Aieeioe???, iai?aoi?aeia? e iaeaiciieia?y o?aaaoieo

Oei aieeioe??? (achinodermata)

Aieeioe??? — iaeeii/i? oaa?eie, ui aaaeooue aaioiniee i?ee??ieaiee aai
?ooeeaee niin?a aeeooy. Aiie c’yaeeeny ua iai?ee?ioe? i?ioa?icienueei?
a?e; no/ani? oi?ie (ii?nuee? ?aeaee, c??ee, e?e??, aieioo??? e ?i.)
aeeaooue ia ??cieo aeeaeiao o ii?yo ii?iaeueii? nieiiino?.

Aieeioe??? aeoaea ??ciiiai?oi? ca oi?iith, aea an?o ?o ii?aeiothoue
aeaye? caaaeuei? ?ene aoaeiae, aeanoea? o?eueee oeueiio oeio oaa?ei.
Aiie iathoue ?aae?aeueio neiao??th, aiaeii-noaeeiio nenoaio, ?
aioo??oi?e e?noye c aaiiyieo ieanoeiie c ??cieie aeaiaioaie (ai?aee,
aieee e o.ae.).

I?oeiiiae?aia o?ei aieeioe??eo ia? o?eoa?iao no?ieo, ona?aaeei? yei?
ia?aaoaathoue e?noyeia? aeaiaioe e ioneoee. Aioo??oiy ii?iaeieia ai?ua?
i?aaie o?aaeaiiy e ?iciiiaeaiiy. E??i oiai, ye o no?ioe?, oae ? o
aioo??oi?e ii?iaeiei? ?ici?uai? e?iaiiinia, ia?aiaa e aiaoeae?aeueia
nenoaie.

Aiaoeae?aeueia nenoaia, oa?aeoa?ia o?eueee aeey aieeioe??eo,
ii/eia?oueny ioai?ii o no?ioe? o?ea, i?ee?eoei ieanoeieith, iacaaii?
iaae?aii?iaith. O oeaio?? o?ea oaa?eie ia?aaoaa? e?eueoeaaee ?ioiaee
eaiae, a?ae yeiai a?aeoiaeyoue i’youe ?aae?aeueieo noaeei ?c /eneaiieie
ae?inoaie — i?aeeaie. Oe? i?aeee i?eniieoothoue aei i?aaeiao?a ?
neoaeaoue aeey caoiieaiiy e aeinoaaee ?ae?, aeey ia?anoaaiiy, aeioeeo,
iiaeeoo.

E?noye neeaaea?oueny c aaiiyieo aaaaoieooieo ieanoeiie, ?icoaoiaaieo
i?ae oe??ith. Ciai? aei ieo i?ee??ieththoueny aieee. An? aieeioe???
?icae?eythoueny ia i?ee??ieai? e a?eueii ia?anoaathoueny. Onueiai
iae?/o?oueny a?eueoa 20 eean?a. Aaaaoi ooi c ieo aeeee a iaeaici? e
aeaaii aeia?ee. Ieae/a ioa?aeoa?eciaai? o?e eeane, aaaeeea? a
aaieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii?. Ii?nuee? i?oo?e e ii?nuee? e?e?? noaaeyoueny
aei i?ee??ieaieo, ii?nuee? ?aeaee — aei a?eueii ia?anoaathoueny.

Eean ii?nuee? i?oo?e (Cystoidea). Oea aeia?e? aaioini? aieeioe???, ye?
iaee eoeynoo aai a?ooiiiae?aio /aoa/eo (ca?aene a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oiy
iacaa), ui neeaaeaeany c oiieeo aaaaoieooieo ieanoeiie, i?oeii
c’?aeiaieo iaeei c iaeiei. O oeaio?? oaa?eie ia?aaoaaa ?ioiaee ioa??,
iaaeaeaei a?ae iueiai ?icoaoiaoaaany aiaeueiee ioa??, cae/aeii i?ee?eoa
o?eeooieie ieanoeieaie o aeaeyae? i??ai?aeee. Iniaeea?noth ii?nueeeo
i?oo??a ? iayai?noue ii? ? eaiae?a, ui i?iiecothoue, ieanoeiee. Noaaei
ei?ioeee, ?c oe?ieei aioo??oi?i eaiaeii. Iioe?aiiy: eaia??e — aeaaii.
I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae aoeiinoa?eoan (Echinosphaerites) c eoeynoi? aaiiyii?
/aoa/eith, ui neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoieooieo ieanoeiie (i?aeiaee).

Aaieia?/ia ?noi??y e cia/aiiy. Ia?o? ii?nuee? i?oo?e a?aeii? ?c
na?aaeiueiai eaia??th, aea ?oi?e ?icea?o aeiaiaeeoueny ia i?aeiaee. O
neeo?? e aeaaii? a?aeaoaaeiny iinooiiaa aaanaiiy oe??? a?oie aieeioe???
aae aei iiaiiai aeie?aiiy.

