A?eae

O aeeoo? e?no a?eae a?ae?a?athoue aeiyoeiao ?ieue. ?iciiiaeothoueny aiie
ae??aieie /anoi/eaie — nii?aie. Ia a?eaieoe? (i?oeae?e) ?icaeaathoueny
ieiaeia? o?ea — a?eae, ye? noaaeyoueny aei ia caeaieo ?ineei. Aiie
iicaaaeai? oei?io?eo, ia ae?iaeythoue i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei c iai?aai?/ieo,
a oa?/othoueny ca ?aooiie aioiaeo ?a/iaei. Ii niinia? oa?/oaaiiy a?eae
i?ae?icae?eythoue ia o?e a?oie: nai?io?oe, ia?aceoe e i?ei?eci?.

Nai?io?oe — a?eae, ui oa?/othoueny caeeoeaie aeeaeo i?aai?ci?a, a
iniiaiiio ?ineei. Aei ieo noaaeyoueny aeiuiaeee e ia/a?eoe?. Ia?aceoe —
a?eae, ui ?icaeaathoueny ca ?aooiie aeeaeo i?aai?ci?a — ?ineei ? oaa?ei.
Oea /eneaii? o?ooiaeee, ui ooai?youe ia aea?aaao aaeee? ieiaeia? o?ea e
cooaaea aieooy aea?aaeie. I?ei?eci? a?eae i?enay/ai? aei iaaieo aeae?a
aea?aa. A?eaieoey, iaie?oath/e ei??iiy aea?aa, iaea?aeo? a?ae ieo
a?oai?ie e aoaeaaiaei? ?a/iaeie. O naith /a?ao a?eae ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo
e?no, aa?ooue o/anoue o noai?aii? ??oioiaiai iie?eao. ?acii c
i?e?ii?aai?ciaie aiie ?iceeaaeathoue e?niao i?aenoeeeo, ia?a?iaey?
i?ia?aeuei? ?a/iaeie e ?io? i?iaeoeoe ?iceeaaeaiiy a eaaei aeinooii?
oi?ie aeey canai?iiy.

I?eo?i/ai?noue a?ea?a aei iaei??? yei?-iaaoaeue ii?iaee aea?aa ciaeoea
a?aeaeooy a ?oi?e iaca? — e?aniiaieiaaoeue, i?aeaa?aciee, aeoaiaee.
Aeaye? a?eae ia?aaoaathoue o neia?ic? c iaeiei aea?aaii, ?io? — c
aeae?eueeiia, ie?ai? aca?iiaea?aeii aeeaooue c aaaaoueia aea?aaaie.
I?ei?eci? a?eae e e?n ia iiaeooue ?nioaaoe ae?oa aac ae?oaa. Aeey
ae?iuoaaiiy e?no ia iiaiio i?noe? iaiao?aeii aiineoe a ??oio a?eae.

Aca?iiaea?aeia ni?aaeeooy ooai?ththoue a?eae c aea?aaieie ii?iaeaie
aeueo ?ineei. I?oeae?e a?eaa iaie?oa? ei??iue ciai?, a oaeiae i?iieea? a
oeaieio aea?aaa. Ooai?eoueny oae caaia i?ei?eca, oiaoi c’?aeiaiiy
ei?aiaai? nenoaie aea?aaa c a?oaie a?eaa. O ?acoeueoao? cia/ii
ca?eueoo?oueny oniieooaaeueia iiaa?oiy ei?aiaai? nenoaie aea?aaa. A?ea
nai?ie neeueii ?icaaeoaeaieie a?oaie aniieoo? ?c ??oioo aiaeo e ia?aaea?
?? a ei??iue aea?aaa, ye? a oaeee niin?a iaea?aeothoue aeiaeaoeiao
aieiao.

Iaoeia? aeina?aee iieacaee, ui aea?aaa a neia?ic? ?c a?eaaie ?inoooue
iaaaaaoi oaeaeoa, i?ae o?, o ei??iiyo yeeo a?aenooiy a?eaia i?ei?eca.
Aea?aai iaea?aeo? a?ae a?eaa aeiaeaoeiao aieiao e i?ia?aeuei? nie?, a?ea
a?ae aea?aaa — aioiaa oa?/oaaiiy. Aeey aaaaoueio a?ea?a neia?ic
iaiao?aeiee, ine?eueee ?oi? ieiaeiaa o?ei ooai?eoueny o?eueee a eiioaeo?
a?o?a c ei??iiyie aea?aaa.

Aeaye? aeaee a?ea?a iia’ycai? c ei?aiaaith nenoaiith iaaieo aeae?a
eenoyieo aai oaieieo aea?aa. Iai?eeeaae, a?eee a?ea ooai?eoue i?ei?eco c
aeoaii, a?aaii, aoeii, aa?acith, niniith, yeeiith.

A?eae ?iciiiaeothoueny nii?aie, ye? ?icneiathoueny a aaciina?aaei?e
aeecueeino? a?ae eaiaethoea a?eaa. I?i?ine? noia?a/ee ia ianooiiee ??e
ooai?youe ia ei??iiyo aea?aaa iiao i?ei?eco. Aeina?ae/ai? a?eaieee
ciathoue oea e ui??/ii i?eoiaeyoue ia oa naia i?noea, c??coth/e a?eae
iiaeai, uia a?oe caeeoeeeny a caie?. Oiae? ianooiiiai aeiy aai iacaaa?ii
c’yaeythoueny iia? iieiae? eaiaethoee a?ea?a.

