I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?I. TH.OAAeUeEIAE*A

OAeE 130.3

EA?AEAO IAOAE?ss A?EAI??AIA

AEEOO?AEE NA?O ETHAeEIE OA IA?AAEEAAIIss IATH NOAIO NAIIOIINO? ssE
I?AAeIAO O?EINIONUeEIAI AIAE?CO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.09 – o?einio?y iaoee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iaeiaaoeueeee Aaeai Iaoiae?eiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith o?einio?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.
Oaaeueeiae/a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeaaai Ieeiea
Aiae??eiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei
(i. Ee?a);

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio O?iyinueeee Aieiaeeie?
Aiae??eiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? iaaeeoeeie, IIC oa
noni?eueieo iaoe Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.A.
Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a o?einio?? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.
Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 15 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 10-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith: 274000,
i. *a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2 (14-e ei?ion).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (274000, i. *a?i?aoe?, aoe.
Ean? Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Ea?ii A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. AEeoo?aee na?o ethaeeie ?ioaa?o? a
nia? ioi/oth/a i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, noa?o nioe?aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai
(nioe?oi, aoiin, aea?aeaaa, ii?aeue, ienoaoeoai, o?einio?y, ?ae?a?y
oiui), noeoii?noue iaiao?aeieo ?e ?a/ae, a oaeiae aioo??oi?e aeooiaiee
na?o, yeee aeoeaii ooieoe?iio? a ?? ?iaeea?aei?e aooo?aino? oa nioe?oi?,
a nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo i?ioeanao. Nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe oeio
aea?aeaae, i?aaa, iaoee, noa?e ina?oe ? o.i. ?niothoue ye neeaaeia?
nioe?oio, a i?inoi?? yeiai ?icai?oa?oueny ?iaeea?aeia aeeooy. Oe?
aeaiaioe nioe?aeueii? nenoaie iathoue iaae?iaeea?aeio i?e?iaeo ?
aieeaathoue ia ethaeeio ye neee, ui oi?iothoue ?? aeooiaiee na?o /a?ac
caniae nioe?ae?caoe??, aeoiaaiiy, i?eiono ? o. ?i.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy noni?euenoaa aaco?oueny ia ??cieo niiniaao aeeoo?aeyao
iniaenoino? ? iaaiith i??ith i?ia?aio? ?? ae?yeuei?noue ? iiaaae?ieo.
I?ioa ethaeeia, ye nioe?aeueia ?noioa, ?nio? ? ae?? ia o?eueee o
ciai?oiueiio aooo?, a e o nai?io aeaniiio, aioo??oiuei aeooiaiiio,
aecenoaioe?eiiio, eiee aioo??oi?e ? ciai?oi?e na?oe ni?a?niothoue ye
uinue ?aeeia. I?e oeueiio ethaeeia i??? i?i uinue, iai?/a? eiioo?e naiai
iaeaooiueiai, ?aae?? /e no?aaeaea?, eaea iacono??/ ?ioei ethaeyi /e
caieea?oueny o nia?, a?ae/oaath/e iio?aao iiaooe iaiaeeioe? c niaith,
onai?oieoenue. Oea — oae caaia aeia?ia?eueia onai?oiaiiy.

Ae?oaee aeae onai?oiaiiy ii?iaeaeoaaany nioe?aeueieie oaeoi?aie
-i?eioniaei a?ae/oaeaiiyi ethaeeie a?ae ?iaeo /e ieaiai?, a i?ci?oa,
aaea a ?aaiaeanieoeueeiio noni?euenoa?, a?aeeo/aiiyi ?? a?ae oea?eae, ui
aaaaeaeiny iaea?eueoei iiea?aiiyi ?iaeea?aea, ??aiicia/iei eiai
aeooiai?e nia?o?.

O?ao?e aeae naiioiino? oa onai?oiaiiy ii?iaeaeaiee ?iaeono??aeueiei
noni?euenoaii, iacai?iieie noiooieeaie yeiai ? oaiiiai a?ae/oaeaiiy ?
naiia?ae/oaeaiiy, iino?eiee aieea ia ethaeeio ??ciiiai?oieo o/aiue,
io?oe?eii? ?aeaieia??, cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? oiui.

Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae oi?i ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy iin?aea? eiioi?eaoe?y
ye noa’?eo-noa’?eoia aca?iiae?y. sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae, /ei
?ioi?iaoeai?oeie noathoue i?ae?iaeea?aeoaeuei? noinoiee, oei iaioa oa
??aeoa a ieo cae?enith?oueny «cono??/ ethaenueeeo aeieue» (A.N.Aao?uaa),
iaioa ?aae?co?oueny iiaiioa aoooy eiaeiiai ?c noa’?eo?a ni?eeoaaiiy, a
nai? eiioi?eaoeai? i?ioeane noathoue iaio a?aeaa?oeie ? iaio aeooaaieie.

Aeaaeae? iii?oi?oei noa? i?aaiaiiy /a?iaoe ?c noa? nioe?aeueieo
eiioi?eaoe?e eeoa uinue ?ino?oiaioaeueia, nooi i?aaiaoe/ia.
Niinoa??aa?oueny caaaeaiiy ethaenueeeo noinoie?a aei ia’?eoii-?a/iai?
aeoeaiino?, a?aeaoaa?oueny aano?aaoaaiiy a?ae onueiai oiai, ui ia
aieno?oueny a ae?yeuei?niee e?oaiia?a. An? oe? i?ioeane ? yaeua
aeiaaathoue ?o anaa?/iiai oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, ui e ni?e/eieei
aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaenoaaeaii? aei caoenoo aeena?oaoe??.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. Oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy oaiiiaio
naiioiino? aa?a na?e ii/aoie c aiioe ?aiiueiai i?ioanoaioecio (ia?oa
iieiaeia XVI no.), yeee iaaeiioe?ithaaa ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeeie c
ethaeeiith ? i?iiaaoaaa ?aeath aaciina?aaeiueiai ae?aeiao c Aiaii. I?ioa
oe?iea aea/aiiy iacaaiiai yaeua i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo oi?i noni?eueii?
aeoiee ?icii/aeiny eeoa a ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no., c ?icaeoeii
o?einionueei? eiioeaioe?? aia?eeainueeeo o?ainoeaiaeaioae?no?a
(?.O.Aia?nii, A.Ae.Oi?i, Aeae.?eie? oa ?i.).

Ui noino?oueny ?a?iiaenueeiai eiioeiaioo, oi a oeth ae aiioo (ia?oa
iieiaeia XIX no.) i?iaeaia naiioiino? ethaeeie caeiaea /?eueia i?noea a
ooaeiaei?e oai?/ino? i?ia?aneaieo ieooe?a-?iiaioee?a ??cieo e?a?i
(Aeae.Aae?ii, A.Athai, A.I?oeeaae/, O.Iaoao?, E.O.?eea?a, E.I.A?theia,
A.Aeaeae?oa, O.Oiiai, A.Aa?e?ic, O.E?no), ? /anoeiai a i?iaoeuee?e
o?einio?? oe??? aiioe (E.O?ooa, O.Oaee?ia, O.Oeae??iaoa? oa ?i.)

No/anieeii ?a?iiaenueeeo ?iiaioee?a aoa oaeiae aeaonueeee o?einio
Nuei?ai E’??eaai?, yeee, o ieai? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, a?aeiiee a
?noi??? o?einio?? ye i?iiia?aeiee “aneaoe/ii? naiioiino?” oa aoooy
ethaeeie o a?/iiio no?aoo. No?ao o E’??eaai?a aenooia? ye iaeaaaeeea?oa
oa?aeoa?enoeea ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy ? a?aeia?aaea? aoooy ethaeeie
“ia?aae eeoeai nia?o?” oa ia ?? oeyoo aei Aiaa. Aaniethoiee a?ae/ae, ia
aeoieo E’??eaai?a, i?eaiaeeoue ethaeeio aei ona?aeiieaiiy ?ae?a?eiiai
cia/aiiy nai?? iniaenoino?, oiaoi i?aeiineoue ia ?ae?a?eio noaae?th
?nioaaiiy.