Eean ii?nuee? e?e?? (Crinoidea). Ii?nuee? e?e?? — iaea?eueo aaeeeee eean
na?aae i?ee??ieaieo aieeioe??eo. ?oi? o?ei neeaaea?oueny ?c /aoa/ee, ui
ai?ua? aioo??oi? i?aaie, i’yoe «?oe» aeey cai?o ?ae? e noaaea. *aoa/ea
neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio a?ioe?a aaiiyieo ieanoeiie, ii i’yoe a eiaeiiio
a?ioe?. Aei aa?oiueiai ?yaeo ieanoeiie i?ee??ieththoueny «?oee», ui
neeaaeathoueny ?c /eneaiieo /eaiee?a. Caa?oo /aoa/ea i?ee?eoa e?eoeith,
o ?? oeaio?? ?icoaoiaaiee ?ioiaee ioa??. Noaaei neeaaea?oueny c?
/eaiee?a ??ciiai iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae
eoi?annie?eieoan (Cupressocrinites) c iai?aeoeynoi? /aoa/eith ? i’youeia
ianeaieie «?oeaie» (na?aaei?e aeaaii).

Aaieia?/ia ?noi??y e cia/aiiy. Ii?nuee? e?e?? c’yaeeeny a i?aeiaeeo e
?niothoue o iao /an. I?ioyaii oeueiai /ano aiie i?iyee na?e niin?a
aeeooy: o iaeaici? aeeee ia i?eeiaiaeaey e aoee i?ee??ieaieie; o iacici?
e eaeiici? iinooiiai ia?aeoee aei ia?aaoaaiiy ia aeeaei?, c’yaeeeny
ieacoth/? oi?ie e iaa?oue ieaaath/? iaae aeiii ca aeiiiiiaith ?oe. O
aeeiiiiio noai? cae/aeii cono??/athoueny ?ic??ciai? /eaieee noaaae ?
«?oe», ieanoeiee, ??aeoa /aoa/ee. ?iiae? /eaieee ii?nueeeo e?e?e
ooai?youe neoi/aiiy, c yeeo oi?ioaaeeny oae caai? e?eii?aei? aaiiyee.

Eean ii?nuee? ?aeaee (Echinoidea). Ii?nuee? ?aeaee iathoue ie?oaea o?ei
c ?aae?aeueiith aai aeainoi?iiiueith neiao???th. O?ei iie?eoa
nooe?eueiei oaa?aeei iaioee?ii c ie?aieo ieanoeiie, ?icoaoiaaieo ?yaeaie
o aeaeyae? i’yoe aiaoeae?aeueieo ? i?aeaiaoeae?aeueieo iie?a.
Aiaoeae?aeuei? oaaee/ee iathoue ia?i? ioai?e aeey aeoiaeo i?aeie, a
i?aeaiaoeae?aeuei? — ai?aee, aei yeeo i?ee??ieththoueny aieee ??cii?
oi?ie e ?ici???a (a?ae i?e?ineii?/ieo aei 45 aeea). Ia ieaei?e noi?ii?
o?ea ?icoaoiaaiee ?ioiaee ioa??. Aiaeueiee ioa?? ia?aaoaa? ia aa?oi?e
noi?ii? aai aieco ia i?ioeeaaeiiio e?ioe? a?ae ?ioiaiai. ?io ia?
neeaaeiee aeoaaeueiee aia?ao, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c nenoaie e?noyeiaeo
aeaiaio?a (o oiio /ene? c i’yoe coa?a).

Ia?aiaa, e?iaiiinia, aiaoeae?aeueia nenoaie e o?aaiee eaiae ooai?youe
e?eueoey, a?ae yeeo ii ?aae?onao a?aeoiaeyoue ia?ae e noaeeie.

Ii?nuee? ?aeaee ae?eyoueny ia ae?aai? e iia?. Ae?aai? (iaeaicienuee?)
iathoue a?ae 2 aei 20 ?yae?a oaaee/ie a aiaoeae?aeueieo ?
i?aeaiaoeae?aeueieo iieyo. Eiaeiee ?yae neeaaea?oueny ?c i?eianiaaieo
ieanoeiie, ?oiy e?euee?noue caaaeaee aei??aith? 20. Iia? (iacicienuee?,
eaeiicienuee?) ?aeaee ii oa?aeoa?? neiao??? ae?eyoueny ia i?aaeeuei? e
iai?aaeeuei?.

I?aaeeuei? ?aeaee iathoue i’yoeeo/ueiao neiao??th o?ea, ?io ?icoaoiaaiee
o oeaio?? ieaeiuei? /anoeie o?ea, a aiaeueiee ioa?? — o aa?oi?e /anoei?.
Iioe?aiiy: i?ci?e o??an — iei?. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae oeeaea?en (Cidaris) c
eoeynoei iaioee?ii, ui neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe oe?ieeo i?aeaiaoeae?aeueieo
iie?a ? i’yoe aocueeeo aiaoeae?aeueieo (o??an — iei?).

Iai?aaeeuei? ?aeaee iathoue aeainoi?iiith neiao??th o?ea. ?ioiaee ?
aiaeueiee ioai?e ?icoaoiaai? ia ieaei?e /anoei? o?ea. Iioe?aiiy: th?a —
iei?. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae iee?anoa? (Micraster) c iaioee?ii
na?oeaiiae?aii? oi?ie e aeia?a ae?aaeaieie i’youeia aiaoeae?aeueieie
iieyie, ui iaaaaeothoue iaethnoee ea?oee.

Aaieia?/ia ?noi??y e cia/aiiy. Ia?o? i?aaenoaaieee ae?aai?o ii?nueeeo
?aeae?a a?aeii? c i?aeiaeea, aiie aeeee aei ia?i?. Iia? i?aaeeuei?
?aeaee c’yaeeeny a o??an?, a c th?e — iai?aaeeuei?. Iaeaicienuee? ?aeaee
c oaiae?oiei e?noyeii o aeeiiiiio noai? caa??aathoueny iiaaii e ia
iathoue no?aoea?ao?/iiai cia/aiiy. Iacicienuee? e eaeiicienuee? ?aeaee,
iaaiaee, iathoue aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey aecia/aiiy a?eo e?aeaeiaeo,
iaeaiaaiiaeo ? iaiaaiiaeo a?aeeeaaeaiue.

