Oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue aaiethoe?th ethaeeie

No/ania ethaeeia a?i/a? niaith ?yae aaiethoe?eieo iai?yie?a, aeaea?aea
yeeo iiaeia aeyaeoe ua a i?eiao?a. Caaaeueiiaeciaii, ui aaiethoe?y
ethaeeie neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio i?ioean?a — i?aai?/ii? aaiethoe?? e
eoeueoo?ii? aaiethoe??. Ie cia?ii, ui eeth/iao ?ieue o iai?yieao
i?aai?/ii? aaiethoe?? a?a? aeia??. Eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y ia? aeani?
?oo?ei? neee, ui aeicaieythoue iiynieoe iinooiiaa iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie. Oea ieoaiiy ia aeeeeea? ?ica?aeiinoae.

I?iaeaie aeieeathoue o oie iiiaio, eiee ie iaiaaa?iiny i?oe aeae? oeeo
aeoaea caaaeueieo aeniiae?a. Ia?oa c ieo — aecia/eoe niiniae aeiai?o, ui
aa?ooue o/anoue a aaiethoe??. Ae?oaa — aeine?aeaeoaaoe iaoai?ci
eoeueoo?ii? aaiethoe??. O?aoy — aecia/eoe caeaaei?noue i?ae i?e?iaeiei
aeiai?ii ? iai?yieaie i?aai?/ii? aaiethoe??, c iaeiiai aieo, ?
eoeueoo?iith aaiethoe??th — c ?ioi?.

Caeaaei?noue i?ae i?aai?/iith e eoeueoo?iith aaiethoe??th

Ui noino?oueny o?aouei? c ia?a?aoiaaieo aeua i?iaeai, oa iaei?ino?oei ?
?noi?e/ii naiith noa?ith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia oea ieoaiiy neoaeeoue
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui i?aai?/ia aaiethoe?y aeiaaea oeeaoe/iee ?yae
ethaeeie aei a?aeiiiai ii?iaa — aei oiai ??aiy, ia yeiio noaea iiaeeeai?
eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y. ?c oeueiai iiiaioo o?eiaai?y ethaeeie i?oea ii
oeyoo eoeueoo?ii? aaiethoe??, ui ? caaacia/eea aanue ianooiiee ?icaeoie.
I?aai?/ia e eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y aaaaeathoueny ?icae?eaieie a /an? e
iacaeaaeieie o nai?e ae??. Iiae?aia oi/ea ci?o oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?ia?o
noa?eo aio?iiieia?a (iai?eeeaae, Briffault) ? ona ua aeneiaeth?oueny a
aeayeeo no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo (iai?eeeaae, Karaus).

Cia/iee ?icaeoie ye aaiethoe?eii? a?ieia??, oae ? aio?iiieia??, ui
a?aeaoeiny ca inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy, a oaeiae c?ine? ca’ycee i?ae oeeie
aeaiia eieenue a?aeiniaeaieie aaeocyie iaoee i?eaaee aei iiyae a?eueoa
no/anii? oi/ee ci?o. A?aeiia?aeii aei oe??? e?aiee ci?o, a aiioo
eoeueoo?ii? aaiethoe?? i?e?iaeiee aeia?? i?iaeiaaeoaaa ae?yoe e
i?aai?/ia aaiethoe?y ia i?eieiyeany. I?inoi ?acoeueoaoe eoeueoo?ii?
aaiethoe?? a?eueoa iii?oi?, /ei ?acoeueoaoe o?eaath/i? i?aai?/ii?
aaiethoe??.

Iiaeaeueoa aaeineiiaeaiiy yaey? niaith eiioeaioe?y aacia?a?aii?
aca?iiae?? i?ae i?aai?/iith e eoeueoo?iith aaiethoe??th. Aaaeeeaei
aoaeoii oaei? aca?iiae?? iiaea aooe aeia?? ia caeaoi?noue aei iao/aiiy e
ni?eeiyooy eoeueoo?e. I?e oeueiio i?aai?/ia e eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y ye
ae eaeooue ?oea ia ?oeo. Aaeeeo oaaao oe??? eiioeaioe?? i?eae?eya
Aeia?aeainueeee.

Eainaeai ? O?enii (Lumsden, Wilson) i?iaaee /anoeiai iaoaiaoe/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy «aaiii-eoeueoo?ii? eiaaiethoe??», a Eaaaee?-Noi?oea e
Oaeueaeiai (Cavalli-Sforza, Feldman, 1981) aea/aee ?? aieiaiei /eiii
iaoaiaoe/ieie iaoiaeaie. I?aeo?ae oeeo o/aieo o ei?ai? a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae i?eeiyoiai a aeai?e eiec? e o ii?e eieeoi?e ioae?eaoe??.