?ae?a?ei? iioeae o ieoaiiyo ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy oa iiaeieaiiy
?iaeea?aeii aeeoo?aeo o?oaeiiu?a, ciaa??e o aeeooy, naiioiino?
i?eoaiaii? iaoeiaei i?aoeyi oa ooaeiaei?i oai?ai aaaaoueio o?einio?a,
nioe?ieia?a, ienueiaiiee?a OIO – ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy (A.Oiiaiaaoa?,
O.I?oeoa, A.Ae?eueoae, I.Aaaa?, A.Oieia?, i?aaenoaaieee ?in?enueei?
?ae?a?eii? o?einio?? A.Nieiaeia, E.Oanoia, N.Aoeaaeia, I.Oei?ainueeee,
N.O?aie, I.Aa?aey?a). A?eeth i?i ethaeeio oa a??ith a ?? neee i?iieeioo?
ooaeiaei? oai?e iaeiiai c iaeaeaeaoi?oeo ienueiaiiee?a na?oo
O.I.Aeinoi?anueeiai. Oaeei aea iioei?ciii ? a??ith a ethaeeio
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?aoe? i?aaenoaaiee?a
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.A?ooaanueeiai,
A.E?noye?anueeiai, I.Eiaaeaanueeiai oa ?i.

I?ioa nai? iaeaeeaoa a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?iaeaia ethaenueei? naiioiino? oa
iiooe?a aeooaaii? oaieioe, aca?ii?icoi?iiy, ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiino? ciaeoee
o i?aoeyo ooiaeaoi?a o?einionueei? aio?iiieia?? I.Oaea?a,
o?einio?a-aecenoaioe?ae?no?a E.ssnia?na, I.Aaeaeaaaa?a, A.Eaith,
AE.-I.Na?o?a, I.Aaaaiueyii oa ?i.; cao?aeieo nioe?ieia?a oa nioe?aeueieo
ineoieia?a OO no. (A.O?iii, A.O?aiee, I.Aaeaeaaaa?, TH.Aaaa?ian,
I.Aoaa?, I.Oiooea?, A.A?aea? oa ?i.). Oae, ia aeoieo a?aeiiiai
aia?eeainueeiai nioe?ieiaa Iea?ia Oiooea?a, ?iaeono??aeueia noni?euenoai
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oeaio?ae?caoe??th, iaeiiiai?oi?noth, iiiioiiiith
i?aoeath, a?ae/oaeaiiyi ? naiia?ae/oaeaiiyi ethaeeie. Oiio
oeea?e?caoe?y, yea i?eeaea ia ci?io ?iaeono??aeueiiio eai?oae?cio,
cia/ii a?ae??ciyoeiaoueny a?ae iacaaiiai oeio noni?euenoaa, ine?eueee
a?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eyoeia n?i’?, aeica?eeth, i?ae?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
noinoieai.

Ui noino?oueny iaoi? a?o/eciyii? noni?eueii? aeoiee (a ?aieao
eieeoiueiai N?N?), cie?aia no/anii? oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? oa
nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??, oi inoaii?i /anii a/ai?-noni?euenoaiciaaoe?
noaee a?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eyoe i?iaeaiai, iia’ycaiei c
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei noaiii ?iaeea?aea ? iaa?oue aaeeeeo a?oi
ethaeae, yeee aiie ia?aaeeaathoue i?ae aieeaii aeeoo?aeo ianoaaei
(I.?.Oeoa?aiei, ?.N.Eii, I.A.Aeai/aaa, TH.I.Oaaea, A.?.Ai?ae,
?.?.Aieiaaoa, I.A.Iai?ia, A.I.?aaiia, E.A.Nioaiue oa ?i.); ieoaiiyi
nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe??, aaeaioaoe?? iniaenoino? oa ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
aei e?eciaeo oiia, iineeaiith ?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea a ia??iae
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa (A.I.?o/ea, I.A.Ceia?ia, A.I.Oeoiiiae/,
A.I.Aeii/aiei, TH.?.Na?iei, A.?.Oa?anaiei, A.A.Ooaeei, I.I.sseoaa oa
?i.).

Ioaea, i?iaeaia ethaenueei? naiioiino? ? aaaaoia?aiiith ?
aaaaoianiaeoiith, aei ia? iino?eii caa?oathoueny ye ca?oa?aei?, oae ?
a?o/eciyi? a/ai?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?? aeooaeuei?noue. I?ioa
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieie ? ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny ?iaeea?aeii?
aooo?aino? oa nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo i?ioean?a o iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo
noni?euenoaao (o o./. a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?), naiia?ae/oaeaiiy ethaeae
iaeei a?ae iaeiiai i?ae aieeaii nioe?aeueieo oiia ?oiueiai ?nioaaiiy,
ci?ie ?o oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e, aaeaioaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae oiui.
A?aenooiy /?oea eiioeaiooaeueia aaca a ieai? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie c eaoaae?aeueiith iaoeiaith oaiith.
Aeine?aeaeoaaia a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaia o?nii iia’ycaia c eiiieaeniith
oaiith iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eaoaae?e o?einio?? *AeO
“O?einionueei-nioe?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueiiai
iioaioe?aeo iniae ? noni?euenoaa” (1997-1999 ??.), o ?ic?iaoe? yei?
aeena?oaio aa?a aaciina?aaeith o/anoue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o? oi?ie ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?, a oaeiae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i? oa aeooiai? oaeoi?e, ui ni?e/eiythoue
oi?ioaaiiy oaiiiaio naiioiino? ethaeeie a noni?euenoa?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeeoo?aee na?o oa naiioi?noue ethaeeie ye
?iaeea?aeii-iniaeno?nia ? nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa (ia?aaeon?i oe?a?inueeiai) oa iiooee oeyo?a eiai
noaa?e?caoe?? ? ca?eueoaiiy aaeaioeaieo iiaeeeainoae ?iaeea?ae?a,
iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo i?ioean?a o no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio
noni?euenoa?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith ? i?aeoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? nenoaiiee oa ae?yeuei?niee i?aeoiaee uiaei iiyniaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai
nioe?aeueiiai yaeua, a oaeiae i?aoe? eeanee?a na?oiai? oa a?o/eciyii?
o?einio??, nioe?ieia??, nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? ? no/anieo
noni?euenoaiciaaoe?a, o yeeo aena?oeththoueny ??ci? aniaeoe oaiiiaio
naiioiino? ethaeeie, ?? a?ae/oaeaiiy oa naiia?ae/oaeaiiy a noni?euenoa?.
I?e iaa?oiooaaii? aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?eiio oa
ie?aieo eiai aniaeo?a aeena?oaio nie?aeany ia
o?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/i? ?aea? I.Oaea?a, o?einionuee? a/aiiy O.I?oeoa
oa A.Oiiaiaaoa?a, aecenoaioe?aeueio o?einio?th I.Aaaaiueyii, A.Eaith,
AE.-I.Na?o?a, a oaeiae ia i?aoe? oe?iei a?aeiieo ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a
I.Aaaa?a, A.Aeth?eaaeia, E.ssnia?na, I.Aoaa?a, TH.Aaaa?iana, I.Oiooea?a,
A.O?aieea oa ?i. Nooo?ao aeiiiiiao iaaeaee aeena?oaioo i?aoe? aaaaoueio
oe?a?inueeeo aaoi??a (I.A.Aeai/aaa, TH.I.Oaaea, A.?.Ai?ae, ?.?.Aieiaaoa,
I.A.Iai?ia, I.A.Oeoiiiae/ oa ?i.).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
o?einionueeee aiae?c aeeoo?aiai na?oo ? oaiiiaio naiioiino? ethaeeie a
?? ?iaeea?aei?e aooo?aino? oa nenoai? nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e
no/aniiai noni?euenoaa (e?eciaiai — ia?aaeon?i). ?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaio
/a?ac i?ecio eiioeaioe?e o?einionueei? aio?iiieia??, nioe?aeueii? oa
eiioi?eaoeaii? o?einio??, ?icoi?th/i? nioe?ieia?? oa ?i., nie?ath/enue
ia oai?aoe/i? aeaea?aea, nioe?aeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th oa iaoa??aee
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeena?oaio noaaeoue ia?aae niaith oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?noi?e/iee aniaeo oaiiiaio ethaenueei? naiioiino? oa
??ciiiai?oi? eiioeaioe?? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ii??aiyeueiee iaoiae i?ciaiiy nioe?aeueieo yaeu;

