O A ? E ? A N Ue E E E Ae A ? AE A A I E E

A A O I I I A ? E Ue I I – Ae I ? I AE I ? E O A O I ? * I E E

O I ? A A ? N E O A O

AEANAIEI ?ai? Aieiaeeie?iae/

O Ae E 6 2 1 . 8 7 8

C I E AE A I I ss I I I ? O I A I I A I A I I TH E I A O A N E ?
A I A ? A

C A N O I N O A A I I ss I A ? O I O I I A I ? ss I I I A I I ? E N
O ? I TH O A

I A A ? O I O O A A I I ss E I A I ? A Oe ? I I A E Ue I E O I A ?
A I A O ? ? A

05. 05. 04 — iaoeie aeey caieyieo

oa aei?iaeieo ?ia?o

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

O a ? e ? a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo ? aei?iaei?o iaoei
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (OAeAAeOO) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?/ea A?eueaaeuei A?eueaaeueiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo ? aei?iaei?o iaoei.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

E?aaaoeue Nayoineaa Aieiaeeie?iae/, ?aeoi? ??aiainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaeaa?i Eaii?ae ?aaaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa
a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoei.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo iaoei oa nenoai I?ii?iiiie?oeee oa IAI
Oe?a?ie, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oeaio? o?aeoi?iiai oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29.aa?aniy.1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.059.02 Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” na?iiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I.A. Iiae?eaaei.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Aei?iaei? oa aoae?aaeueia iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy iaeia c
aaaeeeaeo aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ye a Oe?a?i?, oae ? ca ei?aeiiii.
Cia/io /anoeo ae?iaieoeoaa aaeoc? neeaaeathoue iaoeie aeey caieyieo
?ia?o (IC?). A cayceo c oaiaeaioe??th o na?o? aei ca?eueoaiiy ianyao
caieyieo ?ia?o, ui aeeiiothoueny IC?, iaiao?aei? ?ic?iaee iiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e oeeo iaoei, a oiio /ene? ne?aia??a, c aeei?enoaiiyi
?ioaineo?eaoi??a ?iai/eo i?ioean?a. Ae?iaieoeoai ne?aia??a i?ia?aeieie
o??iaie na?oo aaaeaoueny a cia/i?e i??? c canoinoaaiiyi ?ioaineo?eaoi??a
i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy, a iniiaiiio aeaaaoi?iiai caaaioaaeaiiy
(Naterpillar, Kamatsu, Dresser, Fiat Allies), o iaio?e i??? c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?aea??aath/eo cane?iie, oiae?a, oaeaneii?/ieo eiao?a,
aeaioiiaeiaeo nenoai ? o.ae. Ca?ac a na?o? ae?iaieoeoai ne?aia??a c
??cieie ?ioaineo?eaoi?aie, ye? ci?iththoue niin?a caiiaiaiiy eiaoa
ne?aia?a, ?iiae? ia?aaeuo? aeione o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoei. Oaiaeaioe?y
i?aeaeuaiiy ianyao iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie o aaeoc? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?iai/eo
i?ioean?a ne?aia??a na?ae/eoue i?i caoe?eaaeai?noue aeine?aeiee?a aeaiei
iai?yieii. Canoinoaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoi??a i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue
ne?aia??a, ca?eueoo? ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ciaioo? iaoa??aei?ii?noue,
aeo?aoe iaeeaa, ui iniaeeai aeooaeueii ca?ac a Oe?a?i?.

AAO «Aei?iao» a i. Aa?aeyinueeo aeionea? iai?ai?e/?ii? ne?aia?e
AeC-87-1A i?noe?noth eiaoa 5 i3 ia aac? o?aeoi?a O — 150E. Iaeiae aeey
aenieoaoaoe?eieo i?aai?caoe?e aeiiii?/ii aea?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
ne?aia?e ca?eueoaii? i?noeino? eiaoa i?e oiio ae oyaa/?. Oaea caaaeaiiy
iiaea aooe ae??oaia ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoi??a i?ioeano
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a, a naia aeei?enoiaoth/e a?oioiiai?yii?
i?eno?i? (AII).

sse aeooaeuei?noue a iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaeao ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui a oai???
eiiaiiy ieoaiiy ia?ai?uaiiy a?oioo a aei?noeeo iai?aaeyth/eo, /a?ac
u?eeio ia ?icaeyaeaeeny, oi/ aeey no/anii? iaoee oa?aiaoai?ee oea
aaaeeea? ieoaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? ieaio iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo
oa aei?iaei?o iaoei OAeAAeOO c i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yieo iaoee oa oaoi?ee
«?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy», ?aa?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? iaoeiaeo ?ia?o
I?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai oeaio?o O?ainii?oii? Aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
«Oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e aoae?aaeueieo oa aei?iaei?o iaoei, ui
aeioneathoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie», i?ia?ai? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o eaoaae?e «?ic?iaea cania?a noai?aiiy oa aei?iaoaaiue aoae?aaeueieo
oa aei?iaei?o iaoei iiaeoeueii? eiino?oeoe?? c i?aeaeuaieie
aenieoaoaoe?eieie yeinoyie».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cieceoe ii?? iaiiaiaiith eiaoa ne?aia?a ?
c?aooith i?aeaeueoe iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? ne?aia?a canoinoaaiiyi
?ioaineo?eaoi??a, a naia – aeei?enoiaoth/e a?oioiiai?yiiee i?eno??e
iiai? eiino?oeoe??. Iaiao?aeii ?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy ?ooo a?oioo a
aei?noeeo iai?aaeyth/eo, /a?ac u?eeio, ui ? iaaiei aeeaaeii a oai??th
eiiaiiy a?oioo. AII aeicaiey? cieceoe ii?? caiiaiaiith, ca?eueoeoe
eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa caaaeyee caiiaiaiith eiai ia ia?oiio aoai?
/a?ac u?eeio o caaei?e ieanoei? AII, cieaeaiiy oeneo ia ieano a?oioo, ui
?ooa?oueny /a?ac AII, ca ?aooiie iiae?eo ?ooiii? ? ia?ooiii? ciie
aei?noeeie ieanoeiaie, cai?i? eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy a?oioo ii a?oioo ia
eiao?oe??io oa?oy a?oioo ii noae? oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ei?enii?
ae??.

Caaea/?, ye? ae??oothoueny a ?iaio?: cieaeaiiy iii?o i?ioeano caiiaiaiiy
eiaoa ne?aia?a canoinoaaiiyi AII; aiae?c ?icaaeoaeaiiai niiniao
iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa; ?ic?iaea iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e a?oioiiai?yiieo i?eno?i?a,
ii??aiyiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino?; noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? caiiaiaiiy
eiaoa ne?aia?a c AII, aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? ?iaioe caiiaiaiiy eiaoa
ne?aia?a; anoaiiaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy ??cieo
?ioaineo?eaoi??a; aecia/aiiy aieeao o?ainii?oiiai ?aaeeio ia
canoinoaaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoi??a; ii??aiyiiy ??cieo aeae?a
?ioaineo?eaoi??a; ia?aa??ea ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo aiae?oe/iei
oeyoii, aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/aii caeiiii??iino?
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiyi iiaiai niiniao caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a,
nii?yaeaeaiiai AII, iniiaiith a?aeciaeith yeiai a?ae ?ai?oa ?ic?iaeaieo
eiino?oeoe?e ? oa, ui i?ioean caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ? ?icaaeoaeaiei, a?oio
iaaeoiaeeoue /a?ac u?eeio o caaei?e ieanoei? i?eno?ith /e e??cue AII,
caeaaeii a?ae aaee/eie iii?o iaiiaiaiiy. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy yea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?nioth/eo o?aooaaiiyi
?ici??o /anoeiie a?oioo oa ?o ?iciiae?eo. Aecia/aia iioeiaeueia
i?noe?noue eiaoa a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeeio eiiaiiy oa o?ainii?oiiai
?aaeeio, ui ?ai?oa ia ?icaeyaeaeinue. Anoaiiaeai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaeano?
canoinoaaiiy ??cieo ?ioaineo?eaoi??a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a
eiaoa. A?aecia/aii cieaeaiiy iii?o i?ecie aiei/?iiy oa iii?o ??caiiy i?e
canoinoaaii? AII. I?aeaeuaiiy iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? aeiaaaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa aiae?oe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. Iiaecia
?ic?iaeaii? eiino?oeoe?? ne?aia?a c AII i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iiceoeaiei
??oaiiyi ii caieoo ia aaoi?nueea na?aeioeoai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe iaiao?aei? oyaia? coneeey, aecia/aoe
?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ?iai/iai i?ioeano, ciaoiaeeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
cia/aiiy i?noeino? eiaoa, eiai aeiaaeeie. ?ic?iaeaia eiino?oeoe?y AII,
ui caaacia/o? ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa ? cieaeaiiy
iaiao?aeiiai oyaiaiai coneeey. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa c AII iiai? eiino?oeoe??, yea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe ii??
iaiiaiaiiy ia an?o noaae?yo eiiaiiy. Aeaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
iioeiaeueiei ia?aiao?ai AII, ?aoe?iiaeueiiio canoinoaaiith ??ciiiai?oieo
?ioaineo?eaoi??a caeaaeii a?ae a?oioo, aei?iaei?o oiia oa aaaa?eo?a
eiaoa. ?ic?iaeai? i?ia?aie aeey IAII, ye? aeicaieythoue iiaeaethaaoe
i?ioean caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a c ??cieie aeaeaie a?oioiiai?yiieo
i?eno?i?a.

Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie noai?aii aenia?eiaioaeueiee c?acie
ne?aia?a c ?ic?iaeaiith eiino?oeoe??th AII ia aac? ne?aia?a AeC-20A a
IIE-50 Oa?e?anueeiai AAO “Aiaeaoae”. Ii ?acoeueoaoai aiae?oe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaiee e?ao ne?aia?a AeC-87-1A
ca?eueoaii? i?noeino? (6 i3). Iaoa??aee ?ic?iaie ia?aaeai? aeey
iiaea?i?caoe?? ne?aia??a o ae?iaie/eo i?aai?caoe?yo. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? (o eo?niaiio oa aeeieiiiiio
i?iaeooaaii?, IAe?N?).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ianooiiiio: ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai
aiae?co aeine?aeaeaiue ?iai/iai i?ioeano ne?aia??a cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee
niin?a caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a oa eiino?oeoe?th AII ia iniia?
?icaaeoaeaiiai i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy /a?ac u?eeio oa AII; ?ic?iaeai?
iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa c ??cieie aeaeaie
i?eno?i?a oa iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aecia/aiiy i?noeino? eiaoa ia iniia?
oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeeio eiiaiiy oa o?ainii?oiiai ?aaeeio; io?eiai?
iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?ioaineo?eaoi??a o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio a?oioo oa
aaaa?eo?a eiaoa; ?acoeueoaoe aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ne?aia??a c AII
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, iaea?aeaieie ia o?ce/ieo
iiaeaeyo eiaoa ? iaoo?ieo iaoeiao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iiai?noth ?iaioa aeiiia?aeaeany oa
iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo ? aei?iaei?o iaoei
OAeAAeOO o 1997, 1998 oa 1999 ?ieao, eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo, eie?eieo oa
iaaaioaaeoaaeueii-?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo iaoei Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo o 1998 ?ioe? oa ia can?aeaii? a/aii?
?aaee ?inoeoooo iaoei ? nenoai I?ii?iiiie?oeee oa IAI Oe?a?ie o 1999
?ioe?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo OAeAAeOO, ia ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe caiea?ieiuo iaoei” a Ai?ii?ae? o 1992?, ia i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeueiua aii?inu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu io aio?iiiaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey” a i. E?aiai/ooe? o 1994?, ia
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?eaioaoieea — iaoeiino?iaieth” a i. Ieaei?e
Iiaai?iae o 1991?, i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“No?ieoaeueiua e aei?iaeiua iaoeiu e eo eniieueciaaiea a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo” a i. N.-Iaoa?ao?c? o 1995?, ia VI i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iiaua oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee” a i. Oa?e?a o 1997?, ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
iieiaeeo a/aieo i. Oa?e?a” a i. Oa?e?a o 1998? oa ?ioeo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii ?acoeueoaoai aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 23 ?iaioe,
iaienaiee ia?aa?ao a eiec?, iaea?aeaii iiceoeaia ??oaiiy ia aeiao?ae.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iyoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 177 noi??iie,
a oiio /ene? 118 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 26 oaaeeoeue, 53
iaethiea, ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?e c 117 iaeiaioaaiue oa 7 aeiaeaoe?a ia 19
noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeai? iaeyae oa aiae?c aeine?aeaeaiue ?iai/iai
i?ioeano ne?aia?a ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a.
Aaeeea aa?o?noue ne?aia?ieo aa?aaao?a, iecueea eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue
ciooothoue oaeineiiaethaaoe eiino?oeoe?? ?nioth/eo iaoei, noai?thaaoe
iia?, a?eueo aoaeoeai?. Aaaeeeaa caaaeaiiy i?e oeueiio — cieaeaiiy
aia?ai?iiino?, iaoaei?iiino?, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa iaae?eiino?
iaoei. Oea caaaeaiiy iiaea aooe cae?eniaia aeaiia niiniaaie: iie?ioaiiyi
i?aai?caoe?? ?ia?o ne?aia?a; oaeineiiaeaiiyi eiino?oeoe?? ne?aia?a.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny aieiaiei /eiii ae?oaee iai?yiie. O ni?ieiaeo
?ieao E.I. A?oai’?aei aoei cai?iiiiiaaii ?aoe?iiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aaaa?eo?a eiaoa ne?aia?a. Oaeineiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e ne?aia??a
ni?yiiaaii aieiaiei /eiii ia ca?eueoaiiy iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa aac
canoinoaaiiy, ii iiaeeeaino?, ooiaoa/?a oa c aeei?enoaiiyi oiai ae
oyaa/a. Iniiaith oaeineiiaeaiiy ? oai??y ??caiiy ? eiiaiiy a?oioo,
aaeeeee aeeaae o ?icaeoie yei? aianee aeine?aeieee: E.I. A?oai’?a, A.E.
Aaeaaeiinueeee, A.?. Aaeiai?a, A.I. Aiiaea?iae/, TH.I. Aao?ia, Ae.I.
Aieeia, I.?. Aaeueia?ii, I.A. Aeiia?ianueeee, A.I. Caeaiii, N.A.
E?aaaoeue, E.A. Iaca?ia, ?.A. Iaaei??cia, A.A. I?/ea, A.E. ?oaei?a, A.I.
Oa?ania, Ae.?. Oaaei?ia, E.A. Oia?a, A.I. Oieiaeia oa ?io?.

Oaeineiiaeaiiyi ie?aieo /anoei eiaoa caeiaeeny: a NeaAAe? (oeiea E.I.
A?oai’?aa), E?N? (oeiea A.E. Aaeaaeiinueeiai), IAAe? (oeiea A.?.
Aaeiai?aa), Ae?A? (oeiea E.A. Oia?e), AIAe?aoaeaei?iao?, OAAe? (oeiea
A.I. Oieiaeiaa, i?aoe? A.E. ?oaei?aa, A.A. I?/ia, A.I. A?i?/aiea oa I.A.
??iaeiai?). Nthaee a?aeiinyoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iioee?e caaei?e
no?ioe?; canoinoaaiith iioeeeo aieiaeo no?iie ia 1/3 ?o aenioe;
aeaiou?eeiiiio caaaioaaeaiith; ciaioaiith oe?eie ??caiiy ca ?aooiie
i?aeeiio aieiaeo iiae?a a e?ioe? iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa; ?ic?iaoe?
i?aea??aath/iai i?eno?ith; aeei?enoaiith a?eueo aeeaieeo cane?iie oa
a?oioiiai?yiieo aia?ao?a. Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioeano ??caiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy a?oioo
A.E. Aaeaaeiinueeiai, iai?eeeaae aeey ne?aia??a, aea i?e iecueeeo
oaeaeeinoyo ??caiiy oe? i?ioeane iaei aieeaathoue ia ?oeioaaiiy a?oioo.
A.?. Aaeiai?a, E.A. Oia?a, A.E. ?oaei?a oa ?io? i?iaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
canoinoaaiiy i?eno?i?a, ui caaacia/othoue aaciiia?o?yia ciauaiiy eiaoa
ne?aia?a.

?ioaineo?eaoe?y caieyieo ?ia?o oyaia ca niaith iiyao iiaeo oaoiieia?e,
iaoa??ae?a, iaoei oa aa?aaao?a. Iaeaaeiaiiy ia?eo iaae?eieie, a?eueo
aoaeoeaieie iaoeiaie, cai?ia oaoi?ee, ui canoa??ea, aeione
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoei, iniauaiiy iaoei ?iai/eie i?aaiaie
iai?ioeyoi?aie — iaeaaaeeea?o? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
caiea?eeii — o?ainii?oii? oaoi?ee.