Oeie aeiai?o

On?, ooi aea/a? oeth oaio, i/aaeaeii, caiaei? c oei, ui i?aai?/ia
aaiethoe?y ethaeeie iai?aaey?oueny aeiai?ii. Neeaaei?noue ooo iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aeia?? — ia ?aeeiee i?ioean, a oe?eee iaa?? i?ioean?a, ? oiio
oaeee aeniiaie iineoue caiaaeoi caaaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Aio?iiieia?a, ui aea/athoue aaiethoe?th ethaeeie, caaaeii eaaeo/e,
oe?eaaeoue aieiaiei /eiii o?eiaai?y aio?iii?ae?a, iio?i oae? oaeoi?e
aaiethoe??, ye i?noeaia?aaoaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ?oee e o.i. ? eeoa ?iiae?
?oo?ei? neee aaiethoe??. Ui ae noino?oueny oeeo nee, oa a/ai? cae/aeii
iaiaaeothoueny iineeaiiyie ia «i?e?iaeiee aeia??» o caaaeueiiio cia/aii?
e ia oeueiio coieiythoueny.

Iiioeyoe?eieo aaiaoee?a, ui caeiathoueny aaiethoe??th ethaeeie, ye ?
ne?ae aoei niiae?aaoeny, a?eueoa oe?eaaeyoue neee, ui aa?ooue o/anoue o
i?e, ? aiie ?aoaeueii ?ic?iaeythoue ??ci? niiniae ae??
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeiai?o e ae?aeoo aai?a noiniaii aei iiioeyoe?e
ethaeeie. Iaeiae o oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeaye? oeie aeiai?o cae/aeii
caeeoathoueny aac oaaae.

Ei?enii aeacaoe oiio, ui ? aeai? i?i aieea ia iiioeyoe?? ethaeeie
/eneaiieo oei?a aeiai?o, a naia ni?yiiaaiiai; noaa?e?coth/iai; ui
a??aiiaaaeo?; niieo/aiiy aeiai?o — ae?aeoo; aeiai?o, ni?yiiaaiiai ia
noai?aiiy oo?aioe i?i iioiinoai; iieiaiai aeiai?o; aeiai?o ii
aeeaa?aoth/eo e?i?yo o ??cieo iaeanoyo, ni?yiiaaiiai ia noai?aiiy
aaia?ao?/ieo ?an; nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o; i?aeaeaeiaiai aeiai?o.
Aea??ee aeaieo ii a?eueoino? ?c oeeo oei?a aeiai?o aoee iaaaaeai? a
iiia?aaei?o aeaaao.

Aaaeeeai iaoe ia oaac?, ui ??ci? oeie aeiai?o /anoi ae?thoue ni?eueii.
Oae, iiaiaeaeaiiy ethaeeie yaey? niaith noi?o ?iaeea?aeoae?cio,
aaouee?anueeiai aeueo?o?cio e nie?aea?iino? ?iaeea?aeooia c eiai aai ??
a?oiith. Oe? oaiaeaioe?? a iiaiaeaeaii? na?ae/aoue i?i ae?th cae/aeiiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeiai?o, aeiai?o, ni?yiiaaiiai ia ?icaeoie oo?aioe
i?i iioiinoai, ? nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o a?aeiia?aeii.

O aeayeeo iiioeyoe?yo ethaeeie, iaaooue, ?iiae? a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?aeo
aai?a. Aeaye? aaoi?e eaeooue aeae?, aeoiath/e, ui cae??ieaiiy naeaeoeaia
iaeo?aeueieo iooaioieo aai?a o ?acoeueoao? ae?aeoo a?aeaoaa?oueny a
oe?ieiio ianooaa?. Iiaeeeai, ui oea oae. O eiaeiiio ?ac?, yeei ae ia
aoei inoaoi/ia ??oaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy, iiaeia, ?iia??ii, cacaeaeaa?aeue
neacaoe, ui iaeei eeoa ae?aeo aai?a ia noai?th? i?yeeo ?noioieo iciae o
ethaeeie.

Nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia??

*a?aaea aai a?oia a i?eiao?a, o oiio /ene? a ethaeeie, — oea a?eueo-iaio
ca’ycia iaeeieoey i?aai?caoe??. Oea iaeeieoey, ui caaacia/o? caa?aaeaiiy
a?oie e ?iciiiaeaiiy.

O i?eiao?a, aaaeo/eo noni?eueiee niin?a aeeooy, o oiio /ene? a ethaeeie,
?niothoue an? oiiae aeey aoaeoeaii? ae?? a?oiiaiai aeiai?o. Iaaaaea?ii,
ui oa?i?i «nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia??» aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
iicia/aiiy iniaeeai? oi?ie iaaeaeaiiaiai aeiai?o, i?e yeiio ye
eiieo?oth/? iiioeyoe?? aenooiathoue nioe?aeuei? a?oie.