— aeae?eeoe ??ci? oi?ie ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino? ethaeeie, iniaeeai o? c
ieo, ye? iae/ano?oa ii?iaeaeothoue oaiiiai naiioiino?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeai? i?ioeane a noni?euenoa? oa
i?e/eie aeeneiioi?oiiai noaio a?eueoino? a?iiaaeyi no/anii? Oe?a?ie,
naiia?ae/oaeaiiy ethaeae iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, ii?ooaiiy nioe?aeueieo
ca’yce?a, ui, a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo, ii?iaeaeo? oaiiiai naiioiino?
ethaeeie;

— ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae, nioe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa iaoa??ae?a
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny iei? a Oe?a?i? (o o./.
e nioe?ieiaaie *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
TH.Oaaeueeiae/a), iieacaoe aieea aiii?/iiai noaio no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ia oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? ethaeae oa ?o
naiiii/oooy, aeeoo?a? ieaie;

— ?icaeyioaoe ieoaiiy, ui iia’ycai? c eiioi?eaoeaieie caeaoiinoyie iniae
oa ?? aaeaioaoe??th aei nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?, noi?ioethaaoe
eiioeaioe?th iiaeieaiiy oaiiiaio naiioiino? oa e?ece ethaenueeeo
niiae?aaiue, yea ? aaoi?nueeith eiioeaioe??th aeena?oaioa;

— aeoiaey/e c iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo,
iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeea?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue iiaeieaiiy ethaenueei?
naiioiino? /a?ac aeoea?caoe?th ?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea oa iineeaiiy eiai
?ie? a noni?eueieo i?ioeanao ? aeooiaii-?ioaeaeooaeueiiio ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?, a oi?aae?ii? noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie ia an?o ??aiyo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?c oaiiiaio naiioiino? /a?ac
aeeoo?aee na?o ethaeeie oa i?ecio iniiaieo oi?i ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?
? nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e ? iaeiei c ia?oeo a oe?a?inuee?e
o?einionuee?e e?oa?aoo??.

C?iaeaii ?yae aeniiae?a i?eioeeiiaiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? iiaeooue
caii/aoeoaaoe iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ia?aii? oaie:

— ia ??ai? iniiaieo oi?i ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?
(ae?yeuei?nii-i?aeoe/ii?, eiioi?eaoeaii? oa aecenoaioe?eii?), oaiiiai
naiioiino? iae/ano?oa i?iyaey?oueny a o?ao?e oi?i? aooo?aino?
(aecenoaioe?ei?e), ? iaeeaaoa aeiea?oueny a eiioi?eaoeai?e, a nenoai?
ae?aeiaiai? aca?iiae?? “ss-Oe”;

— ye nioe?aeueiee oaeoi?, naiioi?noue oa naiia?ae/oaeai?noue ethaeeie
iineeththoueny a e?eciaiio noni?euenoa?, ioiiethth/e oe?ie? aa?noae
ianaeaiiy ??ciiai a?eo, iaoe?iiaeueii? i?eiaeaaeiino?, ina?oiueiai
??aiy, aea ia’?aeiaieo ai?ioueaith ca aeaeeaaiiy, a ye?e iaei?
ia?aiaaathoue, a ?io? aiaaeathoue o a?ae/ae aai noathoue a iiiceoe?th
uiaei ?nioth/i? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie; iacaaiee aeua oaiiiai ?nio? a
e?a?iao c aenieei ??aiai aeeooy oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
(/ano?oa ia ?iaeea?aeiiio ??ai? ? cia/ii iaioa ia nioe?aeueiiio);

— ia oi?ioaaiiy (/e iiaeieaiiy) naiioiino? ye aeooaaiiai noaio ethaeeie
aeoeaii aieeaathoue oaeoi?e ia’?eoeaiiai oa noa’?eoeaiiai ii?yaeeo:
caaaeueiee noai noni?euenoaa (noaa?eueiee /e e?eciaee), ??aaiue aeeooy
ethaeae, ?o noni?euei? a?aeiineie, iie?oe/iee ?aaeei, ?icaeoie (/e
aaeueioaaiiy) aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?ioean?a, a oaeiae aoii-iaoe?iiaeuei?
yeino? ?iaeea?ae?a, ?ene ?o oa?aeoa?o, ?ae?a?eia i?eiaeaaei?noue oiui;

— naiioi?noue, ye eiiiiiaio aeeoo?aiai na?oo ethaeeie, ooieoe?iio? a
ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino? c i?eiaeaaei?noth ?iaeea?aea aei nioe?aeueii?
ni?eueiino? (?iaeo, ieaiai?, ia?iaeiino?, iaoe??, aei iaei? nioe?aeueii?
a?oie) ? ? i?ioeeaaei?noth eiai i?aaiaiith aooe na?aae ethaeae,
ni?eeoaaoeny c ieie. Ioaea, ? naiioi?noue oa onai?oiaiiy, ? ni?eeoaaiiy
ye iaeei c aeae?a nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe??, ? ?iaeiaeie yeinoyie
ethaeeie;

— ye iacaaia aeua ye?noue ethaeeie, aeaiaioe ?? aeeoo?aiai na?oo,
naiioi?noue iaoeia i?noea, iaaooue, caaaeaee; ye nioe?aeueiee oaeoi?,
iaeneiaeueii aoaea ciyoee o oae caaiiio neia?aaoe/iiio (aai
?ioi?iaoeaiiio, iino?iaeono??aeueiiio noni?euenoa?), /anoeiai
caeeoeaoenue ? i?iyaeyth/enue a yeino? ao?eaooo no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaia oe?e?nia
aaoi?nueea eiioeaioe?y iiaeieaiiy oaiiiaio naiioiino? oa e?ece
ethaenueeeo niiae?aaiue i?ae aieeaii oaeoi??a ye ia’?eoeaiiai, oae ?
noa’?eoeaiiai ii?yaeeo. Aeaiee i?ioean ?icaeyaea?oueny ia oii?
caaaeueii? e?ece, yea ioiieea an? noa?e aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i io?eiaieie
?acoeueoaoaie ? aeniiaeaie, ye? iiaeooue caii/aoeoaaoe iiaeaeueo?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c ie?aieo aniaeo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? oaie, cie?aia c
i?iaeai aaeaioaoe?? ?iaeea?aea aei e?eciai? neooaoe?? eiai ?nioaaiiy, c
ieoaiue iineeaiiy ?ie? ?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea a iei?oi?o oiiaao oa ?i. A
iaoiaeeea, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeany aeena?oaioii i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ia?aii?
oaie, iiaea canoinoaaoeny i?e aea/aii? aeeooy oa iiaooo naiioi?o ethaeae
– /ieia?e?a, ae?iie, a?iiaaeyi iioeeiai a?eo. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny oaeiae i?e /eoaii? ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a ?
niaoeeo?n?a c o?einio??, nioe?ieia??, nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??,
i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e, aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ?
neiiic?oiao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ia e?eueeio I?aeia?iaeieo oa Anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: No/ania aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae.
Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y.- *a?i?aoe?,1996;
Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?: ?aaeuei?noue, i?iaeaie,
i?iaiice ia XXI noie?ooy. I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. –
*a?i?aoe?-Ee?a,1996; Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: oaeoi? na?oiai? ?ioaa?aoe??.
I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. – *a?i?aoe?,1997;
Aeooiai?noue oe?a?inoaa. Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y.
– AEeoiie?,1998.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
oai?aoe/iiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e o?einio?? *AeO, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e
i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c? nooaeaioaie. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeia?aaeai? o ainueie iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo: c ieo
i’youe iaeiiin?aieo ? o?e o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii, i?io.
A.I.Iaeiaaoeueeei.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa a ioae?eaoe?? ca ?? 2, 5 ? 7 aeeth/a?:
aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e oeo oe?iiinoae, ia ye? nueiaiaei? i???ioo?oueny
iieiaeue, o o./. nooaeaionueea; aiae?c oaiiiaio ni?eeoaaiiy o
iieiae?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?; ni?anoaaeaiiy noa’?eoeaiiai na?oo ie?aiiai
?iaeea?aea c aeooiai?noth nioe?oio; naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie a ??
?iaeea?aei?e aooo?aino? oa eiioi?eaoeaieo ca’yceao c ?ioeie.
Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ia

eaoaae?? o?einio?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ci?noii i?iaeaie ? a?aeiia?aea?
iinoaaeaiei ia?aae aeine?aeaeaiiyi iao? ? caaaeaiiyi. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe neeaaea? 152 noi?. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 193 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aiae?co?oueny nooi?iue ?? ?ic?iaee o o?einionuee?e e?oa?aoo??,
aecia/athoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe,
?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ai?iaaoe?y
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “I?iaeaia naiioiino? ethaeeie a oai?aoe/ieo
aeaea?aeao oa iniiai? iai?yie ? iaoiaee ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy” —
aiae?co?oueny oaiiiai ethaenueei? naiioiino? a o?einionuee?e
aio?iiieia?? oa nioe?aeuei?e o?einio??, iaaiaeeoueny eeaneo?eaoe?y
iniiaieo oi?i ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?, i?iaaaeaii ?o anaa?/iee aiae?c ia
iniia? o?einionueei? eeaneee oa i?aoeue no/anieo aaoi??a – a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo.

Oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy oaiiiaio naiioiino? ia? aeaai? o?aaeeoe??. ? oiio
aoei a iaa??iei iia’ycoaaoe eiai o?eueee c OO no. /e c ?icaeoeii
eai?oae?noe/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa. O?enoeyinoai c naiiai ii/aoeo ni?eeiyei ?
aeoioethaaei a nia? a?ae/oooy ai?oth/i? naiioiino?. Iaiao?aeii
cacia/eoe, ui ?aii?e i?ioanoaioeci ia caeeoaa i?noey aeey ?ice?eooy
aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie /a?ac ni?eeoaaiiy c ?ioeie ethaeueie.
Aeciaaaeanue o?eueee iaeia oi?ia ni?eeoaaiiy – ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee,
caieiooee “ae?aeia” c Aiaii. C ?icaeoeii o?einionueei? eiioeaioe??
aia?eeainueeeo o?ainoeaiaeaioae?no?a ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. (?.O.
Aia?nii, A.Ae. Oi?i, Aeae. ?eie? oa ?i.) oaeoe/ii ?icii/eia?oueny
aea/aiiy oaiiiaio ethaenueei? naiioiino? i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo oi?i
noni?eueii? aeoiee. Aia?eeainuee? o?ainoeaiaeaioae?noe aoee, ii noo?,
ia?oeie, ooi c?iaea ni?iao i?iaanoe ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae naiioi?noth ye
i?iaeoeoii i?nueeiai aeeooy, ? onai?oiaiiyi, iaiao?aeiei aeey oai?/i?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, c iaoith eiioeaio?aoe?? ia ?? aioo??oi?o
aeooiaieo iioaioe?yo.

?ioo eiioeaioe?th naiioiino? oa onai?oiaiiy aenoioa no/aniee Oi?i,
aeaonueeee ?ae?a?eiee o?einio Nuei?ai E’??eaai?. Naiioi?noue E’??eaai?a
– oea caieiooee na?o aioo??oiuei? naiina?aeiiino?, i?iieeiaiiy a
???aoe?iiae?noe/iee ia?ac Aiaa, yeee, ia eiai aeoieo, iiaea noaoe
?aeeiei ni?a?iciiaieeii caaoaeaiiai a na?o? ?iaeea?aea.

Oaiiiai ethaenueei? naiioiino? caeia? cia/ia i?noea a cao?aei?e
o?einionuee?e aio?iiieia??, aea a?i aiae?co?oueny a iniiaiiio o ?aieao
i?iaeaie ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?. Aieiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith nooiino?
ethaeeie, ia aeoieo caniiaieea oe??? oa/?? a o?einio?? Iaena Oaea?a, ?
aio?iiieia?/iee aeoae?ci aeooo ? aeeooy. I?e oeueiio a?i ia
iaiaaeo?oueny i?inoith eiinoaoaoe??th iayaiino? o ethaeeie aeooo, a
i?aaia aeaoe ?icai?iooo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ethaeeie ye “aeooiaiiai aoooy”, a
yeiio caeeaaeaia i?ioeeaaei?noue oaa?eiiiio ?nioaaiith ? i?iyaey?oueny
naiioi?noue oa naiia?ae/oaeai?noue. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aeooiai?noue ? aecia/aeueiith iciaeith ethaeeie. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
I.Oaea?a O.I?oeoa iacaaa naiioi?noue “aeaoeeaith aiaeiath ? iao??’th
an?o ethaenueeeo i?eno?anoae”. Ieoeoa O. *aeiaa/aneia, neeoeii
/aeiaa/aneia. – I., 1911. — O. 3. — N.7.

?iaeea?aeia aooo?a?noue, a ?aieao yei? ethaeeia iae/ano?oa ia?aaeeaa?
noai naiioiino?, i?aaiaiiy ?iaeea?aea ona?aeiieoe nai? i?noea na?aae
?ioeo ethaeae, ?ic??aaoe ?aiee naiioiino?, a?ae/oaeaiino?, ?ica’ycaoe
aeey naiiai naaa ieoaiiy “ui ? naiaiaea?”, — oe? oa ?io? i?iaeaie
noiyoue, ii noo?, ia ia?oiio i?noe? a o?einio?? aecenoaioe?ae?cio.
Aeaeaoiee ?oae?enueeee ieneeoaeue, o?einio-aecenoaioe?ae?no I.Aaaaiueyii
aaaaea?, ui a iniiao ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? naiaiaee iiaeiia aooe iieeaaeaia
i?iaeaiaoe/i?noue. Oea icia/a?, ui naiaiaea caaaeaee ? a?aee?eoith
i?iaeaiith, ine?eueee aiia i?iyaey?oueny o noaaeaii? ethaeeie aei aoooy
oa ?ioeo ethaeae, a aecenoaioe?aeueiiio aeai??. sseui aeey I.Aaeaeaaaa?a
aecenoaioe?y ? naiaiaea i?iyaeythoueny o iia?aie/i?e neooaoe??, ia?aae
eeoeai nia?o?, oi o I.Aaaaiueyii aecenoaioe?y ? oioiaeiith naiaiae? ?
ooieoe?iio? a aooo?aino? ethaeae, ?o ni?euei?e i?aoe?, o noaaeaii?
ethaeeie aei na?oo oa aei ?ioeo ethaeae.

Iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo i?noeue o o?einionuee?e e?oa?aoo?? iin?aea?
ae?yeuei?noue ye oi?ia ? niin?a ethaenueei? aooo?aino?. Iaea?eueoee
aeeaae o ?ic?iaeo oa anaa?/iee aiae?c aeaii? eaoaai??? aianee ?in?enuee?
o?einioe A.Aao?uaa, I.Eaaai, oe?a?inueeee o?einio A.?aaiia oa ?i. C
iiiyooyi ae?yeueiino? i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia eaoaai??y i?aeoeee, yea ? ??
eiie?aoecaoe??th ? ?acii c oei iaiiaith? ae?yeuei?noue a?eueo aenieei
ethaenueeei ci?noii. A ?acoeueoao? i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie
i?aaeiao noa? o?aaiaioii eoeueoo?ii? oe?e?niino?, ci?ith?oueny eiai
nieneiaa iaiiaiai?noue. Ioaea, ae?yeuei?nii-i?aeoe/ia a?aeiioaiiy aei
ae?eniino? ? aeno?aeiith oi?iith aooo?aino? ethaeeie, ai ca eiai
aeiiiiiaith aiia cae?enith? nai? aeania aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy. Iei?
ae?yeuei?nia ia?aaeeaia cai?ith?oueny ?ioith, a iniia? yei? eaaeeoue
noa’?eo-noa’?eoiee i?eioeei, oiaoi eiioi?eaoe?y i?ae ethaeueie.