A?eaieee, a?aei?aaeyth/enue ia «oeoa iiethaaiiy», caeeoathoue ia
oi?eiooeie aaaaoi ?no?aieo a?ea?a. Ia aa?ooue iaa?oue ia/a?eoe?. A oeae
a?ea ii iiaeeaiino? ??aiioe?iiee a?eiio e ?eaeeeo. A?i ?inoa a?oiaie ?c
o?aaiy aei i?ciuei? inai? ia iieyo, o naaeao, ai?iaeao, e?ninioaao,
eoaao, iaa?oue ia o?iooa?ao.

Iae/ano?oa a?eaieee ciaaaaeathoue ? aeiuiaeeaie. Oe? nia/i? e aeeaeeuei?
a?eae ?inoooue ?ynii i?ney oaieeo o?aaiaaeo aeiu?a onthaee, aeinyaath/e
?iiae? a?aaionueeeo ?ici???a (a?eueoa 10 ea).

E?ee ?c a?ea?a oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue o no/ani?e iaaeeoeei?. I?aeoeea
i?aeoaa?aeeea ?oi?e ni?eyoeeaee aieea ia i?aai?ci ethaeeie caaaeyee
aioeaaeoa??aeueiei aeanoeainoyi.

O ne?iaa??ii? caeaaia aeei?enoiaoaaee aeoyaeeo c? ne/oaa aeoeieo oaa?ei,
aeae?eyth/e ne/oaiaee oa?iaio ?ai?i, iaiao?aeiee aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
oaa?aeeo ne??a. Oa?iaio ?onnoe?i, i? a /iio ia onooia? ?ai?io. E?eueea
?ie?a iacaae eai?ia?aaenuee? i?eieiae aeyaeee, ui iaeei ?c a?eaieo
oa?iaio?a aeia?a neaaoo? iieiei c ooai?aiiyi u?eueiiai caonoeo. Oea
a?aee?eooy i?eaa?ioei oaaao oao?aoe?a. Ni?a?ia?oieee Ananithciiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo iiei/ii? i?iieneiaino? i?ney /eneaiieo
aeina?ae?a, aeine?aeeaoe 150 aeae?a ne?i?aeie, ciaeoee iaeei aeae,
oa?iaio yeiai ca 30 oa neaaoo? 100 e iieiea c ooai?aiiyi u?eueiiai
caonoeo.

A «oeoa iiethaaiiy»! Ie iaea?aeo?ii ca?yae aaaeuei?ino?, ciaoiaeeii
ue?ina?aea/io ??aiiaaao. Aea oea ia oaea i?inoa caiyooy. Aiii aeiaaa?
iaaecae/aeii? iaa?aaeiino?, oiio ui ?niothoue ? io?ooi? a?eae, aeineoue
noiae? ia ?no?ai?. Uia aeeeth/eoe iaaaciaea io?o?iiy, iaiao?aeii
iaa/eoeny aecia/aoe a?eae. Iniaeeai iaa?aaeii iaiao?aeii cae?aoe
ieanoei/ano? a?eae, oiio ui a?eueo?noue io?ooieo a?ea?a noaaeoueny aei
ieo.

Na?aae o?oa/anoeo a?ea?a a?aeiiee ?aeeiee io?ooiee a?ea — naoaieinueeee.
A ie?aio a?oio aeae?eythoue oiiaii ?no?ai? a?eae. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
aiie i?noyoue io?oei? ?a/iaeie, i?ney a?aeiia?aeii? ia?iaee aiie
noathoue i?eaeaoieie aeey ?ae?. Aeaye? a?eae, oi/a e ciaoeiaeaeothoueny
i?e iiia?aaei?e ia?iaoe?, caa??aathoue iai?e?iiee niae ? caiao. ?o
a?aeiinyoue aei a?oie ia?no?aieo ? ia cae?athoue.

Iaaacia/ieie iiaeooue aooe ? ?no?ai? a?eae, yeui aiie ia?a?ine?, noa??.
O aeoaiaeo e?nao ?inoooue a?eee a?ea, naoaieinueeee, a?ocae?, ne?i?aeee,
naeiooee, eene/ee, iiaiueee, iooiii?e, aeoaiaee, o niniiaeo — a?eee
a?ea, ?eaeeee, ianethee, ne?i?aeee, naeiooee, eiceyee, iioiaeee,
iieuenueeee a?ea, ?yaeiaeee, ?yaeea, eene/ee, iiaiueee, iooiii?e, o
aa?aciaeo aayo — a?eee a?ea, aeoaiaee, a?ocae?, i?aeaa?aciee,
e?aniiaieiaaoeue, ne?i?aeee, aieiooee, eene/ee, iioiaeee, naeiooee,
?yaeea, aaoaiee, iiaiueee, iooiii?e, o yeeiieeao — a?eee a?ea, ?eaeeee,
e?aniiaieiaoe?, a?ocae?, ne?i?aeee, a?ea-ia?anieueea, ianethee,
iioiaeee, cii?oee, ?yaeee, naeiooee, eene/ee, iooiii?e, a ine/iyeao —
e?aniiaieiaaoeue, a?ocae?, eene/ee, iaeei aeiaoee, iioiaeee, naeiooee,
cii?oee, aaoaiee, iiaiueee, iooiii?e.

A?eae c’yaeythoueny a i?noeyo, aea aeia?a ?icaeaa?oueny a?eaieoey: ia
oce?nnyo, aaeyaeiao, oca?//yo aei??a, i?in?eao, iaaaeeeeo aeni/eiao (a
iniiaiiio ia noeeao).