Oei iai?aoi?aeia? (hemichordata)

Iai?aoi?aeia? caeiathoue i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy i?ae aaco?aaaoieie e
ni?aaaei?ie oi?aeiaeie. Aiie, ye ? oi?aeia?, iathoue nieiiee ia?aiaee
oyae ? ia?i? cya?ia? u?eeie, aea, ye o an?o aaco?aaaoieo, o ieo iaia?
ni?aaaeiuei? nieiii? no?oie — oi?aee. Iai?aoi?aeia? — iaeeii/i? aai
eieii?aeuei? ii?nuee? oaa?eie, aiie aaaeooue ??ciiiai?oiee niin?a aeeooy
(a?ae aaioino aei ieaieoii?a).

Na?aae iai?aoi?aeiaeo aeae?eythoue o?e eeane, aaeeea aaieia?/ia cia/aiiy
ia? eean a?aioie?o?a — iaoeaioe?a ?aiiaiaeaicieneeo ii??a.

Eean a?aioie?oe (Graptolithina). A?aioie?oe — aeia?e? ii?nuee?
eieii?aeuei? oaa?eie, i?i aoaeiao i’yeiai o?ea yeeo i?/iai ia a?aeiii.
E?noye eieii?? neeaaeaany c ie?aieo aaeocae c eii??eaie, o yeeo
i?noeeeny ie?ai? iniaeie. *enei eii??ie o eieii?? iiaei aeinyaaoe 20-30
oen.

Na?aae eeano a?aioie?o?a aeae?eythoue aeaa i?aeeeane: ?oieno? a?aioie?oe
e ni?aaaei? a?aioie?oe.

?oieno? a?aioie?oe iaee eieii?th, ui iaaaaeo? a?ei/eo aiaei?ino?, aiie
aaee i?ee??ieaiee aaioiniee niin?a aeeooy. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae
aeeeoeiiaia (Dictyonema) o aeaeyae? ?oienoi? a?ei/ee (i?ci?e eaia??e —
?aii?e ea?aii).

Ni?aaaei? a?aioie?oe aaee ieaieoiiiee niin?a aeeooy. *eneaii? a?ei/ee c
eii??eaie a iaeei aai o aeaa ?yaee i?ee??iethaaeeny aei ieaaaeueiiai
i?oo?a. I?aaenoaaieee: ??ae iiiia?aioon (Monograptus) c eii??eaie,
?icoaoiaaieie a iaeei ?yae (neeo?); ??ae aeeieia?aioon (Diplograptus) c
eii??eaie, ?icoaoiaaieie o aeaa ?yaee (i?aeiaee — ?aii?e neeo?).

Aaieia?/ia ?noi??y e cia/aiiy. Ia?o? a?aioie?oe c’yaeeeny a na?aaeei?
eaia??th, a inoaii? aeia?ee ia ii/aoeo ea?aiio. A i?aeiaeeo e neeo??
aeinyaee ?icea?oo e iioe?eeeny o an?o ii?yo ? ieaaiao caiii? eoe?.
Iniaeeai oea noaaeoueny aei ieaieoiiieo oi?i, ye? eaaei ia?ai?uaeeny
ieeiaie ia cia/i? a?aenoai?. Na?aae a?aioie?o?a aaaaoi aa?ieo ea??aieo
eiiaeei aeey i?aeiaeea e neeo?o.

Oei oi?aeia? (chordata)

O?aaaoi? — iaea?eueo aenieii?aai?ciaai? oaa?eie. Aiie noaaeyoueny aei
oeio oi?aeiaeo, ona?aaeei? yeiai aeae?eythoueny o?e i?aeoeie:
iaieiieia?, aac/a?aii? e o?aaaoi?. O aeeiiiiio noai? cono??/athoueny
o?eueee o?aaaoi?.

O ieae/eo oi?aeiaeo — — iii?o o?ea noaiiaeoue oi?aea — aio/eee o?yuiaee
no?eaeaiue, o aeueo o?aaaoieo ?icaeiaiee o?aaaoiee noiai. Ca?aene iacaa
i?aeoeio — o?aaaoi?.

I?aeoei o?aaaoi? (vertebrata)

O?aaaoi? ii?aeiothoue aaeeea /enei aeia?eeo ? iei? aeeao/eo aeae?a
oaa?ei c ??ciiiai?oiith oi?iith o?ea. Aiie iathoue neeaaeii iiaoaeiaai?
i?aaie o?aaeaiiy, ii/ooo?a ? iiaeeoo, e?iaiiiniith e ia?aiaith
nenoaiaie. O?ei iie?eoa oe??ith, ia ye?e /anoi ooai?youeny ?iaia? eonee,
i??’y aai aieinny. E?noye ooai?aiee o?yuiaith aai e?noeiaith oeaieiith;
o aeeiiiiio noai? caa??aa?oueny o?eueee e?noeiaa oeaieia.