I?ioa ae?yeuei?nii-i?aeoe/ia oa eiioi?eaoeaia oi?ie ethaenueei?
aooo?aino? ia ae/a?iothoue ?? iiaiioe. O?einioe OO no. aeaaeae? /ano?oa
caa?oathoueny aei oaei? oi?ie ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ye
aecenoaioe?y (?nioaaiiy), a ye?e noieoniaaia oaaaa ia aieea? ciai?oi?o
ianoaaei ia aeieth ethaeeie, ui iio?aao? a?ae ia? aieueiaeo, aeooiaieo
coneeue aeey i?ioeai?noaa ? iiaeieaiiy aeeoo?aeo o?oaeiiu?a. Iaeaeuee
nooi?iue aooo?aino?, ia aeoieo aecenoaioe?ae?no?a, i?iyaey?oueny a
iiiaio oai?aiiy ethaeueie aeaniiai aoooy.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, naiioi?noue ye ?iaeea?aeiee oaiiiai, ye aeooaaiee
noai ethaeeie iae/ano?oa i?iyaey?oueny a aecenoaioe?ei?e oi?i? ??
aooo?aino?. A uiaei inoaiiuei? oi?ie ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?, yeo aeaye?
aaoi?e oiiaii iaceaathoue “ae?yeuei?noth aeoo?”, oi aiia i?eoaiaiia, a
iniiaiiio, e?a?iai Noiaeo, a ia ia?iaeai ?a?iiaenueeiai /e
aia?eeainueeiai eiioeiaio?a. Aeoeaia, ae?yeuei?nia ethaeeia, ui caeiyoa
yeithnue aaaeeeaith ni?aaith, i?inoi ia aeicaieeoue nia? caeiaoeny
ianeaiei niiaeyaeaiiyi, aooe a?ae?a/aiith a?ae na?oo, naii?cieueiaaiith
a aeooiaieo i?aaiaiiyo, caaeeaethaaoeny o iaaeeoaoe?eio caieioo?noue.
I???ioaoe?y aeeeth/ii ia i?noe/io oi?io aooo?aino? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
oua?ai?noth, iaiiaiioe?ii?noth ?iaeea?aeiiai ?nioaaiiy.

?icae?e II -“Naiioi?noue ethaeeie ye nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa”- i?enay/aiee aiae?co
nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo i?ioean?a o noni?euenoa? oa ?o aeooiaiiai
iioaioe?aeo. Aiae?co?oueny ci?ia oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e ethaeae o ?o
?iaeea?aei?e aooo?aino? i?ae aieeaii aiii?/iiai noaio noni?euenoaa.

Iiiyooy eiioi?eaoe?? (a?ae eao.communicare – ni?eeoaaoeny, ?aaeeoeny c
eei-iaaoaeue) ioiieth? oe?iea eiei nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu. Oea
caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, oeyoe niieo/aiiy, a?coaeuei? e aa?aaeuei?
oaoi?/i? i?eno?i? oiui. I?ioa aeno?aeia, ia?aeiia cia/aiiy oeueiai
iiiyooy noino?oueny naia ethaenueeiai ni?eeoaaiiy, a yeiio
ii?aeiothoueny nioe?aeueii-?ioi?iaoe?ei? oa aeooiai? i?ioeane.

Oa?aeoa? ? iai?yiie aieeao ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? ia ?iaeea?aea caeaaeeoue
a?ae aeai?o iei iaei??? c aeaio i?ia?ai: iai?ioeyoeaii? /e oi?ioth/i?.
Iai?ioeyoeaia i?ia?aia ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eaiiy ia’?eoa ? noa’?eoa
eiioi?eaoe??. I?e oeueiio ia’?eoii ? oe?ie? ia?iaei? iane, noa’?eoii –
iaaaeee? a?oie ethaeae /e ie?ai? ?iaeea?aee, ui noai?ththoue caniae
ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? oa caeeaaeathoue o ieo iaaio ?ioi?iaoe?th
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o, a oaeiae ni?eeothoueny iaeei c iaeiei.
Iacaaia ?ioi?iaoe?y (iai?ioeyoeaia i?ia?aia) iineoue ooee?oa?iee
oa?aeoa?, aeeiio? oi?aae?inueeo oa ?aeaieia?/io ooieoe?? e aeineoue
/anoi ni?yiiaaia ia iai?ioeyoe?th ianiaith na?aeii?noth ethaeae, a oiio
e ia? oaeo iacao. Ui noino?oueny oi?ioth/i? i?ia?aie, oi aiia ia?
oai?/ee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee ?? iaoith ? oi?ioaaiiy aeooiaii ?icaeiooi?
oa eiioi?eaaaeueii? iniaenoino?, yea aieiae?? e?aueie ethaenueeeie
yeinoyie.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ao?eaoo?a nioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe?? a ?aieao
aeeoo?aiai na?oo ethaeeie ? iiaa, aac yei? ia iiaea aooe e
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Ca aeiiiiiaith iiae ni?eeothoueny ethaee,
ia?aaeathoueny a?ae iieie?iiy aei iieie?iiy aeooiai? e ii?aeuei?
oe?iiino?, cae?enith?oueny iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy, a?aeaoaa?oueny
ianooii?noue o aeooiaiiio aeeoo? ie?aii? n?i’?, aoiino, noni?euenoaa a
oe?eiio.

?icaeoie nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo i?ioean?a, ye ? noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei oa aeooiaiiai aeeooy a oe?eiio, aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue
a?ae caaaeueiiai noaio ni?aa o noni?euenoa?. A nioe?aeuei?e o?einio??
i?eeiyoi ?ic??ciyoe noaa?eueiee ? e?eciaee noaie noni?euenoaa. Ia?oee
icia/a? no?eeee nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie, ae?oaee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ii?ooaiiyi nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino?, iaae?iiyi aeeoo?aiai, ii?aeueiiai
? caaaeueiieoeueoo?iiai ??aiy noni?euenoaa ? i?iyaey?oueny a ianiaiio
iacaaeiaieaii? ethaeae nai?i noaiiaeuai. Oaeoe/ii a Oe?a?i? ooai?eany
noai aiii??, yeee aie?nii ia?aaeeaa? a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy. Aiii?y (a?ae
o?. annomie – aaccaeiiiy, aacii?ii?noue) – oaeee noai noni?euenoaa, a
yeiio cia/ia eiai /anoeia, ciath/e i?i ?nioaaiiy iaia’yceiaeo aeey an?o
ii?i ? caeii?a, noaaeoueny aei ieo aaeaeoaea, a oi e acaaae? ia aeeiio?
?o. Aia?oa iiiyooy aiii?? aa?a A.Aeth?eaaei (“I?i ?iciiae?e noni?eueii?
i?aoe?”, “Naiiaoanoai”). Aei eiioeaioe?? aiii?? caa?oaeeny A.C?iiaeue,
I.Aaaa?, ?.Ia?oii. sseui A.Aeth?eaaei i?e/eio aiii?? aaa/aa o ?oeioaaii?
aai iineaaeaii? ii?iaoeaii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa, oi ca ?.Ia?oiiii
aiii?y yaey? niaith “iniaeeaee no?oeoo?iee ?iceaae eoeueoo?e”, eiioe?eo,
aeenaaeain i?ae eoeueoo?ieie oe?iiinoyie ? naieoe?iiiaaieie aea?aeaaith
nioe?aeueieie ii?iaie. sseui ca A.Aeth?eaaeiii aiii?y aeieea? eeoa a
ia??iaee oaeaeeeo nioe?aeueieo ci?i, oi aeey ?.Ia?oiia
?icocaiaeaeai?noue i?ae nioe?ieoeueoo?ieie oe?eyie ? eaaaeueieie
caniaaie ?o aeinyaiaiiy ? iino?eiei oaeoi?ii iai?oaeaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e
nenoai?.11 Ia?oii ?. Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a e aiiiey // Nioeeieiaey
i?anooiiinoe. – I.: Iuneue, 1966. – N. 20-22.

Ae?ae iaaaoeaii a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia iiaaae?ioe? ethaeeie noia?a/iino?
i?ae oe?ii?nieie i???ioaoe?yie oa ae?yeuei?noth, i?ae oe?iiinoyie, ui
aeaeea?othoueny ? oaeeie, ui ?aaeueii ooieoe?iiothoue, i?ae neiaii ?
ae?eii, oe?eyie ? iiaeeeainoyie ?oiueiai aeinyaiaiiy. Ianiaa ii/oooy
nioe?aeueii? iaaaeiaieaiino?, caeaino?, eiee ethaeeia ia iiaea
?aae?coaaoe aeani? iiaeeeaino?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?ae/oaeaiiy a?ae
noni?euenoaa, c?inoaiiy ianei?noe/ieo iano?i?a ? iaa?oue
aeaii?ae?ciaaiino? ianaeaiiy (?.?.Aieiaaoa, I.A.Iai?ia, E.A.Nioaiue oa
?i.). O ca’yceo c aeaoi?iaoe??th nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a ? a?aeiinei, a
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?yo ethaeae iineeththoueny aioo??oi? noia?a/iino?.
Aiane?aeie iani?aiaaeaiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeiia c ?aaeueieie oiiaaie aeeooy
aeieea? “iiaea?eia ii?aeue”, a ca?aene, ca aeneiaii aeaae.
A.I.Eoae?yaoeaaa aeieea? ? oae caaia “o?iueiaa ii?iioai?/?noue”, oiaoi
noai?aiiy iaio?oe?eieo i?aaee iiaaae?iee, yeeie ea?othoueny iaai? a?oie
ianaeaiiy (??ciiai ?iaeo ae?eee, ni?eoieee, oao?a?, ea?i? aeaiaioe oa
?i.).