??ci? /a?aaee aai a?oie, ye o i?ei?oeaieo aio?iii?ae?a, oae ? a ?ioeo
i?eiao?a, ?iia??ii, ia??aeei anooiathoue o eiieo?aioe?th ca ei?iiao
oa?eoi??th aai yeee-iaaoaeue ?ioee iaiao?aeiee ?ano?n. Oni?o aai
iaaaea/a aeaii? /a?aaee aai a?oie i?e eiieo?aioieo nooe/eao aai
ai?iouea? ca oa?eoi??th ?c noia?ieeaie aecia/a?oueny, ii?yae c ?ioeie
oaeoi?aie, ??aiai ?icoiiaeo caeaoiinoae /eai?a ? (aai) aaoaaee?a a?oie,
?icaeoeii oaoiieia?/ieo iaae/ie ? niinia?a ni?eeoaaiiy, a oaeiae
/enaeuei?noth. O oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee i?ae eiieo?oth/eie /a?aaeaie aai
a?oiaie ?niothoue aaiaoe/i? ?icoiaeaeaiiy ii oeeo iciaeao, iiaea
anooiaoe a ae?th a?oiiaee aeia??.

C a?ieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ?icoiii i?eioneaoe, ui ye o ethaeeie, oae ? a
?ioeo aeueo i?eiao?a ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae a?oiaie a?aeiinii ?ioaeaeoo ?
eiai iio?aeieo — oaoiieia?/ieo iaae/ie ? niinia?a ni?eeoaaiiy — /anoeiai
aecia/athoueny aaiaoe/ieie ?icoiaeaeaiiyie.

Aaiaoe/ia /anoeia oeueiai i?eiouaiiy a eiai canoinoaaii? aei ethaeeie
(aea ia aei ?ioeo i?eiao?a) ?iiae? aeeeeea? caia?a/aiiy ii ?aeaieia?/ieo
iioeaao. Ooo iaiao?aeii c?iaeoe aeayeee a?aenooi. Ie cia?ii, ui a i?ae
a?oiiai? ? iae?eoi i?ieeaino? o?ce/ieo iciae o ethaeeie ? aaiaoe/iee
eiiiiiaio. A?aeiii, ui ?iaeea?aeoaeueia i?ieea?noue iiaaae?ieiaeo iciae
ethaeeie oaeiae i?noeoue aaiaoe/iee eiiiiiaio. Aeyaeaii aeaye? iae?eoi
?icoiaeaeaiiy iiaaae?ieiaiai oaiioeio. C a?ieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ?icoiii
aeiionoeoe, ui a iniia? oeeo ?icoiaeaeaiue oaeiae eaaeaoue aaiaoe/i?
oaeoi?e e oaeoi?e na?aaeiaeua. Aeaieo, ye? a noia?a/eee oaeiio
aeiiouaiith, iaia?. Caoa ? aeaye? a?aeiiino?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue eiai
i?aaeeuei?noue (Wilson, 1978). ? ia?aoo?, a?ieia?/io neooaoe?th iiaeia e
o?aaa a?aeie?aiethaaoe a?ae nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee a no/anieo
noni?euenoaao. Oiio, aeey oiai uia iaoe iiaeeea?noue i?iaeiaaeoaaoe iao?
i??eoaaiiy, ie ooo i?eeiaii a?ieia?/ii ?aae?noe/ia aeiiouaiiy i?i
?nioaaiiy aaiaoe/ieo ?icoiaeaeaiue ii ?icoiiaeo ? iiaaae?ieiaeo iciaeao
i?ae aeayeeie a?oiaie ye ethaeeie, oae ? ?ioeo i?eiao?a.

Aa?oi i/?eoaaoe, ui i?e aacia?a?aiiio a?oiiaiio aeiai?? a i?eiao?a, o
oiio /ene? a aio?iii?ae?a, nioe?aeuei? a?oie c iaea?eueo
aeniei?icaeiaieie ?icoiiaeie caeaoiinoyie, eii?aeeiaoe??th e
oaoiieia??th a na?aaeiueiio aoaeooue iaoe ia?aaaao, ? ?o aaiaoe/ii
aeaoa?i?iiaai? caeaoiino? aoaeooue iioe?thaaoeny a iaaeao aeaiiai aeaeo.
O?eaaeee a?oiiaee aeia?? aeeee/a iinooiiaa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo
?ioaeaeoo, yceea e oaoiieia?/ieo iaae/ie o eiaeii? e?i??, ui aeaeeea.
A?oiiaee aeia?? aea? iiaeeea?noue iiynieoe iioiaeaeaiiy ?yaeo /i?o
a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy i?eiao?a.