Aeeiii? caeeoee o?aaaoieo cono??/athoueny ye o ii?nueeeo, oae ? a
eiioeiaioaeueieo a?aeeeaaeaiiyo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aaco?aaaoi? neoi/aiiy
e?noye?a o?aaaoieo cono??/athoueny ae?ae ??aeei. O ii?nueeeo
a?aeeeaaeaiiyo ciaoiaeyoue o?eueee iaeeie/i? e?noyee aai ?oi? o?aaiaioe,
o eiioeiaioaeueieo a?aeeeaaeaiiyo aeyaeaiee ?yae aaeeeeo neoi/aiue
e?noye?a ia I?ai?/i?e Aea?i?, o Eacaonoai?, o Iiiaie??. Aea/aiiy
o?aaaoieo iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeey aecia/aiiy a?eo e ?ic/eaiiaoaaiiy
eiioeiaioaeueieo inaaeiaeo ii??ae.

I?aeoei o?aaaoieo ae?eeoueny ia o?e iaaeeeane: a??ine, ?eae e
/ioe?eiia?.

Iaaeeean a??ine (AGNATHA). Aei a??in?a noaaeyoueny iaea?eueo i?ei?oeai?
o?aaaoi? ?c o?yuiaei e?noyeii, ui aaaeooue aiaeiee niin?a aeeooy e ?ea,
ui iaaaaeothoue. ?oiueith a?aei?iiith ?enith a?ae an?o ?ioeo o?aaaoieo ?
a?aenooi?noue uaeai. O iao /an o ii?yo aeeaooue a??ine e?oaei?io?
(i?iiae,), aiie iaa?aeii? o aeeiiiiio noai?.

Ae?aai? aeia?e? a??ine aeoaea ??ciiiai?oi? ca oi?iith e ?ici??aie. O
aeeiiiiio noai? a?ae ieo caa?aaeeny caeeoee iaioee?a, ui iie?eaaee
aieiao e ia?aaeith /anoeio ooeoaa. Oeae iaioee? neeaaeaany c? c?ineeo
e?noeiaeo ieanoei ? iaa aeaeyae ueoa, oiio a??in?a /anoi iaceaathoue
ueoeiaeie. Aiie aoee iioe?ai? a i?aeiaeeo, neeo?? e aeaaii? (iniaeeai
iai?ee?ioe? neeo?o e ii/aoeo aeaaiio), aeeee a i??niiaiaeieo e nieiieo
aanaeiao. I?aaenoaaieee: ??ae oaeiaeon (Thelodus) c i?aeiaeea; ??ae
oeaoaeanien (Cephalaspis) c ?aiiueiai aeaaiio.

Iaaeeean ?eae (PISCES). ?eae — aiaei? o?aaaoi?, ui caa??aathoue i?ioyaii
anueiai aeeooy cya?a. ?oiy e?ioe?aee i?aaenoaaeai? ia?ieie e iaia?ieie
ieaaoeyie, aioo??oi?e e?noye o?yuiai? aai e?noeiaee, o?ei iie?eoa
eoneith ??cii? aoaeiae. C’yaeeeny ?eae iai?ee?ioe? neeo?o, o aeaaii?
aiie oaeaeei caaithaaee aaeee? ii?nuee? e i??niiaiaei? aanaeie,
aeoenioaoe c ieo a??in?a. Oiio aeaaiinueeee ia??iae /anoi iaceaathoue
«noie?ooyi ?ea».

Iaaeeean ?ea ii?aeio? /ioe?e eeane, an? aiie aoee a?aeii? aaea a
aeaaiinueeiio ia??iae?. Oea eean ieanoeiioe??eo, eean o?yuiaeo ?ea, eean
e?noeiaeo ?ea.

E?noeia? ?eae — iaea?eueo i?ia?aneaia a?oia ?ea. E?noeia? ?eae
?icae?eai? ia o?e i?aeeeane: eenoaia??, aeaiyeiaeeoath/?, eo/aia??.

Eenoaia?? ?eae — oeaeaee aeiaai? aei 3 i. Ia?aaei?ie ia?ieie ieaaoeyie,
ui iaee i’ynenoa i?aenoaaa, a?ae yeiai a?aeoiaeeee oe??yno? i?iiai?
(ca?aene iacaa a?oie), eenoaia?? ?eae iiaee iie?aoeny ia aeii. ?c oeeo
ieaaoe?a ?icaeeeny ia?aaei? e?ioe?aee ia?oeo iacaiieo o?aaaoieo —
noaaioeaoae?a, a?aeiinieo aei caiiiaiaeiiai. C’yaeaoenue ia ii/aoeo
aeaaiio, eenoaia?? aoee naieie /eneaiieie ?eaaie a na?aaeiueiio e
i?ciueiio aeaaii?. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae aieiioeoeon (Holoptychius) c
aeaaiio. Aei iaoeo aei?a caa??any ?aeeiee ??ae eaoeia??y (Latimeria),
aeyaeaiee a 1938 ?. o i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai ocaa?aaeaey Ao?eee. Oey
ae?aaiy ?eaa yaey? niaith aeeao eiiaeeio. O iao /an i?eiaii anueiai
e?eueea aecaiiey??a eaoeia??e.

Aeaiyeiaeeoath/? ?eae niieo/athoue cya?iaee iiaeeo c eaaaiaaei. Aiie
c’yaeeeny a aeaaii?, ? aeioaia? aeeaa anueiai 6 aeae?a o I?aaeaii?e
Ao?eoe?, Aano?ae?? e I?aaeaii?e Aia?eoe? a i??nieo aiaeao a oiiaao
naciiieo iinoo. O aeeiiiiio noai? caa?aaeeny coai? ieanoeie, o?aaiaioe
/a?aia e ie?ai? eonee. Ciao?aeee aeaiyeiaeeoath/eo aaaeeea? aeey
iaeaiaaia?ao??, aiie na?ae/aoue i?i iinooeeaee ? aea?eee ee?iao.
Iioe?aiiy: aeaaii — iei?. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae aeeioa?on (Dipterus) ?c
na?aaeiueiai aeaaiio.