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ? aiae?c eiioi?eaoeaieo
caeaoiinoae iniae a nioe?oi?. Iacaaia i?iaeaia ciaeoea nai? anaa?/ia
aena?oeaiiy a i?aoeyo oaeeo a?aeiieo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo o?einio?a, ye
Ea?e ssnia?n, Ia?oei Aoaa?, Ea?e-Iooi Aiiaeue, Iooi O??ae??o Aieueiia,
TH?aai Aaaa?ian oa ?i., ye? noai?eee aeineoue iiioey?io ia Caoiae?
“eiioi?eaoeaio o?einio?th”. Aeciaiiy ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiino? ? iaeiei c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo aniaeo?a ? naiiai aeeooy nueiaiaeaiiy, ? no/anii?
o?einio?? oa nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??. A ?acoeueoao? aeaia iiiyooy noaei
iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo niieo/ieo eaiie ??cieo, ciai? iaa?oue
i?ioeeaaeieo o?einionueeeo ni?yioaaiue – a?ae i?aaiaoecio *.I??na,
o?einio?? iiae i?ciueiai E.A?oaaiooaeia oa oaiiiaiieia?? A.Aonna?ey aei
ae?aeia?/ii? o?einio?? I.Aoaa?a, aecenoaioe?ae?cio I.Aaeaeaaaa?a oa
E.ssnia?na, aa?iaiaaoeee O.-A.Aaaeaia?a. Iino?eia oaaaa no/anii?
cao?aeii? o?einio?? aei i?iaeaie ni?eeoaaiiy, eiioi?eaoe??, naiioiino?
naia e iaoiiaeaia oei, ui no/ania noni?euenoai aeeeeeaei aei aeeooy
ii-ni?aaaeiueiio iiooaei? ?ino?oiaioe aeaiaaia??, iiaa?oiaaiai, aea
aoaeoeaiiai ia?aeiia?ioaaiiy aeaiaio?a iianyeaeaiii? na?aeiiino?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Iiaeieaiiy naiioiino? ethaeeie ye ?aae?caoe?y
i?eioeeio nioe?aeueiiai iioei?cio” – aiae?cothoueny i?iaeaia aaeaioaoe??
?iaeea?ae?a aei iiaeo oiia aeeooy a iei?oi?e Oe?a?i? oa ?ieue
?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea a noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa ? iioei?caoe??
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae.

sse a?aeiii, caaaeueiee noai noni?euenoaa aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaea?oueny
ia o?eueee ia aeeoo?aiio ??ai?, ieneaii? oa ii/oooyo ethaeae, a e ia
?oi?o aaeaioeaieo iiaeeeainoyo. Ia oeth aei?noeo caeaaei?noue
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai a?ae nioe?aeueiiai aeacothoue oae? aeaeaoi?
aia?eeainuee? o?einioe, ye A.O?iii oa ?.Ia?oii, a?aeii? i?aaenoaaieee
“?icoi?th/i? nioe?ieia??” A.Othoe oa Aeae.I?ae, caniiaieee ? oai?aoeee
O?aieoo?onueei? oeiee nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue I.Oi?eoaeia? ?
O.Aaei?ii oa ?i. I?ci?e A.Ia?eoca oa A.O?iii cina?aaeaeoaaee oaaao ia
aiae?c? oeo neooaoe?e, ca yeeo iniaeno?noue aaeaioo?oueny aei
nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e /a?ac a?aeiiao a?ae aeaniiai “ss” aai /a?ac
“aoa/o a?ae naiaiaee” (A.O?iii), aai noaaoe oe?eeiaeoi “iaeiii??iith
ethaeeiith” (A.Ia?eoca).

Iniiaith ?icaeoeo aoaeue-yeiai noni?euenoaa ? oe?eani?yiiaaia ni?eueia
i?aoey ethaeae. ? /ei aeuee ??aaiue ?? i?aai?caoe?? oa nioe?aeueii?
a?aeaea/?, oei aeuee aoaea nooi?iue nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano, a ioaea ?
noaa?eueiino? noni?euenoaa. Iacaaia caeiiii??i?noue ae?? ? a cai?ioiiio
iai?yieo. A oeueiio ieai? aeia?a “ni?aoeueiaothoue” aieiai? iieiaeaiiy
neia?aaoeee oa i?eioeeie neia?aaoe/ii? aca?iiae??, iniiaiee ci?no yeeo
?ice?eaa?oueny a ?aea? aeiaaeueii? nie?aea?iino? ethaeae. I?eiaa?aeii
caoaaaeeoe, ui oeth ?aeath aeneiaethaaa ua a 40-o ?ieao XX no.
?oae?enueeee ieneeoaeue I.Aaaaiueyii o nai?e eiec? “Anooi aei
aecenoaioe?ae?cio”, i?aee?anethth/e, ui ethaenueea “ss” ia iiaea
?aae?coaaoe nai? i?ecia/aiiy aac nie?aea?iino? c ?ioeie ethaeueie.

Oaiiiai neia?aaoeee (?.I?eaiaeei, A.Eanei, E.Ianoaea, I.Eea?e oa ?i.),
icia/a?, ui aia?a?y iio?aa, iioea?a, ?ioa?an?a, oe?iiinoae, yea niiioea?
?iaeea?ae?a aei ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?, ocaiaeaeo?oueny, ?ioaa?o?oueny,
neioaco?oueny. Aiane?aeie oaei? ?ioaa?aoe?? ae?yeueiino? aeieea? yaeua
?aciiaino, yea o aaaaoi ?ac?a iineeth? aoaeo oe??? ae?yeueiino?. Oea ?
?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaeiioeiaeuei?oee oeyo e?ea?aeaoe?? e?eciaeo
yaeu o noni?euenoa? (oe?a?inueeiio oa aoaeue-yeiio ?ioiio), aeo?ae ia
??aaiue iae?icaeioo?oeo e?a?i na?oo, iiaeieaiiy oaiiiaio a?ae/oaeaiiy oa
naiioiino? ye o nioe?aeueiiio, oae ? a ?iaeea?aeii-aecenoaioe?eiiio
ieai?. A ca?aene – iaiao?aei?noue cia/iiai iineeaiiy ?ie? ?iaeea?aeiiai
ia/aea a on?o noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae. A iei?oi?o oiiaao
iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ooieoe?e ?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea ? ae?iaeaiiy o
ethaeeie no?eeeo oi?i ?? iianyeaeaiii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? (i?e/iio ia
o?eueee a cae/aeieo, aea e o iaia?aaeaa/aieo, aeno?aiaeueieo
neooaoe?yo).