Iaoa aeaii? ?iaioe — ciaioaiiy iii?o iaiiaiaiiy, ca?eueoaiiy iaiiaiaiiy
eiaoa ne?aia?a, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?, ia iniia? oeueiai,
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ne?aia?a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe,
ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? ea?oeie i?ioeano oa ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a, nii?yaeaeaiiai AII c u?eeiith i?ae i?eno?i?i
oa aeieuai eiaoa, aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a AII oa ?o aieeao
ia aoaeoeai?noue ne?aia?a.

2. Ciaioaiiy iii?o iaiiaiaiith eiaoa ne?aia?a oa eiiaiiy eiaoai c AII ia
ia?o?e noaae?? caiiaiaiiy eiaoa. Aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? ?iaioe
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ciie canoinoaaiiy AII o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio a?oio?a
oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aieiaieo ?ici???a eiaoa.

4. Aecia/aiiy aieeao o?ainii?oiiai ?aaeeio ia canoinoaaiiy
?ioaineo?eaoi??a.

5. Ii??aiyiiy aoaeoeaiino? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ne?aia?a oa ne?aia??a,
nii?yaeaeaieo aeaaaoi?ii, i?aea??aath/ith cane?ieith oa a?oioiiai?yiieie
i?eno?iyie, aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioaineo?eaoi?a.

6. I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith ia?aa??ee
ei?aeoiino? iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, aecia/aiiy o?ceee i?ioeano
iaiiaiaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iieno?oueny no/aniee noai oai??? ??caiiy oa
iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a. I?eaaaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? i?ioeano
??caiiy oa iaiiaiaiiy, ?o ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee. O iiaeaeueoeo
?ic?aooieao ii?? ??caiith aecia/aany ii iaoiaeeoe? A.I. Oieiaeiaa. O
?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny a?eueo i?ae 400 aeiaoiae?a o aaeoc?
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a. Iaoaioiee iiooe iieacaa, ui inoaii?i
/anii, aeey cieaeaiiy iii?o iaiiaiaiiy iaea?eueo /anoi ?icaeyaeathoueny
a?oioiiai?yii? i?eno?i?. Oea ia?aeiieeai iieaco? ia?niaeoeai?noue
aeaiiai iai?yieo o aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iii?o iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa
ne?aia?a, nii?yaeaeaiiai a?oioiiai?yiiei i?eno?i?i, i?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyiiy aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo aeae?a ?ioaineo?eaoi??a oa
a?oioiiai?yiieo i?eno?i?a, oa aieeao ia?aiao??a eiaoa ia aia?ai?ii?noue
i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy. AII ia? ?noioi? ia?aaaae: a?aeiiaa AII ia i?eieiy?
?iaioo ne?aia?a, o eiino?oeoe?? ia canoiniaothoueny aeiaeaoeia?
aeaeaoie, a?ae?ioeee?iae?e, ianine. Onoaiiaea, oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy
oa ?aiiio cia/ii ni?iuai? o ii??aiyii? c aeoeaieie ?ioaineo?eaoi?aie.
AII ? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? na?aae ianeaieo ?ioaineo?eaoi??a. I?eno??e
aeicaiey? iaeneiaeueii ca?eueoeoe i?noe?noue eiaoa, ia ci?ithth/e
oyaiaiai coneeey oyaa/a. Ia iniia? aiae?co i?ioeano iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa
ne?aia?a iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia iiaa eiino?oeoe?y a?oioiiai?yiiiai
i?eno?ith ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue caiiaiaiiy eiaoa.

AII noaiiaeoue aea? ieeoe, ye? ?icoiaeyoueny, oa noai?ththoue ?acii c
no?ieaie eiaoa iai?aaeyth/o i?ecio, ui anoaiiaeth?oueny a ia?aaei?e
/anoei? eiaoa iaae iiaeiaith nenoaiith (?en. 1). Noaia nee ae?th/eo ia
aeaiaioa?iee ia’?i a?oioo o AII, i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 2, aea dRx — ii??
?ooo, ?aaeoe?y no?iie ia iio?e a?oioo (I); dG — neea aaae aeaiaioa
a?oioo (I); dP — ciai?oiy neea, iaiao?aeia aeey iaiiaiaiiy AII (I); —
eoo iaoeeo eiaoa a?aeiinii ai?eciioae? i?e eiiaii?.

Aeeoa?aioe?eia ??aiyiiy ?ooo aeaiaioa a?oioo, ia iniia? ae?oaiai caeiio
Iuethoiia, caieno?oueny o aeaeyae?

dm a = dP — dG — dRx, (1)

aea dm oa a — iana oa i?enei?aiiy aeaiaioa a?oioo.

dG = 2 g B y dx

dRx = k P dx

dm = 2 B y dx

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00000b0200000000050000000c024005201f1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa1ffffffe01e0000e10400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
0003f105050000001302000335090500000014020003b211050000001302000384140500
000014020003c614050000001302000373160500000014020003e8170500000013020003
e41c0500000014020003261d0500000013020003c91e15000000fb0280fe000000000000
9001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000067040000002d010100
08000000320a8b043f1d02000000647808000000320a6f023d1d02000000647908000000
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01000000310015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d657320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 , (2)

ooo A — oe?eia eiaoa (i); 2o — oe?eia AII, o ia?ai?e ae?eyioe? (i); —
u?euei?noue a?oioo (ea/i3); q — aeo?aoe a?oioo o aea?aiiio ia?a??c? AII
(i3/n).

I?ney i?aenoaiiaee caeaaeiino? (2) a (1), aeeoa?aioe?eia ??aiyiiy ?ooo
aeaiaioa?iiai ia’?io o a?oioiiai?yiiiio i?eno?i? aoaea oaeei
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 , (3)

I?ney ?ioaa?oaaiiy ae?aco (3) iaea?aeeii (aac o?aooaaiiy iaeeo aaee/ei
ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo),
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, (4)

A(x) = k ( R + x tg ) — tg, (5)

picscalex770100090000032b05000004001500000000000500000009020000000004000
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0000b0200000000050000000c02600940310e00000026060f001200ffffffff000008000
000c0ffc0ff003120090b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000200210000000f
b02bafde000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d0100000
8000000320adb028f0801000000280010000000fb02bafde000000000009001000000020
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10e01000000290010000000fb02c1fde900000000009001000000020002001053796d626
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8000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014024e020c1f0500000013024e021
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000320a9507b10a01000000280010000000fb02c1fde9000000000090010000000200020
01053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a950767100
1000000290010000000fb02bafde000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0
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0002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a9707e12e01000000290010000000fb027
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000320a7e07e1100200000074670c010c0109000000320a5e065a1d0100000052000c010
9000000320ada086c1d0100000042000c010a000000320a7e0753230200000062660c010
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001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001030009000
000320a20053702010000003d00f60009000000320ac202350b010000002d00f60009000
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000320ade01bf0e01000000e600a80009000000320ad903bf0e01000000e800a80009000
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000320a7e07510d010000002d00f60009000000320a7e077f15010000002d00f60009000
000320a7e07f319010000002b00f60009000000320a7e076221010000002b00f60009000
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000320a9a06760401000000e600a80009000000320a9508760401000000e800a80009000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, (6)

aea k — eiao?oe??io oiia iaiiaiaiiy (i-1), ui caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aiao??a
AII: ?ici??o ioai?o (2R) oa oe?eie ??caiiy (B), a oaeiae eooa
noiaeaeaiiy ieanoei (); eiao?oe??ioo, yeee caeaae?oue a?ae eooa iaoeeo
ieanoeie AII (b); ia?aiao??a a?oioo: eoo?a aioo??oiueiai () oa
ciai?oiueiai () oa?oy, eooa ?iciiae?eo /anoie a?oioo (), eiao?oe??ioa
oa?oy (f = tg), a oaeiae aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a /anoie (d). Eiao?oe??io k
? iino?eiei o AII, ui ia? i?yiie?i?ei? ieeoe.