A?eee a?ea aa?oi ooeaoe a ca?inoyo aa?ano, na?aae iaaaeeeeo iioiaeo
eoiei. O aonoiio e?n? a?eae iaeaea ia cono??/athoueny, ine?eueee ??oio
ooo iaaeinoaoiuei i?ia??oee, a oaeiae ia neeueii caaea?iaiieo aai
caio?eeo ae?eyieao e?no. No?iee iiyae a?ea?a caeaaeaoue a?ae iiaiaeieo
oiia. I?i ?oith iiyao neaiae?cothoue oace ?icaeoeo ?ineei: oea?oa ineea
— c’yaeythoueny cii?oee; c ineee eaoeoue ioo — i?ae iath ooeaeoa
e?aniiaieiaaoeue; eieineoueny aeeoi — i?oee a?e? a?eae-eieiniaeee;
oea?oa eeia iaeeieenoyia — iiyaa ae?oaiai oa?o a?eeo a?ea?a; o aeieaa
c’yaey?oueny ae?oaee oa? i?aeaa?aciee?a; iaan o aineia?e ni?eino? —
i?oee in?ii? iiaiueee; iiyaa iooiii??a — /a?ac e?eueea aei?a aoaeooue
a?e? a?eae. Ca aieiooeaie c’yaeythoueny ?eaeeee.

Ia aeaeue, iaiaa?aaeia ao?o/aiiy ethaeeie a aeeooy e?no, caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?eaiaeyoue aei ciaioaiiy a?ea?a. Oaea aaaaoi
ooi c ieo caianai? a *a?aiio eieao.

Ia?aaoaath/e a e?n?, aa?oi iai’yoaoe, ui a?eae, ye ? an? ei?eni?
?ineeie, iaiao?aeii ioi?iiyoe, aa?aaoe ?o aeey iaeaooi?o iieie?iue.

Ia cae?aeoa (? ia c??coeoa) ia?ani?e? a?eae. A?oa? ?iciana ?oi?
noia?a/ee aeey ooai?aiiy iiaeo a?eaieoeue. Ia nioooeoa, ia ?iceeaeaeoa
e?niao i?aenoeeeo. Oeei ae ?oeio?oa ieoee a?eaieoeue, i?ney /iai aiie
iiaaii ieiaeiiinyoue.

I?e cai?? c??coeoa a?eae iiaeai. Ia cae?aeoa iiaaiie, iooiii??a. Ieie
aiaeothoueny ca??? e ioaoe. Iiiiaoa, o e?n? iaia? i?/iai caeaiai.

Ia Caie? iaia? oaei? noa?e, o ye?e ae ia aoee aeyaeai? i?e?ii?aai?cie.
Aiie ne??cue — o iia?o??, aiae?, ??oio?. ?ieue ? o/anoue o iao?i aeeoo?
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe. Aiie ai?noeio anthaeenou?, iathoue
aaee/acio oaeaee?noue ?inoo, iiaeooue ?nioaaoe e ?iciiiaeoaaoeny ia
aoaeue-yeeo noano?aoao, o oiio /ene? e iai?aai?/ieo, caeaoi? aeaaaoe
ano?iiii?/ia ii /enaeueiino? iioiinoai, a i?e iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao
oiaaeaoe a aiaa?ic — noai i?ae aeeooyi ? nia?oth. I?e?ii?aai?cie —
aeeai? o?ainoi?iaoi?e e aeoioeyoi?e aia?a??.

Iiiaae o?enoa ?ie?a oiio (1663 ?.) caaaeyee aeiieoeeaino? noeii?iaa c
aieeaiaenueeiai i?noa Aeaeueooa Aioiie aai Eaaaiaoea ethaenoai
aeia?aeaeiny i?i ?nioaaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. A?i iienaa nai?
niinoa?aaeaiiy a 112 eenoao Eiiaeiinueeiio Ei?ie?anueeiio oiaa?enoao.
I?ci?oa aoea aeaeaia eieaa «Oa?iieoe? i?e?iaee». ? eeoa /a?ac 100 ?ie?a
o ?acoeueoao? aai?aeueieo a?aee?eoo?a Eo? Ianoa?a noaea i?iyniyoeny
?ieue i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ye ae?th/iai ii/aoeo aaaaoueio oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa, ?noi??y yeeo ?aea a aeeaieo noa?iaeaai?noue. Ii/aoie
i?e?ia?ieia?? — iaoee i?i i?e?ii?aai?cie — i?eeiyoi a?ae?aoiaoaaoe ?c
/ano Eo? Ianoa?a.

Iaeiae ua caaeiaai aei Ianoa?a ethaenoai aeei?enoiaoaaei i?e?ii?aai?cie.

Aeii?iae e ne?iaa?e noa?iaeaaiino? iaa?oue ia i?aeic?thaaee i?i
?nioaaiiy i?e?ia?a, aea oea ia caaaaeaei ?i aa?eoe ne?e e ?iaeoe
i?iaeia. I?ioean neenaiiy iieiea, aei?/ee oe?aa aoa oaeiae a?aeiiee
iaoei i?aaeeai, aea i?e?ia?ieia?/ia nooi?noue eiai aoea iaiiyniaia.
O?eueee ia iniia? ciaiiy o?i?/ieo caeii?a Eo? Ianoa? aeaa iiyniaiiy
i?ioeanai, aeei?enoiaoaaiei o aeii?ianoa?, i?e iaea?aeaii? ne??a, ieaa e
a ?ioeo ae?iaieoeoaao.

