12

Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo a?oaieia??

AAA?EEAIEI ?AI? IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 930.26 (4 Oe?.)

Cei?aiee?anueea eoeueoo?a ?aiiueiai iacie?oo

E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie

?noi?e/i? iaoee — 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? a?oaieia?? eai’yiiai a?eo ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee—aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Cae?ciye Eaii?ae Eueaiae/,?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?Oaeaa?i Aeieo?i sseiae/, Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeee ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iee
caiia?aeiee, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee—eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaioAi?ae?e Ieaenaiae? Oae?eniae/,Eoaainueeee ?inoeooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i oa iiaii? i?aeaioiaee I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa—Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. O. Oaa/aiea,eaoaae?a aoiieia?? oa e?a?ciaanoaa, eaoaae?a
a?oaieia?? oa ioca?ciaanoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 27 ” ea?oiy_1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.234.01 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

254655, i. Ee?a-210, i?ini. Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a, i?ini. Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 12).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
A.I.Iao?aoaieiCaaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ca a?eueo i?ae a?eiaee ia??iae, ui iiieioa c
iiiaioo aeyaeaiiy ia?oeo ia oa?aiao an??? No?aeii? ?a?iie iacie?oe/ieo
noiyiie, Oe?a?ia noaea iaeiei c iaeiiai?oa aea/aieo ?? ?aa?ii?a. Oa
iii?e cia/i? oni?oe ?nio? ?yae i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c iaaeinoaoiueith
aeine?aeaeai?noth ia??iaeo ?aiiueiai iacie?oo a oe?eiio, a oaeiae
ie?aieo oa?eoi??e ? eoeueoo?.

Aei /enea inoaii?o iaeaaeeoue cei?aiee?anueea eoeueoo?a, inieneaiiy yei?
ii/aeiny ii??aiyii iaaeaaii. ?? aea/aiiy aeicaiey? a?aeoai?eoe
?aiiueiiacie?oe/io ?noi??th Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y oa aanaeio
N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey ? iaaiith i??ith e?ea?aeoaaoe ia a?oaieia?/i?e
ea?o? “a?eo ieyio” a iaaeao aanaei?a ??e Noee, Oi?ieo, Inea oa Ai?neee.

A?aee?eooy ae ? aeine?aeaeaiiy noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a, eio?a ca
ianooaai?noth io?eiaieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o ?ioi?iaoeai?noth noa? a iaeei
?yae c iaeyne?aa?oeie o?iaeueiiiaeaie?oe/ieie oa iacie?oe/ieie
iai’yoeaie Oe?a?ie, noai?th? iiaeeea?noue ?aeiino?oeoe??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny ia ii/aoeo aieioeaio,
ia?aa??ee aeayeeo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ? ooi/iaiiy iaoiae?a ?noi?e/ieo
?aeiino?oeoe?e a ia?a?ni?e a?oaieia??. Iaaaeueiith iio?aaith aeiy ?
caeo/aiiy aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iaoa??ae?a noiyiee oa ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ia
oe?ieiio oe? iacie?oo No?aeii? ?a?iie.

Ioaea iiyaa ?iaioe coiiaeaia iaaeinoaoiueith aea/ai?noth
cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e, iaiao?aei?noth a ocaaaeueiaii? iaeiie/aieo
iaoa??ae?a oa ?aoaeueiiio aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a inoaii?o aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? eiei iai’yoie ?aiiueiai iacie?oo
Na?aaeiueiai oa Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y ? aanaeio N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey,
a oaeiae noeoii?noue io?eiaieo c ieo a?oaoaeo?a.

Caaaeaiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o aaaaeaii? aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iiaeo
a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, anaa?/iiio aiae?c? oa ii??aiyii?
cei?aiee?anueeeo eiiieaen?a, ie?aneaii? o?iiieia?/ieo oa oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaae ?nioaaiiy ni?eueiioe, i?inoaaeaii? eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae
e?ai’yii? ?iaeono??? oa ?? aaiethoe?? a /an?. E??i oiai, ii?aoethaaiiy
cei?aiee?anueeeo eiiieaen?a, aeyaeaieo o /?oeeo no?aoea?ao?/ieo oiiaao,
iaaea? ciiao ii-iiaiio ao?eaoooaaoe aeaye? ?ai?oa io?eiai? eieaeoe?? aai
ae a?aeie?aieoe ?aiiueiiacie?oe/iee eiiiiiaio o ci?oaieo ca??eao.
E?ioeaaith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aaiaiiy oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae c iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaith
iiaiioith ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe cei?aiee?anueeo eoeueoo?o, aecia/eoe ??
i?noea a iacie?o? No?aeii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae ?aeiino?othaaoe
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae ?nioaaiiy ?? iin??a.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? aei aiae?co
a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy oeiieia?/iiai,
ii??aiyeueiiai, noaoenoe/iiai oa ieai?a?ao?/iiai iaoiae?a, caeo/aiiy
aeaieo i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe. ?aeiino?oeoe?y nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino? noaea iiaeeeaith caaaeyee
canoinoaaiith iaoiaeeee aoii-a?oaieia?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/i? canaaee ?iaioe neeaaeathoue ?ic?iaee iacie?oiciaaoe?a,
aoiia?ao?a, ?noi?ee?a ia?a?niino?, iaeaiaaia?ao?a, aaieia?a,
iaeaiciieia?a oa iae?iieia?a, i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe.
Aiae?c cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e cae?eniaii o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
eiioeaioe?? a?oaieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e ye aoii-nioe?aeueiiai ooai?aiiy oa
?ic?iaie c oai??? aoiino. Oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e aenooia? ?icoi?iiy ?aeiino?
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa oa eiai cia/ii? caeaaeiino? a?ae
i?e?iaeiiai ioi/aiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue ?acoeueoaoe noaoe?iia?ieo
?iceiiie, ?ica?aeoaaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iioae?eiaai? aeai?
I.ss.?oaeeinueeiai, I.A.N?a?eueiaa, I.A.Aiaeyinueeiai, A.I.Aeaieeaiea,
Ae.ss.Oaeaa?ia, Ae.N.Oeaaeaaeue, A.I.Naa/oea, A.?.Iai??ii?,
I.O.Ai?ae?ea, Ae.TH.Ioaeiiai oa ?ioeo oao?aoe?a. C a?aeiieo ia
nueiaiaei? cei?aiee?anueeeo iai’yoie iaea?eueo ae?aci? eieaeoe?? aeaee
noiyiee Cei?aieee ?/2, 3, Naa?aea, i.No?nueeee V, Caaae I. Cia/i? ca
ianyaii iaoa??aee io?eiai? a oiae? ?iceiiie aaoi?ii noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ocaaaeueith? an?
iayai? aeai? c i?iaeaiaoeee cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e. Aia?oa
aaiaeyoueny a iaoeiaee ia?a ?acoeueoaoe ?iceiiie noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a,
ooi/ith?oueny eoeueoo?ia ao?eaooe?y oa o?iiieia?/ia iiceoe?y ?yaeo
a?aeiieo iai’yoie. Ia oe?ieiio oe? iacie?oo No?aeii? ?a?iie ie?aneaii
aoiieoeueoo?ia oa o?iiieia?/ia i?noea cei?aiee?anueei? ni?eueiioe,
?iaeoueny ni?iaa ?aeiino?othaaoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie
ieneeanueeeo ieaiai ?aiiueiai aieioeaio, ui canaeyee no/anio e?ninoaiiao
oa i?ai?/ii-noaiiao nioae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue. Ie?ai? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy cae?eniaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey i?aeaioiaee
ocaaaeueithth/eo iaoeiaeo ?ia?o c aeaaiuei? ?noi??? oa a?oaieia??
Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?n?a oa eaeoe?e a o/aiaeo caeeaaeao e?a?ie,
neeaaeaiiy Caiae?a iai’yoie ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e aeey iaeanoae
Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y, aanaeio N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey oa I?eacia’y,
oaiaoe/ieo a?oaieia?/ieo ea?o, a oaeiae aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a
eai’yiiio a?oe?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?iaioao, iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
E.E.Cae?ciyeii, A.?.Iai??iith, A.TH.Ei?iii, I.A.Noi?oiaieii, iieyaa? a
ii?aoethaaii? iaoa??ae?a noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a, aecia/aii? ?oiueiai
aoiieoeueoo?iiai oa o?iiieia?/iiai i?noey, ooi/iaii? aeaooaaiiy
cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e, oa?aeoa?enoeoe? eieaeueii? niaoeeo?ee
eiiieaen?a, aeyaeaieo ia caoiae? a?aaeo iioe?aiiy ni?eueiioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiineeeny aaoi?ii ia ?icaeyae iaoeiai? a?iiaaenueeino? o aenooiao oa
aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo (Oa?e?a,1995), anaoe?a?inueeeo
(Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeee,1996) ? ?aa?iiaeueieo (Aeiiaoeuee,1995;
Iieoaaa,1989; 1997) eiioa?aioe?yo oa iaoeiaeo /eoaiiyo, can?aeaiiyo
a?aeae?eo a?oaieia?? eai’yiiai a?eo ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 9 ioae?eaoe?yo: a oiio /ene?
noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao — 3, o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue — 3,
iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e — 3.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 5
?icae?e?a (c i?ae?icae?eaie), aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
oaaeeoeue oa ?ethno?aoe?e (o aeaio aeiaeaoeao). Ianya aeena?oaoe??:
oaeno — 178 n., nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 22 n. (345 iaeiaioaaiue),
ia?ae?e nei?i/aiue — 1 n., oaaeeoe? oa ?ethno?aoe?? — 42 n.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeth?oueny
iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aiae?co?oueny aeaea?aeueia aaca,
iaoiaeeea e iaoiaeieia?y aea/aiiy i?iaeaie, oai?aoe/i? canaaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe??, aeacothoueny aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?? no?oeoo?o e ianya.