Iaeia c oaeeo ?en — oea ycee. Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui ie aeei?enoiao?ii
ooo oa?i?i «ycee» o oe?ieiio ci?no?, ui aeeth/a? ? ycee oaa?ei. Iai?i
?ioi?iaoe??th yaey? niaith eiooiaiee a aaeaioeaiiio a?aeiioaii? iciaea
/a?aaee aai a?oie, i?e/iio oea a?oiiaa iciaea. Aeineoue ?iia??ii, ui
iiai? caeaoiino? i?eiao?a, aeeth/ath/e ethaeeie, ?icaeeeny i?ae ae??th
a?oiiaiai aeiai?o.

?ioaeaeo — aaeaioeaia ei?enia iciaea ye aeey ie?aii? oaa?eie, oae ? aeey
ni?aoiaa?enoaa. I/aaeaeii, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee aeia?? a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao
?ieue o eiai ?icaeoeo, iaeiae oea ia aeeeth/a? aeiaeaoeiai? ae??
nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o. *a?aaea, ui neeaaea?oueny aieiaiei /eiii
c oyioueo iaai aai aio?iii?ae?a, ?iia??ii, aoaea e?aua ni?aaeyoeny ?c
i?iaeaiaie, ui aeieeathoue o eiai aeeoo?, /ei non?aei? eiieo?oth/a c iei
/a?aaea «aeo?ieo» iniaei.

Iaa?oue /enaeuei?noue a?oie, ui i?aaenoaaey? niaith iaeei c oaeoi??a,
a?ae yeeo caeaaeeoue ?? aeaaiiieo//y, iiaea iaaiith i??ith ?aaoethaaoeny
a?oiiaei aeiai?ii. Ooai?aiiy a?eueoa /eneaiieo /a??ae o iai?aiacaiieo ?
iacaiieo i?eiao?a ei?aeth? c? ciaioaiiyi iaoa?ieiino? naioe?a ae?oa aei
ae?oaa. A?eueo? ?ici??e a?oie aaeaioeai? aea?aei? iai?aiacaiiei ?
iacaiiei i?eiaoai, iieaaooth/e caoeno, eiieo?aioe?th e eieaeoeaia
iiethaaiiy. sseui iaoa?iei?noue naioe?a; ae?oa aei ae?oaa ia?aoeiaeaeaea
?icoe?aiith ae??aieo /a??ae ? yeui a aeayeeo /a?aaeao naioe? iaee
a?eueoa aenieith aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaio oa?iei?noue aei naaa
iiae?aiei, /ei a ?io?, oi oae? /a?aaee e aaie, ui iaoiiaeththoue
oa?iei?noue naioe?a, iaea?aeoaaee a ia?aaaao.

O aeae?eueeio iioae?eiaai? iaaeaaii eieaao ii aaiethoe?? ethaeeie
a?oiiaee aai nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia?? acaaae? ia iaaiai?th?oueny.
Aeaye? aaoi?e ei?ioaiueei caaaeothoue i?i aeia?? oeueiai oeio o ca’yceo
c aaiethoe??th ethaeeie, aea, iaaooue, ia iaaeathoue eiio cia/aiiy.
Aeaye? ?io? o??th /e ?ioith i??ith caeo/athoue eiioeaioe?th eei-ioai?a.
Oea aaea aeeae/a aei iaoe. Oa?i?i «eei-aeia??» ?iiae? canoiniaothoue ye
neiii?i oa?i?ia «nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia??», aea a?i aeei?enoiao?oueny
e a ?ioeo ci?noao, ui ?iaeoue eiai iino?eiei aeaea?aeii ieooaieie. Aeey
iaaiai?thaaiiai ooo i?ioeano a?eueoa i?aeoiaeeoue oa?i?i
«nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia??».

A ?noi?e/iiio ieai? oe?eaai iaaaaeaoe, ui Aea?a?i a «Iioiaeaeaii?
aeae?a» iaaeaaaa aaeeeiai cia/aiiy oiio, ui ie oaia? iaceaa?ii
nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaei aeiai?ii.

O nai?io aeine?aeaeaii?, ii/aoiio a i?ney aea?a?i?anueeo aiioo, aea
iaienaiiio e iioae?eiaaiiio iaaaaaoi i?ci?oa, Eaeo (Keith, 1948)
?icaeaaa eiioeaioe?th i?i oa, ui ni?aoiaa?enoai, cie?aia iaaaeeea a?oia
a i?ei?oeaii? ethaeeie, yaey? niaith iniiaio aaiethoe?eio iaeeieoeth a
aaiethoe?? ethaeeie. Ia eiai aeoieo, aaiethoe?y ethaeeie — ?acoeueoao
eiieo?aioieo aca?iiae?e i?ae iaeaiueeeie ia?ao?anieie ona?aaeei?, naaa
nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie. Eaeo noai?ea iaaeiei oe??? ?aea? aaiethoe?eio
oai??th, ui caeaaaeany canoa??ei? iaa?oue a 1948 ?., ia aiai?y/e aaea
i?i nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue. Oea, aacnoii?aii, ii/anoe iineoaeeei
i?e/eiith oiai, ui eieaa Eaeoa ia oeeoo?oueny a a?eueoino? no/anieo
?ia?o ia oeth oaio. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaeie?ee oe??? eieae, ne?ae
cacia/eoe caneoao ?? aaoi?a, ia?oiai nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o, ui
aeacaa ia ?ieue, a aaiethoe?? ethaeeie.