Eo/aia?? — i?ioea?oath/a a?oia ?ea. Aei ieo noaaeyoueny no/ani? e
aeeiii? ii?nuee? e i??niiaiaei? ?eae, ui iathoue ieaaoe? ia aeiaaeo
o?yuiaeo aai e?noeiaeo i?iiaiyo (ca?aene ?oiy iacaa). Eo/aia?? c’yaeeeny
a ?aiiueiio aeaaii?, noae? iaioaaoe ?c e?aeaeiaiai ia??iaeo e oe?iei
iioe?ai? a iao /an. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae iaeaiieneoi (Palaeoniscurn) c
i?ci?e ia?i?.

Iaaeeean /ioe?eiia? (TETRAPODA)

*ioe?eiia? — o?aaaoi?, ui aeeaooue ia?aaaaeii ia noo?. Aiie c’yaeeeny
iai?ee?ioe? aeaaiio e a?aeaoeeny a?ae eenoaia?eo ?ea. Ia?ao?ae aei
iacaiiiai niiniao aeeooy i?ea?a aei ia?aaoaeiae anueiai i?aai?cio. C
ia?ieo ieaaoe?a eenoaia?eo ?ea aeieeee ia?i? ia?aaei? e caaei? e?ioe?aee
iacaiieo /ioe?eiiaeo, cya?a ci?ieeeny eaaaiyie, ?icaeany neooiaee
aia?ao. *ioe?eiia? ia?aaoaathoue ia cia/ii a?eueoa aenieiio uaae?
?icaeoeo, /ei ?eae. Aei ieo noaaeyoueny /ioe?e eeane: caiiiaiaei?,
ieacoth/?, ioaoe e nnaaoe?.

Eean caiiiaiaei? (Amphibia)

Caiiiaiaei?, aai aio?a??, — i?ei?oeai? e nai? ae?aai? iacaii?
/ioe?eiia?. O ?oi?e aoaeia? ua caa?aaeeny aeaye? ?ene i?aaee?a, ui aeeee
o aiae?, oi/a a?eueoa iniaeeainoae, aeanoeaeo iacaiiei o?aaaoiei. O
i?ioean? naiai aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo aiie nii/aoeo i?ioiaeyoue noaae?th
ee/eiie, ye? ?icaeaathoueny o aiae?, aeeoathoue cya?aie e iicaaaeai?
e?ioe?aie, a iio?i ia?aoai?ththoueny a aei?ine? /ioe?eiia? oi?ie, ui
aeeaooue iica aiaeith.

An? caiiiaiaei? — oieiaeiie?iai? oaa?eie, oaiia?aoo?a ?oiueiai o?ea
caeaaeeoue a?ae iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Eaaai? neaaei ?icaeiai?,
oiiea neeciaa oe??a ? aeiaeaoeiaei i?aaiii iiaeeoo. A?eueo?noue
caiiiaiaeieo ?iciiiaeo?oueny, ye ? ?eae, oeyoii a?aeeeaaeaiiy ?e?e o
aiaeo. E?noye ?o o cia/i?e i??? o?yuiai?.

No/ani? caiiiaiaei? iioe?ai? iaio oe?iei, /ei ?io? o?aaaoi?, a iniiaiiio
aiie aeeaooue o i?aaeaiieo oe?ioao. Na?aae ieo aeae?eythoueny aacoaino?
(aeaae), oainoao? (naeaiaiae?e, o?eoiie) ? aaciia?.

Ia?o? caiiiaiaei? — noaaioeaoaee — c’yaeeeny iai?ee?ioe? aeaaiio e aeeee
aei ii/aoeo th?e. Noaaioeaoaee iaee nooe?eueio /a?aiio ei?iaeo (ca?aene
?oiy iacaa) c ioai?aie aeey i/ae, i?cae??a ? o?i’yiiai iea. ?oi? coae
aoee, ye o eenoaia?eo ?ea. *a?ac iaaeineiiaeo aoaeiao iiyn?a e?ioe?aie
?oi? ia?anoaaiiy ia noo? aoei iia?eueiei ? iaca?aaiei. Noaaioeaoaee
iaaaaeoaaee e?ieiaeee?a, aeeee a caaiei/aieo e?nao, aieioao ? eaaoiao.
Iioe?aiiy ia noo? a?eueoa aeniei?icaeiaieo aoei iaei??? ?c i?e/ei
aeie?aiiy noaaioeaoae?a. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae ?ooeinoaaa (Ichtyostega) c
i?ciueiai aeaaiio.

Eean ieacoth/? (Reptilia). Ieacoth/?, aai ?aioee??, — ni?aaaei? iacaii?
o?aaaoi?, ui ia?aaoaathoue ia a?eueoa aenieiio ??ai? ?icaeoeo, /ei
caiiiaiaei?. Oea oieiaeiie?iai? oaa?eie c a?eueoa c?iaeaiei e?iaiia?aii.
Aiie ?iciiiaeothoueny yeoeyie, ui i?noyoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue
aeeaeeueieo ?a/iaei. Ee/eieiaa noaae?y a ?icaeoeo aeiaaea?, ? iieiae?
oaa?eie a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aei?ineeo o?eueee iaioeie ?ici??aie. O
ieacoth/eo a?eueoa c?iaeaiee e?iaiia?a, eaaaiaaee iiaeeo.