?icae?e I. ?noi??ia?ao?y ieoaiiy.

Aeae?eaiith cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e ia?aaeoaaa o?eaaeee ia??iae
iaeiie/aiiy iaoa??ae?a. Ia?o? iai’yoee, a eieaeoe?yo yeeo caiaeii aoei
aeeo/aii cei?aiee?anueeee eiiiiiaio, ii/aee aeine?aeaeoaaoeny ua a
1920-o? ??. Oa iaiaaeai?noue aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aace aeiaai caaaaeaea
iii?oeoe nai???aei?noue iaeieo aai ae ci?oai?noue ?ioeo ca??ie ? ?o
a?aeiineee aei e?aua aea/aieo ia oie /an a?oaieia?/ieo ni?eueiio.

Eeoa ii?aoethaaiiy eiiieaen?a noiyiee Cei?aieee I ia Eoaaiuei?
aeicaieeei I.O.Ai?ae?eo (1984) ii?ooeoe ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue
aeae?eaiiy a iacie?o? aanaeio N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey oa I?eacia’y iiaiai
oeio iai’yoie. Ae.TH.Ioaeiee (1986) iii?oea iiae?ai?noue oeeo iaoa??ae?a
ciao?aeeai c i.No?nueeee V ? caeecea c ieie ?yae a?aeiieo noiyiie
Iaaeii??aeaey oa Iiaeiioe?a’y.

I.O.Ai?ae?e aaa/aa aiaeia?? cei?aiee?anuee?e a?oi? a iaoa??aeao
/ionueei? eoeueoo?e Eaaeaco. Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca a?aei?iiinoyie e?ai’yii?
?iaeono??? ieaeiueiai, aeaoiaaiiai i?aai?aaeii, ? 2-ai eiiieaen?a
Cei?aiee?a eyaee a iniiao ia??iaeecaoe?eii? noaie ?icaeoeo a?oie, yea,
ye a?i aaaaeaa, i?eeiyea o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? aeiiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e ?
caiaeii naia a?ae/oaaea cai?ioi? aieeae.

Aeayeee /an iai’yoee oeio Cei?aieee I, i.No?nueeee V oa A’yc?aie 4a
?icaeyaeaeeny ie?aii. Iaeiae c ii/aoeo 1990-o ??. aeine?aeieeai aaeaeiny
i?eeoe aei ocaaaeueiaiiai ?icaeyaeo an?o cei?aiee?anueeeo iaoa??ae?a, ui
aeicaieeei c’ynoaaoe aaaaoi ?ai?oa iaae??oaieo ieoaiue. Oae,
Ae.TH.Ioaeiee (1992) ie?aneea i?inoi?ia? oa /ania? iaae? ?nioaaiiy
eoeueoo?e, neio?ii?coaaa ?? ?aii? i?iyae c o?iaeueiiieaenoioeaiiaeie
oai-eiaeinueeith, na?aea?nueeith eoeueoo?aie oa iai’yoeaie oeio
A?eie?nny, iaa?a ocaaaeueiaiee iien cei?aiee?anueei? e?ai’yii?
?iaeono???, i?aee?anethth/e ?? aeecuee?noue i?ni/ii??anuee?e,
??i?anuee?e oa onoue-eainuee?e ni?eueiioai no?aeiia?ainao?cueei?
o?aaeeoe??. E??i oiai, a?i coieieany ia oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy ?
i?iaeai? aeei?enoaiiy aeanoeaeo eoeueoo?? i?e?ie?o?a, a?aei?oea
iniaeeaino? iai’yoie ??cieo ?aa?ii?a.

A.TH.Ei?iii aoea cai?iiiiiaaia ?ioa noaia ?icaeoeo a’yc?aioeueei?, ca
eiai iacaith, eoeueoo?e. ?? iai’yoee iaaoee iioe?aiiy a Iiaei?i?ia’? a
e?ioe? aea?ueiaeo — ia ii/aoeo i?aai?aaeo a ?acoeueoao? ?io?eueo?aoe?? c
E?eio /anoeie oai-eiaeinueeiai ianaeaiiy ? a naith /a?ao i?e iiaeeeaiio
aieea? a?ainao?cueeeo ieaiai aenooieee aaiaoe/iei i?aea?oioyi
i?ni/ii??anueei? eoeueoo?e.

A.I.Iaiueei oa?eoi??th iioe?aiiy cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e iaiaaeea
I?ai?/ii-No?aeiei I?eacia’yi ? cai?iiiioaaa a?iioaco i?i iiaeeea?noue
aeieeiaiiy ?? ?iaeono??? ia i?noeaa?e i?eacianuee?e iaeaie?oe/i?e iniia?
a ?acoeueoao? oaoiieia?/iiai no?eaeo, noeioeueiaaiiai iiaaiith ye?noth
e?aiaith. Naa?aea oa Cei?aieee ?/3, ye? i?aaenoaaeyee ?aii?e aoai
eoeueoo?e, aaaaeaeeny iaeieie c ia?oeo o No?aei?e ?a?ii? eiiieaen?a c
aaiiao?e/ieie i?e?ie?oaie. C i?a?aoe??th /anoeie cei?aiee?anueeiai
ianaeaiiy a i?ai?/iiio e cao?aeiiio iai?yieao a?i iia’ycaa aaiaco
I?ni/iiai ?iao oa ??i?ai. Aeine?aeiee aaaaeaa, ui ni?eueiioa ?nioaaea
aae aei ?aiiueiai aoeaioeeoio aeeth/ii ? aoea anei?eueiaaia iin?yie
aeiiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e.

A i?ci?oeo i?aoeyo I.O.Ai?ae?ea oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee yaeua ie?aneai?
I?ai?/ii-No?aeiei I?eacia’yi, o?iiieia?/i? — 8-5 oen. aei i. a.
Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii oiiia?ao?th noiyiie, e?ai’yio ?iaeono??th, aeeoea,
ainiiaea?noai. Aeacaii ia eiioaeoe c ianaeaiiyi iai’yoie oeio
ooo.Oaa/aiei, aeiiaoeueei?, eoe?aoeueei?, iauaaeeaie a??nueeie?einueei?
oa iniei??anueei? eoeueoo?. Aeae?eaii aeaa aoaie ?icaeoeo. A?aecia/aii,
ui aeieeaaeii aeaeueoa aeiey ni?eueiioe ia c’yniaaia.

E.E.Cae?ciye neio?ii?coaaa ia?o? i?iyae eoeueoo?e c i?ciueiae??aniaeie
iai’yoeaie oeio A?eie?nny, a a oe?eiio aeaooaaa i?aai?aaeii—ai?aaeii,
?icae?eyth/e ?? ?icaeoie ia aeaa aoaie. Ia eiai aeoieo, eoeueoo?a
noi?ioaaeany ia iniia? iai’yoie oeio Ai?uaai ??. Aieeae ae
o?iaeueiiiaeaie?oe/ii? e?aniin?euenueei? eoeueoo?e coiiaeee
a?aeuaiia?noue ?? ?iaeono??? oa nai???aei?noue i?e?iiaai?o. A/aiee
caia?a/ea iiaeeea?noue o/ano? cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino? a aaiac?
I?ni/iiai ?iao, ine?eueee iaeaea? ni?eueiioe ?icaeaaeeny a oiiaao
aca?iiaieea?a i?eaeecii iaeii/anii. O/anoue cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e o
aeieeiaii? aeiiaoeueei? iacie?oe/ii? aeciaaaeany oe?eeii eiia??iith.

E.E.Cae?ciyeii oa ?.I.Aaa?eeaieii ? a noaooyo inoaiiueiai i?e
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? eoeueoo?e caa?iooi oaaao ia eieaeuei? a?aei?iiino?
iai’yoie cao?aeii? /anoeie a?aaeo, coiiaeai? eiioaeoaie c
i?ni/ii??anueeith ni?eueiioith. Ooi/iaii ia??iaeecaoe?th ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?e. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoieo i?i ?? aaiaco ia aac? iai’yoie oeio
Ai?uaai II i?ae aieeaaie E?aniin?eey oa i?i iiaeeea?noue o/ano? o
oi?ioaaii? aeiiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e. Cae?eniaii ni?iao ?aeiino?oeoe??
ainiiaea?noaa oa niiniao aeeooy ieneeaoe?a ?aiiueiaieioeaiiaiai
e?ninoaio.

?icae?e II. I?e?iaei? oiiae o?iaeueiiai ieaenoioeaio—?aiiueiai
aieioeaio.