Iaea?aeaia caeaaei?noue aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ii?? iaiiaiaiiy i?e
aoaeue-ye?e aenio? AII. Ii aeaiei aeine?aeaeaiue iioeiaeueia aenioa AII
aei??aith? 40 a?ae aenioe eiaoa aeey na?aaei?o a?oioiaeo oiia. Aaee/eia
eooa ?icoiaeaeaiiy ieeo AII iioei?coaaeanue ca oiiae i?i?iaeueii? ?iaioe
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a c AII iiai? eiino?oeoe??th ? neeaaea? 26 — 30
caeaaeii a?ae oeio a?oioo. ?iaioa ii caiiaiaiith eiaoa aecia/a?oueny
caeaaei?noth
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 (7)

aea P0 — ii?? ia?ai?uaiith a?oioo /a?ac u?eeio; P1 — ii?? caiiaiaiith
AII; P2 — ii?? caiiaiaiith eiaoa aeua AII; V0 – ia’?i a?oioo, ui
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac u?eeio (i3); V1 – ia’?i a?oioo, ui i?ioiaeeoue o e?ao
i?ae /an ?icaaeoaeaiiai i?ioeano, e??cue AII (i3); V1’ – ia’?i a?oioo,
ui i?ioiaeeoue o e?ao i?ae /an ?icaaeoaeaiiai i?ioeano, e??cue u?eeio
(i3); V2 – ia’?i a?oioo, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac AII c iino?eiei iii?ii
(i3); V3 – ia’?i a?oioo, ui i?ioiaeeoue e??cue AII aeua ??aiy i?eno?ith
(i3); Z – aenioa u?eeie (i).

Aenioa u?eeie z = k hno? i?iii?oe?eia oiauei? no?oaeee hno?. Ia ?en. 3
iieacaii aieea u?eeie ia ii?? eiiaiith. Ia ia?oiio aoai? e?ao
caiiaith?oueny ye o?aaeeoe?eiee, e??cue u?eeio. I?e ca?eueoaii? iii?o
iaiiaiaiith /a?ac u?eeio a?oio iaaeoiaeeoue o AII, caiiaithth/e eiai.
Aeae? e?ao caiiaith?oueny aei aa?oiueiai ??aiy AII. Iayai?noue u?eeie ia
aieeaa? ia oene a?oioo o eiao? ia a?oio, ui i?aei?ia?oueny. Ia
inoaiiueiio aoai? iio?e oiioaio? aeua ??aiy AII ? caiiaith? /anoeio
eiaoa, yea aoea iacaiiaiaiith. Ia e?ioeaa?e noaae?? eiiaiiy cieaeaiiy
iii?o iaiiaiaiith nyaa? o na?aaeiueiio 30-40 ? ia 10 o ii??aiyii? c AII
aac u?eeie, ui aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe ?iai/o oaeaee?noue ne?aia?a /e
i?noe?noue eiaoa. Caaaeyee ciaioaiith iii?o iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa, ye
iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, ciaioo?oueny ii?? ??caiith iaeneiaeueii ia 38, ii??
i?ecie aiei/?iiy ia 55. Canoinoaaiiy AII c u?eeiith aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe
eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy (EI) ia 20-30, a i?iaeoeoeai?noue aei 22 o
ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei eiaoai. ?iaioa ii iaiiaiaiith eiaoa c AII,
yeee i?iiiio?oueny, cieaeo?oueny ia 22, a ?iaioa ii eiiaiith ia 35
ii??aiyii c AII aac u?eeie. Na?aae ??cieo ?ioaineo?eaoi??a
a?oioiiai?yiiee i?eno??e ia? iaeiaio? ieoii? aeo?aoe aeey eiao?a
i?noe?noth aei 8 i3, iai?eeeaae, i?e ?ic?iaoe? noi?n? o?aaeeoe?eiei
eiaoai ? c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaaaoi?iiai caaaioaaeaiiy ieoii? aeo?aoe
a?eueo i?ae i?e aeei?enoaii? AII a?aeiia?aeii ia 2.6 oa 15.8.

Aea?? ?ici???a eiaoa cae?enith?oueny caeaaeii a?ae oeio iioaineoieaoi?a
ca ?acoeueoaoaie aecia/aiiy i?noeino? eiaoa. Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy oe?eie
eiaoa a?aeiia, aenioo ? aeiaaeeio ciaeaeaii aeey o?ueio
?ioaineo?eaoi??a: aeaaaoi?a, i?aea??aath/i? cane?iee oa AII. Iniiaia
caaaeaiiy — aecia/eoe caeaaei?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino? ne?aia?a c
iaeiaeiaith i?noe?noth eiaoa, c canoinoaaiiyi iaeiiai c o?ueio
iioaine-oieaoi??a, a?ae eiao?oe??ioa aeiaaeeie eiaoa (L/H).

Aeey aeaaaoi?iiai caaaioaaeaiiy aeiaaeeia aeaaaoi?a iino?eia, iiaeia
ci?ithaaoe o?eueee eoo iaoeeo aeaaaoi?a o eiao?. A?aoiaoth/e ci?iio
aenioo eiaoa, a oaeiae aieea eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae ia caiiaiaiiy
eiaoa ne?aia?a, i?noe?noue eiaoa iiaeia aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith:
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,
(8)

aea N1 — eiao?oe??io, caeaaeiee a?ae iaeneiaeueii? aenioe eiaoa ? oeio
a?oioo; — eoo iaoeeo aeaaaoi?a a eiao?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? iaiao?aeii ciaoe oeyo eiiaiiy Lk.
Aaee/eio oeueiai oeyoo iiaeia aecia/eoe c oiiae

V = B hmax LK – 0.5 B LK2 tg, (9)

aea — eoo iaoeeo o?a?eoi??? eiiaiiy aei ai?eciioae? i?e eeeiia?e noai?
eiiaiiy. I?e iino?eiiio eoo?
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 (10)

Caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith ?ioaineo?eaoi??a c?inoa? eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy,
aeey ei?ioeeo eiao?a a?oio cneia?oueny ca iaae? eiaoa, a aeey aeiaaeo
e?ao iaiiai?noth caiiaith?oueny. Aiae?c a?ao?ea i?iaeoeoeaiino? ia ?en.
4 iieaco?, ui a ?ac? canoinoaaiiy aeaaaoi?iiai caaaioaaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia? iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy i?e eiao?oe??io? aeiaaeeie
eiaoa, yeee aei??aith? 1. Oaeei /eiii i?e aeei?enoaii? aeaaaoi?iiai
caaaioaaeaiiy, iaiao?aeii canoiniaoaaoe ei?ioe? eiao?.

Caaeath/enue aeiaaeeiith oeyoo eiiaiiy i?ae aeaiia a?aaeaie LK,
ciaeaeaii i?iaeoeoeai?noue ne?aia?a, aecia/eaoe ia ii/aoeo ia’?i
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa.
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, (11)

aea N2 caeaae?oue a?ae hMAX oa hMIN — iaea?eueoi? oa iaeiaioi? aeeaeie
eiiaiiy oa LK.MAX — a?aenoai?, ia ye?e ne?aia? iaae?a? a?oio.

Aeey oeueiai aeiaaeeo oaeiae ? iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ui
a?aeiia?aea? eiao?oe??ioo aeiaaeeie eiaoa, ??aiiio 1.52. Ioaea, aeey
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aea??aath/i? cane?iee iaiao?aeii
canoiniaoaaoe aeiaa? eiao?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ne?aia?a, nii?yaeaeaiiai AII,
aeei?enoiao?ii ia?aiao?e AII, ca?aeii caeaaeiino? (7). Iaeneiaeueia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue a?aeiia?aea? eiao?oe??ioo aeiaaeeie eiaoa, ??aiiio 1.2.

sse iinoa? c a?ao?e?a, eiaeiee c ?ioaineo?eaoi??a ia? naith ciio
canoinoaaiiy. Aeey ei?ioeeo eiao?a L/I aei 1.1 aoaeoeai?oa canoiniaoaaoe
aeaaaoi?ia caaaioaaeaiiy, i?e 1.1 — 1.26 canoiniaoaaoe AII oa aeey
eiao?a c L/I iiiaae 1.26 i?aea??aath/o cane?ieo. ?icaeyaeath/e ieoii?
aeo?aoe, ye a?eueo ia’?eoeaio oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?e ii??aiyii?, aecia/aii,
ui ciia canoinoaaiiy AII c?inoa? aei iaae L/I 1.04 — 1.34. Oea
cana?ae/o? ia?aaaao aeaiiai i?eno?ith o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie.