Aeoaea ??ciiiai?oia aoaeiaa /a?aia, ??ciyoueny ca oi?iith coae. E?noye
ieacoth/eo ?icae?eaiee ia i’youe a?aeae?e?a, oea caaacia/o? a?eueoo
?ooeea?noue o?ea.

Ia?o? ?aioee?? c’yaeeeny iai?ee?ioe? ea?aiio, a iai?ee?ioe?
iaeaicienueei? a?e aiie aeinyaee aaeeei? ?icia?oino?. Iniaeeai oe?iei
aoee aiie iioe?ai? a iacici?. I?ioyaii oe??? a?e ieacoth/? aeinyaee
iaioaaiiy, canaeeaoe nooo, iia?o?y e aiaeia na?aaeiaeua. Oiio iacicie
/anoi iaceaathoue a?ith ieacoth/eo, aei e?ioey oe??? a?e ?oiy iniiaia
iana aeie?a?.

Na?aae no/anieo ieacoth/eo a?aeii? /a?aiaoe, ci??, yu??ee, e?ieiaeeee,
oaiaeaiie e aaooa???. An? oe? oaa?eie ? eeoa caeeoeaie aaaaoiai
i?aaenoaaieeaie eeano a iacici?, a?eueo?noue ?aioee?e iaeaaeeoue aei
aeia?eeo a?oi.

Ii iniaeeainoyo aoaeiae e?noyea e /a?aia, ii niinia? aeeooy (iacaii? e
ii?nuee?) ? ca /anii ?nioaaiiy (aeeiii? e no/ani?) ieacoth/? ae?eyoueny
ia ?yae i?aeeean?a, c yeeo ieae/a ei?ioei ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iniiai?.

I?aeeean eioeeicaa?e (Cotylosauria). Eioeeicaa?e (eioaeeiaieia? yua?e) —
iaea?eueo i?ei?oeai? ieacoth/?, aeecuee? ii aoaeia? o?ea e /a?aia aei
noaaioeaoae?a. Eioeeicaa?e aoee ia?oeie ni?aaaei?ie iacaiieie oaa?eiaie
na?aae o?aaaoieo, aiie ?nioaaee c e?ioey ea?aiio aei e?ioey o??ano.
I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae ia?aeacaa? (Pareiasaurus) c i?ci?e ia?i? — iaca?aaia
ei?ioeiiiaa oaa?eia.

I?aeeean ca??iiiae?ai? yua?e (Synapsida). Oey aeia?ea a?oia ?aioee?e
aeieeea a?ae i?ei?oeaieo eioeeicaa??a iai?ee?ioe? ea?aiio e aoea oe?iei
iioe?aia iai?ee?ioe? ia?i? e o o??an?. Na?aae oeeo yua??a aoei aaaaoi
oeaeae?a. Iacicienuee? ca??iiiae?ai? yua?e c’yaeeeny i?aaeeaie nnaaoe?a.
I?i oea na?ae/eoue iayai?noue coa?a ??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye o nnaaoe?a:
??coe?a, ?ee?a, u?/ieo coa?a. Iioe?aiiy: i?ci?e ea?aii — na?aaeiy th?a.
I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae ?iino?aioeaa?y (Inostrancevia) c i?ci?e ia?i? —
no?aoiee oeaeae naiai /ano.

I?aeeean ?eaiyua?? (Ichthyopterygia). Oea aiaei? ?aioee??, iiae?ai? ii
ciai?oiueiio aeaeyae? c ?eaaie e aeaeueo?iaie. A?eueo?noue ?c ieo aoee
ii?nueeeie oeaeaeaie, ui oa?/oaaeeny ?eaith. Iioe?aiiy: na?aaei?e o??an
— e?aeaea. I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae ?oo?icaa? (Ichtyosaurus) c ?aiiuei? th?e.

I?aeeean eoneao? yua?e (Lepidosauria). Aei oeueiai i?aeeeano noaaeyoueny
ci??, yu??ee e e?eueea aeia?eeo a?oi ?aioee?e, ui ? i?ii?aeieie oi?iaie
i?ae i?ei?oeaieie ieacoiaie — eioeeicaa?aie e a?eueoa
aenieii?aai?ciaaieie — a?oicaa?aie. Iioe?aiiy: i?ci?e ea?aii — iei?.
I?aaenoaaiee: ??ae iicicaa? (Mososaurus) c i?ciuei? e?aeaee —
a?aaionueea ii?nueea yu??ea.

I?aeeean a?oicaa?e (Archosauria). Aei oeueiai i?aeeeano noaaeyoueny
/eneaii? iacicienuee? aeeiicaa?e e e?oath/? yua?e — ioa?icaa?e, a oaeiae
caa?aaeai? aei iaoeo aei?a e?ieiaeeee.