?ioaeaeo

?ioaeaeo neeaaea?oueny c aeae?eueeio ??cieo ?icoiiaeo caeaoiinoae:
caeaoiino? aei ??oaiiy caaaeaiue, caeaoiino? aei iaoai?/iiai
caiai’yoiaoaaiiy, aei iaa/aiiy, ni?eeoaaiith e o.i. /e Iiaeia iiynieoe
?icaeoie ethaenueeiai ?ioaeaeoo aeiai?ii yeiainue iaeiiai oeio? Iai
aa?oi ?icaeyiooe iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo iaeieo aniaeo?a oe??? neeaaeii?
iciaee a ?acoeueoao? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeiai?o, a aeayeeo ?ioeo eiai
aniaeo?a — o ?acoeueoao? nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o.

Aeaye? eiiiiiaioe ?ioaeaeoo i?eiao?a aeathoue ia?aaaaa aieiaiei ia?acai
ie?aii? iniaeie ? ?? iauaaee?a. Oea noaaeoueny aei caeaoiino?
canaithaaoe aeina?ae, aei iai’yo?, aei caeaoiino? i?i?ieoaaoe
?acoeueoaoe oeo aai ?ioeo ae?e ? aei ai?iiy ei?enooaaoeny cia?yaeaeyie.
?icaeoie oaeeo aeiaeaie?a ?ioaeaeoo a i?ioean? aaiethoe?? iiaeia
cia/iith i??ith a?aeianoe ca ?aooiie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeiai?o.

Ia?aaaae, ui aeinoaaeythoueny ?ioeie eiiiiiaioaie ?ioaeaeoo,
i?iyaeythoueny ia ??ai? ni?aoiaa?enoaa. Aei oaeeo eiiiiiaio?a
noaaeyoueny ai?iiy ei?enooaaoeny yceeii aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?yeueiino?
a?oie e iaa/aiiy iieiaeeo iniaei. Oe?eeii iiaeeeai, ui ?icoiia?
caeaoiino? oaeiai ?iaeo ae?iaeythoueny aieiaiei /eiii ca ?aooiie
nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o. Ioaea, eia?/ii aei?aaaeaii i?eionoeoe, ui
?ioaeaeo i?eiao?a, noai?thaaany a ?acoeueoao? niieo/aiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai e nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaiai aeiai?o.

Caeaoi?noue i?eiao?a aei iaa/aiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? oeo noaae?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ye? ia?aaeothoue aeinyaiaiith c??eino?.
Ii??aiyeuei? aeai? i?i o?eaae?noue oeeo noaae?e iieacothoue, ui ia??iae,
i?ioyaii yeiai iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny iaa/aiiy, c?inoa? a?ae ieae/eo
i?eiao?a aei aeuiai. Oaeaee?noue ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo yaey?
niaith aaiaoe/ii aeaoa?i?iiaaia iciaea. Oaeei /eiii, i?e?iaeiee aeia??
iiaeia aaaaeaoe ?oo?eiith neeith oeueiai aaiethoe?eiiai iai?yieo. E??i
oiai, ine?eueee iaa/aiiy a i?eiao?a — i?ioean noni?eueiee,
nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia??, ?iia??ii, a?ae?a?aaaa a?eueoo ?ieue o
noai?aii? oaeeo oaeaeeinoae ?icaeoeo, ye? a ni?eyee a?eueoei
iiaeeeainoyi aeey iaa/aiiy.

Nioe?aeueii-a?oiiaee aeia??, oe?eeii eiia??ii, i?aeaeuoaaa ??aaiue
?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeoo o an?o e?i?yo i?eiao?a, aaaeo/eo noni?eueiee niin?a
aeeooy. Iaeiae o ethaeeie oeae iai?yiie, iaaooue, i?inoioeiny aeae?,
i?ae a ?ioeo i?eiao?a. Aooe iiaea, iniaeea? a?ieia?/i? e nioe?aeuei?
oaeoi?e, iienai? a iiia?aaei?o aeaaao, — ia?anoaaiiy ia aeaio iiaao,
aeei?enoaiiy ?oe ? o.i. — noai?eee iniiao aeey aca?iiae?? e iaoai?ci?a
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae a?ieia?/ieie, nioe?aeueieie e eoeueoo?ieie
oaeoi?aie, ui i?eaaei aei ?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeoo ethaeeie aei iaaaaaoi
a?eueoa aenieiai ??aiy.

I?aeaeaeiaee aeia??