A?aae iioe?aiiy iai’yoie cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e ca?aeii
aaiii?oieia?/iiai iiae?eo ioiieth? i?inoi?e I?eaei?i?iacueei? ieciaeie,
i?aaeaiii-cao?aei? a?ae?iae No?aeii?a?iiaenueei? aeni/eie, cao?aei?
/anoeie Aeiiaoeueei? oa I?eacianueei? aeni/ei, a aeieeiith Aei?i?a nyaa?
i?ai?/ii? /anoeie I?e/i?iiii?nueei? ieciaeie. Ca no/aniei eaiaeoaooiei
?aeiioaaiiyi oe? oa?eoi??? aoiaeyoue o aea? ciie: Na?aaei? Iiaei?i?ia’y
caeiathoue eaiaeoaooe eoeinoaiiaiai oeio c aeeth/aiiyie e?ninoaiiaeo
ae?eyiie, Iaaeii??aeaey, aanaei N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey oa I?eacia’y —
i?ai?/ii-noaiia? eaiaeoaooe. Ine?eueee a ?aeiiao I?eacianueeiai
i?aeaeuaiiy oa Aeiiaoeueeiai e?yaeo ?ieue e?ninoaiiaeo ooai?aiue
caaaeaee aoea aeineoue iii?oiith, inoaii?e /anoi aeeth/athoue aei ciie
e?ninoaio.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ineeiiee iie?ea Iiaeiiiy ? Iiaei?i?ia’y, iiae?ai? i?ae
/an aeinoaoiuei? caieiaeaiino?, a?ae??ciyeeny a a?eaei? ia??iaee
aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy eiioeiaioaeueiino? ee?iaoo a no?aeiiio iai?yieo.
Oiae iayai? aeaoaeuei? iaeaieaiaeoaooi? ?aeiino?oeoe??, aeeiiai? aeey
aanaeio Aeiio, aeicaieythoue aeno?aiiethaaoe io?eiai? aeai? ia ie?aneaio
oa?eoi??th ? i?eioneaoe, ui a ?aiiueiio aieioeai? ?? caeiaea e?ninoaiiaa
?ineeii?noue c a?aeiia?aeiei neeaaeii oaoie.

Ca aeaieie iae?iieia?? a i?aaeaii?e /anoei? aanaeio N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey
oa I?ai?/ii-No?aeiiai I?eacia’y a e?ioe? ieaenoioeaio aeii?ioaaea
noaiiaa ?ineeii?noue ena?ioe/iiai oeio a ii?aeiaii? c ??aeeeie
niniiai-aa?aciaeie e?naie. O oaoi? ia?aaaaeaee e?oii? noaaei? oaa?eie:
ia?a?niee coa?, oe?ieiiaeee e?iue. A ?aiiueiio aieioeai? i?aeaeuaiiy oa
aiaeiae?ee caeiaea noaiiaa ?ineeii?noue, a iiieaeaieo /anoeiao ?aeue?oo,
a aeieeiao ??/ie oa aaeie ?inee ninia, aa?aca, a?eueoa. O neeaae? oaoie
cono??/aeeny coa?, oa?iai, aeaai?iaeiee ieaiue. Aea/aiiy ?ic??c?a
Cei?aiee?a I oa Naa?aee iieacaei, ui ?aiiueiiacie?oe/i? iaoa??aee
caeyaathoue a oa?ao a?oio?a e?ninoaiiaiai oeio c iciaeaie aieiaino?
ee?iaoo ia ia??iae ?o ooai?aiiy, a?aeeeaaeaiiy yeeo a?aeaoeiny a ie?ai?
noaae?? i?aai?aaeo oa ai?aaeo.

Ca iaoa??aeaie A’yc?aea 4a e?ninoaiia? eaiaeoaooi? oiiae c aiaaiai?noth
?aeiino?oththoueny aeey ?aiiueiaieioeaiiaiai Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y.
Eoeueoo?iee oa? noiyiee caeyaa? o iioiaaiiio a?oio?, ui noi?ioaaany i?ae
eenoyiei e?nii ca aieiaiai ? aeineoue oaieiai ee?iaoo. Oaoia
i?aaenoaaeaia e?noeaie oeiiaeo iaoeaioe?a i?e??/eiaeo e?n?a ?aiiueiai
aieioeaio — aia?a, aeaai?iaeiiai ieaiy, aeea, einy, aiaea, eeneoe?,
caeoey. ?aooee eiiy, yeee a?aeaea? aacnoii?aio ia?aaaao noaio, oi/a
caeaoiee ?nioaaoe ? a e?ninoaiiaeo oiiaao, iiaeooue na?ae/eoe i?i cia/i?
ae?eyiee noai?a ia aiaeiae?eueieo ieaoi.

Oiae, a ?aiiueiio aieioeai? Na?aaei? E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a ? aanaei
N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey aoiaeeee aei e?ninoaiiai? i?e?iaeii-eaiaeoaooii?
ciie. Eenoyi? e?ne a aeieeiao ??/ie canaeyee i?aaenoaaieee e?niaiai
oaoi?noe/iiai eiiieaeno, ui o?eiaeeny iiiaeeioe? aai iaaaeeeeie a?oiaie.
A ia caeiyoeo noaiiaeie a?ioeaiicaie aiaeiae?eao ? i?aeaeuaiiyo
ciaoiaeeee aa?i? oiiae aeey i?iaeeaaiiy noaaea noaiiaeo oaa?ei.

Iioieiaeaiiy a e?ioe? ai?aaeo, yea ?icii/aeiny aeecueei 8300 ?ie?a oiio,
a aeieei? Aeiio i?iyaeeiny o ciaioaii? a e?nao ?ie? oe?ieieenoeo ii??ae
oa a?eueo?e ena?io?oecaoe?? o?aa’yienoeo ? /aaa?ieeiaeo ni?aoiaa?enoa.
Oea na?ae/eoue, ui a a?eueo i?aaeaiieo iaeanoyo a?aeaoaaeany
a?eaeecaoe?y ee?iaoo. Ne?aee inoaiiuei? ia iaae? ai?aaeo—aoeaioeeoio
cao?eniaai? a na?aaei?e oa/?? ?.Ineieo. Ca nai?ie iane?aeeaie oeae
i?ioean ?icaeyaea?oueny oao?aoeyie ye iaeaiaeieia?/ia e?eca, ni?e/eiaia
??ceith a?eaeecaoe??th ee?iaoo oa iioe?aiiyi i?ioean?a iionoaethaaiiy
aeaeaei ia i?ai?/. Aiaeii/an iioieiaeaiiy ee?iaoo a e?nia?e nioc? iaeaea
ia aieeioei ia i?noeaao oei?o oa oaoio.

?icae?e III. Iai’yoee cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

?icaeyae cei?aiee?anueeeo iai’yoie cae?eniaii o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e iaaii?
aoi?/ii? a?oie i?eaeaoi? aeaeaei ia an? eiiieaene. Ae??ai? ca??ee
iiaeooue aeaaaoe noaoenoe/ii aee?eaeaio ea?oeio, aaeaea aeiaaeeia?noue
aea??ee c?inoa? c? ciaioaiiyi ?? /enaeueiino?. Ci?oai? eieaeoe?? iathoue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny eeoa ye oiiia?, iio?aaothoue ?aoaeueieo ni?anoaaeaiue
c aacoiiaii “/enoeie” i?aaenoaaieoeueeeie eiiieaenaie ? ia iiaeii?
caeo/aoeny aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy a?iioac oa aeniiae?a.

A ia?oo /a?ao i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoa??aee noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a. Oey aeia?a
no?aoeo?eiaaia iai’yoea aeaea ia eeoa ae?acio ? /eneaiio eieaeoe?th
e?ai’yieo ae?ia?a, c?acee e?noyieo oa eai’yieo cia?yaeue, oaoi?noe/i?
?aooee, aea e caeeoee aeeoeiaeo oa ainiiaea?nueeeo ia’?eo?a, ie?ai?
aeoai?e ienoaoeoaa. E??i oiai, i?aaenoaaieoeuee? eiiieaene iioiaeyoue c?
noiyiie Naa?aea I, Cei?aieee I, i.No?nueeee V, Caaae I, Aianoan?aea.
Iaaaeee? ca??ee io?eiai? c ioieo?a Aei?i?iaaoeue, Iicie??aea,
Ooeuea?aea, Naa?aea II.

Ii??aiyiiy c ae?acieie eieaeoe?yie aeicaiey? aeeo/eoe cei?aiee?anueeee
eiiiiiaio a iaoa??aeao noiyiie ?a?aiue, o?.Iii?a ien, ssiao?a, Ai?iia I,
i.Aeiia?aaeiee, Aanee?aea-I?iaii, E?ai?iia Ai?a, ?iaaeee I (sseei?aea),
Iao?iiaae?aea, A?oa?aea 1.

?icae?e IV. I?noea cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e a iacie?o? No?aeii?
?a?iie.

E?ai’yia ?iaeono??y cei?aiee?anueeeo noiyiie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oe?ieei
canoinoaaiiyi a?aeuaiiaeo caaioiaie i?e aeaioiaeaii? cia?yaeue. Ieoiia
aaaa ieao?aie na?aae ia?aoooiaaieo neaeie neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 16%,
iii?ae ?a/ae c aoi?eiiith ia?iaeith — 37%.