Ii?iaeaeaia aeina?aeii onueiai ethaenoaa e aai??i Eo? Ianoa?a
i?e?ia?ieia?y ia?aaeeaa? ca?ac ia??iae ao?oeeaiai ?icea?oo.

Iaiiaeeeai iacaaoe iaeanoue ethaenueeeo ciaiue, i?yii aai iia?/ii ia
iia’ycaio c i?e?ia?ieia??th. Iaaeina?ae/aia ethaeeia ciaeiia, ye
i?aaeei, eeoa c iaaaoeaiith noi?iiith ae?yeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.
I?e?iae aeeeeeathoue oai?iae ?ineei, oaa?ei, ethaeeie. Ethaee a?eueoa
ciath/? ciathoue, ui eeneye, eao??, ?yaeaieo, ianei e niaoaio
iaea?aeothoue ?c iieiea ca aeiiiiiaith ??cieo i?e?ii?aai?ci?a.

I?e?ii?aai?ciai aeanoeaa e ?acth/a caeaoi?noue i?enoiniaoaaoeny aei
iiaeo oiia ?nioaaiiy, ui iiyaeeenue o ?acoeueoao? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie.
Aiie ia aeiooue iaa?oue a oiiaao aeeaieiai aaeooio e i?e iaaeiecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao. I?e iaaeie?eo ?ae? aai ?ioeo iani?eyoeeaeo oiia /eiaei
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a oiaaeathoue o niey/eo, nii/eaath/? oi?ie o aeaeyae? nii?
aai oeeno. O oaeiio noai? aiie iiaeooue ia?aaoaaoe aeanyoee, nioi? ?ie?a
/aeath/e aa?ieo oiia.

Aaeoa??? caeaoi? i?ioenoiyoe aenieei oaiia?aoo?ai, oeneo e
?aae?iaeoeaiiio aei?ii?ithaaiith, caeeoathoue aeaeaei iicaaeo ?io? oi?ie
aeeooy.

I?e?ii?aai?cie caeaoi? aeeoe o aioo??oi?i na?aaeiaeu? ?ioeo aeeaeo
i?aai?ci?a. Ooo aiie aenooiathoue o aeaio ?ieyo: ye ia?aceoe ? ye
i?aai?cie, ui aeeiiothoue ei?eni? ooieoe??. Iai?eeeaae, aaee/aciee ianya
?iaioe c ia?aaa?thaaiiy ?ineeiii? ?ae? a oeoieo aeoeieo oaa?ei
i?iaiaeyoue i?e?iae.

Aace?/ aaeoa??e anooiathoue o neia?ioe/i? a?aeiioaiiy c ?ineeiaie.
Aeaye? c ieo, iinaeyth/enue ia ei??iiyo aiaiaeo ?ineei, aeiiiiaaathoue
?i canaithaaoe acio c iia?o?y. Ia 1 a nooeo ei??iue aeiaiaeeoueny aei 10
ie?ae. aaeoa??e-aciooeenaoi??a.

Oa e o aioo??oi?o i?aaiao ethaeeie aeeaa aaee/acia e?euee?noue aaeoa??e,
o?eueee a oeoieo ?oi?o 500 aeae?a. ? ia aeeaii, ui i?e?ii?aai?cie
anthaeenou?.

O oeae /an o na?o? iae?/o?oueny aeecueei 2,5 iei. i?aai?/ieo ?
iai?aai?/ieo c’?aeiaiue. Uiaeiy noai?ththoueny an? iia? ?a/iaeie e
iaoa??aee, ui neioacothoueny a eaai?aoi??yo onueiai ie?o. ?,
iacaaaeath/e ia ae?iaieoeoai a ano?iiii?/ieo oeeo?ao, ??cieo i?iaeoeo?a,
iaoa ieaiaoa ia ia?aoai?eeany a neeaae aeeeth/aieo ?c e?oaiia?ao
?a/iaei. Iniiaia caneoaa a oeueiio iaeaaeeoue ana?aeiei i?e?ii?aai?ciai.
Aiie aeei?enoiaothoue ia o?eueee i?aai?eo, aea e iai?aai?eia?. ? e oae?,
ye? oa?/othoueny ai?aeii, i?o?aoaie, n??eiaiaeiai, cae?cii, aiaeiai,
aoaeaeeneei aacii ? ?ioeie o?i?/ieie aeaiaioaie.

Aac i?e?ii?aai?ci?a aeeooy ia Caie? iaiiaeeeaa. Oiio aoaeue-yea ae?y,
ao?o/aiiy ethaeeie a i?e?iaeo iiaeiia aooe iiia?aaeiuei iaaeoiaia c
iiaeyaeo aieeao ia iaaeieeoi? ian i?e?ii?aai?cie.

Niaoeeo?/iee oeyo ?icaeoeo a?ea?a, oaiaeaioe?y aei ni?iuaiiy iieiaiai
aia?aoa, iniaeea? oi?ie caoenoo aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a, yeeie ? ieiaeia?
o?ea, ui ia iathoue aiaeia?a o ?ineeiiiio na?o?, ?nioaaiiy ii?yae c?
ni?euei?noth oaeiae ? ?icoiaeaeaiue o a?ineioac?, cae?enithaaiiio
?ineeiaie e oaa?eiaie, aoaeiaa oaeeiia, a?aenooi?noue ai?iii?a ? ?io?
iniaeeaino? a?ea?a aeaee i?aenoaaa a?ieiaai, ii?yae ?c i?iea??ioaie,
?ineeiaie e oaa?eiaie, aeae?eeoe oeth ye?nii nai???aeio a?oio a
naiino?eia oea?noai.

