IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO CIIEIA?? ?I. ?.?. OIAEUeAAOCAIA

IAI OE?A?IE

Aaea?aiei Ieaia Aaiiaae??aia

OAeE 595.132.5 (477.72)

AEeoo?aee oeeee ? ia?aceoa?ia nenoaia

iaiaoiaee Dicheilonema rheae (Owen, 1843) (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) a
oiiaao caiia?aeieea “Aneai?y-Iiaa”

03.00.18 — ia?aceoieia?y — aaeuei?ioieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?aeae?e? ia?aceoieia?? ?inoeoooo ciieia?? ?i.
?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie

A.A. Ei?ithoei,

caa. a?aeae?eii ia?aceoieia?? ?inoeoooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia
IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?io.

A.O. Aaeao,

caa. eaoaae?ith aaoa?eia?iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ae.I. Eo?aiae?ia,

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

a?aeae?eo a?ae?ia?ieia?? ??/eiaeo nenoai

?inoeoooo a?ae?ia?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28 ” aa?aciy 2000 ?. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 153. 01 i?e ?inoeooo? ciieia??
?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie (252650, INI, Ee?a – 30, aoe.
A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai, 15, ?inoeooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI
Oe?a?ie)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ciieia??
?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 27 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A?aeaoee a aeaio i?ei??ieeao, caa??ai? ia/aoeith onoaiiae, i?ioaiiy
iaaeneeaoe ia aae?ano: 252650, INI, Ee?a – 30, aoe. A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai,
15, ?inoeooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe A.A.Cieioia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O neeaae? aaeuei?ioioaoie Oe?a?ie a?aeiii ?yae
?io?iaeoeiaaieo aeae?a, ui a ??ciee /an aoee caaacai? nthaee ?acii ?c
oacyyie. Aei /enea oaeeo aeae?a iaeaaeeoue ? iaiaoiaea Dicheilonema
rheae (Owen, 1843) (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) — ia?aceo iaiaeo (Rhea
americana). A Oe?a?i? a?i aia?oa aoa ciaeaeaiee E.?.Ne?ya?iei (1915) o
ciiia?eo «Aneai?y-Iiaa». Ooo, a oiiaao noaiiai? ciie Oe?a?ie, ia
iaaaeeeeo aieue??ieo ae?eyieao oey iaiaoiaea aaea a?eueoa noi??//y
oe?eeii oni?oii cae?enith? na?e aeeoo?aee oeeee, aeei?enoiaoth/e
i?noeaa? aeaee eiiao ye i?ii?aeieo oacy?a ?, ii?yae c iaiaeo —
inoaoi/iei oacy?iii, ua aeaa aeaee no?aon?a — aio (Dromaeus
novaeholland?ae) oa ao?eeainueeiai no?aona (Struth?o camelus). A
Aneai??-Iiaa noi?ioaaeiny no?eea aiaieua aeeoaeeiiaiaoico, ui ae?ae
iaaaoeaii a?aeaeeiny ia ?icaaaeaii? no?aon?a, cia/ia /anoeia ?o ioaoaiyo
aeia a?ae oe??? ?iaac??. Aei oiai ae oeeee ?icaeoeo D. rheae — caoaeieea
aeeoaeeiiaiaoico no?aon?a, ye ? ?ioeo i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iaeo Dicheilonema,
ia aoa aea/aiee ? oiio ia aoee oi/ii a?aeii? oeyoe capaaeaiiy ioao?a
aeeoaeeiiaiaoicii.

A inoaii?e /an a aaaaoueio ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao ?ioaineaii
?icaeaa?oueny i?iieneiaa no?aon?aieoeoai, oiio i?iaeaia aaeuei?ioic?a
no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a iaaoaa? ua a?eueoi? aeooaeueiino?, cie?aia,
aeiiii?/iiai cia/aiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo iaiaoiaee Dicheilonema
rheae (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) ? ?? ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie a oiiaao
caiia?aeieea “Aneai?y-Iiaa”.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c aeeeaaeaiiai aeua ia?aae iaie aoee
iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ii?oieia?? iaiaoiaee D. rheae ia ??cieo noaae?yo
?icaeoeo;

aea/eoe ia?aa?a iioiaaiaco (?icaeoie ee/eiie) iaiaoiaee D. rheae o
i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i?;

aecia/eoe eiei i?ii?aeieo ? inoaoi/ieo oacy?a; ia?aa??eoe caeaoi?noue
iaiaoiaee D. rheae aei ia?aoai?/iiai ia?aceoecio;

aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?o ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie D. rheae a oiiaao oe?eeiiiai
noaio caiia?aeieea “Aneai?y-Iiaa”, aeyaeoe ? aea/eoe /eiieee, ui
caaacia/othoue ?? onoaeai?noue;

ocaaaeueieoe a?aeiiino? i?i aaeuei?ioioaoio no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a o
?oi?o i?e?iaeieo i?noeaia?aaoaaiiyo ? i?iaiae?coaaoe ci?ie a ?? neeaae?
a ca’yceo c aee?iaoecaoe??th oacy?a o ??cieo ?aa?iiao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?icoeo?iaaii aeeoo?aee oeeee iaiaoiaee D. rheae,
anoaiiaeaii eiei i?ii?aeieo oa inoaoi/ieo oacy?a. Aea/aii ?icaeoie
ee/eiie D. rheae o i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i?, iienai? ee/eiee L1-L3. Aia?oa
aeey iaiaoiae i?ae?yaeo Filariata ia i?eeeaae? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai aeaeo
anoaiiaeaia caeaoi?noue aei ia?aoai?/iiai ia?aceoecio, ie?aneaia eiei
iioaioe?eieo ia?aoai?/ieo oacy?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?o ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie D. rheae a oiiaao
oe?eeiiiai noaio “Aneai?y-Iiaa”, aea/aiee eiiieaen aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a,
ui coiiaeththoue onoaeai?noue oe??? nenoaie.

Aia?oa ocaaaeueiai? iayai? a e?oa?aoo?? a?aeiiino? i?i aaeuei?ioioaoio
no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a o ?oi?o i?e?iaeieo i?noeaia?aaoaaiiyo ?
i?iaiae?ciaai? ci?ie a ?? neeaae? a ca’yceo c aee?iaoecaoe??th oacy?a.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. ?icoeo?iaea aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
iaiaoiaee D. rheae, i?aaenoaaieea neaai aea/aii? a?oie yeoeaeeaaeieo
o?ey??e, ?icoe?eea oyaeaiiy i?i a?ieia?th o?ey??ao, no?oeoo?o
ia?aceoa?ieo nenoai iaiaoiae acaaae? oa noeoii?noue aeieia?/ieo
/eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oeeo nenoai ? caaacia/othoue ?oi?
no?eea ?nioaaiiy. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo c a?ieia?? oa aeieia??
D. rheae ?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?io?eaeoeee
aeeoaeeiiaiaoico a oiiaao ooo/iiai ?icaaaeaiiy no?aon?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia 11 eiio. Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai
oiaa?enoaa ia?aceoieia?a (Ee?a, 1993), 12 THa?eaei?e eiio.
Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ia?aceoieia?a (Ee?a, 1995),
I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? c i?iaeai no?aon?aieoeoaa (Neiaa//eia, I?o?a,
1997), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
caa?aaeaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy noaiiaeo aeinenoai ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie”
(Aneai?y-Iiaa, 1998), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? ia?aceoieia?a
(Ee?a, 1999), a oaeiae ia can?aeaiiyo Ee?anueeiai o?e?aeo Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ia?aceoieia?a oa a?aeae?eo ia?aceoieia?? ?inoeoooo
ciieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie; aoee iiaeai? ia VII ?a?iiaenueeee
ioeueoeeieeiea?oi c ia?aceoieia?? (?oae?y, Ia?ia, 1996). Ii oai?
aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 150 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
?ethno?iaaia 38 ?enoieaie ? 9 oaaeeoeyie. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’youeio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e ui
oeeoo?oueny neeaaea? 127 aeaea?ae.

Iiaeyee. Aaoi? aeeaiei aaey/iee ea??aieeo ae.a.i. A.A. Ei?ithoeio, a
oaeiae i?io., ae.a.i. A.I. Oa?ieeo ca iino?eio oaaao aei oe??? ?iaioe o
i?ioean? ?? aeeiiaiiy oa oe?ii? eiinoeueoaoe?? ? ii?aaee. Ue?a iiaeyea
ni?a?ia?oieeai a?aeae?eo ia?aceoieia?? ?i-oo ciieia?? ?i.
?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie ae.a.i. E.I. Niiai?aeaane?e,
e.a.i. A.A. Oea/o, e.a.i. TH.?. Eocuei?io, e.a.i. A.I. Ei?ieue ca
anaa?/io aeiiiiiao ? i?aeo?eieo a ?iaio?. Ca aeiiiiiao a i?aai?caoe??
aeine?aeaeaiue ia oa?eoi??? caiia?aeieea “Aneai?y-Iiaa” aeyeoth
e.a.i. A.N. Aaa?eeaieo, e.a.i. I.TH.O?aon, e.a.i. I.?. ssneiaoeuee?e oa
?.E. Iie?uoeo. Aaeeea iiaeyea e.a.i. I.A. Aaaieuenuee?e ca ae/a?ii?
eiinoeueoaoe?? c ieoaiue a?ieia??, ?icaaaeaiiy oa oo?eiaiiy no?aon?a.
Aeyeoth oaeiae ae.a.i. ?.A. ?iaeueyiiao, e.a.i. ?.A. Caai?iaeitheo,
Ae.A. ?aaiiao, e.a.i. I.?.E?n?oeei?e, e.a.i. I.A. Iao?onaieo ,
I.I. I?iae?ono, e.a.i. I.I. Oea?eeoo ca eiinoeueoaoeaio aeiiiiiao i?ae
/an iaaiai?aiiy ie?aieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe??. Ca iaaeaiee aeey
aea/aiiy eieaeoe?eiee iaoa??ae aaey/ia A.I. Ae?oe? (Oa?e?anueeee aao.
?i-o) ? Ia?ii? aea I?ioi (?i-o Inaaeueaea E?ooea, A?acee?y). Iniaeeaa
iiaeyea A.?. Aaea?aieo ca iino?eio i?aeo?eieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?NOI??ss AEA*AIIss DICHEILONEMA RHEAE