A aaiethoe?? aio?iii?ae?a a?aa o/anoue i/aaeaeii, ua iaeei niin?a
iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeiai?o — i?aeaeaeiaee aeia??, ui aaaea aei
cai?uaiiy aeae?a. ?aii? aeaee Homo (I. habilis erectus) ?
Australopithecus robustus ni?a?nioaaee a I?aaeaii?e Ao?eoe? (Klein,
1977). Iiaeeeai, ui oe? aeaa aeaee i?yii aai i?eiaeii? iia?/ii
eiieo?oaaee ca ?aeo aai ca ei?iia? ae?eyiee. Australopithecus aeia?, a
Homo aeaeea ? caeiya aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy a aaeaioeai?e cii?
aio?iii?ae?a. A Homo iicie aoee e?oii?oa e eai’yi? cia?yaeaey, ui
aeaioiaeyeeny ?i, aoee e?aua, i?ae a Australopithecus. Oe? aeaa oaeoi?e,
?iia??ii, aecia/aee (o /ene? ?ioeo) i?ioean i?aeaeaeiaiai aeiai?o.

I?aeaeaeiaee aeia?? a aio?iii?ae?a a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae i?aeaeaeiaiai
aeiai?o a a?eueoino? oaa?ei oei, ui a?i c/aieaiee ?c a?oiiaei aeiai?ii.
Ciaaaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny i?ae ni?aoiaa?enoaaie ?aii?o Homo ? eiieo?oth/eie
a?oiaie aano?aeii?oae?a (A. robustus). Ine?eueee aoaeoeaieie iaeeieoeyie
?iciiiaeaiiy a eiieo?oth/eo aeae?a aoee ni?aoiaa?enoaa, i?aeaeaeiaee
aeia?? i?eeiya iniaeeao oi?io — oi?io i?aeaeaeiaiai a?oiiaiai aeiai?o.

Iaoai?cie eoeueoo?ii? aaiethoe??

I?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe, ui eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii
iinooiiaiai iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie. Nii/aoeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?eaeaaiiy ei?enieo ciaiue, iio?i oe? ciaiiy
aeeth/athoueny a caaaeueio iano ciaiue aeaiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa, i?ney
/iai ia?aaeathoueny ianooiiei iieie?iiyi oeyoii iaa/aiiy. Eiaeia
ianooiia iieie?iiy aeiaea? aei oeueiai caiano ciaiue oa, ui eiio
aaea?oueny a?aee?eoe naiiio, ? oae? iia? ciaiiy ia?aaeathoueny aeae? oei
aea oeyoii. A, ioaea, eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia iineoue eoioeyoeaiee
oa?aeoa?.

Aacnoii?aii, iaaiith i??ith eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y i?io?ea? naia a oaeee
niin?a. Aea /e a?aeaoaa?oueny aiia o?eueee oae, /e caaaeaee aiia o?aaa
iano?eueee i?yieie oeyoaie? Iciaeiieaiiy c ?noi???th iieaco?, ui iaia?.
Iao? iei?oi? iiaeyaee ia eoeueoo?io aaiethoe?th iinyoue iano?eueee ae
caaaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? iano?eueee ae i?y/i?, ye no/ani? iiaeaiiy i?i
?ieue i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o a aaiethoe?? ethaeeie, ?, iiae?aii inoaii?i,
iathoue iio?aao a e?eoe/i?e ia?aioe?ioe?.

Iiaa?iaiiny ciiao aei aaee/eie a?oie. A?oiiaee aeia??, ae?th/e ia
aaiaoe/ii iaoiiaeai? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae a?oiaie a?aeiinii oa?ieiino?
naioe?a ae?oa aei ae?oaa, i?a i?eaanoe aei ca?eueoaiiy a?oie aei ??aiy
/a?aaee aaaaoueio naioe?a aai a?oie. Oaeiai ??aiy aeinyaathoue
ni?aoiaa?enoaa a aeayeeo i?ei?oeaieo aio?iii?ae?a ? ?ioeo i?eiao?a.
Iaeiae oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a ni?aoiaa?enoaa ? eiai
neeaaeiinoae, iaaooue, o?eaaea a aei?noi?e/io e ?noi?e/io aiioo. A?oie
ceeaaeeny a ieaiaia, a ieaiaia — o eeaie e aea?aeaae. Aea?aeaae
ca?eueooaaeeny a ?ici??ao, ia?aoai?thth/enue ?c aea?aeaa-i?no o iae?, a
iio?i ? a?eueo? iaoe?iiaeuei? aea?aeaae.