Ii a?aeii?e i?noeino? eiaoa iiaeia i?ae?a?aoe ?ioaineo?eaoi?, /e iath/e
a?aeiiee ?ioaineo?eaoi?, aecia/eoe aeiaaeeio oa aenioo eiaoa.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea ?iai/iai oa o?ainii?oiiai
?aaeei?a ia aea?? oeio ?ioaineo?eaoi?a ? aecia/aiiy i?noeino? eiaoa.

Canoinoaaiiy ne?aia?a ii eiiaiith iaiaaeaii iiaeeea?noth oyaa/a
caiiaithaaoe e?ao a?oioii, oa i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? a?oioo — iiaeeea?noth
i?aei?iaoenue caaaioaaeaiei ne?aia?ii ia i?aeeiie.

A?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? i?noeino? eiaoa a?ae ?aaeei?a ?iaioe ne?aia?a
i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ioaineo?eaoi??a cioneei ian ae??ooaaoe ? oea ieoaiiy.
Iana ne?aia?a aecia/a?oueny oyaiaei coneeeyi oyaa/a ii c/aieaiith (O),
eooii i?aeeiio, iii?ii ei/aiith eie?n ne?aia?a oa eiino?oeoeaieie
?ici??aie iaoeie. Caaaeueia aaaa, yeo iiaeiai o?ainii?ooaaoe oyaa/,
aeeth/a? o naaa iano: iaoaeieiino?oeoe?? ne?aia?a (GN); ?ioaineo?eaoi?a
(G?) oa a?oioo (GA). Iana ?ioaineo?eaoi?a caeaaeeoue a?ae i?noeino?
eiaoa, ioaea ?? iiaeia aecia/eoe /a?ac eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino? E
(ea/i3) aeey eiie?aoii? i?noeino? eiaoa (Vmax = 7.2 i3).

K = G?/Vmax , (12)

?ici??e oa aaaa AII, i?aea??aath/i? cane?iee aai aeaaaoi?a i?iii?oe?ei?
ia’?io eiaoa c aac?ici??iei eiao?oe??ioii i?iii?oe?eiino? Q, yeee
caeaae?oue a?ae aeaeo ?ioaineo?eaoi?a. Oiae? aaaa ne?aia?a c a?oioii
aei??aith?

Gne = Ga + G? + Gc = Vmax + K Vmax(1 + Q(Vmax’/Vmax — 1)) + d V ,
(13)

aea Vmax = Ei V c o?aooaaiiyi aaee/eie «oaiee»; d — eiao?oe??io
iaoaei?iiino? (ea/i3), Vmax’ — iaeneiaeueia i?noe?noue ia?aiiai eiaoa.

Gne = EI V + K EI V + K EI V Q(Vmax’/Vmax — 1) + d V , (14)

C?iaeii ni?iuaiiy = K Vmax(1 — Q), (ea).
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 ,
(15)

I?e eiiaii? iaea?eueoo i?noe?noue eiaoa aecia/eii c oiiae, eiee O = ?e,
ca?aene aaee/eia eiai i?noeino? iai?ee?ioe? eiiaiiy
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, (16)

aea y — eiao?oe??io, yeee aecia/a? /anoeio a?oioo, ui iaaeoiaeeoue o
i?ecio aiei/?iiy, f1 — eiao?oe??io oa?oy a?oioo ii a?oioo.

Ia ?en. 5 cia?aaeai? a?ao?ee Vmax = f () aeey o?aaeeoe?eiiai eiaoa (4)
oa ne?aia?a, nii?yaeaeaiiai AII (3), i?aea??aath/ith cane?ieith (2) oa
aeaaaoi?ii (1). E?ea? e?i?? iieacothoue i?noe?noue c oiiae eiiaiiy,
i?yi? — c oiiae c/aieaiiy o o?ainii?oiiio ?aaeei?.

Aecia/eii iaae? aeioe?eueiiai canoinoaaiiy ne?aia?a. Aeey eiaoa
i?noe?noth V caiiaiaiiy eiaoa aei??aith? KH V. E?ao iaaeo anoaiiaeth?ii
i?e iaiiaiiio caiiaiaiith eiaoa. Ia?aoei aeaio e?i?e (?aaeei?a eiiaiiy
oa o?ainii?ooaaiiy) iieaco? iaaeo i?aai?o/ aeey a?aeiia?aeieo
?ioaineo?eaoi??a. Aiae?c a?ao?ea aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
i?e ?ic?iaoe? on?o oei?a a?oioo iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii canoiniaoaaoe eiao?
i?noe?noth 5 — 8 i3.

Aeey iaaieo oiia (eoo i?aeeiio i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? 8, eiao?oe??io
c/aieaiiy 0.7), canoinoaaiiy a?oioiiai?yiiiai i?eno?ith iaea?eueo
?aoe?iiaeueii. Oaeaee?noue (v) aecia/eii c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo i?i
iiooaei?noue aeaeaoia Ne oa eoo i?aeeiio . Aeey ii?iaeiueiai ne?aia?a,
i?e canoinoaaii? aoaeue-yeiai ?c o?ueio ?ioaineo?eaoi??a, /e
o?aaeeoe?eiiai eiaoa, oaeaee?noue o?ainii?ooaaiiy iaaea? i?iii?oe?eii
c?inoaiith aeiaeaoeiai? iane, ? i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? ii?iaeiuei? iaoeie
aaaa AII ia iaiaaeo? ?ooo ne?aia?a ia i?aeeii. Aiae?c ?ooo
iaaaioaaeaiiai ne?aia?a, eiee ?ioaineo?eaoi?e ca?eueoothoue iaiiaiaiiy
eiaoa a?oioii aei iaeneiaeueiiai ??aiy, iieaco?, ui iio?i ne?aia? c
o?aooaaiiyi aaae ?ioaineo?eaoi?a iiaea ia i?aeiyoeny ia i?aeeii i?e
o?ainii?ooaaii?. Aaaa ?ioaineo?eaoi?a, ye iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
caeaaeeoue a?ae oyaiaiai coneeey oyaa/a. Ia ?en. 6 iieacaia caeaaei?noue
oaeaeeino? ?ooo a?ae aaae ?ioaineo?eaoi?a i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? noi?ni, c
eiao?oe??ioii iaiiaiaiiy aeey o?aaeeoe?eiiai eiaoa, eiaoa nii?yaeaeaiiai
AII, i?aea??aath/ith cane?ieith oa aeaaaoi?ii a?aeiia?aeii 1.06, 1.28,
1.3, 1.3.

A?ao?e iieaco?, ui aeey ne?aia?a AeC — 87 — 1A ia aac? o?aeoi?a O — 150
EI c eiaoai i?noe?noth 6 i3, iaeneiaeueia aaaa aeiaeaoeiai? eiino?oeoe??
i?e iaeneiaeueiiio caiiaiaii? eiaoa ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 7 eI, c
oiiae caaacia/aiiy ?ooo iaaaioaaeaiiai ne?aia?a ia caaeaiee i?aeeii (8).
C ?ioaineo?eaoi??a, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei o?aaa
aaaaeaoe AII, ai ii aaaiaei iieacieeai a?i aea?a? o ?ioeo.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iienothoueny aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa
aiae?cothoueny ?o ?acoeueoaoe.

Iaoith aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ia?aa??ea aiae?oe/ieo
?ic?iaie ? ii??aiyiiy aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Iiaeaeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia a?oioiaiio eaiae? OAeAAeOO, ui
neeaaea?oueny c eioea c aaaa?eoaie 10 2 i caiiaiaiiai a?oioii, oa
a?cea, c anoaiiaeaiith ia iueiio iiaeaeeth eiaoa ne?aia?a aea?aiiai
oeii?ici??o c iiaeeea?noth ci?ie ia?aiao??a i?ioeano ??caiiy oa
aeiaaeeie eiaoa. Ia?aaeaa/aia ieaioaaiiy a?oioo o eaiae?, ou?eueiaiiy oa
caieiaeaiiy. I?iaiaeeeany oa?e?iaea c iiaoaeiaith oa?e?iai/ieo a?ao?e?a
oa caien inoeeeia?ai. I?iaaaeai? eaai?aoi?i? aenia?eiaioe iieacaee
aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? AII.

Iniaeeaino? ?icaaeoaeaiiai i?ioeano, iai?yiie ?ooo a?oioo ia ??cieo
aoaiao iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa, aea/aeeny ia iniia? niaoe?aeueieo aeine?ae?a,
i?iaaaeaieo c canoinoaaiiyi i?iioia?iaaieo iay/e?a.