Ia?o? a?aeiiino? i?i “aaeeeeo iaiaoiae” c ii?iaeieie o?ea iaiaeo
iia’ycai? c ?i’yi a?aeiiiai aiae?enueeiai aiaoiia ? iaeaiioieiaa
?.Ioaia, yeiai ?yae aeine?aeiee?a aaaaea? aaoi?ii oeueiai aeaeo (Baylis
et Daubney, 1926; Yorke, Maplestone, 1926; Nii?i, 1968 ? ?i.). Ae?c?ia
(Diesing, 1851) iienaa i?ae iacaith Filaria horrida iaiaoiaeo c
ii?iaeieie o?ea iaiaeo (Rhea americana), aeiaooiai ia oa?eoi???
A?acee??, ? aeacaa ia a?eueo ?aii? ciao?aeee oeueiai ia?aceoa ?.Ioaiii,
i?ioa ia iaa?a i?yeeo iineeaiue ia iioae?eiaai? inoaii?i ?iaioe.
I?ci?oa, o 1861 ?ioe?, Ae?c?ia (Diesing, 1861) iaa?oiooaaa ??ae
Dicheilonema, aeeth/eaoe aei eiai neeaaeo e aeae F. horrida.

Iacaa Dicheilonema horrida aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aei 1915 ?ieo.
E.?.Ne?ya?i, ia?iaeyth/e aaeuei?ioieia?/io eieaeoe?th ?c ciiia?eo
«Aneai?y-Iiaa», ?a?no?o? oeae aeae a iaiaeo, caaacaieo ?c I?aaeaiii?
Aia?eee. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a, a?i iaa?oioiao? iiaee ??ae
Contortospiculum ?c oeiiaei aeaeii C. horrida (Ne?yaei, 1915). I??i??oao
?.Ioaia a?aeiiaeththoue Ei?e ? Iaienoioi (Yorke, Maplestone, 1926), ye?
aaeeaathoue iacao Contortospiculum rheae (Owen, 1843). Aaee?n ? Aeioaiae
(Baylis et Daubney, 1926) aaaaeathoue ??ae Contortospiculum neiii?iii
Dicheilonema Diesing, 1961 ? aeciathoue, ui i??i?eoao a iienaii? oeueiai
aeaeo iaeaaeeoue ?.Ioaio. A?aeiia?aeii aiie i?iiiiothoue aeey o?ey??e c
iaiaeo aaeeaaoe iacao Dicheilonema rheae (Owen, 1843). I?ioa, ine?eueee
oe? aaoi?e oaeiae ia iaaiaeyoue e?oa?aoo?iiai aeaea?aea, o yeiio aoei
ii?eethaeiaii iien aeaeo, c?iaeaiee ?.Ioaiii (ca ?oi?i oaa?aeaeaiiyi, o
1843 ?.), Oieoii (Wolton, 1927) aeneiaea noii?a a i?aaii??iino?
aeei?enoaiiy iacae D. rheae. A?i aaaaea?, ui oa?i?i «Filaria Rheae»
a??ia?aei?oa ca ana aeei?enoiaoaaany ?.Ioaiii a iieniaiio cia/aii?
(«o?ey??y c iaiaeo»), a ia a cia/aii? aecia/aii? iaoeiai? iacae. I?ioa
oea ia aea? aeinoaoi?o i?aenoaa aeey cai?ie ?noi?e/ii onoaeaii? iacae
D. rheae ? a?aeiiaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo Ae?c?iaa.

Ii?yae c ia?ae?/aieie ?iaioaie, i?enay/aieie c’ynoaaiith nenoaiaoe/iiai
iieiaeaiiy aeaiiai aeaeo ? aea/aiith ii?oieia?? iaiaoiaee, yea ana ae ia
i?inoioeiny aeae? a?aeiiinoae i?i aoaeiao aieiaieo ? oainoiaeo no?oeoo?
aei?ineeo iniaei, aoei /eiaei ioae?eaoe?e, i?enay/aieo ?a?no?aoe??
D. rheae o iaiaeo, ui oo?eiothoueny a ciiia?eao. sse i?aaeei, oeeo
iaiaoiae aeyaeyee aeiaaeeiai i?ae /an ?icoeio caaeaeeo c ??cieo i?e/ei
ioao?a, ui i?iaeeee aei oeueiai a ciiia?eo aaaaoi ?ie?a.

Cian?i ?ioa neooaoe?y neeaeany a ciiia?eo «Aneai?y-Iiaa» (Oe?a?ia),
eoaee iaiaeo aia?oa aoee caaacai? ua a 1888 ?ioe?. Naia ooo ioaoe aia?oa
oni?oii aee?iaoecoaaeeny ? ii/aee ?iciiiaeoaaoeny, iaeiae aei iieiaeie
aeaaaeaieo ioaoaiyo ui??/ii aeioee a?ae aaeuei?ioic?a (O?aon, 1968).
Aaaaoi?acia? ni?iae aaoa?eia?ii? neoaeae ciiia?eo iicaooeny
aeeoaeeiiaiaoico, aeei?enoiaoth/e aioaaeuei?ioeee, oni?oo ia iaee.
Neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany oei, ui oeeee ?icaeoeo D. rheae ia aoa
aea/aiee ? oeyoe capaaeaiiy ioaoaiyo eeoaeeny iaa?aeiieie, oi/
Niiai?aeaanueea oa ?i. (1970), aeine?aeaeoth/e na?aiiaeo ?c i?noeue
oo?eiaiiy iaiaeo, aeyaeee a ii?iaeiei? o?ea eiiao ee/eiie iaiaoiae ?
i???ioiaii aecia/eee ?o ye D. rheae. AEeoo?a? oeeeee ?ioeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a ?iaeo Dicheilonema oaeiae ia aoee aea/ai?. Acaaae?, o
i?ae?iaeei? Dicheilonematinae aeioaia? aoee a?aeii? oeeeee ?icaeoeo eeoa
aeaio aeae?a iaiaoiae.

IAOA??AE ? IAOIAeE

Iniiao ia?iaeaiiai iaoa??aeo neeaee aeani? cai?e ? iaoa??ae ?c oiiaeiai?
eieaeoe?? iaiaoiae A?aeae?eo ia?aceoieia?? ?i-oo ciieia?? ?i.
?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaia ca
noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie. Aaeuei?ioieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioao?a
cae?enithaaee iaoiaeii iiaieo (ioaoaiyo) ? iaiiaieo (aei?ine? ioaoe)
aaeuei?ioieia?/ieo ?icoei?a. Eiiao ?icoeiaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii, ?o
aioo??oi? i?aaie ia?aaeyaeaee i?ae aeiieoey?ii IAN-9 eiii?ani?iei
iaoiaeii. Ee/eiie iaiaoiae o?enoaaee 70o nie?oii ?c aeiaeaaaiiyi
ae?oea?eio (5%), aei?ineeo iaiaoiae o?enoaaee a ??aeei? Aa?aaaaeei, a
i?ney eaia?aeueii? ia?iaee ia?aaiaeeee a 70i nie?o.

Ii?oieia?th ee/eiie iaiaoiae aea/aee ia oei/aniaeo i?aia?aoao o
aiaei-ae?oea?eiia?e noi?o?; canoiniaoaaee oaeiae oa?aoaaiiy iaoeeaiiaei
nei?i ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith, a aei?ineeo iaiaoiae
aeine?aeaeoaaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee iiaeiaaeiueiai ?icoeio oa
iiia?a/ieo c??c?a. Iniaeeaino? ii?oieia?? aieiaieo ? oainoiaeo no?oeoo?
iaiaoiae aea/aee ia oei/aniaeo i?aia?aoao o ??aeei? Oi?a-Aa?eaca oa
iiei/i?e eeneio?. Aeei?enoiaoaaee i?e?ineiie IAE-6, “Zeiss Loboval” ?
“Zeiss-Axiolab” (50 — 1600 e?aoia ca?eueoaiiy). ?enoiee c?iaeai? ca
aeiiiiiaith ?enoaaeueiiai aia?aoa ?A-7O.

Aeey aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ca?aaeaiiy eiiao — iioaioe?eieo i?ii?aeieo
oacy?a, aeei?enoiaoaaee c??e? yeoey D. rheae, aeeo/ai? aaciina?aaeiuei c
iaoee iaiaoiaee. Ca?aaeaiiy eiiao i?iaiaeeee aeaiia niiniaaie: 1)
aeine?aeieo eiiao ?iaeea?aeoaeueii aiaeoaaee iaaaeeeeie o?aaiaioaie
iaoee ?c c??eeie yeoeyie; 2) ?c y?oeue iaiaoiaee ? ai?ioia aiooaaee
noniaic?th o aiae?, yeo iaiineee oiieei oa?ii ia ei?i, ui i?iiiioaaany
eiiaoai (eenoy ethoea?ie), aeniiceoe?y — 1 aeiaa. Onueiai a
aenia?eiaioao ii ca?aaeaiith i?yiie?eeeo aeei?enoaee 267 iniaei 11
aeae?a. Ca?aaeaieo eiiao o?eiaee a naaeeao i?e oaiia?aoo?? +22-25iN.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aeeaeaiiy i?yiie?eeeo ??ciiai a?eo i?iaiaeeee
oeyoii aea/aiiy i?ae aeiieoey?ii IAN-9 ai?noo ciaa eiiao, aeeiaeaieo o
i?noeyo aeaoeo iaiaeo. Aeine?aeaeaii a?eueoa 1000 iniaei. Ia?aeaeueii,
aeey eiio?ieth, o oie aea niin?a ia?aaeeaeyeeny ai?no ciaa a
i?aeaeine?aeieo i?yiie?eeeo i?ney aiae?ae? ?o iaaiei aeaeii ?ae?.

