oaea aiai?eeiny. Iiynieii, ui
?icoi??oueny i?ae iae?i?ei?noth a oa?iiaeeiai?eo e oai???
naiii?aai?caoe?? acaaae?. A?aei?oia ?ena iiaeaeae, ui iienothoue
a?aee?eo? nenoaie e i?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe??, iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ieo
aeei?enoiaothoueny iae?i?ei? iaoaiaoe/i? ??aiyiiy, o ye? aoiaeyoue
ci?ii? a nooiai? aeua ia?oi? (e?i?eii?). Oi/a e?i?ei? ??aiyiiy e
aeioaia? /anoi canoiniaothoueny o o?ceeo e oi/iiio i?e?iaeiciaanoa? a
oe?eiio, aiie aeyaeythoueny iaaaeaeaaoieie aeey iieno a?aee?eoeo nenoai
aai ae i?e aeineoue ?ioaineaieo aieeaao ia nenoaie. Naia c iiae?aieie
nenoaiaie e i?ioeanaie ia? ni?aaa iiaa oa?iiaeeiai?ea e oiio ?? ia??aeei
iaceaathoue iae?i?eiith.

Naiii?aai?caoe?y o a?aee?eoeo nenoaiao

A?aee?eooy naiii?aai?caoe?? a iaei?ino?oeo nenoaiao iai?aai?/ii?
i?e?iaee, ianaiia?aae o o?ceeo e o?i??, ia? aaee/acia iaoeiaa e
o?eieionueei-na?oiaeyaeia cia/aiiy. Aiii iieaco?, ui oae? i?ioeane
iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny o ooiaeaiaio? naiiai «aoaeeieo iaoa???», ? oei
naiei i?ieeaa? iiaa na?oei ia aca?iica’ycie aeeai? i?e?iaee c iaaeeaee.
C oaeiai iiaeyaeo aeieeiaiiy aeeooy ia Caie? ia caea?oueny oaia? oaeei
??aeeei ? aeiaaeeiaei yaeuai, ye i?i oea aiai?eee aaaaoi a/aieo ?ai?oa.
C iiceoe?? naiii?aai?caoe?? noa? oaeiae yniei, ui aanue iaaeieeoi?e ian
ie? ? Anana?o yaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue ??ciiiai?oieo i?ioean?a, ui
naiii?aai?cothoueny, ye? ? iniiaith aoaeue-yei? aaiethoe??.

sse aea iiynith? no/ania iaoea, ? cie?aia, n?ia?aaoeea i?ioean
naiii?aai?caoe?? nenoai?

1. Aeey oeueiai nenoaia iiaeiia aooe a?aee?eoi?, oiio ui cae?eoa,
?cieueiaaia nenoaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c ae?oaei caeiiii oa?iiaeeiai?ee
a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo iiaeiia i?eeoe a noai, oa?aeoa?eco?ii
iaeneiaeueiei aaceaaeaeyi aai aeaci?aai?caoe??th.

2. A?aee?eoa nenoaia iiaeiia ia?aaoaaoe aeineoue aeaeaei a?ae e?aiee
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae. sseui nenoaia ia?aaoaa? a e?aioe? ??aiiaaae,
oi aiia ia? iaeneiaeueio aio?ii?th e oiio iacaeaoia aei yei?-iaaoaeue
i?aai?caoe??: o oeueiio iieiaeaii? aeinyaa?oueny iaeneioi ??
naiiaeaci?aai?caoe??. sseui ae nenoaia ?icoaoiaaia iiaeeco aai iaaeaeaei
a?ae e?aiee ??aiiaaae, oi caiaeii aiia iaaeeceoueny aei ia? e c?aooith
i?eeaea a noai iiaii? aeaci?aai?caoe??.

3. sseui i?eioeeiii, ui aii?yaeeiao?, aeey ?cieueiaaieo nenoai ?
aaiethoe?y oa?e ca?eueoaiiy ?oiuei? aio?ii?? aai iineeaiiy ?oiueiai
aaceaaeaey (i?eioeei Aieueoeiaia), oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiei i?eioeeiii
naiii?aai?caoe?? neoaeeoue, iaai?ioe, aeieeiaiiy e iineeaiiy ii?yaeeo
/a?ac oeoeooaoe??. Oae? oeoeooaoe??, aai aeiaaeeia? a?aeoeeaiiy nenoaie
a?ae aeayeiai na?aaeiueiai iieiaeaiiy, ia naiiio ii/aoeo i?eaeooothoueny
e e?ea?aeothoueny nenoaiith. Iaeiae o a?aee?eoeo nenoaiao caaaeyee
iineeaiith ia?aaiiaaaeiino? oe? a?aeoeeaiiy caiaeii c?inoathoue ?
c?aooith i?eaiaeyoue aei «?icoeooaaiiy» eieeoiueiai ii?yaeeo e
aeieeiaiith iiaiai ii?yaeeo.