Nooi?iue oa?ieiino? naioe?a ae?oa aei ae?oaa ia ia? i?yeiai a?aeiioaiiy
aei oeeo i?ci?o noaae?e aaiethoe?? a iai?yieo ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a
a?oie. Oa?iei?noue /ieia?e?a ae?oa aei ae?oaa a aeeoae?a NOA e
I?aea?eaiae?a ia ??cieoueny iii?oiei ia?acii. Aea caoa a?eie i?ae
ieaiaiaie e i?ae ia?iaeaie iiaeii? aoee neeueii caeaaeaoe a?ae
oaiaeaioe?? aei ca?eueoaiiy a?oie. Aae aei a?aeiiiai ??aiy a?eueoa
/eneaii? ieaiaia aai ia?iaee a na?aaeiueiio, ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia,
ia?aiaaathoue o a?eiao c a?eueoa ia/eneaiieie ieaiaiaie aai ia?iaeaie. O
?acoeueoao? ?yaeo iine?aeiaieo ai?i ae??ai? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
iaeeieoe? cae/aeii ia?anoathoue ?nioaaoe ye iacaeaaei? a?oie,
caa??aath/enue o ye?e-iaaoaeue caeaaei?e oi?i? — ye eieii?y, iaei??? c?
neeaaeiaeo /anoei oaaea?aoe?? aai naoae?oa, oiae? ye a?eueo? a?oie
noathoue iacaeaaeieie iie?oe/ieie aea?aeaaaie. Oaiaeaioe?y aei
ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a a?oie iaaiith i??ith aecia/a?oueny aeaeeaaiiyi
naieo aaeeeeo a?oi.

Iaaiith i??ith, oiio ui iaaeoi a?eueo? iie?oe/i? iaeeieoe?, i?eeeaaeii
yeeo neoaeaoue ?iia???, ia aoaathoue aeiaaia?/ieie e c?aooith iaci?iii
?iciaaeathoueny ia a?eueoa ae??ai? /anoeie. Oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy
?ici???a a?oi i?aeaea?oueny ?aaa?n??, iniaeeai ia nai?io aa?oiueiio
??ai?. Ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a i?iyaey?oueny a?eueo ae?acii ieae/a oeueiai
??aiy.

Ooo ie ia?ii ni?aao ?c nioe?aeueiith oaiaeaioe??th, iaoiiaeaii?
iaaaiaoe/ieie ?icoiaeaeaiiyie i?ae eiieo?oth/eie a?oiaie. Iaaaiaoe/i?
?icoiaeaeaiiy a oe?e iiaeae? noinothoueny ?ici???a a?oi. Iaeiae iiaeia
oyaeoe nia? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae a?oiaie ii ?ioeo iciaeao eoeueoo?e — oae?
?icoiaeaeaiiy, ye? a ?acoeueoao? ?yaeo iine?aeiaieo eiieo?aioieo i?ae
a?oiiaeo c?oeiaiue iiaee a noai?eoe iaaiee iai?yiie eoeueoo?ii?
aaiethoe??. Iai?eeeaae, aeaye? iai?yiee a ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee aeieeee,
iiaeeeai, o ?acoeueoao? o?eaaei? eiieo?aioe?? i?ae a?oiaie c ??cieie
oaoi?/ieie caeaoiinoyie. Aiaeia?/iei ia?acii iiaee a aeieeiooe e
?aeaieia?/i? oaiaeaioe??. Iaaaaeei i?i?i/eoe ?acoeueoaoe, aei yeeo
i?eaaee a o na?aaeiueiio /eneaii? c?oeiaiiy i?ae a?oiaie, ui a??youe o
iiieeeia? oia?aaeaeai? aeoiee, ? a?oiaie c ?aae?noe/iei ? i?aaiaoe/iei
i?aeoiaeii aei i?iaeai.

I?oiaeienaeueiee iiaeyae ia caaaeueiee i?ioean eoeueoo?ii? aaiethoe??,
ui a?aeaoaa? oe?ieei o?iioii, oaaaea?oueny caiaaeoi ni?iuaiei.
A?aeiia?aeii aei aeueoa?iaoeaii? e?aiee ci?o, ui caneoaiaothoue
?icaeyaee, eoeueoo?ia aaiethoe?y /anoi aai cae/aeii yaey? niaith
i?iaeoeo eiieo?aioe?? i?ae eiio?iiooth/eie iaeia ?ioith nioe?aeueieie
a?oiaie c ??cieie eoeueoo?aie.

Aca?iiae??

Aca?iiae?? i?ae aeiai?ii ii ii?oieia?/iei ? ii?oi aaiaoe/iei iciaeao, c
iaeiiai aieo, ? aeiai?ii ii nioe?aeueieo iciaeao — c ?ioi?, yaeythoue
niaith ?noioiee aniaeo aaiethoe?? ethaeeie.