AEEOO?AEE OeEEE IAIAOIAeE Dicheilonema rheae

O iaaeao i?e?iaeiiai a?aaeo (I?aaeaiia Aia?eea) inoaoi/ieie oacyyie
D. rheae ? aeaa aeaee iaiaeo — cae/aeiee Rhea americana oa Aea?a?ia R.
pennata. A oiiaao ciiia?eo “Aneai?y-Iiaa” na?aae oacy?a D. rheae
ca?a?no?iaai? oaeiae ao?eeainueeee no?aon Struth?o camelus ? aio
Dromaeus novaeholland?ae. E??i oiai, iia?aeiieyeinue i?i ciao?aeeo
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia?aceoa o ae?ioa a ciiia?eo “Aneai?y-Iiaa” (Ne?yaei,
1915). Eieae?co?ony D. rheae a i?aai?ci? inoaoi/iiai oacy?ia o
iia?o?iiinieo i?oeao, aaciina?aaeiuei o ii?iaeiei? o?ea, i?aeoe??i?e
ee?oeiaei? ? i?ae oanoe?yie noaaiiaeo i’yc?a ioao?a.

Aiane?aeie aea/aiiy niiioaiiiai ca?aaeaiiy eiiao oa caiaeoaaiiy ?i
y?oeue D. rheae a aenia?eiaio? anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ii?aeieie oacyyie oe???
iaiaoiaee ? i?yiie?ee? (Orthoptera) ?c ?iaeei Acrididae (Aiolopus
thalassinus, Calliptamus barbarus, Chorthippus albomarginatus,
Ch. biguttulus, Ch. brunneus, Ch. dorsatus, Ch. macrocaerus,
Dociostaurus brevicollis, Euchorthippus pulvinatus, Oedipoda
coerulescens, Oedaleus decorus, Omocestus haemorrhoidalis) oa
Tettigoniidae (Platycleis affinis, P. tessellata, Tettigonia cantans).

Aea/aii ?icaeoie ia?aceoa a i?ii?aeieo oacyyo. Ee/eiea L1 D. rheae
o?eueee a o?aaiiio eaiae? (cia?) i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia aeoiaeeoue c yeoey
? i?iieea? e??cue no?iee ciaa o aaiioeaeue eiiaoe. O ii?iaeiei? o?ea
oacy?ia a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ee/eiie aei noaae?? L3, ui ?
?iaac?eiith aeey inoaoi/iiai oacy?ia. Ee/eiee L1 ? L2 o ii?iaeiei? o?ea
eiiao ciaoiaeyoueny o a?eueiiio noai?, iaaeiei ee/eiie L3 ooai?th?oueny
eainoea.

?icaeoie ee/eiee L1 i?e oaiia?aoo?? +22-25iN ?c iiiaioo aeoiaeo c yeoey
aei ia?oiai eeiyiiy o?eaa? 8-10 ae?a. Ae?oaa noaae?y aeoaea ei?ioea —
3-4 aeiae. A?ey 10 ae?a i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ?icaeoie o?aouei? noaae??.
Oaeei /eiii, aeey ?icaeoeo iaiaoiaee a i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i? aei
?iaac?eii? noaae?? ca oaeeo oiia iio??aii 21-23 aeiae. I?e a?eueo
aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue cae/aeiei e?oi?i oaiia?aoo?ai
o ?aeii? caiia?aeieea “Aneai?y-Iiaa”, ?icaeoie ee/eiie o i?ii?aeieo
oacyyo a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ii oaeaeoa. Cie?aia, i?e oaiia?aoo?? +33i-38iN
?icaeoie ee/eiie D. rheae o i?ii?aeieo oacyyo aei ?iaac?eii? noaae?? L3
o?eaa? onueiai 7 ae?a.

Aia?oa aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ae?yaeo Filariata aenia?eiaioaeueii
anoaiiaeaia caeaoi?noue D. rheae aei ia?aoai?/iiai ia?aceoecio. A ?ie?
oaeeo oacy?a a?aecia/ai? ye aaco?aaaoi? (i?yiie?ee? Platycleis affinis,
Platycleis tessellata, Gampsocleis glabra, Acrida turrita, Calliptamus
barbarus ? aiaiiie Mantis religiosa), oae ? o?aaaoi? (Lacerta agilis,
Vipera ursini) oaa?eie.

II?OIEIA?ss Dicheilonema rheae

Aeaoaeueii aea/aia ii?oieia?y noaoaaic??eeo iaiaoiae D. rheae. Aia?oa
aeine?aeaeaii oiiia?ao?th oa no?oeoo?o noaoaai? nenoaie naiie, yea
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio noaoaaeo o?oaie, ui c’?aeiothoueny a ?aeeiee
aaa?iaeueiee eaiae; y?/ieee ciaoiaeyoueny a i?ioeeaaeieo e?ioeyo o?ea
iaiaoiaee, ia?aaeiy noaoaaa o?oaea caaaeaee aeiaoa ca caaeith. Aea/aii
oi?ioaaiiy y?oeue o noaoaaeo oeyoao naiie, anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eaeecii
o?aoy /anoeia eiaeii? ?c aeaio iaoie caiiaiaia c??eeie yeoeyie, ye?
i?noyoue oe?eeii noi?iiaaio ee/eieo I-ie noaae?? (i?eaeecii 1000 y?oeue
a 1 ii iaoi/ii? o?oaee). Aeyaeaii, ui ni?eoey?i? noiee naioe?a
?icoaoiaai? o i’yciaiio oa??, ooai?thth/e a inoaiiueiio eaoa?aeuei?
eaiaee. O ?iaio? iiaeaii ?icoe?aiee ia?aiien noaoaaic??eeo iaiaoiae —
naioe?a ? naiie oeueiai aeaeo.

Aea/aii ey?aiaaiac ? iaaaaeaii aeaoaeueiee iien ii?oieia?? ee/eiie
D. rheae, ui ?icaeaathoueny a i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i? (I-III noaae??).
Ee/eiee L1, ui aeeoee c yeoey, iathoue aeiaaeeio o?ea 0.1971±0.0127 ii
oa oe?eio — 0.0130±0 ii; ia?aaei?e e?iaoeue o?ea iana aino?ee aeaiooee
aa/ie ?c oe?ieith iniiaith, ?icoaoiaaiee eaoa?aeueii, ce?aa a?ae
?ioiaiai ioai?o; o?aaia nenoaia ua ia noi?iiaaia. Ee/eiee L2
a?ae??ciyoueny a?aeiinii oianoei o?eii (aeiaaeeia o?ea 0,2164±0,0138 ii,
oe?eia 0,023±0,0033 ii) oa ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii caeicenoiai
no?aaioiaeo. ?iaac?ei? ee/eiee L3 iathoue aeiaaeeio o?ea 2.416±0.292 ii
oa oe?eio — 0.117±0.015 ii; i?iaiaioaoe?y aieiaiiai e?ioey ee/eiie L3
?aeaioe/ia i?iaiaioaoe?? noaoaaic??eeo iaiaoiae; oainoiaee e?iaoeue iana
oa?i?iaeuei? eaoaeaeuei? nini/ee, /enei, oi?ia ? ?icoaooaaiiy yeeo
aeoaea aa??th?.

IA?ACEOA?IA NENOAIA Dicheilonema rheae

Oa?i?i “ia?aceoa?ia nenoaia” ie aeei?enoiao?ii ca?aeii A.I.Aaee?i?oaao
(1956, 1970), ?icoi?th/e i?ae oe??th iacaith nenoaio, ooai?aio
iiioeyoe??th ia?aceoa ? iiioeyoe?yie oacy?a ??cieo eaoaai??e, a oaeiae
?ioeie nenoaiaie e ia’?eoaie, aeieia?/ii iia’ycaieie c iiioeyoe?yie
ia?aceoa ? eiai oacy?a, ui a oe?eiio a?aeiia?aea? oyaeaiiyi i?i
aeieia?/io i?oo.

Aea/aiiy ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie iaiaoiaee D. rheae a oiiaao oe?eeiiiai
noaio “Aneai?y-Iiaa” noaiiaeoue iniaeeaee ?ioa?an, ine?eueee ie ia?ii
ni?aao c ia?aceoii, caaacaiei ?acii c inoaoi/iei oacy?iii ?c I?aaeaiii?
Aia?eee a?eueoa 100 ?ie?a oiio. A oiiaao aneai?eneiai noaio D. rheae
cae?enith? na?e aeeoo?aee oeeee ca o/anoth i?noeaaeo aeae?a i?yiie?eeeo,
i?e oeueiio noi?iiaaia ia?aceoa?ia nenoaia ooieoe?iio? ?cieueiaaii a?ae
?ioeo iiioeyoe?e D. rheae ? i?aeoe/ii o?eueee a iaaeao aieue???a
ciiia?eo. Oea aeicaiey? aea/eoe e ioe?ieoe eiiieaen aeieia?/ieo
/eiiee?a, ui caaacia/othoue onoaeai?noue aeaii? nenoaie.

Aiae?c ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie aneai?enueei? iiioeyoe?? iaiaoiaee D. rheae
iieacaa, ui a i?e iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e i?aenenoaie: ia?aceo — ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua; ia?aceo — i?ii?aeiee oacy?i; ia?aceo — inoaoi/iee oacy?i.
Oaeee iiae?e iaoiiaeaiee iniaeeainoyie aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ia?aceoa.
Eiaeia c i?aenenoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiith oacith ?icaeoeo ia?aceoa,
nai???aei?noth na?aaeiaeua eiai ia?aaoaaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeieie
aaeaioaoe?yie, ni?yiiaaieie, o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?, ia i?aeaeuaiiy
onoaeaiino? ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie a oe?eiio.