Na?aae ioeeaon?a /eneaii? iaaaeee? iaaeaaei ia?aiiaai? iaeii— oa
aeaiieiuaaeeia? i?eciaoe/ii? e i??ai?aeaeueii? oi?ie c eineie aai
i?yieie ieiuaaeeaie. Iioe?ai? aaaaoiieiuaaeeia? yae?eua oa, iaioeie
na??yie, aeeneiiiae?ai? ioeeaone ?aae?aeueiiai ?icuaieaiiy.

Aeineoue nai???aei? cei?aiee?anuee? i?e?ie?oe. Oea, ianaiia?aae,
neiao?e/i? oa aneiao?e/i? aenie? e na?aaeiueiaenie? /anoi c oa?aiooeie
a?/ieie e?ooi?aoooiaaieie ie?aeeaie o?aiaoe??, aaeee? oa ae??ai?. Iaio
/eneaii? iecuee? o?aiaoe?? oa na?aaeiueiaenie? naaiaioe. Aeaye?
o?aiaoe?? e naaiaioe ia?enaie iaaaaeothoue o?eeooi? aeeaaeai?,
o?aieythoueny e ni?aaaei? o?eeooieee. Cia/ia /anoeia aaiiao?e/ieo
i?e?ie?o?a noi?iiaaia ia a?aeuaiao.

Iii?ae iaaaiiao?e/ieo oi?i na??ei? naaiaioi?aei? ieao?aee c caooieaiith
nieieith. O?aieythoueny ie?ai? ieao?a/ano? a?no?y c aeae?eaiei /a?aoeii.
Iiiaeeiie? ein? a?no?y, ieao?aee c? neioaiei e?ioeai oa a?aeuaie c
ia?oaaiith e?ooei ?aooooaaiiyi iaei??th ie?aeeith a??ia?aeii ?
iai?aoaa?eeaoaie o?aiaoe?e.

Aei neeaaeo ne?aaa/ie aoiaeyoue ae?iae e?ioeaaeo, a oiio /ene?
iiaea?eieo, oa e?ioeaaia?/ieo oei?a ia aei?i/aieo ieao?aeao ?
ieao?a/anoeo a?aeuaiao, a oaeiae a?aeuaiia? ne?aaa/ee, na?aae yeeo, e??i
e?ioeaaeo oa e?ioeaaia?/ieo, iioe?ai? i?aeie?oae? oa ie?oae?. Inoaii?
/anoi iaee ae??ai? ?ici??e.

Caaioiaeaie ??coe?a aoee aieiaiei /eiii a?aeuaie ? oeaiee, ??aeoa
ieao?aee. Ia?aaaaeathoue a?/i? ??coe?. Aeaui iaioa eooiaeo. Na?aae
eooiaeo ieao?a/anoeo i?enooi? noi?iiaai? ia ceaiao neaeie. Ia
noaiiaeyoue ae?acii? na??? na?aaeeii? oa na?aaeeiii-eooia? ??coe?.

O a?aeuai?a c aoi?eiiith ia?iaeith iai?ae?ooa, ?ieiee i?aeaino?thaaeueia
?aooo ae?eaa? a?/i? ie?aeee, c??aeea e?ioe?. I?ae ia/eneaiieo
?aoooiaaieo ieao?aie niaoe?aeueii ioi?ieaieo cia?yaeue iaei. Neiaae?
ii?oieia?/ii no?eeeo a?oi ia ooai?ththoue. Ieoiia aaaa ia?oi?aoi??a,
niee?, a?aea?eiee?a, ?aoooa??a i?ca?ia. Oi?ia a?oaeo aeaia?/ii iaaeoeo
niee? oeio o?aioa aeeeooaaeany ia?enaie caaioiaie.

Ia?aaaaeaiiy a?aeuaiiaeo caaioiaie oa ?o oiaueia ia?aaeaa/aee
canoinoaaiiy i?e aeaioiaeaii? cia?yaeue ia?oaoth/iai e?a? neaeie e?ooiai
oa iai?ae?ooiai ?aooooaaiiy. ?io? aeaee ?aooo? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaeaea
ia io?eiaee. I?e ae?iaieoeoa? i?e?ie?o?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?eeiie
i?e?i??coeaai? oa inaaaeii?e?i??coeaai? oaoi?ee.

Eiei aiaeia?a cei?aiee?anuee?e ?iaeono??? iaiaaeo?oueny iaoa??aeaie
a?eueo i?ai?/ieo oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo iinoa?ainao?cueeeo eoeueoo?
e?niai? ciie No?aeii? ?a?iie, c yeeo oa?eoi??aeueii iaeaeeae/?
i?ni/ii??anueea oa onoue-eainueea.

Eieaeuei? aa??aioe. Cei?aiee?anuee? noiyiee Iaaeii??aeaey oa Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y (No?nueeee V, Aianoan?aea) a?ae??ciy? iaioa a?aeuaiia?noue,
iaeaeu? iieacieee ieao?a/anoino?, i?enooi?noue iecueeeo o?aiaoe?e,
ie?ai? c yeeo iiae?aii iniei??anueeei iathoue ?aoooiaaio ae?ieo ia
aa?oi?e iniia?, a oaeiae na?aaeiueiaenieeo naaiaio?a.

A cao?aei?e /anoei? a?aaeo (Caaae ?, A’yc?aie 4a) c?inoa?
aneiao?e/i?noue o?aiaoe?e ? o?eeooiee?a. ??coe? oa ne?aaa/ee A’yc?aea 4a
aeecuee? ca oeiii i?ni/ii??anueeei. E??i oiai, ia noiyioe? aeii?iothoue
ioeeaone c iaei??th i?yiith ieiuaaeeith, oiae? ye a Naa?aoe?, Cei?aieeao
I/2 — aeaiieiuaaeeia? yae?eua, a?eueo?noue c yeeo iaee ein? a?aeaeai?
ieiuaaeee. I?ioa ia iai’yoeao aanaeio N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey ia cono??ioo?
naaiaioi?aei? a?no?y c caooieaiith nieieith.

Cacia/ai? a?aei?iiino? iiyniththoueny eiioaeoaie cei?aiee?anueeiai
ianaeaiiy c ethaei?noth ?ioeo eoeueoo?: ia i?aaei? a?aaeo — c iin?yie
iniei??anueei? o?aaeeoe?? o ?? iaei?ci?oeo i?iyaao, ia caoiae?, iiaeeco
aiaeiae?eo Aeanie ? Noee — i?ni/ii??anueei? eoeueoo?e.

Aeae?eai? o?e eieaeuei? aa??aioe ca iaea?eueo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeie
eiiieaenaie iacaaii no?nueei-ino??anueeei (iai’yoee Iaaeii??aeaey oa
Ieaeiueiai Aei?i?a), naa?anueeei (aanaei N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey) oa
a’yc?aioeueeei (e?ninoaiiaa E?aiaa?aaeaey Aei?i?a).

E?noyi? ae?iae cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e i?aaenoaaeai? i?ieieeaie,
aeaioiaeaieie ia iaeiiio c e?ioe?a o?oa/anoeo e?noie ae??aieo oaa?ei,
eiueeaie c caie?oaeaiith ? caiie??iaaiith c iaio aie?a ?iai/ith
ie?aeeith, aeieioaie c ?iceieioeo aaeeeeo o?oa/anoeo e?noie,
aieeiiiae?aieie iaeiia/ieeaie c iaaeueiei /e i?aei?yiieooiei ia?aoeiii
no?eaeiy, eii?/ieie aai aeaui nieiuaieie a?no?yi oa ianaaeii. *anoeia
oeeo ?a/ae, a??ia?aeii /a?ac eiino?oeoeaio i?inoioo oa oi?aa?naeuei?noue
i?eeii?a aeaioiaeaiiy, ia? oe?iea eiei aiaeia?a. ?acii c oei ie?ai? oeie
cia?yaeue, a?aeii? oaeiae a iaoa??aeao e?niai? ciie, ia iathoue
ia?aeaeae a iai’yoeao eoeueoo? i?ciueiai iaeaie?oo-iacie?oo, iia’ycaieo
c? noaiiaith ciiith Oe?a?ie ? A??nueeei E?eiii.

Aeoai?e ienoaoeoaa. Ie?ai? e?noyi? ae?iae a’yc?aioeueei? noiyiee
i?ee?aoaee aea?aa?eiaai? ceacaaiiiae?ai? e?i??, ??ciiiai?aaeai? aeiooee
e?i?e, aienaiee a iaae i?yiieooiee. Noee?noe/ii e ca oaoi?eith iaianaiiy
aiie aeeiiai? a oeiia?e aeey iacie?oo iaia??.

Aoae?aaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? cei?aiee?anueeiai ianaeaiiy iaeiiai?oa
?ice?eaathoue iaoa??aee A’yc?aea 4a. Eiino?oeoeaii an? aeeoea noiyiee
aeoaea iiae?ai?, a a?ae??ciythoueny eeoa ca ieiuath. A ieai? ?o
eioeiaaie iaee iai?aaeeueii-i?aeie?oaeo oi?io. Iaeneiaeueia iiooaei?noue
caiiaiaiiy aeecueei 30 ni. ?ioaineai?noue eiai caaa?aeaiiy iinooiiai
c?inoaea a iai?yieo a?ae ia?eoa??? aei a?eueo caaeeaeaiiai oeaio?o ? a
i?eaeiii?e /anoei? a?aeeeaae?a.