O a?eueoino? a?ea?a aaaaoaoeaia o?ei neeaaea?oueny c? nieaoaiiy a?o —
i?oeae?th, ui i?aaenoaaey? niaith aaaaoiyaea?io oeeoiieacio, iae/ano?oa
?icae?eaio ia?aai?iaeeaie e ioi/aio ee?oeiiith no?ieith. O aeayeeo
a?ea?a aaaaoaoeaia o?ei neeaaea?oueny c iaei??? ee?oeie.

I?ioeane, ui iaeii/anii i?io?eathoue o ee?oei?, ia’?aeiai? a caaaeueio
caaeainiaaio nenoaio, oiaoi ao?eiothoueny a i?e i?aaii?aee e
i?e?iiieaeoey?i? eiiieaene ae?thoue ia ?cieueiaaii, a a o?ni?e
aca?iiae?? iaeei c iaeiei, oiio ui o?eueee i?e oeeo oiiaao iiaeeeaa
ii?iaeueia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ee?oeie.

Aieiaia ?ieue o aeeoo? iaeaaeeoue yae?o, AeIE yeiai eiio?ieth? neioac
a?ee?a-oa?iaio?a, ui cae?eniththoue o?niee ca’ycie i?ae an?ia
eiiiiiaioaie ee?oeie. Caaaeueia /enei a?ee?a-oa?iaio?a o ee?oeiao
aeinyaa? 10 000, o oie /an, ye e?euee?noue ia oa?iaioieo a?ee?a ia
ia?aaeuo? 100. Cia/i? ci?ie a ci?no? a?ee?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?aaoeyoe??
neioaoe/ieo i?ioean?a o ee?oeiao a?ea?a, ianooiathoue i?ioyaii
aeae?eueeio oaeeei, oiaoi cia/ii oaeaeoa, i?ae o aeueo ?ineei. ?nio?
?aaoeyoe?y iaoai?cio ?iaeoeoe?? oa?iaio?a aai i?enei?aiiai eiai neioaco
i?e aaeaioaoe?? a?eaa aei a?aeiia?aeiiai noano?aoo (?iaeoeoi?o), a
oaeiae aei ?ai?an?? (i?ioeano, i?ioeeaaeiiio ?iaeoeoe??). O ?ai?anno?iie
nenoai? ?ai?anni? aeieo? neioac oa?iaioo, a a ?iaeoeoe?eiee oa?iaio
?iaeoeao?oueny, o ?acoeueoao? /iai c iaaii? ae?eyiee AeIE ye ae
ci?ia?oueny aaeueii, ii/eia?oueny neioac a?aeiia?aeii? iao?e/ii? ?IE, ?
a?aeaoaa?oueny neioac oa?iaioo. ?ioeie neiaaie, ianooiathoue i?enei?aia
eii?aeeiaoe?y e ?aaoethaaiiy iai?iieo i?ioean?a, ?aaeoe?e neioaco e
?iciaaeo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo a?eaieo ee?oei.

Ee?oeie a?ea?a neioacothoue aeani? a?eee, ioeea?iia? eeneioe,
iie?naoa?eaee, e?i?aee e ?io? ?a/iaeie, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio
ii??aiyii aeaye? iaoaaie?oe: ie?iaeiia?aaeio eeneioo, aoeaoee-eia,
noeoeeiee-Eia, ?eaico, ae?oeei ? ?i. Oe? aeo?aei? i?iaeoeoe iathoue
iaaaeeeo iieaeoey?io iano. ?oi? ooai?aiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeae?eaiiyi
aeinooiii? aeey canai?iiy aia?a??. Ioaea, o aeea?e ee?oei? iino?eii
eaeooue i?ioeane ?iciaaeo neeaaeiaeo /anoei oeeoiieacie e i?aaii?ae?a ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?o ca ?aooiie ?a/iaei, ui iaaeoiaeyoue ?c iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Oa?/oaaiiy a?ea?a

Iiaeeiaiiy aeeaeeueieo ?a/iaei i?aai?ciaie yaey? niaith neeaaeiee ?
aaaaoia?/iee i?ioean, o yeiio aa?ooue aeoeaio o/anoue iiaa?oiaa?
iaia?aie — ieaciaeaiia e oiiiieano. ?a/iaeie, iaiao?aei? i?aai?cio e
anooiieee a ee?oeio, caeaoi? anooiaoe c iiaa?oiaaeie ae?eyieaie
oeeoiieacie a ??ciiiai?oi? ca’ycee. I?e?iaea oeeo ca’yce?a aecia/aia
iniaeeainoyie oa?/oaaiiy e caaaeueiei noaiii oeeoiieacie, caeaoi?noth ??
aei ?ooo e oaeaeei, ui i?io?eathoue i?ioeanaie, naiia?aeiiaeaiiy.