I?aenenoaia “ia?aceo — ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua”. Aiae?c
i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia noaiiaeo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie ? I?aaeaiii?
Aia?eee iieacaa, ui oiiae ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ye ia aaouee?auei?
ia?aceoa, oae ? a Aneai??-Iiaa aeineoue iiae?ai?. Oea e iineoaoaaei
iaeiei c aieiaieo /eiiee?a oni?oiiai oi?ioaaiiy ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie
D. rheae o iia?e oi/oe? ?? a?aaeo. ?aeeia oaca ?icaeoeo ia?aceoa,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia ?c ciai?oiei na?aaeiaeuai — yeoea. sseoey
D. rheae iio?aieythoue o ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua /a?ac o?aaiee o?aeo
oacy?ia. Aiie i?noyoue oe?eeii noi?iiaaio ee/eieo I-i? noaae?? (L1),
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie yei? iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny o?eueee a i?aai?ci?
i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia.

Ia oeueiio aoai? ?nioaaiiy ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie aieiaia caaea/a ia?aceoa
— ?icnaeaiiy, ui /anoeiai ae??oo?oueny iiia?aaeiueith i?aenenoaiith
“ia?aceo — inoaoi/iee oacy?i” aeae?eaiiyi o na?aaeiaeua cia/ii?
e?eueeino? y?oeue. O i?aenenoai? “ia?aceo — ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua” oey
i?iaeaia ae??oo?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aaeaioaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia
iiaeieaiiy iiooaeii? ae?i?ioth/i? ae?? ??cieo oaeoi??a. Aea/aiiy aieeao
aa?ioe/ieo /eiiee?a ia aeeoo?no?ee?noue y?oeue aeyaeei i?enoiniaai?noue
ia?aceoa aei aeaeeaaiiy a a?eaeieo oiiaao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua,
oiaoi aei ianoa/? aieiae ? aenieeo aiie?ooae ceiiai-e?oi?o oaiia?aoo?.
Iaae?eiee eaiae ia?aaea/? ?iaac?? i?ii?aeiiio oacy?io cae?enith?oueny a
?aieao ianooiii? i?aenenoaie.

I?aenenoaia “ia?aceo — i?ii?aeiee oacy?i ”. A ?aieao aeaii? i?aenenoaie
ia?aceo ?nio? ia noaae?? ee/eiee (L1-L3) ? aaciina?aaei?i na?aaeiaeuai
eiai ?nioaaiiy ? i?aai?ci i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia. O ooieoe?iioaaii?
ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie D. rheae a oiiaao oe?eeiiiai noaio ca ia??iae
aeine?aeaeaiue a 1992-1995 ??. anoaiiaeaia o/anoue 14 aeae?a i?yiie?eeeo
(11 ?c ?iaeeie na?aiiaeo (Acrididae) ? 3 — ?c ?iaeeie eiieeiaeo
(Tettigoniidae)). Capaaeai?noue i?yiie?eeeo ia oa?eoi??? aieue??a c
iaiaeo aeineoue aeniea, ? ia i?ioyc? e?oiueiai naciio iii?oii
ca?eueoo?oueny. (oaae. 1).

Aeey ?icoi?iiy caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy oeyo?a oee?eoeyoe?? ia?aceoa o
eiie?aoi?e i?noeaaino? iaiao?aeii aoei aeyaeoe ia yeiio aoai? naiai
?icaeoeo e a neeo yeeo i?e/ei o? /e ?io? i?ii?aei? oacy? aeeth/athoueny
a o?aini?n?th ia?aceoa a i?e?iaeieo oiiaao. C oe??th iaoith ie aea/aee
iniaeeaino? aeeaeaiiy aeayeeo i?yiie?eeeo, cie?aia ci?ie ?o ei?iiaeo
i?aoa?aioe?e a iioiaaiac?.

Aea/aiiy ai?noo ciaa 1000 inia 11 aeae?a na?aiiaeo, a?aeeiaeaieo ia
oa?eoi??? aieue??a, o yeiio oo?eiothoueny iaiaeo, iieacaei, ui oe?
eiiaoe aeei?enoiaothoue o ?aeo ia o?eueee caeai? /anoeie ?ineei, aea e
oaeae?? oeeo ioao?a. Iaeiae, oaeeaaiiy oaeae?e a ?aeo a?aecia/aii eeoa
aeey ?iaa?iaeueieo iniaei eiiao oa ?o ee/eiie 4-ai ? 5-ai a?eo. Ee/eiie
1-3-ai a?eo, caaaeath/e ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeia aaaaeaoe
iae?aaoieie o?oioaaaie. Aeiyoie neeaaea? eeoa Calliptamus barbarus,
iaea?eueoa noeeueiee aei eii?ioaa?? aeae, i?ioa ca?aaeai? iaiaoiaeaie
iniaeie ee/eiie 3-ai a?eo oeueiai aeaeo cono??/athoueny aeoaea ??aeei.
Noeeuei?noue na?aiiaeo aei eii?ioaa?? aoea i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iaie e
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?e oo?eiaii? eiiao o naaeeao. Aei oiai ae
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca na?aiiaeie a aneai?enueeiio noaio ca iaaeaie aieue??
aeyaeei, ui a aea?e? e noo? ia??iaee oe? eiiaoe aeyaeythoue o?io?/iee
?ioa?an aei na?aeeo oaeae?e ??cieo oaa?ei. Inoaii? i?eaaaeththoue ?o,
iaaooue, ye aeiaeaoeiaa aeaea?aei aieiae.

Aiae?c a?eiai? no?oeoo?e iiioeyoe?e i?ii?aeieo oacy?a iieacaa, ui na?aae
niiioaiii ca?aaeaieo eiiao oaeiae aoee eeoa noaoaaic??e? iniaeie oa
ee/eiee noa?oiai a?eo (4-ai ? 5-ai). O?eueee iaeei ?ac aoea
ca?a?no?iaaia ?iaaciaaia ee/eiea Calliptamus barbarus 3-ai a?eo.

I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia ca?aaeaiiy eiiao — iioaioe?eieo i?ii?aeieo
oacy?a — ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ee/eiee i?yiie?eeeo 1-ai ?
2-ai a?eo aeiooue i?ney ia?oi?aoe?? ee/eieaie iaiaoiaee no?iie ciaa ?
i?iieeiaii? ?o o aaiioeaeue eiiaoe. Aeey ee/eiie na?aiiaeo 3-ai a?eo
caaeaaeue niinoa??aaeanue eeoa i?e aenie?e ?ioaineaiino? ?iaac?? (a
aenia?eiaio? 14-78 aec. iaiaoiae/iniaeio). I?e a?eueo iece?e
?ioaineaiino? ?iaac?? cia/ia /anoeia ee/eiie 3-ai a?eo caeeoaeany a
aeeaeo i?ney i?iieeiaiiy iaiaoiae a aaiioeaeue, aea a ia??iae eeiyiiy
oae? eiiaoe, cae/aeii, aeioee. ?iiae? a neaai?iaaciaaieo eiiao 3-ai a?eo
niinoa??aaeiny iii?oia a?aenoaaaiiy a ?ino? ? ?icaeoeo ? aiie, i?iaeeaoe
2-3 oeaeiy i?ney aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ca?aaeaiiy, aeioee, oae aeiaeiiai
?aco ia ia?aeeiyaoe. Ia?iaaciaai? ee/eiee na?aiiaeo ca oeae i?ii?aeie
/ano o ?aeaioe/ieo oiiaao i?ioiaeeee 2-3 eeiyiiy. Ee/eiee na?aiiaeo
4-5-ai a?eo oa ?iaai eiiao ia?aiinyoue ca?aaeaiiy aac iii?oieo
oneeaaeiaiue ? i?iaeiaaeothoue ca?eueooaaoenue o ?ici??ao ? ?icaeaaoeny
iaa?oue i?e aeoaea aenie?e ?ioaineaiino? ?iaac?? (a aenia?eiaio?
200-1000 aec. iaiaoiae/iniaeio). I?ioa a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aee?iaa o?ei a
eiiao i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?, ui iaaii iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?iciiiaeaiiy
oaeeo iniaei.

Io?eiai? aeai? aeyaeythoue ocaiaeaeai?noue oa?/iaeo i?aoa?aioe?e
na?aiiaeo ??ciiai a?eo ?c ?oiueith caeaoi?nooth ooieoe?iioaaoe ye
i?ii?aei? oacy?? iaiaoiaee D. rheae. Oea iiina?aaeeiaaii ?aaoeth?oueny
ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai, oiio ui cae/aeia aeey ae?oai? iieiaeie e?oa
iinooa i?iaieo? na?aiiaeo, ui caeaa?eueoiai aeinyaathoue ia oeae iiiaio
?iaa?iaeueiiai noaio, aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?aeo oaeae?? ye aeiaeaoeiaa
aeaea?aei aieiae. Iane?aeeii oaei? ei?aeyoe?? ? iaeiie/aiiy ?iaac?eieo
ee/eiie iaiaoiaee a noeoiiino? iiioeyoe?e i?ii?aeieo oacy?a i?ioyaii
naciio.

O/anoue ie?aieo aeae?a i?ii?aeieo oacy?a o ooieoe?iioaaii? ia?aceoa?ii?
nenoaie D. rheae iaiaeiaeiaa ? iia’ycaia aiia ye ?c /enaeuei?noth
eiie?aoieo aeae?a, oae ? c iniaeeainoyie aeieia?? eiaeiiai c ieo.
Ia?aceo i?aae’yaey? aei?noe? aeieia?/i? aeiiae aei i?ii?aeieo oacy?a ?
oiio, /ei a?eueoa eiaeiee eiie?aoiee aeae eiiao a?aeiia?aea? oeei
aeiiaai, oei a?eueo cia/iei aeyaey?oueny eiai o/anoue o ia?aceoa?i?e
nenoai?.