I?iaaaeai? iieueia? aei?iaoaaiiy ia ne?aia?? AeC — 20A, oyaa/ O — 130,
i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue cai?iaaaeaeaii? eiino?oeoe?? AII.
Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeeny o?aaeeoe?eiei eiaoai, a oaeiae eiaoai,
nii?yaeaeaiei a?oioiiai?yiiei i?eno?i?i c i?yieie ieeoaie aac u?eeie oa
nii?yaeaeaiiai AII, c u?eeiith iii?ae aeieuai oa ieeoith, aeeaeiueith
aei caaeiuei? no?iee. Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia a?oioao ??cieo
eaoaai??e.

A ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ne?aia??a c o?aaeeoe?eiei
eiaoai oa eiaoai c AII aac u?eeie ? c u?eeiith, aecia/aii, ui
i?iaeoeoeai?noue inoaiiueiai ca?eueoo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii i?e ?ic?iaoe?
i?neo ia 15 oa ia 30 oa i?e ?ic?iaoe? noae?ieo ia 22 oa ia 12. sseui
ii??aithaaoe eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa c AII aac u?eeie oa i?eno?ith
ui ia? u?eeio iii?ae AII oa aeieuai, oi ia i?aenoaa? iieueiaeo
aenia?eiaio?a aecia/aii, ui inoaiiy eiino?oeoe?y ia 10-15 aoaeoeai?oa.
Aeai? aenia?eiaio?a aeicaieythoue eacaoe i?i aeinoaoiuei aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy AII iiai? eiino?oeoe??.

Aeinoia??i?noue aecia/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo i?eiouaiue oa
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ca?aii aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?e a?aeoeeai? oaeoe/ieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo a 10-12.
Aeinoia??i?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo caaacia/oaaeanue iaiao?aeiith
e?euee?noth iiaoi??a.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co i?ioeano caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a, ia-

oaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae oeueiai i?ioeano, ye? aoee cai?iiiiiaai? Iaoa?nii,
A.I. Oieiaeiaei, ?ia?o a/aieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc?, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaiee ? ?ic?iaeaiee ia?niaeoeaiee niin?a iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa
ne?aia?a oa cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa eiino?oeoe?y a?oioiiai?yiiiai i?eno?ith ?
a?aeiia?aeia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue caiiaiaiiy eiaoa, yea a?aoiao? e??i
oa?aeoa?enoee oa?oy ? u?eueiino? a?oioo eiai aa?aaaoiee neeaae, ui
nooo?ai aieeaa? ia eiao?oe??io aieiaiai oeneo. ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy ?ooo
a?oioo a aei?noeeo iai?aaeyth/eo, /a?ac u?eeio ? iaaiei aeeaaeii a
oai??th eiiaiiy a?oioo.

2. Aeey cieaeaiiy iii?o iaiiaiaiiy ia ia?o?e noaae?? eiiaiiy, eiee a
eiaoao, iaeaaeiaieo a?oioiiai?yiieie i?eno?iyie aanue a?oio i?ioiaeeoue
/a?ac ieo c nooo?aei cia/aiiyi iii?o, cai?iiiiiaaia ? aeine?aeaeaia
eiino?oeoe?y AII c u?eeiith a caaei?e ieanoei?. ?ice?eo? oa aeei?enoai?
iia? o?ce/i? yaeua i?e caiiaiaii? eiaoa ne?aia?a, ?icaaeoaeaiee i?ioean
caiiaiaiiy eiaoa. I?e canoinoaaii? AII c u?eeiith ii?? iaiiaiaiiy
ciaioo?oueny aei 40 o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei eiaoai ? ia 10 o
ii??aiyii? c AII aac u?eeie. Eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny ia
20-30, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ca?eueoo?oueny aei 22 o ii??aiyii? c
o?aaeeoe?eiei eiaoai, ieoii? aeo?aoe ia ?ic?iaeo 1 i3 iaea?eueo iecuee?
na?aae ?ioeo ?ioaineo?eaoi??a. Iai?eeeaae, aeey eiaoa i?noe?noth 6 i3
i?e eiiaii? noi?n? COAe o o?aaeeoe?eiiai eiaoa ia 2.6, a i?e
canoinoaaii? aeaaaoi?iiai caaaioaaeaiiy ia 15.8 a?eueo i?ae i?e
canoinoaaii? AII. I?e i?aeaeuai? u?eueiino? a?oioo aoaeoeai?noue AII
i?aeaeuo?oueny.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaia eiino?oeoe?y AII aeicaiey? cieceoe ?iaioo ii
caiiaiaiith eiaoa aei aa?oiueiai ??aiy a?oioiiai?yiiiai i?eno?ith aei 40
ii??aiyii c o?aaeeoe?eiei eiaoai oa ia 10 ii??aiyii c eiaoai iaeaaeiaiei
AII aac u?eeie. ?iaioa ii iaiiaiaiith eiaoa oa eiiaiith cieaeo?oueny
a?aeiia?aeii ia 22 oa 35 o ii??aiyii? c AII aac u?eeie. I?enooi?noue
u?eeie ia aieeaa? iaaaoeaii ia iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa.

4. I?e canoinoaaii? ?ic?iaeaiiai AII ii?? ??caiith ia e?ioeaaiio aoai?
aeinyaa? ciaioaiiy ia 38, a i?ecie aiei/?iiy ia 55, ui nooo?ai aieeaa?
ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue, aeiiii?th aia?ai?ano?n?a, i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?
iaoeie oa noai?aiiy a?eueo eiioi?oieo oiia aeey iia?aoi?a.

5. I?i?iaeueia ?iaioa ii caiiaiaiith eiaoa c AII a?aeiia?aea? aeey
na?aaei?o a?oioiaeo oiia oaeei ia?aiao?ai i?eno?ith: eoo iaoeeo ieeoe =
27, ?ici?? u?eeie Z = K hno?, aea E aei??aith? eiao?oe??ioo ?iciooaiiy,
oa aenioa AII IAII = 0.4 IE (aac o?aooaaiiy aenioe u?eeie). Iayai?noue
u?eeie o AII ii?aeio? ia?aaaae o?aaeeoe?eiiai eiaoa oa eiaoa c AII.
Iaeaea 40 a?oioo iaaeoiaeeoue o e?ao e??cue cacia/aio u?eeio, ui
aeiaiaeeoue ia?aaaae ?icaaeoaeaiiai i?ioeano caiiaiaiiy.

6. A caeaaeiino? a?ae i?noeino? eiaoa ?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
??ci? oeie ?ioaineo?eaoi??a. Oae, aeey eiaoa iaei? i?noeino? (aei 8 i3)
?aoe?iiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe AII, na?aaeiuei? i?noeino? (10 — 15 i3) —
i?aea??aath/o cane?ieo, aaeeei? i?noeino? (a?eueo i?ae 15 i3) —
aeaaaoi?ia caaaioaaeaiiy.

7. Canoinoaaiiy AII, ?ic?iaeaii? eiino?oeoe??, ?aoe?iiaeueia aeey eiao?a
c eiao?oe??ioii aeiaaeeie a?ae 1.1 aei 1.26 a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio
a?oioo. Ca?aeii c i?iaaaeaieie ?ic?aooieaie, ?ioaineo?eaoi?e aieeaathoue
ia ?aoe?iiaeueio aeiaaeeio eiaoa, iai?eeeaae, iaeneiaeueia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue aeey eiaoa c AII a?aeiia?aea? eiao?oe??ioo aeiaaeeie
eiaoa 1.2, aeey i?aea??aath/i? cane?iee 1.52, a aeey aeaaaoi?iiai
caaaioaaeaiiy 1.

8. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iai/iai onoaoeoaaiiy ne?aia?a,
iaiao?aeii ni?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe i?ioeane eiiaiiy oa o?ainii?ooaaiiy i?e
canoinoaaii? ??cieo ?ioaineo?eaoi??a. sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iai?eeeaae, aeey oyaa/a O-150 EI aaaa ?ioaineo?eaoi?a ia iiaeiia
ia?aaeuoaaoe 12 a?ae oyaiaiai coneeey oyaa/o. Ca?aeii c oeei iaea?eueo
i?eeiyoiei i?eno?i?i aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ne?aia?a ?
a?oioiiai?yiiee, aaaa yeiai iaioa i?ae 7 eI aeey oyaa/a eeano 60 eI,
oiae? ye aaaa i?aea??aath/i? cane?iee oa aeaaaoi?a a?aeiia?aeii 9.5 eI
oa 25 eI. AII c ?aoe?iiaeueieie ?ici??aie ia? oe?ieo ciio canoinoaaiiy
caeaaeii a?ae oeio a?oioo, ia?aiao??a eiaoa, oyaiaiai coneeey oyaa/a oa
oiia o?ainii?ooaaiiy.

9. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue noaa?aeaeothoue
?aoe?iiaeuei?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a c
AII cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe??, oea aeiaaaeaii ia i?eeeaae? ?iaioe
ne?aia?a AeC — 20A c AII. A??ia?aei?noue iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano
iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa — aeniea, ?icoiaeaeaiiy c aeaieie aenia?eiaioo
aei??aith? 5 — 15. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? a on?o aeiaaeeao aeecueeee aei
1, ui oaeiae aeaco? ia aenieo ca?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aiae?oe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o oaeeo i?aoeyo:

1. Aeanaiei ?.A. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ne?aia??a. A ei. I?/ea A.A.,
Aioiiia I.A., ??iaeiaa I.A. ?iai/? i?ioeane caiea?eeii-o?ainii?oieo
iaoei i ?o ?ioaineo?eaoe?y. OAeAAeOO. -Oa?e?a, 1995. -N. 93 — 105.

2. I?/ea A.A., Oii?y I.I., ??iaeiaa I.A., Aeanaiei ?.A. Canoinoaaiiy
a?oioiiai?yiiiai i?eno?ith aeey cieaeaiiy ?iai/iai iii?o iaiiaiaiiy
ne?aia?a. // A?ae?iiae?i?aoe?y oa a?ae?ioaoi?/ia aoae?aieoeoai.
Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ca??iee. Aeione 20. -Euea?a, 1993. -N. 105-109.

3. Ie/ea A.A., A?iaeiaa A.A., Aioiiia I.A., Aeanaiei E.A. Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ne?aia?ia. I?aeaoc?anueeee ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.
Aeione 30. -Oa?e?a, 1997. -N. 33 — 35.

4. Aeanaiei E.A. Aiaeec oi?i aeaeaeaiey a?oioa a eiaoa ne?aia?a n AIO.
Iao/iua o?oaeu “I?iaeaiu nicaeaiey iiauo iaoei e oaoiieiaee”. Aui. 2.
-E?aiai/oa, 1997. -N. 62 — 66.

5. Aeanaiei E.A. Iioeiecaoeey iniiaiuo ?acia?ia eiaoa ne?aia?a. Nai?iee
iao/iuo o?oaeia “Aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o”. Aui. 2. Na?ey
“Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoei aeey caieyiuo e aei?iaeiuo ?aaio”. –Oa?ueeia,
1999. –N. 34 – 36.

6. Aeanaiei E.A. Aeeyiea nieaeaiey nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieiaieth eiaoa
ne?aia?a ia nii?ioeaeaiea i?eciu aiei/aiey. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia
“Aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o”. Aui. 2. Na?ey “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoei aeey
caieyiuo e aei?iaeiuo ?aaio”. –Oa?ueeia, 1999. –N. 36–39.

7. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., Aeieo?eaaa E.A., A?iaeiaa A.A. Oaoieei —
yeiiiie/aneia n?aaiaiea eioaineoeeaoi?ia ?aai/aai i?ioeanna ne?aia?a.
Iao/iua o?oaeu “I?iaeaiu nicaeaiey iiauo iaoei e oaoiieiaee”. Aui. 1.
–E?aiai/oa, 1996. -N. 171 — 173.

8. Aeanaiei E.A. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe aniiiiaaoaeueiie oaoieee.
Iaoeiaee ca??iee. Iiaeaaeia aaciaea. *anoeia 2. –*a?eane. 1999. -N.
150-153.

9. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e oeo/oaiea
yeieiae/aneeo iieacaoaeae ne?aia?ia // O?oaeu 6 iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeee “Iiaua oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee”. -?uaa/uea, 1997. -N.
273 — 275.

10. Aeanaiei E.A. ?aoeeiiaeueiua ia?aiao?u eiaoa ne?aia?a n AIO. Ca.
noaoae “I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee”. Oaoi?ea. -?12.
-Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998. -N. 21 — 24.

11. Aeanaiei E.A. Caaeneiinoue nii?ioeaeaiey ia?aiauaieth i?eciu
aiei/aiey io nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a a?oioii. Ca. noaoae
“I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee”. Oaoi?ea. -?13. -Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1998. -N. 1 — 2.

12. Ie/ea A.A., A?iaeiaa A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., Oiiey I.I. Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe ne?aia?ia niaa?oainoaiaaieai i?ioeanna iaiieiaiey eiaoa //
Iaoa?eaeu ?anioaeeeaineie eiioa?aioeee “Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
caiea?ieiuo iaoei.” -Ai?iiaae, 1992. -N. 7 — 8.

13. Ie/ea A.A., Oiiey I.I., Oaa/aiei A.A., Aeanaiei E.A. Nieaeaiea
iaa?oaeaiiinoe ne?aia?ia i?eiaiaieai ?aoeeiiaeueiuo niiniaia caiieiaiey
eiaoa // Oacenu aeieeaaeia eiioa?aioeee “Iaoaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia a aiaeioicyenoaaiiii no?ieoaeuenoaa.” -?iaii, 1990. -N. 23.

14. Aeanaiei E.A. Nieaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a //
Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iiaeaioiaee
niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe no?ieoaeuenoaa, ?aeiino?oeoeee caeaiee e
nii?oaeaiee”. -Oa?ueeia, 1991. -N. 101

15. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., Oiiey I.I., A?iaeiaa A.A.
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeanna iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a // Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 60 — eaoeth
AENE. -Ai?iiaae, 1991. -N. 103.

16. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., A?iaeiaa A.A. Nieaeaiea o?aiey a
i?ioeanna iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a i?eiaiaieai a?oioiiai?a-aeythueo
aiia?aoia // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “O?eaioaoieea —
iaoeiino?iaieth.” -Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, 1991.-N. 48.

17. Ie/ea A.A., Oiiey I.I., A?iaeiaa A.A., Aeanaiei E.A. Aeeyiea niiniaa
caiieiaiey eiaoa ia ?aaeei iaa?oaeaiey ne?aia?iiai aa?aaaoa // Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Iaoiaeu onei?aiiuo noaiaeiauo eniuoaiee
aa?aaaoia e n/o iaoei ia iaaeaaeiinoue.” -*aeyaeine, 1991. -N. 8.

18. Ie/ea A.A., Aioiiia I.A., A?iaeiaa A.A., Aeanaiei E.A. I?eiaiaiea
ne?aia?ia n iinoiyiiie oieueiie no?oaeee aeey niyoey neiaa a?oioa //
Oacenu aeieeaaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii — i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee
“Aeooaeueiua aii?inu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io aio?iiiaaiiiai
aicaeaenoaey.” -E?aiai/oa, 1994. -N. 30-32.

19. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., Aioiiia I.A., A?iaeiaa A.A., Oaica Naie?.
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeanna iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a i?eiaiaieai
a?oioiiai?aaeythuaai aiia?aoa // Nai?iee aeieeaaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “No?ieoaeueiua e aei?iaeiua iaoeiu e
eo eniieueciaaiea a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo”. -Naieo-Ieoa?ao?a, 1995. -N.
58 — 59.

20. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., Aioiiia I.A., A?iaeiaa A.A. Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a // Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii — oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iaeoe?iaaiey, eniuoaiey e yenieoaoaoeee aeaeaaoaeae,
aaoiiiaeeae, aacaeaoiaeiuo, niaoeeaeueiuo no?ieoaeueiuo e aei?iaeiuo
iaoei.” -Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, 1995. -N. 38.

21. ??iaeiaa I.A., Aeiio?i?aa E.A., Aeanaiei I.A. Oaoiiei — aeiiiii/ia
c?iaiyiiy niiniaia caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a // Oacine ?aaiiiaeueii?
iaoeiai — i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioei?. “I?iaeaie ?ic?iaee, ae?iaieoeoaa,
aenieoaoaoei? oa ?aiiioo iiaeeiiii — o?ainii?oieo, aoaeiaaeueiio oa
aei?iaeiio iaoei”. E?A?. -Ei?iaia?aae, 1996. -N. 45.

22. Aeanaiei E.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia AIO. Ca. no.
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo i. Oa?eiaa”. –Oa?e?a. 1998.-N. 12-15.

23. Iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiiea ia ecia?aoaiea ?4926434/03. Eiao ne?aia?a.
1991. Ie/ea A.A., Aeanaiei E.A., Caoa?ia A.E., A?iaeiaa AA.,
ssaeoiianueeee A.N.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeanaiei ?.A. Cieaeaiiy iii?o iaiiaiaiith eiaoa ne?aia?a canoinoaaiiyi
a?oioiiai?yiiiai i?eno?ith oa iaa?oiooaaiiy eiai ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.04 — iaoeie aeey caieyieo oa aei?iaei?o ?ia?o.
— Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aei caoenoo iiaea?oueny ?iaioa, yea i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
iaiiaiaiiy a?oioii eiaoa ne?aia?a, iniauaiiai a?oioiiai?yiiei i?eno?i?i
(AII). I?eaaaeai? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao ??cieo ?ioaineo?eaoi??a,
aieeao ?iai/iai oa o?ainii?oiiai ?aaeeio ia aoaeoeai?noue ne?aia?a, a
oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeiiai?
iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/iiai oa o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy AII eiino?oeoe??, ui i?iiiio?oueny, ciaioo?
ii?? eiiaiith oa ca?eueoo? iaiiaiaiiy eiaoa, caaaeyee iayaiino?
?icaaeoaeaiiai i?ioeano caiiaiaiiy eiaoa ne?aia?a e??cue AII oa e??cue
u?eeio i?ae caaeiueith ieeoith AII oa aeieuai eiaoa.

Aiae?c i?ioeano eiiaiiy ne?aia?ii c AII iieaco?, ui aoaeoeai?noue
ne?aia?a c?inoa?: eiao?oe??io iaiiaiaiiy ia 20 — 30, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia
6 — 22 , ieoii? aeo?aoe ciaioothoueny ia 2.6.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ne?aia?, ii??, a?oioiiai?yiiee i?eno??e, o?ainii?oiee
?aaeei, eiiaiiy, ?ioaineo?eaoi?, aoaeoeai?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeanaiei E.A. Nieaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a
i?eiaiaieai a?oioiiai?aaeythuaai ono?ienoaa e iainiiaaiea aai
?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.04 — iaoeiu aeey caieyiuo e aei?iaeiuo ?aaio. –
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

E caueoa i?aaenoaaeyaony ?aaioa, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiey
i?ioeanna iaiieiaiey a?oioii eiaoa ne?aia?a, iniauaiiiai
a?oioiiai?aaeythuei ono?ienoaii (AIO). Niaeanii iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey
nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieiaieth, i?aaeeiaeaiiie Iaoa?nii, iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony nii?ioeaeaiea o?aiey iaaeaeo aeaeaeoueiny e
iaiiaeaeaeiui a?oioii, a?oioiiai?aaeythuaa ono?ienoai e iicaieyao
nieceoue yoi nii?ioeaeaiey. A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa i?eaiaeyony
aeaiiua enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey ?acee/iuo eioaineoeeaoi?ia, aeeyiey
?aai/aai e o?ainii?oiiai ?aaeeia ia yooaeoeaiinoue ne?aia?a, a oaeaea
?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, auiieiaiiuo iaoiaeaie
iaoaiaoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey n i?eiaiaieai
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee.

Iieacaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea AIO i?aaeeaaaaiie eiino?oeoeee, oiaiueoaao
nii?ioeaeaiea eiiaiey e oaaee/eaaao iaiieiaiea, ca n/ao aaoayuaainy
i?ioeanna caiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a aeaeaeaiee
a?oioa /a?ac AIO e /a?ac uaeue iaaeaeo caaeiae ieeoie AIO e aeieuai
eiaoa. Iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu uaee ia iiaeieiathueeny neie
a?oioa ionoonoaoao, a /a?ac oeacaiioth uaeue a eiao iinooiaao ieiei 40
a?oioa. ?aoeeiiaeueiua ia?aiao?u AIO: aunioa ono?ienoaa (IAIO) aeey
n?aaeieo a?oioiauo oneiaee ?aaia 40 io auniou eiaoa, oaie iaeeiia ieeou
e aa?oeeaee () ?aaai oaeo aioo?aiiaai o?aiey, a aaee/eia uaee (Z)
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia iaeneiaeueiie aeoaeia ?acaiey. Eiyooeoeeaio
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe ?aaai eiyooeoeeaioo ?ac?uoeaiey. ?ac?aaioaia
iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue caiieiaiey eiaoa ne?aia?a n AIO n o/aoii
aa?aaaoiiai ninoaaa /anoeoe a?oioa e eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Onoaiiaeaii
aeeyiea nieaeaiey nii?ioeaeaiey iaiieiaieth ia ana ninoaaeythuea
oyaiaiai ?an/aoa.

Aeey onoaiiaeaiey cii ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey iai?aaeythuaai
ono?ienoaa ?anniio?aiu i?ioeann eiiaiey e o?ainii?oiue ?aaeei. AIO
?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue aeey eiaoae aianoeiinoueth 5 — 8 i3.
Nouanoaoao ciia ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey AIO a caaeneiinoe io
eiyooeoeeaioa aeeeiu eiaoa, iia eaaeeo a i?aaeaeao 1.1 L/H 1.34.

Aiaeec i?ioeanna eiiaiey ne?aia?ii n AIO iieacuaaao, /oi yooaeoeaiinoue
ne?aia?a aic?anoaao ii n?aaiaieth n eiiaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiui eiaoii:
nii?ioeaeaiea iaiieiaieth oiaiueoaaony a n?aaeiai ia 30-40, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue nieaeaao nii?ioeaeaiea ?acaieth aei 38, a nii?ioeaeaiea i?eciu
aiei/aiey aei 55 io eo cia/aiee i?e o?aaeeoeeiiiie eiino?oeoeee eiaoa
ne?aia?a. A ?acoeueoaoa eiyooeoeeaio iaiieiaiey oaaee/eaaaony ia 20 —
30, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia 6 — 22. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeaaaaiie
eiino?oeoeee AIO auoa, /ai o ?aiaa ecaanoiuo eiino?oeoeee
a?oioiiai?aaeythueo ono?ienoa: ?aaioa ii caiieiaieth eiaoa ne?aia?a
nieaeaaony ia 22, a ?aaioa ii eiiaieth ia 35.

Yenia?eiaiou i?iaiaeeeenue ia eaai?aoi?iie onoaiiaea n i?eiaiaieai
oaiciiao?ee e ia iaoo?iie iaoeia AeC-20A ia aaca o?aeoi?a O-130. Ia
eaai?aoi?iie onoaiiaea aue i?iaaaeai /aou?aooaeoi?iue i?oiaiiaeueiue
ieai yenia?eiaioa. A ?acoeueoaoa n?aaiaiey aiaeeoe/aneeo e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo onoaiiaeaia aeinoaoi/iay aaeaeaaoiinoue
?acoeueoaoia (e?eoa?ee Oeoa?a), eiyooeoeeaio ei??aeyoeee ai anao neo/ayo
aeecie aaeeieoea, a ioiineoaeueiay iia?aoiinoue ninoaaeyao 5 – 15.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ne?aia?, nii?ioeaeaiea, a?oioiiai?aaeythuaa ono?ienoai,
o?ainii?oiue ?aaeei, eiiaiea, eioaineoeeaoi?, yooaeoeaiinoue.

ABSTRACT

Vlasenko I. V. Decrease of resistance filling of the scraper bucket by
employment of the soil track appliance and reasons him rational of
parameters. – Manuscript.

The dissertation for a scientific degree the candidate of technical
sciences on specialty 05.05.04 — machine for earth and road works. — The
Kharkov state automobile — road technical university, Kharkov, 1999.

To protection work is represented, which contains researches of process
of filling bucket of scraper by a ground at the expense of application
soil track appliance (STA). The research of influence various
intensificators was show on efficiency scraper, influence of a working
and transport mode to efficiency scraper, but also results of
experimental researches, mathematical methods and physical modeling with
application of computer facilities.

The application STA of an offered design, reduces resistance digging and
increases filling bucket, at the expense of presence branchy of process
of filling bucket of scraper with application of track, through crack
between back track plate and bottom bucket.

The analysis of process digging by scraper with application of soil
track shows, that the efficiency scraper grows: coefficient of filling
on 20 — 30 , productivity on 6 — 22 , the indicated specific costs
decrease on 2.6 .

Key words: scraper, resistance, soil track appliance, transport mode,
digging, intensificator, efficiency.

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