Iiaeeoo iaeaaeeoue iaeaaaeeea?oa ?ieue a aeoeaoaaii? iiaa?oi?
oeeoiieacie e iane/aii? ?? aeoeaioi?aie c’?aeiaiue, ui iiaeeiathoueny c
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, cie?aia i?ia?aeueieo ?a/iaei. Aia?a?y,
iaiao?aeia aeey o?enaoe?? i?ia?aeueieo c’?aeiaiue, ui iiaeeiathoueny
oeeoiieaciith c iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, aeinoaaey?oueny
iae?ia?ae/ieie ca’yceaie AOO, ui ooai?youeny a oiae? iiaeeoo. Eiaeiiio
i?ia?aeueiiio aeaiaioo aeanoeaa niaoeeo?/iee iaoai?ci aca?iica’yceo c
iiaeeoii, oiaoi ?aeeiee iaoai?ci aca?iica’yceo i?ae iiaeeoii ?
iiaeeiaiiyi ?a/iaei a?aenooi?e. Oaeei /eiii, o?eueee a i?ioean? iiaeeoo
noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey aacia?a?aiiai aeoeaiiai ca’ycoaaiiy ia
iiaa?oi? oeeoiieacie i?ia?aeueieo ? i?aai?/ieo niieoe. O a?ea?a
i?iieeiaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ? ?ioeo ?a/iaei a?aeaoaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
ae?? I+-ianina, aeeooc?? e ieiioeeoica.

Canai?iiy aoaeaaiae?a. Aieiaia ?ieue o oa?/oaaii? a?ea?a —
aanoei?ioeeeueieo aaoa?io?ioia — iaeaaeeoue i?aai?/iei aeaea?aeai
aoaeaoeth, ine?eueee ?io? oi?ie aoaeaoeth aeey ieo iaaeinooii?.
A?eueo?noue a?ea?a iaeaaeeoue aei iieeoaa, oiaoi i?enoiniaaii aei
aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. *anoeia ?o noaaeoueny aei
iiiioaaai c oa?aeoa?iith aocueeith niaoe?ae?caoe??th (niaoe?ae?ciaai?
ia?aceoe, a oaeiae aeaye? nai?io?oe, iai?eeeaae, ??ci? ae??aeaeaeia?
a?eae).

Aeey oa?/oaaiiy a?ea?a ye aeaea?aei aoaeaoeth iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy
iathoue aoaeaaiaee, i?aai?/i? eeneioe, aee?e e aee?i? eeneioe,
ai?iieeneioe e aeaye? ?io? aoaeaaiaei? c’?aeiaiiy. Aoaeaaiaee. O
i?e?iaeieo oiiaao a?eueo?noue a?ea?a aeey oa?/oaaiiy cae/aeii
aeei?enoiaothoue aenieiiieaeoey?i? iie?naoa?eaee, ye? aeae?ieecothoueny
a?aeiia?aeieie oa?iaioaie aei i?inoeo oeoe??a. I?eaeaoi?noue aeey
oa?/oaaiiy oeo aai ?ioeo aeaea?ae aoaeaoeth aecia/a?oueny ii oaeaeeino?
?inoo i?oeae?th, ?ioaineaiino? ooai?aiiy nii?, e?eueeino? iaaiiai
iaoaaie?oo, ui iaeiie/o?oueny a na?aaeiaeu?. Oei /anii ii nooiai?
canai?iiy iiiinaoa?eaee ?noioii ??ciyoueny. An? a?eae e?aua canaiththoue
aetheico. Oeae oeoei? oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aiooaaiiy
aeeaeeueieo o c yeino? aeaea?aea aoaeaoeth. O?oeoica iaio oi?aa?naeueia,
oi/a a?eueo?noue a?ea?a ia na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeoue o?oeoico, ?inoa oae
naii aeia?a, ye ? ia na?aaeiaeu? ?c aetheicith. Aaeaeoica, ui oaeiae
noaaeoueny aei aaenic, canaith?oueny iiaaii. O?ioe a??oa i?aai?ciaie
a?ea?a aeei?enoiaothoueny iaioice, ?c /enea yeeo iaea?eueoa ioi/a
ni?eeia?oueny eneeica, ui ao?eio?oueny a caea?aa?eeo ee?oeiao o aeaeyae?
eneeaia. Oiio aeaye? aea?aai?ac?ooathuea a?eae, iai?eeeaae Serpula
lacrymans, Stereum frustulosurn ? ?io?, eneeico aie?thoue an?i ?ioei
aeaea?aeai aoaeaoeth. C ?ioeo iaioic aiie aeineoue aeia?a oniieoothoue
a?aaeiico, cia/ii a??oa — ?eaico. Aeoaea aeia?a canaiththoue aaaaoi
a?ea?a aaaaoiaoiii? nie?oe, ui aeathoue i?e ieenethaaii? a?aeiia?aei?
oeoe?e. Iniaeeai i?eaeaoiee aeey ieo iaiieo, oi/a aeaye?
a?eae-aea?iaoeoe iaiieo ia aeei?enoiaothoue. Oey aeanoea?noue ? ?oiueith
nenoaiaoe/iith iciaeith. Ni?a?o ? i?iaeoeoe eiai ieenethaaiiy
canaiththoueny an?ia a?eaaie. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui iaiieo a?ae?a?a?
?ieue iniioe/aneiai aaaioa, ui caaacia/o? oo?ao? ieiaeiaeo oae.
Iaeiiaoiii? nie?oe (aoeeiaee, iaoeeiaee ? ?i.) iaei i?eaeaoi? aeey
?oiueiai oa?/oaaiiy.