I?aaeeueii c?icoi?oe oi?ioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea a aeooiaiiio na?o?
ethaeeie aeicaiey? aenoiooa Ae.I.Ociaaeca oai??y onoaiiaee, ca?aeii c
yeith aeieeiaiiy onoaiiaee ye ineoieia?/iiai iaoai?cio coiiaeaii
“cono??//th” aeaio eeth/iaeo oaeoi??a: aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie ethaeeie, c
iaeiiai aieo, ? neooaoe?e caaeiaieaiiy ?? – c ?ioiai. Nooi?iue
aaeaioiaaiino? ?iaeea?aea ? ?iaeeeaoi?ii noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa,
iiai? nenoaie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Ioaea, a?ae
?iaeea?aeiiai ia/aea oa oni?oii? iniaeno?nii? aaeaioaoe?? caeaaeeoue
iiaeieaiiy noni?eueii? e?ece. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui a
noni?euenoa?, aea iaio? aiii?y, ca e?eciaeo oiia aeieo?oueny
o?aaeeoe?eiee aeae aaeaioaoe??, yeee aaco?oueny ia eiioi?iiino? aei
nioe?aeueieo ii?i. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao oa?aeoa?iei ? ?icaoaeai?noue oa
iani?iiiaei?noue aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aaeaioaoe??, niinoa??aa?oueny
aeeaieee ianei?ci aai iiiceoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue uiaei ?nioth/eo
nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo? oa i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaaii i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaieioo?oueny ia
oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo:

— ua a neao aeaaieio aieiaiei ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoeaiei aeinyaiaiiyi
iaoiai aeaeaeiai i?aaeea aoa ia?ac ?iaeo /e ieaiai?, /a?ac yeee
cae?enithaaany ca’ycie ?iaeea?aea c ia?oeie nioe?aeueieie ni?eueiioaie.
?ic?ea oeueiai ca’yceo i?ecaiaeea aei caaeaae? ?iaeea?aea ? anueiai, ui
aoei c iei iia’ycaii (?iai?, iiae, iaaooeo ciaiue oiui). Oaeoe/ii ?
nueiaiaei? oaeee ?ic?ea ?iaeea?aea c nioe?oiii i?ecaiaeeoue yeui e ia
aei eiai caaeaae?, oi aei iiaii? ao?aoe eiai ?iaeiaeo ethaenueeeo
yeinoae (ieneaiiy, iiae, ii?ae? oa ?i.). Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i
aaee/acio oe?ii?noue oaiiiaio nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e, aac yeeo
iaiiaeeeaa ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie ye aeaeo Homo sapiens;

— caaaeueiee noai noni?euenoaa a?aeia?aaea?oueny a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii ia
naiiii/ooo? ethaeae, ?o na?aeiiino? oa aiioe?yo, oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?yo, noeioethth/e nioe?aeueio aeoeai?noue, aai ianei?noe/i?
iano?i?, ciaa??o o e?aua iaeaooi?, a?ae/oaeaiiy ? naiia?ae/oaeaiiy
?iaeea?ae?a, ui caeeaaea? ineoieia?/i? iniiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy oaiiiaio
naiioiino? oa onai?oiaiiy, i?e/iio ia o?eueee oiae?, eiee ethaeeia
ciaoiaeeoueny iaiaeeioe? c niaith, a e “naiioiino? ia ioae?oe?”, ca
aeneiaii I.Aaaa?a;

-?iiae? naiioi?noue, ye eiiiiiaio aeeoo?aiai na?oo ethaeeie
ii?iaeaeo?oueny i?ae aieeaii ?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo yeinoae (iaaei??iiai
aai?cio oa caaeuaii? naiiioe?iee ?iaeea?aeii nai?o cae?aiinoae aai
ciai?oiino?, aaaeeiai oa?aeoa?o, iaaei??ii? ne?iiiino? oa
ni?ii’yceeaino? oa ?i.);

— ethaenueea naiioi?noue oa onai?oiaiiy oi?iothoueny i?ae aieeaii
nioe?aeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai, ia’?eoeaiiai oa noa’?eoeaiiai, aea
ia?aaaaeathoue nioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e. Aeia?ia?eueia onai?oiaiiy ethaeeie
cono??/a?oueny ia/anoi ? ?nio?, nei??oa anueiai, ye aeiyoie. Ui
noino?oueny oaiiiaio naiioiino? ye nioe?aeueiiai oaeoi?o, oi a?i ?
na?eiciith i?iaeaiith aeiaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

— iniaeeai na?eiciei ? iioe?aiei ? oaiiiai naiioiino? a e?eciaiio
noni?euenoa?, a ia??iae eiai o?ainoi?iaoe??, eiee ethaeyi aaaeei
aaeaiooaaoeny aei iiaeo oiia naiai ?nioaaiiy. Aeieath/e aeeoo?a?
o?oaeiiu?, iaei? ethaee aiaaeathoue o a?ae/ae ? ia ciaoiaeyoue cania?a
aei ?nioaaiiy, ?io? ae iaaiaee – i?iyaeythoue cia/io ?iaeea?aeoaeueio
aeoeai?noue, i?e/iio aeineoue /anoi aiia iineoue aioenioe?aeueiee
oa?aeoa?;

— iaeiei c iaea?eueo aaaiieo /eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioean
iiaeieaiiy ethaeeiith aeeoo?aeo o?oaeiiu?a oa aeinyaiaiiy iath iaaieo
oe?eae, ? i??a ona?aeiieaiiy iath naiai aeeth/aiiy a noni?euei?
ia?aoai?aiiy, aai oa, ui i?eeiyoi aecia/aoe “iiceoe??th a?iiaaeyieia”.
Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith oaei? noa?oiai? iiceoe?? ? ?icoi?iiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeooy ye iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie aeeooy noni?eueiiai.
Ine?eueee oey iiceoe?y iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaia ye ae?eiaa, ia
i?ioeaaao iiceoe?? niinoa??aa/a, ??, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye iiceoe?th ai?ioueae ca aaeineiiaeaiiy aeeooy;

— ine?eueee aeiiii?/iee noai Oe?a?ie ia iie?auo?oueny, a aeeoo?aee
??aaiue aaniethoii? a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy aeaaeae? cieaeo?oueny, o
na?aeiiino? ethaeae oi?io?oueny neiae?ii no?aoo ia o?eueee ca nai?
aeania aeeooy, a e iaeaooi? nai?o ae?oae ?, a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo,
aeieea? e?eca ethaenueeeo niiae?aaiue, ui cia/ii cieaeo? nioe?aeueio
aeoeai?noue ethaeeie oa i?ae?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ca’ycee;

— ui noino?oueny oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e oa nioe?aeueieo ioe?iie
a?iiaaeyi e?eciaiai noni?euenoaa, oi aiie ? iaiaeiicia/ieie, a ?iiae?
iaa?oue i?ioeeaaeieie noiniaii ??cieo iieie?iue ethaeae. I?aaenoaaieee
noa?oeo iieie?iue aeaaeae? /ano?oa caa?oathoueny aei ia?aco
?aaeyinueeiai ieioeiai; iaeiaaaoeai?oo ioe?ieo no/aniiai noaio
noni?euenoaa aeathoue i?aaenoaaieee na?aaei?o iieie?iue, na?aae yeeo
iaea?eueoa aac?ia?oieo aai oeo, ooi ii e?eueea i?nyoe?a ia io?eio?
ca?ieaoo; c iaaiith aeieath iioei?cio ni?eeiathoue nai? iaeaooi? iieiae?
ethaee, na?aae yeeo a?eueo?noue i???ioo?oueny ia a?cian, eiia?oe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue;

— aeey aeoiaeo e?a?ie c e?ece ? iie?auaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai
noaio ?? a?iiaaeyi iio??ai? aeoeai? ni?euei? ae?? eiaeii? ethaeeie ?
an?o nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo? oa ?inoeooo?a, aeia?a i?iaeoiaia, aeiiaeeaa ?
ae?th/a caeiiiaeaa/a aaca, iiaaaa ?iaeea?ae?a iaeei aei iaeiiai, aei
caeii?a, ii?aeueieo ii?i, i?ioan?iiae?ci oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ea??aiee?a oa oi?aae?ioe?a ia an?o ??aiyo
nioe?aeueii? ? aea?aeaaii? ???a?o??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ea?aeao I.A. Aca?ii?icoi?iiy ethaeae o i?ioean? ?o ni?eeoaaiiy ye
o?einionueea ? iiaia i?iaeaia // No/ania aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: noai ?
ia?niaeoeae / Oace ?anioae?e. iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. 24-27
aa?aniy 1996 ?ieo. – *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa, 1996. – N. 101- 103.

2. Ea?aeao I.A., Iaeiaaoeueeee A.I. Aieea e?eciaeo yaeu ia oi?ioaaiiy
oe?ii?nii? ea?oeie na?oo oa ni?eeoaaiiy iieiae? / Aeaiia?ao?/ia
neooaoe?y a Ea?iaonueeiio ?aa?ii?: ?aaeuei?noue, i?iaeaie, i?iaiice ia
XXI noie?ooy / I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. 15-18 o?aaiy
1996 ?ieo. – Oace aenooi?a. – *a?i?aoe?-Ee?a, 1996. – N. 101-103.