Oeaio?aeuei? /anoeie eioeiaai?a yaeyee niaith iaeaea /i?i? a?ae
aoaeenoi? naae? iaaeuei? ieyie ae?aiao?ii aei 2 i ? iiooaei?noth aei 10
ni, a yeeo ?ieiee aaeaaaeiny cao?enoaaoe e?ico i?ieaeo.

Nei??oa anueiai, oe? aeeoea yaeyee niaith ie?oae? a ieai? ceaaea
caaeeaeai? a caieth, ae?eo? aea?iii, aa?anoii /e oeo?aie ea?eani?
eii?/i? eiino?oeoe?? o aeaeyae? /oi?a. Noiaea, iiae?aia nii?oaea
?nioaaea ia noiyioe? Caaae ?.

sse oei/ania? oe?eooy c aeei?enoaiiyi eai?iiy iiaee caiaeeoeny a?o?ia?
caneiie (Cei?aieee I/3).

Ia noiyioe? A’yc?aie 4a ii?o/ c aeeoeaie aeyaeai? ainiiaea?nuee? yie,
i?ecia/ai?, noaey/e c ?o caiiaiaiiy, aeey caa??aaiiy ?eae.

O?iiieia?y oa ia??iaeecaoe?y. Aeey ?ic?iaee oeeo ieoaiue aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? io?eiaia aeey A’yc?aea 4a na??y ?aae?iaoaeaoeaaeo
aecia/aiue. Ca?aeii ieo noiyiea aeaoiaaia i?aai?aaeueiei /anii. ??
eoeueoo?iee oa? caeyaaa o oiau? iioiaaiiai ?aiiueiaieioeaiiaiai
aaaeei-noaeeienoiai a?oioo (aecia/aiiy ae. a. i. AE.I.Iaoa??oeii?), ui
i?aenoeeaany na?oeei eaniiiae?aiei i?e/i?iiii?nueeei noaeeieii.

Oiae Naa?aea ? Cei?aieee I/3, eoeueoo?i? oa?e yeeo i?eo?i/ai?,
a?aeiia?aeii, aei iaae? i?e/i?iiii?nueeiai eano e aeeiiiiai a?oioo oa
aei iie??ae? ea?aiiaoiiai ao?iai noaeeieo i?ciueii?e/i?iiii?nueeiai
/ano, iiaeooue a?aeiineoenue ua aei i?ciueiae??aniaiai ia??iaeo,
i?eiaeii? aei ?oaaaeo ieaenoioeaio—aieioeaio.

Cei?aieee ?/3, Naa?aea, No?nueeee V aeaiiino?othoue iaea?eueo a?oa?/i?
?ene ?iaeono???. Ae?iae oeeo noiyiie ae??ciythoueny cia/ieie ?ici??aie
oa a?oa?noth oi?i, ?iaeono??y caaaeii — a?aeuaiia?noth, oi/a ??aaiue
ieao?a/anoino? aoa aeaui aeuei, i?ae o i?ci?oeo eiiieaenao. Ieao?aee
ia?aiiaoaaeeny iaaeaaei. I?ciueiiaeaie?oe/iee aeaeyae iathoue ne?aaa/ee
oa ??coe?. Inoaii? — caeaa?eueoiai ?aoooi? ia iai?aaeeueieo a?oaeo
ieao?aeao, oi/a cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ? eooia?. Na?aae ne?aaa/ie
ia?aaaaeathoue e?ioeaa? ia ieao?a/anoeo a?aeuaiao, iaaaeeeith
e?euee?noth i?aaenoaaeai? e?ioeaa? ia ieao?aeao oa iiaea?ei?.

Aeaeueoee iai?yiie ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e aeaiiino?othoue Caaae oa A’yc?aie
4a. ?o ?iaeono??y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi a?aeuaiiaino?.
Aeaioiaeai? ia iaaaeeeeo a?aeuaiao ne?aaa/ee oa ??coe? iaaoaathoue
ae?aciee iacie?oe/iee aeaeyae. Iioe?ththoueny i?aeie?oae? oa ie?oae?
ne?aaa/ee. A a?oi? ??coe?a ia ia?oa i?noea aenoaathoueny eooia?. I?e
oeueiio aeaui iaioa aneiao?e/i?noue o?aiaoe?e, iayai?noue ae?acii? na???
neiao?e/ieo oa aneiao?e/ieo naaiaio?a, /eneaii?noue ??coe?a ia a?oaeo
“iaeaie?oe/ieo” ieao?aeao a eiiieaen? Caaath na?ae/aoue i?i eiai aeaui
noa?oee a?e ii??aiyii c A’yc?aeii 4a.

Oiae a ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e aeae?eythoueny aeaa aoaie, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee
yeeo ioiieththoue: naa?anueeee — ?oa?ae o?iaeueiiai
ieaenoioeaio—?aiiueiai aieioeaio, a’yc?aioeueeee — i?aai?aae oa ai?aae.

Oaea aeaooaaiiy aeicaiey? neio?ii?coaaoe cei?aiee?anueeo eoeueoo?o c
i?ci?ie iniei??anueeeie iai’yoeaie oeio Oea?eiee oa aaiaoe/ii c ieie
iia’ycaieie ?aii?ie aeiiaoeueeeie eiiieaenaie oeio Oaiea,
i?ni/ii??anueeith ni?eueiioith ? aiaeii/an aeaco? ia iaiiaeeea?noue
eiioaeo?a, i?i ye? ienaee ie?ai? aaoi?e, c iin?yie
o?iaeueiiieaenoioeaiiaeo na?aea?nueei? oa oai-eiaeinueei? eoeueoo? ?
iai’yoie oeio A?eie?nny, ye ? c i?ci?oeie iai’yoeai oeio ooo.Oaa/aiei.

Iioiaeaeaiiy eoeueoo?e. I?enooi?noue a ?yae? eiiieaen?a (A’yc?aie 4a,
Caaae, No?nueeee V oiui) a?noa? c caooieaiei e?a?i aeaeiaaeaieo ?
naaiaioi?aeieo ia?en?a oeio oaaea?iana? ??aeieoue ni?eueiioo c
iai’yoeaie oeio Ai?uaai ??, iioe?aieie o o?iae? iaeaie?oo ia Aeiio ?,
noiaea, a Iiaei?i?ia’?. Oa iia’ycaoe aaiaco eoeueoo?e eeoa c oeei
oa?oiiaaiiyi iaiiaeeeai. Oaoiieia?y, ni?yiiaaia ia aeaioiaeaiiy aeacaieo
a?noa?, ia io?eiaea a i?e aeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo. A cei?aiee?anuee?
o?aiaoe??, c iio?aaith ae?iaieoeoaa yeeo ci?ieany e aanue oa?aeoa?
?iaeono???, ia iiaee aeieeiooe ia oe?e iniia?.

Aeecuee?noue cei?aiee?anueei? oa i?ni/ii??anueei?, ??i?anueei?,
a?ainueei?, onoue-eainueei? ?iaeono??e na?ae/eoue, ui aiie i?iaeiaaeeee
oaoiieia?/iee ?icaeoie no?aeiiai A?ainao?ao. Noiaea, iioe?aiiy e?n?a ia
iaae? ieaenoioeaio oa aieioeaio niiioeaei ianaeaiiy Na?aaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y, Iaaeii??aeaey oa aanaeio N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey caoceoe eiei
aeei?enoaiiy naaiaioi?aeieo a?noa? ?c caooieaiith nieieith, ui neoaoaaee
iaeiia/ieeaie caaino?aiiai oeio. Iaaaaaoi e?aua a iiaeo oiiaao
iiethaaiiy i?iyaeyee naaa ne?nii— oa iiia?a/iieacia? a?no?y no??e o
aeaeyae? aenieeo oa na?aaeiueiaenieeo o?aiaoe?e, ye? aeieeee ia aac?
a?ainao?cueeeo /a?aoeiaeo iaeiia/iee?a.

A?aenooi?noue a cei?aiee?anueeeo eiiieaenao ia?ao?aeieo oi?i a?ae
inoaii?o aei o?aiaoe?e oa ia?aaaaeaiiy neiao?e/ieo i?e?ie?o?a iaae
aneiao?e/ieie na?ae/eoue, ui ?aeay o?ainaa?naeueiiai iaeiia/ieea no??ee
aoea caiice/aia oe??th ethaei?noth c i?ai?/i?oeo oa?eoi??e, aea ?
a?aeaoaaeany a?aeiia?aeia o?ainoi?iaoe?y i?e?iiaai??a.

Ine?eueee iinoa?ainao?cuee? o?aaeeoe?? aeaioiaeaiiy o?ainaa?naeueieo
a?noa? ia aeiaaaee oaoiieia?/ii aeiaa?oaieo caaioiaie, io?eiaiiai
?iioeueno aoei aeinoaoiuei, uia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie cei?aiee?anueei?
?iaeono??? a?aeaoaaany a iai?yieo a?aeuaiiaino? oa c?inoaiiy ?ie?
e?ooiai ?aooooaaiiy.

?noi?e/i? aeie? cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino?. Ci?ia aoiieoeueoo?ii?
neooaoe?? ia i?aaei? e noiae? Oe?a?ie i?e ia?aoiae? aei i?ciueiai
iacie?oo a??ia?aeii iia’ycaia c i?ciueiai?aaeueiith a?eaeecaoe??th
ee?iaoo. Aeaa?aaeaoe?y i?ae ianooiii noaio e?niaeo aeaiaio?a a iaaeao
e?aiaa?aaeii? e?ninoaiiai? ciie i?ae??aaea aeiiii?/io aaco ieaiai
cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e, i?ecaaea aei ?iciaaeo ni?eueiioe.