Oeae i?ioean cae/aeii oa?aeoa?ecothoue ye i?eioeei ooai?aiiy ii?yaeeo
/a?ac oeoeooaoe??. Ine?eueee oeoeooaoe?? iinyoue aeiaaeeiaee oa?aeoa? (a
naia: c ieo ii/eia?oueny aeieeiaiiy iiaiai ii?yaeeo e no?oeoo?e), oa
noa? yniei, ui iiyaa iiaiai o na?o? caaaeaee iia’ycaia c ae??th
aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a. O oeueiio aeniiaeo ciaoiaeeoue nai? eiie?aoia
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aai?aeueiee caeiaaae aioe/ieo o?einio?a Ai?eo?a
(341-270 aei i.a.) ? Eoe?aoe?y Ea?a (99-45 aei i.a.), ui aeiaaaea
aeiiouaiiy aeiaaeeiaino? aeey iiyniaiiy iiyae iiaiai a ?icaeoeo ie?o.

4. Ia a?aei?io a?ae i?eioeeio iaaaoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, ia yeiio
??oioo?oueny ea?oaaiiy e caa?aaeaiiy aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae nenoai,
aeieeiaiiy naiii?aai?caoe?? iie?a?oueny ia ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeiee
i?eioeei — iiceoeaiee cai?ioiee ca’ycie. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo
oaoi?/ieo ?aaoeyoi??a ? aaoiiao?a ??oioo?oueny ia i?eioeei? iaaaoeaiiai
ca’yceo, oiaoi iaea?aeaii? cai?ioieo neaiae?a a?ae aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a
uiaei iieiaeaiiy nenoaie e ianooiiiai ei?aeooaaiiy oeueiai iieiaeaiiy
ea?oth/eie i?eno?iyie. Aeey ?icoi?iiy naiii?aai?caoe?? aa?oi caa?iooeny
aei i?eioeeio iiceoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai
ci?ie, ui c’yaeythoueny a nenoai?, ia onoaathoueny, a iaai?ioe,
iaeiie/othoueny e i?aeneeththoueny, ui e i?eaiaeeoue c?aooith aei
aeieeiaiiy iiaiai ii?yaeeo e no?oeoo?e.

5. I?ioeane naiii?aai?caoe??, ye ? ia?aoiaee a?ae iaeieo no?oeoo? aei
?ioeo, noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ii?ooaiiyi neiao???. I?ioeane
naiii?aai?caoe??, iia’ycai? c iaiai?ioieie ci?iaie, i?eaiaeyoue aei
?oeioaaiiy noa?eo ? aeieeiaiith iiaeo no?oeoo?.

6. Naiii?aai?caoe?y iiaea ii/aoeny eeoa a nenoaiao, ui aieiae?thoue
aeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth aca?iiae?th/eo i?ae niaith aeaiaio?a ?, ioaea,
ui ia? aeaye? e?eoe/i? ?ici??e. O i?ioeaiiio aeiaaeeo aoaeoe a?ae
n?ia?aaoe/ii? aca?iiae?? aoaeooue iaaeinoaoi? aeey iiyae eiiia?aoeaiiai
(eieaeoeaiiai) iiaiaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a nenoaie e oei naiei aeieeiaiiy
naiii?aai?caoe??.

Ie ia?ae?/eee iaiao?aei?, aea aeaeaei ia an? oiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy
naiii?aai?caoe?? a ??cieo nenoaiao i?e?iaee. Iaa?oue o o?i?/ieo
nenoaiao, ui naiii?aai?cothoueny, ye? aea/aee Aaeionia ? AEaaioeinueeee,
a «a?o» anooiathoue oae? iia? oaeoi?e, ye i?ioeane eaoae?co, ye?
i?enei?ththoue o?i?/i? ?aaeoe??. Oiio iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui /ei
aeua ie i?aei?ia?iiny ii aaiethoe?eiei noiaeai ?icaeoeo nenoai, oei
a?eueo neeaaeieie ? /eneaiieie aeyaeythoueny oaeoi?e, ye? a?ae?a?athoue
?ieue o naiii?aai?caoe??.

E?oa?aoo?a

1. Aneei ss.O. I?iaeaia a?aiaie. A? oece/aneia enoieeiaaiea. – I., 1986.

2. Aooiaeia I.Ae. Eiioeaioe?? i?inoi?o e /ano: aeaea?aea, aaiethoe?y,
ia?niaeoeae, — E., 1992.

3. ENA. Aeey nooaeaioia aocia. – ?.-ia- Ae., 1997

4. Ineiia A.E. I?ino?? ? /an ye eaoaai??? na?oiaeyaeo e ?aaoeyoi?e
i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. – E., 1989.

5. Iniiae o?einio??. //ca ?aae. I.A.Nie?e?ia — E., 1993.

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