?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae oeiiaica e ethaeeiith i?iyaeythoueny a?aeiinii
caeaoiino? aei yceea. *anoeiai oe? ?icoiaeaeaiiy iaoiiaeai? aieiniaei
aia?aoii ethaeeie, ui caeaoiee ?iaeoe iaaaaaoi a?eueoa /eneaii? e
??ciiiai?oi? caoee, /ei aiaeia?/iee aia?ao oeiiaica aai aoaeue-yeeo
?ioeo i?eiao?a. Oi/i?noue i?e iai?i? ?ioi?iaoe??th i?ae /eaiaie aeaiiai
ni?aoiaa?enoaa iaea aaeeea aaeaioeaia cia/aiiy aeey ia?oeo aio?iii?ae?a.
Oe??? ia?aaaae aiie aeinyaee, cie?aia, oeyoii aeiai?o ia aio?iii?aeio
eiio?ao?aoe?th ?ioa e ai?oai?, ui caaacia/o? caeaoi?noue aei iiae.

Aaiethoe?y caeaoiino? aei iaa/aiiy ni?e/eieea ?yae oe?eaaeo
oneeaaeiaiue. Ca?eueoaiith ?ici???a iiceo iiiaae aeaye? iaae?
ia?aoeiaeaeaea oe?eia ?iaeiaeo oeyo?a, /a?ac ye? iiaeiia i?ieoe aie?aea
aeeoeie i?e iieiaao. Aeia?? ia aenieee ?ioaeaeo anooiea o i?ioe??//y c
aeiai?ii ia aeaeeaaiiy ae?iee i?e iieiaao. Aeey oiai uia aeeoe ?c
oeueiai ooieea, ciaaeiaeeeny aeaa eiii?ii?ne.

Ia?oei eiii?ii?nii aoei ?icoe?aiiy oaca a ae?iee. Oea ni?e/eieei ao?aoo
oaeaeeino? i?e a?ao. AE?iea a?aa? iia?euei?oa, i?ae /ieia?e. O iaai
oaeiai iieiaiai aeeii?o?cio ia niinoa??aa?oueny. Caeaoi?noue aei a?ao
aoea i?eianaia a aea?oao, aeey oiai uia ae?iea iiaea ?iaeeoe ae?oae c
a?eueoa ia’?ienoei iiceii.

Ae?oaee eiii?ii?n neeaaeaany a cieaeaii? oaeaeeino? ?icaeoeo iiceo. O
ethaeeie aei iiiaioo ia?iaeaeaiiy iicie ua ia oe?eeii noi?iiaaiee, i
iaiiaey aeeoeia cian?i aaciii?/ia; ?icaeoie iiceo a?aeaoaa?oueny
aieiaiei /eiii o ia??iae aeeoeinoaa e aeeoeinoaa. Ethaee a oeueiio a?oe?
iii?oii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ?ioeo i?eiao?a, ye? a iiiaio ia?iaeaeaiiy
a?eueoa naiino?ei?. Aoi?eiiei ?acoeueoaoii oeueiai ae?oaiai eiii?ii?no
aoei ca?eueoaiiy o?eaaeino? noaae?e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ui
ia?aaeothoue ianoaiith c??eino?.

Iai? eiii?ii?nieo ??oaiiy aeieeei? i?iaeaie ciaioeee iacaeaaei?noue
ae?iee. Aiia aeyaeeany iaoyaeaii? oo?aioaie i?i aeeoeio i?ioyaii a?eueoa
o?eaaeiai /ano. A /anoeiaa ao?aoa caeaoiino? aei a?ao nei?ioeea ??
iiaeeeaino? iiai?noth caaacia/oaaoe nia? ?aeo ca ?aooiie iiethaaiiy e
ca?eueoeea ?? caeaaei?noue a?ae /ieia?ea.

Oe? aoaeoe o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo aeeeeeaee a ni?aoiaa?enoaao ia?a?nii?
ethaeeie aoaeoe /aoaa?oiai ii?yaeeo. A?oi? aeiaaeiny a?aoe ia naaa
a?aeiio oo?aioo i?i ae?iie ? ae?oae. Oea o naith /a?ao i?aeneeeei
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai e ni?eeoaaiiy i?ae /eaiaie ni?aoiaa?enoaa. Oei naiei
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaee eaioetha caieioa. Aeia?? ia i?aeaeuaiiy caeaoiino?
aei iaa/aiiy — /i?oa, ei?enia aeey ni?aoiaa?enoaa i?e noni?eueiiio
niinia? aeeooy, — aeeeeeaa ??ci? ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie, iane?aeeii yeeo
aoei ua a?eueo o?nii niayia ni?aoiaa?enoai.

E?oa?aoo?a

1.Aeaeao?? *a?euec. A?ieia?/ia iiiaieeaoo?a. — E., 1999

2.Eaei A. Aeae ? eiai aaiethoe?y. — E., 1998

3.Iae? A. Ciieia?/iee aeae ? aaiethoe?y. — E., 1999.

4.Oeiioaaa-?anianeee I. A., Ai?iioeia I. I., ssaeieia A. A. E?aoeee
i/a?e oai?ee yaiethoeee. — I., 1969.

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