Aiaeii/an nei?i/aiiy a?iiane noai?a cioneei /anoeio eoe?aoeueeiai ?
oiainueeiai ianaeaiiy i?a?oaaoe c? noaiiaiai Iaae/i?iiii?’y oa E?eio a
i?ai?/iiio iai?yieo. C Iaaeii??aeaey ? Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y
cei?aiee?anueea ethaei?noue, noiaea, aoea aeo?niaia eoe?aoeueeith. A a
Na?aaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’? oa aanaei? N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey aiia ?acii c?
oiainueeei ianaeaiiyi i?eeiyea o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? aeiiaoeueei?
eoeueoo?e, i?aaenoaaeaii? aei oiai iai’yoeaie oeio Oaiea.

Oeei iiynith?oueny ci?ia a ?iaaioa?? aeiiaoeueei? ni?eueiioe ia
?aiiueiaoeaioe/iiio aoai? ?icaeoeo (iai’yoee oeio ooo.Oaa/aiei)
aeii?ioth/eo oei?a i?e?ie?o?a. Ii?o/ c iecueeeie oa na?aaeiueiaenieeie
neiao?e/ieie o?aiaoe?yie c’yaeythoueny na??? a?noa? c i?e?i??coeaaei
a?aeeieii oa i?e?i??coe?a, a oaeiae i?e?ie?oe/i? ieao?aee ai?e?anueeiai
oeio c caooieaiith ie?aeeith e, ?ieiee, e?ioeyie. Iaaii oey ci?ia
i?e?iiaai?o noeioethaaeany i?iieeiaiiyi /anoeie oiainueeiai ianaeaiiy,
yeiio iiae?ai? i?e?ie?oe aoee a?aeii? ua c i?aai?aaeo.

Eiioaeoe c? oiainueeith ethaei?noth coiiaeee ? iiyao ia eoe?aoeueeeo
noiyieao Iaaeii??aeaey niaoeeo?/ieo a?noa? c i?e?i??coeaaei a?aeeieii.

?acii c oei ciao?aeee ia aaaaoueio noiyieao aeiiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e, a
oiio /ene? a aiiiaaiieo eiiieaenao, aaeeeeo aenieeo oa na?aaeiueiaenieeo
o?aiaoe?e c e?ooi?aoooiaaieie oa?aiooeie a?/ieie ie?aeeaie aeacothoue ia
?? aaiaoe/io nii??aeiai?noue c cei?aiee?anueeith eoeueoo?ith. Aea
aeiiaoeueea ianaeaiiy aeaioiaeyei o?ainaa?naeuei? a?no?y no??e o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeanieie o?aaeeoe?yie ia?iaee e?aiaith ia ?aaoey?ii
ia?aiiaaieo na?aaeiueioe?ieeo oa oe?ieeo ieao?aeao, io?eiaieo o
a?aeoenei?e oaoi?oe? c i?aaeeueieo eii?/ieo ioeeaon?a.

?icae?e V. Ainiiaea?noai oa niin?a aeeooy ieneeaoe?a
?aiiueiaieioeaiiaiai e?ninoaio.

AEeoea oa iinaeaiiy. sse anoaiiaeaii ca iaoa??aeaie A’yc?aea 4a,
iniiaiei oeiii iiiaoeaiue cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino? aoee ceaaea
caaeeaeai? o a?oio ea?eani? eii?/i? /oie, iina?aaeei? yeeo ?iceeaaeaeeny
aiaieua. I?ino?? i?ae aiaieuaie oa caa?iaieie aei ??/ee aeoiaeaie
aeei?enoiaoaaany aeey i?eaiooaaiiy ?ae?, ia?eoa??y iiiaoeaiue — aeey
caa??aaiiy e?noyii? ne?iaeie oa aaaeoaoe?? oa?/iaeo iieeaeuee?a. Ii?o/
?c aeoiaeaie c aeeoae ?icoaoiaoaaeeny ainiiaea?nuee? yie.

Naia ae noiyiea noi?ioaaeany aiane?aeie aaaaoi?aciaiai iiaa?iaiiy a
iaaiee nacii ia i?noea ieioei??/iiai no?eaeua iaeiiai ia?a?niiai
eieaeoeao.

Ainiiaea?noai cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino? a oe?eiio aoaeoaaeiny ia
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio iiethaaii? c eoeii ia ianoaaeieo e?niaeo eiieoieo
(einue, ieaiue, oo?, einoey, eaaai), ui iaoeaee o i?e??/eiaeo e?nao ciie
e?ninoaio. O aaeee?e e?eueeino? i?iieoeyany e aiaa?. Iaaio ?ieue
a?ae?a?aaaei iiethaaiiy ia noaaeieo eiieoieo, ye? canaeyee ae?eyiee
noai?a ia aiaeiae?eueieo ieaoi. Aei a?naiaeo iaoiae?a iiethaaiiy
aoiaeeee aiie, caaaiyiiy, ne?aaeoaaiiy, ??ciiiai?oi? ianoee.
Ia/eneaii?noue a?oi, cae/ea e?niaeo eiieoieo i?e iaaaciaoe? ??cei
ii?oooaaoe noaaei?noue aecia/aee iaaoaeoeai?noue aaeeeeo iaeaa.

I?iienae e?oiieo nnaaoe?a ye iniiaiiai aeaea?aea i’yna aio/ei
ii?aeioaaany caeaaeii a?ae eiie?aoieo ianoaaei c iiethaaiiyi ia
ae??ai?oeo oaa?ei. Oaeei /eiii aeei?enoiaoaaany iaeneioi aeinooiieo
oaoi?noe/ieo ?ano?n?a.

Nenoaia aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy, ui aacoaaeany ia ??ciiiai?oieo oa?/iaeo
?ano?nao, eiee oa?aeoa? ? e?euee?noue caeiae/? ia?aaeaa/eoe aaaeei,
iio?aaoaaea canoinoaaiiy oi?aa?naeueieo cia?yaeue iiethaaiiy. Oiio
iniiaiei ica?i?iiyi cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino? neoaoaaee eoe oa no??ee
c o?ainaa?naeueieie a?no?yie. E?noyieie aaciaciaeie iaeiia/ieeaie
iniauaeeny aaeee? no??ee aai ei?ioe? iaoaeuei? niene — ae?ioeee.
Iiaeeeai ye iaeiia/ieee nien?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny e e?ai’yi?
naaiaioi?aei? ieao?a/ano? a?no?y c caooieaiith nieieith.

I?iienae ??ciiiai?oieo nnaaoe?a aeiiiaithaaee iiethaaiiy ia ioao?a,
cae?aeueieoeoai, ?eaaeuenoai. Iaoeaioe? A’yc?aea 4a caeiaoaaee uoe,
nii?a, ieoi?a oa ei?iiiaeo ?ea. Iayai?noue e?noie ae??aieo ?ea aeaco? ia
a??ia?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy iaei?ino?oeo ianoie, nieaoaieo c i?oo?a.
Ia?aaaaeaiiy ae a oeiaao uoe ? iieacieeii i???ioaoe?? i?iieneo ia
io?eiaiiy aeineoue i?inoeie niiniaaie oa nianoyie a iaeneiaeuei?e
e?eueeino? iaeaeinooii?oeo ia’?eo?a. Oe?eeii eiia??ia oaeiae
aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?eaaeuenoaa ino?ia oa aa/e?a, oi/a oe? ?a/? ? ia
ciaeaeai? ia noiyieao cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e.

A oaieee nacii cia/aiiy ?eaaeuenoaa e cae?aeueieoeoaa a no?oeoo??
aeiiii?ee c?inoaei. Inoaii? iiaei a?aoe a?eueoo ?ieue ? a iaaaeae? aeey
ieneeanoaa oa ?eaaeuenoaa ?iee. Aea eiai i?iaeoeoe?y ia aoea aeinoaoi?i
aeaea?aeii eaei??e ? eeoa o??ciiiai?oithaaea ?aoe?ii.

Iiaeaeue aaeaioaoe?? ieneeaoe?a i?ai?/ii? nioae e?ninoaio aoea ca
aaaaoueia ia?aiao?aie aeecueeith aei iiaeae? ieneeaoe?a e?niai? ciie.
Aeae? ia i?aaeaiue ?ieue aeaiaio?a noaiiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a aeiiii?oe?
ieneeaoe?a e?ninoai?a i/aaeaeii ca?eueooaaeany, cie?aia c?inoaea
niaoe?ae?caoe?y ieneeanueeiai i?iieneo, ca?eueooaaeiny cia/aiiy
eieaeoeaieo caaiiieo iaoiae?a iiethaaiiy c oe?ieei aeei?enoaiiyi ia
eoe?a oa no??e, a nien?a. E??i oiai, ?ieue cae?aeueieoeoaa a no?oeoo??
ainiiaea?noaa oai aoea, iaaii, aaaii?oith, a ?eaaeuenoaa — iaioith, i?ae
ia iaae? c e?niaith ciiith.