Aeeiicaa?e (no?aoi? yua?e) iaioaaee ia noo? a iacici?, aiie aoee
aeiyoeiai ??ciiiai?oi? ca oi?iith e ?ici??aie. A?aeii? ae??ai?, ia
a?eueoa e?oee, ? a?aaioe, aei 30-40 i o aeiaaeeio, ?ooeea? e iaca?aai?,
ui oiaeeee ia aeaio ? ia /ioe?ueio iiaao, oeae? e ?anoeiiyaei?, iie?eo?
eoneith e iicaaaeai? iaioee?a. Na?aae aeeiicaa??a aoee nai? aaeee? ?c
an?o a?aeiieo oaa?ei, eiee-aai ianaeyth/eo iaoo ieaiaoo c aeiaaeeiith
o?ea aei 40 i, aaaith a?eueoa 30 o ? i?e oeueiio c i?ca?ii iaeeie
?ici??aie iiceo. Aeaye? iaea?eueo aaeee? c aeeiicaa??a, ye ? no/ani?
aaaaiioe, /anoeia naiai aeeooy i?iaiaeeee o aiae?. C’yaeeeny aeeiicaa?e
a na?aaeei? o??ano e aeia?ee aei e?ioey iaea. I?aaenoaaieee: ??ae
aeeieiaeie (Diplodocus) c i?ciuei? th?e — a?aaionueeee aeeiicaa? ?c
aeiaaeeiith o?ea aei 30 i ? aaaith aei 30 o; ??ae ?aoaiiaeiio
(Jguanodon); ??ae noaaicaa? (Stegosaurus) c i?ciuei? th?e ??ae
o?eoea?aoiin (Triceratops) c i?ciueiai iaeo.

Ioa?icaa?e — e?oath/? yua?e — aoee ?aeeiith a?oiith ieacoth/eo, ui aeeee
a iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?. ?oi? ia?aaei? e?ioe?aee ia?aoai?eeeny a
aeiaa? aino?? ia?aoei/ano? e?eea (iiae?aii e?eeai eaaeai?a). Na?aae
ioa?icaa??a aeae?eythoueny coaano? ?aioi?eioe, ui iaee oa?no ? aocuee?
e?eea (a?ae 0,4 aei 1 i o ?iciaoo), ? oe?ieie?ee? aaccoa? ioa?iaeaeoee?
c ?iciaoii e?ee aei 8 i. E?oath/? yua?e aeeee i?ioyaii th?nueeiai e
e?aeaeiaiai ia??iae?a, ?oi? aeie?aiiy aoei iia’ycaia c iiyaith ioao?a,
ye? aeyaeeeny a?eueoa i?enoiniaaieie aei aeeooy a iia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu?. I?aaenoaaieee: ??ae ?aioi?eio (Rhamphorhynchus) c i?ciuei?
th?e e ??ae ioa?aiiaeii (Pteranodon) c i?ciuei? e?aeaee.

Eean ioao?a (Aves)

Ioaoe ? a oeae /an naiei /eneaiiei eeanii iacaiieo o?aaaoieo. Aiie
a?aeaoeeny a?ae i?ei?oeaieo o??aniaeo ieacoth/eo — a?oicaa??a — ? ii
caaaeueiiio ??aith ?icaeoeo noathoue iaaaaaoi aeua ieacoth/eo.

O aeeiiiiio noai? ioaoa cono??/athoueny aeoaea ??aeei, oiio ui ?o
oaiae?oii? ii?iaeiuei? e?noee oaeaeei ?oeiothoueny. I?ci?th?nueeee
ia?aiioao a?oaiioa?een (Archaeopterix) ii nai?e aoaeia? caeia?
ia?ao?aeia iieiaeaiiy i?ae ieacoth/eie e no/anieie ioaoaie.
A?oaiioa?eene iaee e?eea e i??’y, aea uaeaie ?o ua aoee ?c coaaie, ia
e?ioe? e?ee — o?e iaeueoe? c iaco?aie, a aeiaaee oa?no neeaaeaany c
aaeeei? e?eueeino? o?aaoe?a. A?oaiioa?eene iiaaii e?oaee, aiie,
?iia??ii, iiaee eeoa ieaioaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith e?ee.

Eean nnaaoe? (Mammalia). Nnaaoe? — aeuee eean o?aaaoieo, nai? c?iaeai?
oaa?eie. An? nenoaie e i?aaie nnaaoe?a iaaaaaoi a?eueoa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?, /ei o ?icaeyiooeo ?ai?oa eean?a o?aaaoieo.
AEeai?iae?iiy, aeaiaeiaoaaiiy aeeoei/ao iieieii, oaieie?iai?noue ?
iino?eia oaiia?aoo?a o?ea aeicaieythoue ?i aeeoe e ?iciiiaeoaaoeny a
iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo oiiaao. Aenieiai ?icaeoeo aeinyaee oeaio?aeueia
ia?aiaa nenoaia, i?aaie ii/ooo?a, o?aaia e aeeoaeueia nenoaie.

Aoaeo/e iaea?eueo aenieii?aai?ciaaieie oaa?eiaie, nnaaoe?, c’yaeaoenue
iai?ee?ioe? o??ano, aei e?ioey iacicith aeoenioee ieacoth/eo ? iaioaaee
aaea c ii/aoeo eaeiicith. ?oi? caeeoee oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey
aecia/aiiy a?eo eiioeiaioaeueieo eaeiicienueeeo a?aeeeaaeaiue.

I?e aea/aii? aeeiiieo nnaaoe?a iaea?eueoa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aoaeia?
coa?a, /a?aia e e?ioe?aie, ye? aeia?a caa??aathoueny o aeeiiiiio noai?.

Na?aae nnaaoe?a aeae?eaii 4 i?aeeeane: a?oa?/i?, ia?oica???, noi/ano? e
aeu? nnaaoe?.