3. Ea?aeao I.A. Aieea ni?eeoaaiiy ia ?icaeoie ? ii?aeueiee na?o ethaeeie
// Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “No/ania aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: noai ? ia?niaeoeae”. 24-27
aa?aniy 1996 ?ieo. – *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa, 1996. – N.206-210.

4. Ea?aeao I.A. Oi?ioaaiiy oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e ?iaeea?aea ca
aiii?/iiai noaio noni?euenoaa // Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa: oaeoi? na?oiai?
?ioaa?aoe?? / Iaoa??ee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. –
*. II. – *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa-Ieoaoeue,1997. – N. 93-97.

5.Ea?aeao I.A., Iaeiaaoeueeee A.I. ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa ye
iaiao?aeia ia?aaeoiiaa aaeaioaoe?? ?iaeea?aea aei aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae
oa ci?oeiaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca??iee iaoe.i?aoeue. Aei. 8. – O?einio?y.
– *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – N. 88-96.

6. Ea?aeao I.A. I?iaeaia aca?ii?icoi?iiy ethaeae oa iiaeieaiiy ?o
naiioiino? a nenoai? nioe?aeueieo eiioi?eaoe?e // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 8. –
O?einio?y. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1997. – N. 112-119.

7.Ea?aeao I.A., Iaeiaaoeueeee A.I. Ethaeeia a no?oeoo?? nioe?ieia?/iiai
ciaiiy // Ethaeeia a noa?? aoiai?oa?iiai i?ciaiiy. – E.: Oe?. Oeaio?
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e, 1998. – N. 22-40.

8. Ea?aeao I.A. Noaa?e?caoe?y noni?euenoaa oa ca?eueoaiiy aaeaioeaieo
caeaoiinoae ?iaeea?aea ye nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia // Iaoeiaee a?niee
*a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei. 35. –
O?einio?y. – *a?i?aoe?: *AeO, 1998. – N. 100-104.

Ea?aeao I.A. AEeoo?aee na?o ethaeeie oa ia?aaeeaaiiy iath noaio
naiioiino? ye i?aaeiao o?einionueeiai aiae?co. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.09 – O?einio?y iaoee. *a?i?aaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.– *a?i?aoe?,1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia ethaenueei? naiioiino? oa
naiia?ae/oaeaiino? ye o ??cieo oi?iao ?iaeea?aeii? aooo?aino?, oae ? a
nioe?aeueii-eiioi?eaoeaieo i?ioeanao. ?ice?eaathoueny iniiai? i?e/eie oa
nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee iacaaiiai oaiiiaio, aiae?cothoueny ??ci? oeyoe
e?ea?aeaoe?? e?eciaeo yaeu oa iioei?caoe?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae a
iei?oiueiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?. Aaoi?nueea eiioeaioe?y
aeena?oaioa aoaeo?oueny ia nenoaiiiio oa ae?yeuei?niiio i?aeoiaeao uiaei
yaeu nioe?aeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ii?yaeeo, c aeei?enoaiiyi
eiioi?eaoeaii? ? neia?aaoe/ii? ia?aaeeai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeoo?aee na?o, ?iaeea?aeia aooo?a?noue,
naiia?ae/oaeai?noue, naiioi?noue, aecenoaioe?y, nioe?aeuei?
eiioi?eaoe??, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ?icoi?iiy, ?iaeea?aeia ia/aei.

Ea?aeao I.A. AEeciaiiue ie? /aeiaaea e ia?aaeeaaiea ei ninoiyiey
iaeeii/anoaa eae i?aaeiao oeeinioneiai aiaeeca. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.09 – Oeeinioey iaoee. *a?iiaeoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a. – *a?iiaoeu,1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony i?iaeaia /aeiaa/aneiai iaeeii/anoaa e
naiiio/oaeaeaiiinoe eae a ?acee/iuo oi?iao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai auoey, oae
e a nioeeaeueii-eiiioieeaoeaiuo i?ioeannao. I?e yoii aeenna?oaio
iie?aaony eae ia oeeinioneoth eeanneeo, oae e ia ?aaiou nia?aiaiiuo
aaoi?ia – ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo.

I?iaeaia iaeeii/anoaa e naiiio/oaeaeaiey /aeiaaea aieueoia ianoi
caieiaao a oeeinioee yecenoaioeeaeecia. Niaeanii AE.-I.Na?o?o, iai?eia?,
eiaeeaeae no?aieony aueoe ca i?aaeaeu naiaai “ss”, ?aci?aaoue ?aiee
iaeeii/anoaa, eioi?ua aai neiauaatho. Iooue eiaeeaeaea e naaa anaaaea
eiioeeeoiue e oanii naycaiiue n iniciaieai iaeeii/anoaa eae yecenoaioeee
auoey /aeiaaea a ie?a.

Iacaaiiay auoa i?iaeaia enneaaeoaony a aeenna?oaoeee /a?ac iniiaiua
oi?iu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai auoey /aeiaaea – aeayoaeueiinoii-i?aeoe/aneoth,
eiiioieeaoeaioth e yecenoaioeeaeueioth, a oaeaea i?e aiaeeca
eiiioieeaoeaiuo niiniaiinoae eiaeeaeaea a nioeeoia. I?eciaiea aieueoie
?iee eioa?noauaeoeaiinoe a aeecie /aeiaaea yaeyaony naaiaeiy iaeiei ec
aaaeiaeoeo aniaeoia nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee. Aaaeiui aniaeoii enneaaeoaiie
i?iaeaiu yaeyaony ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiuo naycae ethaeae eae a ?aieao
ioaeaeueiie no?aiu, oae e a iauaieaiaoa?iii ianooaaa. *aeiaae ia ?oaaaea
noieaoee (OO e OI-ai) ana aieueoa no?aieony no?ieoue naie
acaeiiioiioaiey n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, iiae/eiyynue ia aiaoiei
aeaoa?ieiaioai (ii?iai, i?aaeeai, o?aaeeoeeyi e o.i.), a naiaio
nianoaaiiiio naiaiaeiiio auai?o. Ii a

iauanoaa, aaea iaaeeiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ioiioaiey i/aiue /anoi
inouanoaeythony n oeaeueth auaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey /aeiaaea e
iaanoeaieaathony aunoea aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe, aicieeatho e?ecen
eioeiiinoe, iaaeiaa?ea ethaeae ae?oa e ae?oao, ?aci/a?iaaiea a aoaeouai,
nieaeaaony i?aanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea eiiioieeaoeaiuo naycae e
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Ana yoi eiaao ianoi a nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeia e
ae?oaeo iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noaao. Iiceoeaiia ?aoaiea
iacaaiiuo e ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai, ii iiaieth aeenna?oaioa,
aiciiaeii /a?ac oneeaiea ?iee eiaeeaeaeiiai ia/aea ai anao noa?ao aeecie
iauanoaa e ?aaeecaoeeth i?eioeeiia neia?aaoe/aneie ia?aaeeaiu, eioi?ay
oae iiioey?ia naaiaeiy a eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao Aa?iiu, a NOA
e ssiiiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeciaiiue ie?, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia auoea,
naiiio/oaeaeaiea, iaeeii/anoai, yecenoaioeey, nioeeaeueiua
eiiioieeaoeee, nenoaiiue iiaeoiae, iiieiaiea, eiaeeaeaeiia ia/aei.

Karalash N. Human’s vital world and its sense of loneliness as an object
of philosophical analysis. – Manuscript.

Dissertation for acquirement of the scientific degree of Candidate of
Science in speciality 09.00.09 – Philosophy of science.

Yuriy Fedkovich State University of Chernivtsi – Chernivtsi 1999.

The dissertation investigates the problem of human solitude and
alienation both in different forms of individual existence and in the
context of socially-communicative processes. The basic reasons and
social consequences of the mentioned phenomenon and different ways of
eliminating the crises and optimization of the people’s vital activity
in the modern ukrainian society are defined in this dissertation. The
autor’s concept of the dissertation is based on the approaches of
systematization and functional activity.

Key words: human’s vital world, individual existence, selfenstrangement,
solitude, existence, social communications, systematical approach,
understanding, the individual element.

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