O?eaae?noue ?nioaaiiy cei?aiee?anueei? eoeueoo?e na?ae/eoue i?i
no?ee?noue ae?iaeaii? ?? iin?yie nenoaie aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy.
Aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ?ano?n?a e?ninoaiiai? ciie aeicaieyei aeiaaee
/an ?nioaaoe aac caa?ice i?ae??aaoe aeinenoaio. I?e iacia/ieo
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo eieeaaiiyo, yeui iaaea i?ae e?ninoaiii oa noaiii
aeaui ci?uoaaeany, o ainiiaea?noa? iiaei c?inoaoe cia/aiiy e?niaeo /e
noaiiaeo aeaiaio?a.

Naciii?noue i?iiene?a. *eneaii? iaoa??aee noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a
na?ae/aoue, ui aiia ooieoe?iioaaea i?ioyaii oieiaeiiai ia??iaeo. Ia oea
aeacothoue caaeeaeai?noue i?aeeia aeeoae a caieth, ?ici?uaiiy aiaieu
ana?aaeei? iiiaoeaiue, eiiiaeoi?noue ?icoaooaaiiy aeeoeiaeo oa
ainiiaea?nueeeo aoae?aaeue, eiioeaio?aoe?y eoeueoo?ieo ?aooie (?
a?aeiia?aeii — cina?aaeaeai?noue ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?) a iaaeao
aeeoae, ie?ai? oaoi?noe/i? ?aooee, ia?aaaaeaiiy ne?aaa/ie na?aae
cia?yaeue oiui.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca no?oeoo?ith cia?yaeae?aeo eiiieaen?a aeicaieythoue
a?aeianoe aei ceiiaiai ia??iaeo, e??i A’yc?aea 4a, Aianoan?aeo. A
noiyiee Naa?aea, Cei?aieee I/3, 2, i.No?nueeee V, a eiiieaenao yeeo
aeii?io? i?e?i?iaaioa? oa ??coe?, ooieoe?iioaaee i?ioyaii oaieiai
naciio, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny cie?aia ciao?aeeith a Cei?aieeao I/2
/a?aiaoie Unio. “Ciacaia” ieai?a?ao?y oa aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a
Naa?aee aeacothoue ia aaaaoi?acia?noue canaeaiiy noiyiee.

Iaaii iaiiaeae?e a?ae a’yc?aioeueei? noiyiee, ?icoaoiaaii? ia aa?ac?
iaaaeeei? ??/ee Ne?ii??ae, iiaeia aoei caeiaoaaoe ia eeoa aia??a, aea e
ein?a oa ieai?a, ui ceio i?iaiaeeee a e?nao, a oaeiae aee?a (coa??a aai
oo??a), ye? c inai? ia?aei/iaoaaee c aiaeiae?eueieo ieaoi a ii?ine?
e?naie aeieeie ??/ie. An? oe? oaa?eie aceieo oa?/oaaeeny ei?iii c
aea?aa.

Nii?oaeaeaiiy ia noiyioe? aaeeeeo yi, iaiao?aeieo aeey caa??aaiiy
/eiaeeo caian?a ?eae, aeaco?, ui ?? i?iienae aoa aeineoue ?ioaineaiei ?
cae?enithaaany ca ei?ioeee /an. A iaeiie/oaaoe caiane ?ae? aoei
aeioe?eueii eeoa a i/?eoaaii? ianooiieo oieiae?a. Oiae noiaea, ?eao
ianiai caaioiaethaaee ainaie. I?ney caia?caiiy aiaeiei ?? caiane iiaee
iiiiaithaaoeny ca ?aooiie i?aee?aeiiai eiao, oa aieiaiei aeaea?aeii
oa?/oaaiiy noaaaei iiethaaiiy ia e?niaeo nnaaoe?a, ? ?eaa aaea ia iaea
oaeiai cia/aiiy o ?aoe?ii?, ye ainaie oa ia ii/aoeo ceie.

A??ia?aeii e ?io? ceiia? no?eaeua cei?aiee?anueei? ethaeiino?
?ici?uoaaeeny ia iaaaeeeeo ??/eao. A oieiaeio ii?o c? ciaioaiiyi oeia?a
?eae ? nei?i/aiiyi ?aae?ono aeinooiii? aeey aenieoaoaoe?? ieneeanueei?
oa?eoi??? caeaaeia a?ae ??cieo aeiaaeeiainoae iiethaaiiy ia iiaei
i?ioa?/oaaoe aaeeeee eieaeoea a iaeiiio i?noe?. Oiio ia ceio iaueia
?icae?eyeany ia iaaaeee? ainiiaea?nuee? a?oie c iaei??? aai e?eueeio
n?iae. AEeoeaie a oeae ia??iae neoaoaaee ceaaea caaeeaeai? a a?oio
ea?eani? eii?/i? /oie, a o noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue
caeiaea caaio?aey oa ia?iaea oeo? oaa?ei.

Eiia??ii a oaieee nacii aeii?ioth/ei iai?yieii ainiiaea?noaa noaaaei
?eaaeuenoai. A oeae /an a ?aeeiiio iinaeaii? ia aa?ac? cia/ii? aiaeieie
iaueia iiaea cae?aoeny a iiaiiio neeaae?, aaeaea ?eaaeuenoai, iniaeeai
aoaeoeaia ae?oeo, caaacia/oaaei iaueie noaa?eueieie oa?/iaeie ?ano?naie,
a i?iienae ?eae ca aeiiiiiaith ianoie aeiaaaa eiiia?aoe?? i?aoe? oa
ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue aaaaoueio ethaeae. E?oi? /oie iaaii aoee
eiino?oeoeaii iiae?aieie ceiiaei, aea iacaiieie.

??/iee ainiiaea?nueeee oeeee iacie?oe/ii? ethaeiino? i?ai?/ii? nioae
e?ninoai?a neeaaeaany c ceiiaiai ieneeanueeiai oa e?oiueiai
ieneeanueei-?eaaeuenueeiai ia??iae?a. ?ioei aoa ??/iee oeeee iaoeaioe?a
i?aaeaiii? /anoeie oe?a?inueeeo e?ninoai?a. C aanie aei na?aaeeie e?oa
ieneeanuee? a?oie c 1-3 n?iae i?iieoeyee oo?a ia e?oi?o aiaeiae?eueieo
ianiaenueeao, a aaeee? iaueii? no?eaeua ?nioaaee c e?ioey e?oa aei
e?ioey ceie ca ?aooiie i?iieneo oo?a o i?e??/eiaeo e?nao.

Aeniiaee

Cei?aiee?anueea eoeueoo?a iinoaea a e?ioe? ae??ano III ia aac? iai’yoie
oeio Ai?uaai ?? i?ae aieeaii e?aniin?euenueei? eoeueoo?e. Aecia/aeueieie
aeey ia? ae?iaaie ? neiao?e/i? oa aneiao?e/i? aenie? e na?aaeiueiaenie?
/anoi c oa?aiooeie e?ooi?aoooiaaieie a?/ieie ie?aeeaie o?aiaoe??.
Ine?eueee ?o aeaioiaeaiiy ia aeiaaaei oaoiieia?/ii aeiaa?oaieo
caaioiaie, ?icaeoie ?iaeono??? oa?aeoa?ecoaaee iinooiiaa aeaa?aaeaoe?y
i?eeii?a ieao?a/anoiai ?icuaieaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? e?ooiai
?aooooaaiiy i?e ae?iaieoeoa? cia?yaeue.

Iaeaeaai?o? iai’yoee eoeueoo?e (Cei?aieee ?/3, Naa?aea, No?nueeee V)
aeaoiaai? ?oaaaeai o?iaeueiiai ieaenoioeaio—?aiiueiai aieioeaio. A?ae
ii/aoeo ?icaeoeo ni?eueiioa aoea i?aaenoaaeaia naa?anueeei oa
no?nueei-ino??anueeei eieaeueieie aa??aioaie. Inoaii?e neeaany o
Iaaeii??aeae? oa Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’? i?ae aieeaii iaei?ci?oeo
i?iya?a iniei??anueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ae?oaiai aoaio, i?aaenoaaeaiiai cie?aia iaoa??aeaie
A’yc?aea 4a, Caaath I, Cei?aiee?a I/2, ioiiethaaee i?aai?aaeueiee oa
ai?aaeueiee ia??iaee. Ia i?ci?oa na?aaeeie i?aai?aaeo a e?ninoaiiaiio
E?aiaa?aaeae? Aei?i?a i?ae aieeaii i?ni/ii??anueeiai ianaeaiiy aeiee
a’yc?aioeueeee eieaeueiee aa??aio, yeee ae??ciy? a?eueoa aneiao?e/i?noue
i?e?ie?o?a: o?aiaoe?e ? o?eeooiee?a.