A?oa?/i? aeeee i?ioyaii iacicienueei? a?e. Aiie iaee iaaaeee? ?ici??e,
?oi?e aeaeyae aaaeei a?aeiiaeoe, oiio ui caa?aaeeny eeoa ie?ai? coae e
uaeaie.

Ia?aica???, aai eeiaeia?, o aeeiiiiio noai? cono??/athoueny aeoaea
??aeei. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue no/ani? ea/eiaecueia ? ?oeaeiee, ui aeeaooue
a Aano?ae??. O aoaeia? eeiaeiaeo caa?aaeiny aaaaoi iciae, caaaeueieo ?c
ieacoiaie. C’yaeeeny aiie a Iacici?.

Noi/ano?, aai ieae/?, ca??? aeeaooue a Aano?ae?? e o iaio?e e?eueeino? a
I?aaeaii?e ? I?ai?/i?e Aia?eoe?: eaiao?o, noi/ano? a?eee, eoieoe?,
iiinoi ? ?i. Aiie cia/ii i?ei?oeai?oa i?aai?ciaai?, /ei aeu? nnaaoe?. O
aeeiiiiio noai? noi/ano? a?aeii? ii/eiath/e c a?aeeeaaeaiue. Aeu?
nnaaoe?, aai ieaoeaioa?i?, iaea?eueoa oe?iei i?aaenoaaeai? ye na?aae
no/anieo, oae ? eiiaeei nnaaoe?a. C ii/aoeo iaeaiaaiiaiai ia??iaeo aiie
caeiathoue iaioth/a iieiaeaiiy o oaa?eiiiio na?o?.

Na?aae aeueo nnaaoe?a aaaaoi caaii?a, ieae/a aeaia ei?ioea
oa?aeoa?enoeea naieo iniiaieo.

Caa?i oeaeeo c’yaeany ia ii/aoeo iaeaiaaio, ?oi? caeeoee /anoi
cono??/athoueny o aeeiiiiio noai?. Na?aae oeaeeo aeae?eythoueny ae?aai?
oeae?, ui aeeee a iaeaiaai? e ii/aoeo iaiaaio, ? iia? oeae?, ui
c’yaeeeny a iaeaiaai? e oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeai? a iao /an. I?aaenoaaiee:
??ae iaoae?iae (Machairodus) –oaaeacoaee oea?, ui aeea o iaiaai?.

A?oia eiieoieo nnaaoe?a i?noeoue /eneaiieo aeeiiieo ? no/anieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a. Na?aae ieo aeae?eai? iaia?iiiae? (eii?, iini?iae, oai??e
e ?i.) ? ia?iiiae? (naei?, aa?aethaee, aee?aoe, ieai?, e ?i.). C
iaia?iiiaeeo iaea?eueoa aeia?a aea/ai? eii? e iini?iae, aiie c’yaeeeny a
na?aaeei? iaeaiaaiiaiai ia??iaeo. O i?ioean? oaeaeei? aaiethoe??
ci?ithaaeeny ?oi? e?ioe?aee e coae. I?aaenoaaieee: ??ae aeiia??ii
(Hipparion) c iaiaaio; ??ae ?iae?eeioa??e (Indricotherium), ui aeea
iai?ee?ioe? iaeaiaaio e ia ii/aoeo iaiaaio.

Caa?i oiaioieo aeia?a aea/aiee. ?oi? ia?o? i?aaenoaaieee c’yaeeeny a
na?aaeei? iaeaiaaiiaiai ia??iaeo e ua ia iaee oiaioa. O iaiaai? aeeee
ianoiaeiioe, a?ae yeeo a?aeaoeeny neiie. O i?ioean? aaiethoe?? a
oiaioieo, ye ? a eiieoieo, neeueii ci?ithaaeany aoaeiaa coa?a, ii yeeo
aeia?aeathoueny ??cieo i?aaenoaaiee?a oiaioieo. I?aaenoaaieee: ??ae
ianoiaeiio (Mastodon) c iaiaaio; ??ae iaiiio (Mammuthus) ?c
/aoaa?oeiiiai ia??iaeo.

Caa?i i?eiao?a a?aeiiee c ii/aoeo iaeaiaaio. Aei iueiai noaaeyoueny
iai?aiaaie, iaaie e ethaeeia. Iai?aiaaie c’yaeeeny ia ii/aoeo iaeaiaaio,
iaaie — iai?ee?ioe? iaeaiaaio. Ethaee a?aeii? c ii/aoeo /aoaa?oeiiiai
ia??iaeo, aiie ae?eyoueny ia iaeaeaai?o? (a?oaio?ii?a), ae?aai?o
(iaeaiaio?ii?a) ? iiaeo (iaiaio?ii?a). Aaciina?aaei? i?aaeee ethaeae
iaa?aeii?. Iaei??? c iaeaeaai?oeo ia?ao?aeieo oi?i a?ae
ethaeeiiiiae?aieo iaai aei aei?noi?e/ii? ethaeeie aoee aano?aeii?oaee.

E?oa?aoo?a

1.Aaa?eeia A.I. Iooaoanoaea a i?ioeia Caiee. – I., 1996

2.I?eia TH.A. O na?o? ae?aai?o oaa?ei. — E., 2003

3.Iia??i A.E. AEeooy, ?? i?e?iaea, iioiaeaeaiiy e ?icaeoie. — E., 1988

4.ssniaiia I.A. Iiioey?ia iaeaiaaia?ao?y. — I., 1995

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