Aeenaoa?eaee oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey oa?/oaaiiy, iaeiae ia
na?aaeiaeuao, ui i?noyoue oe? c’?aeiaiiy, i?oeae?e o ?yae? aeiaaee?a
?icaeaa?oueny a??oa. Oae, canai?iiy naoa?ice no?eio?oueny oei, ui a
aaaaoueio a?ea?a eiaa?oaca ? o?eueee aioo??oiueiee?oeiiei oa?iaioii,
oiio oeae aeenaoa?eae o aeeaeeueiiio ia na?aaeiaeu? ?icuaieth?oueny.
Iaeiae ia na?aaeiaeu? ?c naoa?icith aeia?a ?inoooue ? ieiaeiiinyoue
aaaaoi ?oeioth/eo aea?aaa, i?ei?eci? e aeaye? ?io? a?eae, canaithth/e ??
aac iiia?aaeiueiai a?ae?ie?co. Oaeoe/ii an? a?eae aeei?enoiaothoue
iaeueoico — i?iaeoeo ?icuaieaiiy e?ioiaeth, a oaeiae oeaeeiaeico, ui
neeaaea?oueny ye ? iaeueoica ?c aeaio aetheicieo caeeoe?a, aea
c’?aeiaieo ?-aetheiceaeiie ca’yceii. Aeaye? a?eae (Tricholoma fulvum)
iacaeaoi? ?icuaiethaaoe oeae aeenaoa?eae aei aetheice.

Aaaaoi a?ea?a aeia?a canaiththoue o?aaaeico (a?eaiee oeoei?), ui
ao?eio?oueny o aaeee?e e?eueeino? a ??aeeao ??aee?a ? ae??aeaeaeao. Iaio
i?eaeaoia aeey ?oiueiai oa?/oaaiiy eaeoica, ine?eueee ao?aeia a ??
neeaae aaeaeoica canaith?oueny iiaaii.

O?enaoa?eae ?aoeiica aeei?enoiao?oueny a?eaaie ye aeaea?aei aoaeaoeth.
Aeia?a ?inoooue ia na?aaeiaeu? c ?aoeiicie aeaye? aeaee c iieia?a
Polyporus e Chaethocladium.

C iie?naoa?eae?a iaee?aua aeaea?aei oa?/oaaiiy — e?ioiaeue. I?e/iio aeey
aaaaoueio aoeeeioi?iaeo, aaa?eeiaeo ? ?ioeo a?ea?a, aiane?aeie a?eueoa
iia?eueiiai a?ae?ie?co e iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eeneio, e?ioiaeue ye aeaea?aei
oa?/oaaiiy ia?aaa?oea iaa?oue aetheico. ?acii c oei aeaye? a?eae, ui ia
i?noyoue ai?eaco, iai?eeeaae, a?eueo?noue ae??aeaeae?a, e?ioiaeue ia
aeei?enoiaothoue.

Oeaetheica, ui neeaaea?oueny c iieaeoe aetheice, o i?e?iaeieo oiiaao
aeae?ico?oueny aieiaiei /eiii aea?aai ?oei?aieie a?eaaie c iieia?a
Serpula, Poria, Fomes ? ?i. O ?iceeaaeaii? oeaetheice e?niai? i?aenoeeee
ae?yeueio o/anoue i?eeiathoue aaaaoi oea?eaaeo a?ea?a — ??ci? aeaee
Penicillium, Fu-sarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, iaeiae ioei?iaua a?eae
ia iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeae iie?naoa?eae.

Aeaeno?eie — i?iaeoeoe iaiiaiiai ?icuaieaiiy e?ioiaeth,- ye i?aaeei,
aa?i? aeaea?aea aoaeaoeth. Ia na?aaeiaeuao c aeaeno?eiaie aeaye? a?eae
?inoooue iaa?oue e?aua, i?ae ia na?aaeiaeuao c ?ioeie aoaeaaiaeaie,
iaeiae aeaee Tricholoma aeei?enoiaothoue aeaeno?eie cia/ii a??oa, i?ae
e?ioiaeue.

Iaeoeiia? ?a/iaeie — iie?naoa?eaee, ui aeathoue i?e a?ae?ie?c?
aaeaeoo?iiiao eeneioo e oo?eiothoueny o aaeee?e e?eueeino? o o?oeoiaeo
nieao ? neecao,- aeei?enoiaothoue aeey oa?/oaaiiy eeoa aeaye? a?eae. Oea
iia’ycaia c oei, ui aaeaeoo?iiiaa eeneioa, ui ooai?eoueny i?e
ieenethaaii? ia?aeiii? nie?oiai? a?oie aaeaeoice, canaith?oueny a?eaaie,
ye ? naia aaeaeoica, aeineoue neaaei. Iaeiae aeey aeayeeo a?ea?a (aeaee
Tricholoma, Agaricus, Coriolus versicolor) iaeoei aa?iee, a /anii ?
iaee?aua aeaea?aei oa?/oaaiiy, ui iia’ycaia c iayai?noth a ieo
aenieiaeoeaii? iaeoeiace.

Iaeiei c aieiaieo aeaea?ae aoaeaoeth aeey aaaaoueio i?aenoeeeiaeo a?ea?a
? e?ai?i — aenieiiieaeoey?ia ?a/iaeia, ui ia?aaoaa? a aea?aaei? ?ineei.
Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?e ae?iuoaaii? eoeueoo? ia na?aaeiaeuao ?c
/enoei e?ai?iii aeaeaei ia an? a?eae iathoue caaeia?eueiee ??no. Aea
caaaeueiee aeo?ae i?oeae?th ia na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeoue e?ai?i ?
aetheico, a?eueoa aenieee, /ei ia na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeoue eeoa iaeio
aetheico (aeaee Hirschioporus, Poria, Coriolus ? ?i.).