I?aenenoaia “ia?aceo — i?ii?aeiee oacy?i” ia oa?eoi??? aieue??a iaiaeo a
ciiia?eo «Aneai?y-Iiaa» oi?io?oueny, ia?aaaaeii, ca ?aooiie aeaio aeae?a
— Calliptamus barbarus ? Chorthippus albomarginatus. Oe?eaai, ui
iaiaoiaea aeei?enoiao? o a?aeiioaii? eiaeiiai c oeeo aeaio aeae?a ??ci?
no?aoaa??. O aeiaaeeo c C. barbarus iaeneiaeueiee ?acoeueoao
aeinyaa?oueny ii?aeiaiiyi aeoaea aenieeo iieaciee?a ?iaeaeno ?yniino?
ia?aceoa ? iaaeniei?, aea noaa?eueii?, /enaeueiino? i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia.
O aeiaaeeo c C. albomarginatus aeineoue cia/iee ?acoeueoao aeinyaa?oueny
ca ?aooiie ii?aeiaiiy noaa?eueiiai, oi/a ? ia aeoaea aenieiai cia/aiiy
?iaeaeno ?yniino? ia?aceoa ? aeniei? /enaeueiino? i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia.
Oae, iai?eeeaae, a cai?ao 10 na?iiy 1995 ?. /anoea C. barbarus noaiiaeea
o?eueee 12% a?ae caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? i?yiie?eeeo, o oie aea /an a
iniaeiao oeueiai aeaeo ciaoiaeeeiny 45% ee/eiie D. rheae a?ae ?oiuei?
caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? a on?o i?ii?aeieo oacy?iao ?acii ocyoeo. A
iniaeiao Ch. albomarginatus, ye? noaiiaeee 36% a?ae caaaeueii?
/enaeueiino? i?yiie?eeeo, aoei 22% ee/eiie D. rheae a?aeiia?aeii. A oie
naiee /an a iniaeiao Chorthippus dorsatus, /anoea yeiai neeaea 29%
aeine?aeaeaieo eiiao, ciaeaeaii eeoa 1% ee/eiie D. rheae.

Ae?oaee oei i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia, i?aaenoaaieeii yeiai ?
Ch. albomarginatus, caaacia/o? a?eueoo onoaeai?noue i?aenenoaie “ia?aceo
— i?ii?aeiee oacy?i” ? ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie a oe?eiio, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeeiai?eith ca?aaeaiiy eiiao ia i?ioyc? naciia. O
oie aea /an oe?ieee niaeo? i?ii?aeieo oacy?a aeicaiey? ia?aceoo o
aeiaaeeo ??cei? ci?ie e?euee?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo aeae?a
i?yiie?eeeo caaacia/oaaoe oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iii? i?aenenoaie “ia?aceo —
i?ii?aeiee oacy?i” ca ?aooiie ?ioeo aeae?a.

I?aenenoaia “ia?aceo — inoaoi/iee oacy?i”. A ?aieao aeaii? i?aenenoaie
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?icaeoie ia?aceoa a?ae ee/eiee 3-e noaae?? aei
noaoaaic??eiai noaio. Eieae?caoe?y iaiaoiae a i?aai?ci? inoaoi/iiai
oacy?ia — iia?o?iiini? i?oee, ii?iaeieia o?ea, i?aeoe??ia ee?oeiaeia.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui inoaoi/ieie oacy?ie D. rheae a oiiaao ciiia?eo
“Aneai?y-Iiaa” iiaeooue neoaoaaoe o?e aeaee ioao?a (Rhea americana,
Struth?o camelus ? Dromaeus novaeholland?ae), i?ia?aeia i?noea
aacnoii?aii iaeaaeeoue iaiaeo. Naia oeae oacy?i iaoiiaea noaiiaeaiiy

Oaaeeoey 1

Ca?aaeai?noue i?yiie?eeeo ee/eieaie D. rheae o aieue??ao ciiia?eo
“Aneai?y-Iiaa” i?ioyaii 1992-1995 ?. (%).

1992 ?

1993 ?.

1994 ?.

1995 ?.

Iacaa eeiaiue

aa?anaiue

/a?aaiue

eeiaiue

na?iaiue

eeiaiue

aa?anaiue

eeiaiue

na?iaiue

aeaeo oacy?ia n A?± Sp,% n A?± Sp,% n A?± Sp,% n A?± Sp,% n A?±
Sp,% n A?± Sp,% n A?± Sp,% n A?± Sp,% n A?± Sp,%

Aelopus

thalassinus

3 33.33 ± 3.33

Calliptamus

barbarus

19 68.42±1.89 17 0.00 135 4.44± 0.18 120 10.00±0.22 98 26.53±0.52 7
7.43±3.18 26 11.57±0.67 43 58.17±1.16

Chorthippus biguttulus 6 50.00±2.88 1 0.00

3 0.00

4 0.00

Ch.albomar-ginatus 98 21.43±0.47 53 28.30±0.73 81 0.00 284 10.92±0.20 69
11.59±0.41 282 4.26±0.12 9 33.33±1.92 180 20.56±0.34 134 48.51±0.60

Ch. brunneus 13 7.69± 0.77 26 30.77±1.09 4 0.00 7 14.29±1.43 2 0.00 14
0.00 2 0.00 4 25.00±2.5 4 50.00±3.53

Ch. dorsatus 9 0.00 2 50.00±4.99

1 0.00

83 2.41±0.17 19 0.00 19 15.79±0.91 56 10.71±0.44

Ch. macrocoerus

1 100.0±9.95 2 0.00

2 0.00 1 0.00

Dociostaurus brevicollis

1 0.00 3 0.00 9 22.22±1.57 2 50.00±4.99 11 0

1 0.00 2 50.00±4.99

Euchorthippus pulvinatus

9 0.00 10 0.00 45 2.22± 0.22 46 2.17± 0.22 146 1.37±0.10 3 0.00 147
6.12±0.20 77 16.88±0.47

Odipoda coerulescens

1 0.00

Oedaleus decorus

1 0.00 2 0.00

12 16.67±1.18

2 0.00 1 0.00

Omocestes he-morrhoidales

18 22.22±1.11

12 8.33± 0.83 16 0.00 60 3.33±0.24 5 0.00 65 1.54±0.15 33 12.12±0.61

O. petreus

1 0 1 0.00

Acrididae

a oe?eiio 126 19.84±0.40 133 31.58±0.49 116 0.00 499 8.62± 0.13 257
8.56± 0.18 707 6.51±0.10 46 17.39±0.61 450 12.00±0.16 351 33.05±0.31

Conocephalus fuscus

1 0.00 1 0.00 7 0.00

3 0

Gampsoclaeis glabra

3 0.00 2 0.00 2 0.00

4 0.00 3 33.33±0.33

Platycleis affinis 8 12.50±1.25 10 80.00±2.82

1 0.00 1 0.00

5 0.00 5 40.00±2.82

P. medvedevi

1 0.00

P. tessellata 14 21.43±1.24

53 3.77± 0.27 127 6.30± 0.22 45 4.44± 0.31 41 7.32±0.42 5 80.00±3.98 25
4.00±0.40 11 27.27±1.57

Tettigonia cantans

2 0.00

Tettigoniidae

a oe?eiio 22 18.18±0.91 11 72.73±2.56 57 3.51± 0.25 140 5.71± 0.20 48
4.17± 0.29 44 6.82±0.39 5 80.00±3.98 34 2.94±0.29 19 31.58±1.29

?ACII 148 19.59±0.36 144 34.72±0.49 173 1.16± 0.08 639 7.98± 0.11 305
7.47± 0.16 751 6.52±0.09 51 23.53±0.68 484 11.36±0.15 370 32.97±0.30

n — e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaieo iniaei; A?- aenoaineai?noue ?iaac?? (%);
Sp — iiieeea aea??eiai? /anoee (%).

ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie aeaiiai ia?aceoa a iiaiio aeey iueiai ?aa?ii? ?
caaacia/o? ?? noaa?eueia ?nioaaiiy a ciiia?eo “Aneai?y-Iiaa” i?ioyaii
iaeaea 100 ?ie?a. Oaea iaae?eia nenoaia coiiaeaia iaeaea iiaieiaiei
ca?aaeaiiyi aei?ineeo iaiaeo ? aaeeeith e?eueeinoth ioaoaiyo, ui
aeaiaeyoueny ui??/ii.

Ia?ao?ae D. rheae o i?aenenoaio “ia?aceo — inoaoi/iee oacy?i”
caaania/o?oueny iniaeeainoyie oa?/oaaiiy inoaoi/iiai oacy?ia, ioaoaiyoa
yeiai aeei?enoiaothoue a ?aeo i?yiie?eeeo o ia?o? o?e i?nyoey aeeooy.
Aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? oaeiae neio?iii?noue oeeee?a ?icaeoeo inoaoi/iiai ?
i?ii?aeiiai oacy?a iaiaoiaee, a oaeiae naiiai ia?aceoa. Aeic??aaiiy
iaiaoiae ? ii/aoie aeae?eaiiy ieie y?oeue i?eiaaea? ia ii/aoie
ianooiiiai i?ney ca?aaeaiiy oaieiai naciio. I?e aeeoieaiiy ioaoaiyo
i?eiaaea? ia /a?aaiue — ii/aoie eeiiy, a iaeneioi /enaeueiino? ?iaai
i?yiie?eeeo — ia eeiaiue — ii/aoie na?iiy. O ceiiaee ia??iae iaiaoiaee,
ca aeaieie eii?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, acaaae? i?eieiythoue aeae?eaiiy
y?oeue. Oaea neio?ii?caoe?y ?iciiiaeaiiy oacy?ia ? ia?aceoa iaaii
eiio?ieth?oueny o?c?ieia?/iei noaiii, cie?aia, ai?iiiaeueiei noaoonii
oacy?ia, ui iaoiiaeaiee ?aaeoe??th i?aai?cio ioao?a ia ci?ie a
ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie iaiaoiaee
D. rheae a oiiaao oe?eeiiiai noaio “Aneai?y-Iiaa”, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe,
ui naia oe? oiiae, ia?o ca ana i?e?iaei?, ? noaee oi?ioth/ith
neeaaeiaith iiai? ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie. Onoaeai?noue aeaii? nenoaie a
oe?eiio e aieiai? ?aaoethth/? ooieoe?? ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a ?nioaaiiy
ie?aieo i?aenenoai caaacia/othoueny iaaieie oaeoi?aie ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua.