Ca ainiiaea?nueeei oeiii cei?aiee?anueea ethaei?noue iaeaaeaea aei
e?niaeo ieneeaoe?a c aeeth/aiiyi aeaiaio?a noaiiai? iiaeae? aaeaioaoe??.
I?ciueiai?aaeueia a?eaeecaoe?y ee?iaoo i?ae??aaea nenoaio ainiiaea?noaa
ni?eueiioe e aiia ?ic/eieeany a na?aaeiaeu? i?eeoeeo c Iaae/i?iiii?’y oa
E?eio noaiiaeo ieneeaoe?a. I?e oeueiio a Na?aaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’? oa
aanaei? N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey cei?aiee?anueea ethaei?noue i?eeiyea
o/anoue o inoaoi/iiio neeaaeaii? neie?aoe/ii? aeiiaoeueei? eoeueoo?e,
iniiaith aeey eiinie?aeaoe?? yei? iineoaeeee iai’yoee oeio Oaiea.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. ?iceiiee iacie?oe/iiai iinaeaiiy A’yc?aie 4a o 1994 ?. //
Iieoaanueeee a?oaieia?/iee ca??iee. — Iieoaaa: Iieoaanueeee e?oa?aoi?,
1995. — ?3. — N.26-36.

2. AEeoeia? oa ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee iacie?oe/ii? noiyiee A’yc?aie 4a
// A?oaieia?/iee e?oiien E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. — Iieoaaa: AOe
“A?oaieia?y”, 1997. — ?1-2. — N.46-55.

3. Iacie?oe/ia iinaeaiiy A’yc?aie 4 o iiiecc? ?. Ne?ii??ae ia Iinoee? //
A?oaieia?/iee ca??iee Iieoaanueeiai e?a?ciaa/iai iocath. — Iieoaaa:
Iieo. e?a?ci. iocae, 1992. — Aei.2. — N.76-86 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
I.A.Noi?oiaieii).

4. AEeeeua ia iacieeoe/aneie noiyiea Iinoeuey Ayciaie 4a // ?inneeneay
a?oaieiaey. — 1992. — ?3. — N.136-146 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.?.Iai??iith
oa I.A.Noi?oiaieii).

5. Ieneeaoe? ?aiiueiaieioeaiiaiai e?ninoaio ca iaoa??aeaie noiyiee
A’yc?aie 4A ia Iieoaauei? // A?oaieiae/aneee aeueiaiao. — Aeiiaoee:
Aeiiaoee. iae. e?aaaaae. iocae, 1995. — ?4. — N.97-103 (o ni?aaaoi?noa?
c E.E.Cae?ciyeii).

6. Cei?aiee?anueea iacie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie //
A?oaieia?y. — 1996. — ?1. — N. 3-15 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c E.E.Cae?ciyeii).

7. Iaiyoieee yiioe iacieeoa a iaaeaeo?a/uea Noeu e Ai?neeu // II iae.
iao/.-i?aeoe/. naieia? “Io?aia e enneaaeiaaiey iaiyoieeia a?oaieiaee
Iieoaaueiu”. — Iieoaaa: Ecae-ai “Iieoaaa”, 1989. — N.16-19.

8. Iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou ?aneiiie 1988 a. iacieeoe/aneiai iinaeaiey
Ayciaie ia Iieoaaueia // Oai naii. — N.22-26 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.TH.Ei?iii).

9. I?i noaoaaia?eiao no?oeoo?o ?aiiueiiacie?oe/ii? iaueie (ca
iaoa??aeaie iinaeaiiy A’yc?aie 4a o Iinoee?) // I?iaeaiu a?oaieiaee,
ae?aaiae e n?aaeiaaaeiaie enoi?ee Oe?aeiu: Oac. aeiee. — Oa?ueeia:
Aecian Eioi?i, 1995. — N.7-8.

Aaa?eeaiei ?.I. Cei?aiee?anueea eoeueoo?a ?aiiueiai iacie?oo
E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04 — a?oaieia?y, ?inoeooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai iacie?oo Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
?aiiueiio iacie?o? a e?ninoaiiaiio E?aiaa?aaeae? Aei?i?a ? aanaei?
N?aa?nueeiai Aeiioey ?icaeaaeiny eoeueoo?ia yaeua, ui io?eiaei iacao
cei?aiee?anueea eoeueoo?a. Aiii neeaeiny ia aac? o?iaeueiiiaeaie?oe/ieo
iai’yoie oeio Ai?uaai II i?ae aieeaii e?aniin?euenueei? eoeueoo?e ia
i?ci?oa e?ioey ae??ano III. E?ai’yiee ?iaaioa? cei?aiee?anueeeo noiyiie
a?ae??ciy?oueny aenieith a?aeuaiia?noth, canoinoaaiiyi oaoi?ee oaa?aeiai
a?aea?eieea, aaeeeeie ?ici??aie ? a?oa?noth a?oaoaeo?a. Ia?aaaaeathoue
iaeii- oa aeaiieiuaaeeia? ioeeaone aeey ia?aaoey?ieo ieao?aie ?
a?aeuai?a. Iniiaiee oei i?e?ie?o?a — aaeee? a?oa? neiao?e/i? o?aiaoe??
ia a?aeuaiao. sse i?aaeei, aiie iathoue oa?aioo? ?aoooiaai? ie?aeee,
aenie? oa na?aaeiueiaenie? i?iii?oe??. Cono??/athoueny e ae??ai?
o?aiaoe??. Eoeueoo?a aoea i?aaenoaaeaia o?ueiia eieaeueieie aa??aioaie.
A ?? ?icaeoeo, ui i?iaeiaaeoaaany aei e?ioey ai?aaeueiiai ia??iaeo,
aeae?ey?oueny aeaa o?iiieia?/i? aoaie. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
a?aeia?aaeai? a 9 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: cei?aiee?anueea eoeueoo?a, ?aii?e iacie?o, e?ai’yia
?iaeono??y, iiaeaeue ainiiaea?nueei? aaeaioaoe??.

Aaa?eeaiei E.I. Ceiiaieeianeay eoeueoo?a ?aiiaai iacieeoa Eaaiaa?aaeiie
Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04 — a?oaieiaey, Einoeooo a?oaieiaee IAI
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai iacieeoa Oe?aeiu. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a
?aiiai iacieeoa a eaninoaiiii Eaaiaa?aaeuea Aeiai?a e aannaeia
Naaa?neiai Aeiioea ?acaeaaeinue eoeueoo?iia yaeaiea, iieo/eaoaa iacaaiea
ceiiaieeianeay eoeueoo?a. Iia neiaeeeanue ia iniiaa
oeiaeueiiiaeaieeoe/aneeo iaiyoieeia oeia Ai?uaai II iiae aeeyieai
e?aniinaeueneie eoeueoo?u ia iicaeiaa eiioea ae?eana III. E?aiiaaue
eiaaioa?ue ceiiaieeianeeo noiyiie ioee/aaony aunieie iouaiiainoueth,
i?eiaiaieai oaoieee oaa?aeiai ioaieieea, aieueoeie ?acia?aie e
a?oainoueth a?oaoaeoia. I?aiaeaaeatho iaeii- e aeaooieiuaaei/iua
ioeeaonu aeey ia?aaoey?iuo ieanoei e iouaiia. Iniiaiie oei iee?ieeoia —
e?oiiua a?oaua neiiao?e/iua o?aiaoeee ia iouaiao. Eae i?aaeei, iie
eiatho aiaiooua ?aoooe?iaaiiua noi?iiu, aunieea e n?aaeiaaunieea
i?iii?oeee. Ano?a/athony e iaeeea o?aiaoeee. Eoeueoo?a auea
i?aaenoaaeaia o?aiy eieaeueiuie aa?eaioaie. A aa ?acaeoee, eioi?ia
i?iaeieaeaeinue aei eiioea ai?aaeueiiai ia?eiaea, auaeaeyaony aeaa
o?iiieiae/aneeo yoaia. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aeenna?oaoeee io?aaeaiu a 9
iao/iuo ?aaioao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ceiiaieeianeay eoeueoo?a, ?aiiee iacieeo, e?aiiaaay
eiaeono?ey, iiaeaeue oicyenoaaiiie aaeaioaoeee.

Gavrilenko I.N. Zimivniky early mesolithic culture of Left Bank Ukraine.
— Manuscript.

Dissertation for Degree of Candidate of historical sciences in
speciality 07.00.04 — archaeology, The Institute of Archaeology National
Academy of Science Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The basic issues of the dissertation are depicted in 9 scientific works.
It’s been found that in the early mesolithic in the forest-steppe
left-bank area of the Dnieper and in the Basin of the Seversky Donets
the cultural phenomenon receiving the name Zimivniky culture was
developed. It has developed on the base of Final Palaeolithic monuments
of Borshevo II type under influence of the Krasnosillya culture not
later than end Drias III. For the flint implement of Zimivniky site is
typical not blade but flake, hard hammer flint technique, large size and
rough artefacts. One and two platforms cores for unregulated blades and
flakes are dominating. Main type of microliths are large, rough,
symmetric trapezes on the flakes. Us a rule they has notched retouched
sides and high and middle high proportions. There are any small
trapezes. The culture was submitted by three local variants. The
development of the culture proceeded up to end of period Boreal and is
divided on two chronological stages.

Key words: Zimivniky culture, early mesolithic, flint industry, model of
economic adaptation.

Iieoaaa

Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? “A?oaieia?y”

1999

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 23.11.1998 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16.

Iai?? ionaoiee. Aa?i?oo?a Iaoa?ao?a. Ae?oe ionaoiee. Oi.-ae?oe.a?e. 1,0.
Iae.-aeae.a?e. 1,05. Aeae. ?53. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

i.Iieoaaa, aoe.A.Oe?i?anueea,33/2, ea.85. II Ae?oea?iy “A?ioane”.
Oae.66-95-77. Cai. ? 7.

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