I?aai?/i? eeneioe, ui ooai?youeny i?e iiaeeoo A ?acoeueoao? iaiiaiiai
ieenethaaiiy Oeoe??a, a oaeiae o oiae? iaoaaie?/ieo i?ioean?a
a?ae??ciythoueny aenieith iiaeeai?noth, aeia?a canaiththoueny aaaaoueia
a?eaaie. sse i?aaeei, c? ca?eueoaiiyi aeiaaeeie ae?oaoe/iiai eaioethaa
aei oanoe aoii?a aoaeaoeth canaithaai?noue i?aai?/ieo eeneio
i?aeaeuo?oueny. Aeoaea neaaei iiaeeiathoueny uaaeaaa, io?aoeia e ioeoiaa
eeneioe, oi/a aeaye? a?eae aeei?enoiaothoue ?o aeoaea aeoeaii.
Iai?eeeaae, ioeoiaa eeneioa — e?aua aeaea?aei aoaeaoeaaiai oa?/oaaiiy
aeey ae??aeaeae?a Mycoderma aceti. Aeeea?aiiia? eeneioe e ieneeeneioa
a?eueoa aeeaeeuei?, /ei i?ino? iaeiiiniiai? eeneioe. Aoaeaoeue, ui
ao?eio?oueny a ea?aieneeueiie a?oi?, a?ae??ciy? iaea?eueoa eaae?noue
iiaeeiaiiy. Aeia?a canaiththoueny a?eaaie e aeaye? ?io? i?aai?/i?
eeneioe (aeiia, eeiiiia). I?e oeueiio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? i?inoi?iaa
?ciia??y i?aai?/ieo eeneio. Oae, nie? L-Aeiii? eeneioe aaaaoi a?ea?a
canaiththoue e?aua, i?ae nie? D-Aeiii? eeneioe.

AEe?e e aee?i? eeneioe. C aaeeeiai /enea o?eaeeoea?eaeia aee?ieo eeneio
c ia?iei /eneii aoaeaoeaaeo aoii?a e?au? aeaea?aea aoaeaoeth aeey a?ea?a
— noaa?eiiaa NI3(NI2) 16NIII, iaeuei?oeiiaa NI3(NI2)14NIII ? iea?iiaa
NI3(NI2)7NI — NI(NI2)7NIII eeneioe. Canai?iiy ?o a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ney
oa?iaioaoeaiiai ?icuaieaiiy ia aee?i? eeneioe e ae?oea?ei. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue ?ineeiieo ianae neeaaea?oueny ?c noi?oae ae?oea?eae?a ??cieo
eeneio. C ieo aeia?a canaiththoueny iaeueieoeiiaeeieaei ?
noaa?eiiaeeieaei. Aeey aeayeeo a?ea?a, cie?aia, nai?ieaaieaauo
(Leptoporus lacteus), aee?i? eeneioe ? a ii??aiyii? ?c oeoe?ii e?auei
aeaea?aeii oa?/oaaiiy. A?aeiii, ui ia na?aaeiaeu? c aee?ieie eeneioaie,
iniaeeai iaiane/aieie, aeia?a ae?inoathoue iaieoeeeeiaua a?eae.
Ae?oea?ei, ui ooai?eoueny i?e a?ae?ie?c? aee??a, a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueoa
aenieith iiaeeai?noth e canaith?oueny aaaaoueia a?eaaie. Noiniai? aei
aee?iiiae?aieo ?a/iaei oinoaoeaee, aineo, noa?eaee — oaeiae aa?i?
aeaea?aea aoaeaoeaaiai oa?/oaaiiy.

Ai?iieeneioe — iaeii/anii aeaea?aea aoaeaoeth e acioo, i?e/iio ?oi?
aeeaeeuei? aeanoeaino? a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae neeaaeo e
eiio?ao?aoe?? iieaeoe. A?eae iiaeooue canaithaaoe o?eueee i?e?iaei?
?ciia?e L-Ai?iieeneio. A?eueo?noue ?o ia? a?eueoa aenieee ??aaiue ?inoo
ia na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeoue noi?o aeae?eueeio ai?iieeneio, oi/a aeaye?
e?aua ?inoooue ia na?aaeiaeu? c iaeiith ai?iieeneioith. Nooi?iue
canai?iiy ai?iieeneio o i??o ca?eueoaiiy a?eo i?oeae?th iinooiiai
cieaeo?oueny e caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?iieeneio ?ioiai
na?aaeiaeua. Ia an? ai?iieeneioe iiaeooue neoaeeoe aeaea?aeaie
aoaeaoeaaiai oa?/oaaiiy; iai?eeeaae, aeey aeayeeo aeae?a (Penicillium ?
Fusarium) oaeeie ? ai?iieeneioe c ia?icaaeoaeaiei eaioethaii —
ii?eaeoeei ? e?cei ? ai?iieeneioe — oeenoa?i ? iao?ii?i. Aeaye? aeaee
ae??aeaeaeiaeo a?ea?a ?noioii ??ciyoueny i?ae niaith ii caeaoiino?
canaithaaoe aoaeaoeue, ui ao?eio?oueny a ai?iieeneioao.

E?oa?aoo?a

1.Aa?eaiaa E. A., Neaei?iaa E. E. A?eau. Yioeeeeiiaaeey i?e?iaeu ?innee.
— I., 1999

2.Aa?eaiaa E. A., Eaeiioeaaa N. I. Iniiau ieeieiaee: Ii?oieiaey e
nenoaiaoeea a?eaia e a?eaiiiaeiaiuo i?aaieciia. — I., 2007

3.Aeye?a TH., Oie?ueiaa A., Na?a??a A. Aaaaeaiiy a aaiaoeeo a?ea?a. —
E., 2005

4.Oaaei?ia O. A., A?eae — E., 2005

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