Aacoth/enue ia aeaieo i?i aeeoo?aee oeeee oa ia?aceoa?io nenoaio
D. rheae, ?ic?iaeaii caaaeuei? i?eioeeie i?io?eaeoeee aeeoaeeiiaiaoica
i?e ?icaaaeaii? no?aon?a, a oaeiae eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c
i?io?eaeoeee aeeoaeeiiaiaoico a ciiia?eo “Aneai?y-Iiaa”. Aieiaia ?aeay,
iieeaaeaia a iniiao i?io?eaeoeee, — ia?a?eaaiiy o?aini?n?? ia?aceoa a
iaea?eueo o?aceeaiio i?noe?, yeei, a oiiaao ooo/iiai ?icaaaeaiiy, ?
eaiea ia?aaea/? ia?aceoa a?ae i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia aei inoaoi/iiai. Iiaia
?ciethaaiiy ioaoaiyo a?ae i?noeue oo?eiaiiy aei?ineeo ioao?a aeicaiey?
aeeeth/eoe ?o ca?aaeaiiy.

IAEssAe AAEUeI?IOIOAOIE NO?AONIIIAe?AIEO IOAO?A

Ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a OO-ai noie?ooy i?iieneiaa no?aon?aieoeoai aeeoei
ca iaae? e?a?i, ui o?aaeeoe?eii caeiathoueny ?acaaaeaiiyi oeeo ioao?a
i?ioyaii aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue (IA?, Aano?ae??, NOA). ?ioaineaiee
?icaeoie oe??? aaeoc? a?aecia/aii a a?eueoino? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i
(Krascenic, 1997). O ca’yceo c oeei aino?i a?ae/oaa?oueny ae?ae
iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue aaeuei?io?a no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a ? oai?ia, ui
aiie ni?e/eiythoue. Aeooaeueiei noa? ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeiiinoae i?i
aaeuei?ioioaoio no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a o ?oi?o

Oaaeeoey 2

Aaeuei?ioe no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a

Aeaee oacy?a

? Aeaee aaeueieio?a Rhea pennata Rhea americana Struthio camelus
Dromaeus novaehollandius Casuarius spp.

ii

I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III

NEMATODA

TRICHOSTRONGYLIDAE

1 Libyostrongylus douglasi

+

2 Libyostrongylus magnus

+*

STRONGYLIDAE

3 Codiostomum strutionis

+ +

4 Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi

+

5 Deletrocephalus dimidiatus

+ +

SYNGAMIDAE

6 Cyathostoma bronchialis

+

7 Cyathostoma bularti

+*

HETERAKIDAE

8 Heterakis gallinarum

+

ASCARIDIIDAE

9 Ascaridia orthocerca

+ +

10 Baylisascaris columnaris

+

SPIRURIDAE

11 Cyrnea casuarii

+*

12 Cyrnea unicipenis

+ +

13 Odontospirura alata

+ +

ACUARIIDAE

14 Dispharynx nasuta

+

DIPLOTRIAENIDAE

15 Dicheilonema rheae

+

+ +

+

+

16 Dicheilonema spicularia

+

17 Versternema struthionis

+

FILAROIDEA

18 Struthiofilaria megalocephala

+*

CESTODA

ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE

19 Moniezia rhea

+ +

DAVAINEIDAE

20 Erschovitugnia collini

+

21 Houttuynia struthionis

+ +

+

22 Raillietina (?) australis

+ +

23 Kotlanotaurus casuari

+

24 Kotlanotaurus infrequens

+

IDIOGENIDAE

25 Chapmania tauricolis

+ +

ACANTHOCEPHALA

26 Plagiorhynchus rheae

+

Onueiai aeae?a: 0 1 0 10 8 2 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 0

I — aaoiooiii? aeaee aaeuei?io?a;

II — niaoeeo?/i? aeaee, ca?a?no?iaai? iica i?e?iaeiei a?aaeii oacy?ia;

III — aeaee ia?aceo?a, i?eaeaai? oacyyie ca iaaeaie ?o i?e?iaeiiai
a?aaeo;

* — niaoeeo?/i? aeaee ia?aceo?a, a?aeii? a aeaiiai oacy?ia o?eueee a
ciiia?eao.

i?e?iaeieo i?noeaia?aaoaaiiyo ? aiae?c ?? ci?i o ca’yceo c oo?eiaiiyi
ioao?a o ciiia?eao oa ?o aee?iaoecaoe??th.

No/ani? no?aoniiiae?ai? (o oe?ieiio cia/aii? oeueiai oa?i?io) ioaoe
?ai?acaioiaai? o?ueiia ?yaeaie: aeania No?aoniiiae?ai? (Struthioformes)
?c ?aeeiei aeaeii Struthio camelus, Iaiaeoiiae?ai? (Rheiformes) ?c
aeaiia aeaeaie Rhea americana oa R. pennata ? Eacoa?iiiae?ai?
(Casuariformes), ui ia’?aeiothoueny a aea? ?iaeeie: Dromaiidae c iaeiei
aeaeii Dromaius novaehollandiae ? Casuariidae ?c aeae?eueeiia aeaeaie
?iaeo Casuarius (uiaei aeaeiaiai neeaaeo oa e?eueeino? aae?aeieo aeae?a
oeueiai ?iaeo ?aeeii? aeoiee iaia?).

Aaeuei?ioioaoia no/anieo no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a aeineoue a?aeia ? ca
aeaieie i?iaiae?ciaaieo iaie ioae?eaoe?e ia?aoiao? eeoa 26 aeae?a, o
oiio /ene? 18 aeae?a iaiaoiae, 7 aeae?a oeanoiae ? 1 aeae aeaioioeaoae?a
(oaae.2). Iaea?eueo ??ciiiai?oiith aeyaeeany aaeuei?ioioaoia Rhea
americana — 12 aeae?a. O Struthio camelus ca?a?no?iaaii 7 aeae?a
aaeuei?io?a, ii /ioe?e aeaee a?aeiii a?ae Dromaius novaehollandiae ?
eacoa??a. Aeey R. pennata aeaco?oueny eeoa 1 aeae — Dicheilonema rheae.
Iaaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2 aeai? iaaiith i??ith a?aeaeaathoue ia o?eueee
?aaeueiee neeaae aaeuei?ioioaoie oiai, aai ?ioiai aeaeo oacy?a, a e
nooi?iue ?? aea/aiino?. A oaaeeoe? a?aeia?aaeaiee neeaae aaoiooiiieo
aeae?a ia?aceo?a no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a, iiaeaii ia?ae?e aeae?a,
caeaoieo aei inai?iiy iiaeo i?noeaia?aaoaaiue ? iiaeo oacy?a. Iaaaaeai?
aeai? na?ae/aoue oaeiae i?i iiaeeea?noue caaaa/aiiy aaeuei?ioioaoie
no?aon?a i?noeaaeie iie?ainoaeueieie aeaeaie aaeuei?io?a i?e ooo/iiio
?acaaaeaii? oacy?a. Oe? a?aeiiino? noaiiaeyoue, ia iao iiaeyae, ye
iaoeiaee, oae ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an.

AENIIAEE

1. Ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie (ciiia?e «Aneai?y-Iiaa») i?ioyaii a?eueoa
noi??//y ?nio? no?eea aiaieua aeeoaeeiiaiaoico iaiaeo (Rhea americana),
caoaeieeii yeiai ? iaiaoiaea Dicheilonema rheae (Filariata,
Diplotriaenidae). Ii?yae c iaiaeo iaiaoiaea D. rheae ia?aceoo? ooo
oaeiae o ao?eeainueeiai no?aona (Struthio camelus) ? i?aaenoaaieea
aano?ae?enueei? oaoie — aio (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Oiiae
iai?aa?eueiiai oo?eiaiiy no?aon?a a oe?eeiiiio noaio ni?eyoeea? aeey
ia?aceoa, yeee, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?noeaa? aeaee eiiao ye i?ii?aeieo
oacy?a, oni?oii cae?enith? na?e aeeoo?aee oeeee. O i?aai?ci? inoaoi/iiai
oacy?ia D. rheae eieae?co?oueny o iia?o?iiinieo i?oeao, aaciina?aaeiuei
o ii?iaeiei? o?ea, i?aeoe??i?e ee?oeiaei? ? i?ae oanoe?yie noaaiiaeo
i’yc?a ioao?a. O ?ac? aeniei? ?ioaineaiino? ?iaac?? aeeoaeeiiaiaoic
aeeeeea? oyaeeo iaoieia?th ? iiaea ni?e/eithaaoe ianiao caaeaaeue
ioaoaiyo.

2. I?ii?aeieie oacyyie D. rheae neoaothoue eiiaoe ?c ?iaeei Acrididae ?
Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera). Eiei i?ii?aeieo oacy?a D. rheae, ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy niiioaiii ca?aaeaieo eiiao ? aeaieie
aenia?eiaio?a ii ooo/iiio ca?aaeaiith eiiao, aeeth/a? 15 aeae?a
i?yiie?eeeo (Orthoptera). Na?aae ieo 12 aeae?a ?iaeeie Acrididae
(Aiolopus thalassinus, Calliptamus barbarus, Chorthippus albomarginatus,
Ch. biguttulus, Ch. brunneus, Ch. dorsatus, Ch. macrocaerus,
Dociostaurus brevicollis, Euchorthippus pulvinatus, Oedaleus decorus,
Oedipoda coerulescens, Omocestus haemorrhoidalis) ? 3 aeaee ?iaeeie
Tettigoniidae (Platycleis affinis, P. tessellata, Tettigonia cantans).

3. ?icaeoie D. rheae o i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i? aei ?iaac?eii? 3-? noaae??
i?e oaiia?aoo?? +22-25iN o?eaa? 21-23 aeiae. ?icaeoie ee/eiee L1 i?ney
auoiaeo c yeoey aei ia?oi? eeiueee o?eaa? 8-10 ae?a, ae?oaa noaae?y
aeoaea ei?ioea — 3-4 aeiae. O?eaae?noue ?icaeoeo 3-? noaae?? aeecueei 10
ae?a. I?e oaiia?aoo?? +33-38iN oaiie ?icaeoeo ee/eiie D. rheae ??cei
i?enei?ththoueny e ?iaac?eia L3 oi?io?oueny aaea /a?ac 7 ae?a. Aia?oa
iaaaaeaii iien ii?oieia?? ee/eiie D. rheae, ui ?icaeaathoueny a
i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i? (I-III noaae??).

4. ?iaac?ei? ee/eiee D. rheae caeaoi? aei ia?aoai?/iiai ia?aceoecio. A
?ie? ia?aoai?/ieo oacy?a iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye aaco?aaaoi?, oae ?
o?aaaoi? oaa?eie, ui oa?/othoueny i?yiie?eeeie: eiiaoe c oiai ae ?yaeo
Orthoptera (Platycleis affinis, Platycleis tessellata, Gampsocleis
glabra, Acrida turrita, Calliptamus barbarus), a oaeiae aiaiiie (Mantis
religiosa), oa ?aioee?? (Lacerta agilis, Vipera ursini). Ia?aoai?/iee
ia?aceoeci aia?oa ?a?no?o?oueny o i?aaenoaaieea i?ae?yaeo Filariata.

5. Ia i?aenoaa? i?ea?iaeueieo aeaieo c aiaoii?? noaoaaic??eeo iaiaoiae
iiaeaii ?icoe?aiee ia?aiien D. rheae. Iienaii oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy y?oeue o
noaoaaeo oeyoao naiie; anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eaeecii o?aoy /anoeia eiaeii?
?c aeaio iaoie caiiaiaia c??eeie yeoeyie, ui i?noyoue oe?eeii noi?iiaaio
ee/eieo I-i? noaae?? (i?eaeecii 1000 y?oeue a 1 ii iaoi/ii? o?oaee).

6. Ia?aceoa?io nenoaio D. rheae neeaaeathoue o?e i?aenenoaie, ye?
ooieoe?iiothoue ia ??cieo aoaiao aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ia?aceoa: ia?aceo —
ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua, ia?aceo — i?ii?aeiee oacy?i, ia?aceo — inoaoi/iee
oacy?i. Eiaeia c i?aenenoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaiith oacith ?icaeoeo
ia?aceoa, nai???aei?noth na?aaeiaeua eiai ?nioaaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeieie
aaeaioaoe?yie, ni?yiiaaieie, o e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?, ia i?aeaeuaiiy
onoaeaiino? i?aenenoaie ? ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie a oe?eiio.

7. Aaciina?aaeiuei a ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu? ia?aceo ia?aaoaa? o?eueee
o oac? yeoey. Aeo?ae y?oeue cae?enith?oueny /a?ac o?aaiee o?aeo
inoaoi/iiai oacy?ia. Ee/eiea i?ae iaieiieaie yeoey aeineoue no?eea aei
ae?? iaaieo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua — ianoa/? aieiae ? aenieeo
aiie?ooae ceiiai-e?oi?o oaiia?aoo?. ?iaac?ei?noue ee/eiie a oiiaao
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua iiaea caa??aaoeny e?eueea ?ie?a. A yeoeyo, ui
caa??aaeeny i?e oaiia?aoo?? +1-5 iN (o oieiaeeeueieeo), aeeaeo ee/eiie
ciaoiaeeee e /a?ac /ioe?e ?iee. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue iaaieo
aaeaioaoe?e aei ?nioaaiiy a oiiaao a??aeiiai ee?iaoo.

8. Oi?ioaaiiy i?aenenoaie “ia?aceo — i?ii?aeiee oacy?i” ?aaoeth?oueny
a?eiaith no?oeoo?ith iiioeyoe?e i?ii?aeieo oacy?a, oa?/iaeie
i?aoa?aioe?yie ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi eiiao, i?inoi?iaei ?iciiae?eii
inoaoi/ieo oacy?a a i?noeyo oo?eiaiiy no?aon?a ? caeaaeeoue a?ae
iiaiaeieo oiia ?ieo. Iaae?ei?noue oeyo?a o?aini?n?? aaeuei?io?a /a?ac
na?aiiaeo iaoiiaeaia iaaiith i??ith i?e?iaeiith noeeuei?noth inoaii?o
aei eii?ioaa?? (ee/eiee 4-ai ? 5-ai a?e?a oa ?iaa?iaeuei? iniaeie).

9. Ocaiaeaeai?noue oa?/iaeo iio?aa ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi na?aiiaeo c ?o
caeaoi?noth aeeiioaaoe ?ieue i?ii?aeieo oacy?a iaiaoiaee iiina?aaeiaaii
?aaoeth?oueny oiiaaie ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Na?aiia? iieiaeoeo a?e?a
(1-3) ? iae?aaoieie o?oioaaaie, ?o oa?/ia? i?aoa?aioe?? iaiaaeothoueny
aeiyoeiai oeaieiaie aeeaeo ?ineei ? oiio aiie i?aeoe/ii ia iiaeooue
ca?aaeaoeny iaiaoiaeaie. I?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio caiaeiaoaaii? oaeei
eiiaoai y?oeue D. rheae, aiie aeiooue i?ney i?iieeiaiiy ee/eiie ia?aceoa
a aaiioeaeue. Cae/aeia aeey ae?oai? iieiaeie e?oa iinooa i?iaieo? eiiao,
ui caeaa?eueoiai aeinyaathoue a oeae /ano ?iaa?iaeueiiai noaio, aei
aeei?enoaiiy a ?aeo oaeae?e ye aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaea?aea aieiae, ui
iaeii/anii caaania/o? ?o ?ioaineaia ca?aaeaiiy. sse iane?aeie, i?ioyaii
naciio a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeiie/aiiy ?iaac?eieo ee/eiie D. rheae o
noeoiiino? iiioeyoe?e i?ii?aeieo oacy?a.

10. O/anoue ie?aieo aeae?a i?ii?aeieo oacy?a o ooieoe?iioaaii?
ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie D. rheae iaiaeiaeiaa ? iaoiiaeth?oueny ye
/enaeuei?noth iaaieo aeae?a, oae ? iniaeeainoyie ?oiuei? aeieia??.
I?aenenoaia “ia?aceo — i?ii?aeiee oacy?i” oi?io?oueny, ia?aaaaeii, ca
?aooiie aeaio aeae?a — Ch. albomarginatus ? C. barbarus. I?e oeueiio
ia?aceo aeei?enoiao? o a?aeiioaii? eiaeiiai c oeeo aeae?a oacy?a ??cio
no?aoaa?th. O aeiaaeeo c Ch. albomarginatus iaeneiaeueiee ?acoeueoao
aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ii?aeiaiiy aeniei? /enaeueiino? oeeo eiiao o
iaaiee ia??iae naciio ? noaa?eueiiai, oi/a ? ia aeoaea aenieiai,
cia/aiiy ?iaeaeno ?yniino? ia?aceoa. O aeiaaeeo c C. barbarus
ii?aeiothoueny aeoaea aenie? iieacieee ?iaeaeno ?yniino? ia?aceoa ?
iaaeniea, aea noaa?eueia, /enaeuei?noue i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia.

11. Ia?ao?ae D. rheae o i?aenenoaio “ia?aceo — inoaoi/iee oacy?i”
caaania/o?oueny iniaeeainoyie oa?/oaaiiy inoaoi/iiai oacy?ia, ioaoaiyoa
o ia?o? o?e i?nyoey aeeooy aeoeaii aeei?enoiaothoue a ?aeo i?yiie?eeeo.
Aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? neio?iii?noue oeeee?a ?icaeoeo inoaoi/iiai ?
i?ii?aeiiai oacy?a, a oaeiae naiiai ia?aceoa.

12. Aaeuei?ioioaoia no/anieo no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a o i?e?iaeieo
i?noeaia?aaoaaiiyo ? ciiia?eao ia?aoiao? 26 aeae?a, o oiio /ene? 18
aeae?a iaiaoiae, 7 aeae?a oeanoiae ? 1 aeae aeaioioeaoae?a. ssae?i
aaeuei?ioioaoie oeeo ioao?a neeaaeathoue niaoeeo?/i? aeaee ia?aceo?a; o
iane?aeie aee?iaoecaoe?? no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a a?aeaoaa?oueny
?icoe?aiiy aeaeiaiai neeaaeo aaeuei?io?a ca ?aooiie i?noeaaeo aeae?a,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iie?ainoaeuei?noth.

13. ?ic?iaeaii caaaeuei? aeieia?/i? i?eioeeie i?io?eaeoeee
aeeoaeeiiaiaoico i?e ?icaaaeaii? no?aon?a, a oaeiae eiie?aoi?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c i?io?eaeoeee aeeoaeeiiaiaoico. Iniiaa i?io?eaeoeee —
ia?a?eaaiiy eaiee ia?aaea/? ia?aceoa a?ae i?ii?aeiiai oacy?ia aei
inoaoi/iiai, ui aeinyaa?oueny ?ciethaaiiyi ioaoaiyo a?ae i?noeue
oo?eiaiiy aei?ineeo ioao?a. Oe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia?aaeaii ciiia?eai
“Aneai?y-Iiaa” (Oa?niinueea iae.) oa Iiai-Aeaea?nueeiio (Eoaainueea
iae.).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ?iaioao:

Aaea?aiei A.A. I yaeaiee ia?aoaie/aneiai ia?aceoecia o iaiaoiae
iiaeio?yaea Filariata.// Aanoiee ciieiaee. — 1994.- N 6.- N. 78-80.

Aaea?aiei A.A., Au?ea A.E. Iaia?oaeaiea ia?aceoa iaiaeo — iaiaoiaeu
Dicheilonema rheae Owen, 1843 (Filariata, Diplotriaenidae) — o
ao?eeaineiai no?aona // Aanoiee ciieiaee. — 1995.- N 2-3.- C.77.

Vakarenko E. The transmission of nematode Dicheilonema rheae
(Filariata, Diplotriaenidae), parasite of nandu (Rhea americana) in
“Askania-Nova” zoological garden // Parassitologia.- 1996.- Vol. 38.- ?
1-2.- P. 81.

Aaea?aiei A.A., Aaaieueneay I.A. Aeeoaeeiiaiaoic iaiaeo a oneiaeyo
ciiia?eia // I?aoe? Oe?a?inueeiai I?i?oieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa. — Ee?a,
1996.- O. 1.- N. 202-207.

Aaea?aiei A.A. Oee?eoeyoeey iaiaoiaeu Dicheilonema rheae a oneiaeyo
oeaeeiiie noaie “Aneaiey-Iiaa” // Ia?aceoieiaiy a Oe?a?ii. A/i?a,
nueiaiaeii, caao?a: Iao. thaie. eiio. OIOI, …16-17 o?aaiy 1995 ?.
Ee?a. — 1996.- N. 24-28.

Aaea?aiei A.A. Ia?aceoa?iay nenoaia iaiaoiaeu Dicheilonema rheae a
oneiaeyo oeaeeiiie noaie “Aneaiey-Iiaa”// Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 100-??//th caiia?aeaiiy
aneai?enueeiai noaio (Aneai?y-Iiaa, 21-23 o?aaiy 1998 ?.).-
Aneai?y-Iiaa, 1998.- N. 38-41.

Aaea?aiei A.A., Ei?ithoei A.A. Aaeueieioioaoia no?aoniiiaeiaiuo ioeoe e
aa eciaiaiey a nayce n aeeeeiaoecaoeeae e eneonnoaaiiui ?acaaaeaieai
oicyaa // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? ia?aceoieia?a (3-5
eenoiiaaea 1999 ?., Eeaa).- Eeaa, 1999.- N. 33-37.

Aaea?aiei A.A. E aeieiaee iaiaoiaeu Dicheilonema rheae — ia?aceoa
no?aonia // Oac.aeiee. OI eiio. Oe?aeineiai i-aa ia?aceoieiaia (Eeaa,
naioya?ue 1993).- Eeaa, 1993.- N.21-22.

Aaea?aiei A.A. ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeu Dicheilonema rheae (Filariata:
Diplotriaenidae) a iiioeyoeeyo i?iiaaeooi/iuo oicyaa // VI Ana?inneeneee
neiiiceoi ii iiioeyoeeiiiie aeieiaee ia?aceoia. 23-25 yiaa?y 1996 a.
Oac. aeiee. — I.- 1995.- N.14-15.

Aiioaoe??:

Aaea?aiei I.A. AEeoo?aee oeeee ? ia?aceoa?ia nenoaia iaiaoiaee
Dicheilonema rheae (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) a oiiaao caiia?aeieea
“Aneai?y-Iiaa”.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.18 — ia?aceoieia?y — aaeuei?ioieia?y. —
?inoeooo ciieia?? ?i. ?.?. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo oa ia?aceoa?ii?
nenoaie ia?aceoa iaiaeo (Rhea americana) iaiaoiaee Dicheilonema rheae
(Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) a oiiaao oe?eeiiiai noaio caiia?aeieea
“Aneai?y-Iiaa”. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?icoeo?iaaii
aeeoo?aee oeeee iaiaoiaee D. rheae, anoaiiaeaii eiei i?ii?aeieo oa
inoaoi/ieo oacy?a. Aia?oa aeey iaiaoiae i?ae?yaeo Filariata ia i?eeeaae?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai aeaeo anoaiiaeaia caeaoi?noue aei ia?aoai?/iiai
ia?aceoecio, ie?aneaii eiei iioaioe?eieo ia?aoai?/ieo oacy?a. Aea/aii
ii?oieia?y noaoaaic??eeo D. rheae oa ee/eiie, ?icaeoie yeeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny o i?ii?aeiiio oacy?i? — i?yiie?eeeo eiiaoao.
Aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?o ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie D. rheae a oiiaao
oe?eeiiiai noaio “Aneai?y-Iiaa”, aea/aiee eiiieaen aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a,
ui coiiaeththoue onoaeai?noue aeaii? nenoaie. Ocaaaeueiai? iayai? a
e?oa?aoo?? a?aeiiino? i?i aaeuei?ioioaoio no?aoniiiae?aieo ioao?a o
?oi?o i?e?iaeieo i?noeaia?aaoaaiiyo ? i?iaiae?ciaai? ci?ie a ?? neeaae?
a ca’yceo c aee?iaoecaoe??th oacy?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Dicheilonema rheae, Rhea americana, Orthoptera,
ii?oieia?y, aeeoo?aee oeeee, no?oeoo?a ia?aceoa?ii? nenoaie.

Vakarenko E.G. The life cycle and the parasite system of the nematode
Dicheilonema rheae (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) under the conditions of
«Askania Nova» Reserve. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of the Candidate of Biological Sciences
by speciality 03.00.18 — parasitology — helminthology. Schmalhausen
Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv,
1999.

The dissertation deals with the study of the life cycle and parasite
system of the nematode Dicheilonema rheae (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae),
parasite of nandu (Rhea americana), under the conditions of virgin
steppe in «Askania Nova» Reserve. The life cycle of the nematode was
discovered, the range of its intermediate and final hosts was estimated.
First within the order Filariata, the ability to infect paratenic hosts
was found for D. rheae; a number of possible paratenic hosts was
determined. The morphology of adults and larvae from intermediate hosts
was studied. The structure of D. rheae parasite system under the
conditions of «Askania-Nova» virgin steppe was investigated. The complex
of ecological factors affecting the system stability was studied. The
published data on helminth fauna of ratite birds (Struthioformes,
Rheiformes, Casuariformes) in their natural habitats were generalised.
Changes of this helminth fauna composition, caused by the host
naturalisation, were analysed.

Key words: Dicheilonema rheae, Rhea americana, Orthoptera, morphology,
life cycle, parasite system structure.

Aaea?aiei A.A. AEeciaiiue oeeee e ia?aceoa?iay nenoaia iaiaoiaee
Dicheilonema rheae (Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) a oneiaeyo caiiaaaeieea
“Aneaiey-Iiaa”. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.18 — ia?aceoieiaey — aaeueieioieiaey. —
Einoeooo ciieiaee ei. E.E. Oiaeueaaocaia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth aeeciaiiiai oeeeea e ia?aceoa?iie
nenoaiu ia?aceoa iaiaeo (Rhea americana) iaiaoiaeu Dicheilonema rheae
(Filariata: Diplotriaenidae) a oneiaeyo oeaeeiiie noaie caiiaaaeieea
“Aneaiey-Iiaa”. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ?anoeo?iaai
aeeciaiiue oeeee iaiaoiaeu D. rheae, onoaiiaeai e?oa i?iiaaeooi/iuo e
ieii/aoaeueiuo oicyaa. I?iiaaeooi/iuie oicyaaaie yaeythony ianaeiiua ec
io?yaea i?yiie?ueuo (Orthoptera) — i?aaenoaaeoaee naiaenoa Acrididae e
Tettigoniidae; ieii/aoaeueiuie, e?iia iaiaeo, — ao?eeaineee no?aon
(Struthio camelus) e yio (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Aia?aua aeey
iaiaoiae iiae?yaea Filariata ia i?eia?a enneaaeoaiiai aeaea onoaiiaeaia
niiniaiinoue e ia?aoaie/aneiio ia?aceoecio, i/a?/ai e?oa iioaioeeaeueiuo
ia?aoaie/aneeo oicyaa. Eco/aia ii?oieiaey iieiaic?aeuo D. rheae e
ee/eiie, ?acaeaathueony a i?iiaaeooi/iii oicyeia — i?yiie?ueuo
ianaeiiuo. Enneaaeiaaia no?oeoo?a ia?aceoa?iie nenoaiu D. rheae,
i?aaenoaaeaiiie o?aiy iiaenenoaiaie, ooieoeeiie?othueie ia ?aciuo yoaiao
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ia?aceoa: ia?aceo — aiaoiyy n?aaea, ia?aceo —
i?iiaaeooi/iue oicyei, ia?aceo — ieii/aoaeueiue oicyei. Eco/ai eiiieaen
yeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, iaoneaaeeaathueo onoie/eainoue eaaeaeie ec
iiaenenoai a ioaeaeueiinoe e anae ia?aceoa?iie nenoaiu a oeaeii.
?ac?aaioaiu iauea yeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu i?ioeeaeoeee aeeoaeeiiaiaoica
i?e eneonnoaaiiii ?acaaaeaiee no?aonia. Iaiauaiiu eiathueany a
eeoa?aoo?a naaaeaiey i aaeueieioioaoia no?aoniiiaeiaiuo ioeoe a eo
anoanoaaiiuo ianoiiaeoaieyo e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eciaiaiey a aa ninoaaa a
nayce n aeeeeiaoecaoeeae oicyaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Dicheilonema rheae, Rhea americana, Orthoptera,
ii?oieiaey, aeeciaiiue oeeee, no?oeoo?a ia?aceoa?iie nenoaiu.

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