18

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

*OI??IIAA IAOAE?ss TH???AIA

OAeE 882

AE?II*? IA?ACE O OOAeIAEIUeIIO NA?O? ?.I.AII*A?IAA

10.01.02 – ?in?enueea e?oa?aoo?a

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao??iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aeioeaiei ?ai?
?aaiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
A.N.Neiai?iaee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e na?oiai?
e?oa?aoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeoiie?ia
Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/, Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e,

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oeaiei Oaia?a Iao??aia,
Iaoe?iiaeueia oa?iaoeaaoe/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a, I?i?noa?noai
ioi?iie caei?ia’y, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?in?enueei? iiae ?2.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
?in?enueei? e?oa?aoo?e, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 30 » eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 15-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.03 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith: 310168, Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, 215 aoaeeoi??y.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee (Oa?e?a,
aoe. Aethoa?a, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 21 » aeiaoiy 1999?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.A. Ieaenaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?/?noue ?.I.Aii/a?iaa – iaeia c
aa?oeiieo aeinyaiaiue ?in?enueei? eeane/ii? e?oa?aoo?e – nueiaiaei?
aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an ye oe?ieiai eiea /eoa/?a, oae ?
niaoe?ae?no?a. ? oea oe?eeii caeiiii??ii, ai oai?e aeaeaoiiai
ooaeiaeieea neiaa iia’ycai? ia o?eueee c? nai?th aiioith, aea e
nyaathoue iaeaooiueiai, nai?i ci?noii ni?acao/i? ? iaoiio /ano.

Aecia/iee i?aaenoaaiee e?eoe/iiai ?aae?cio, /oaeiaee ooaeiaeiee ?
e?oa?aoo?iee e?eoee, iaioa?eno, Aii/a?ia o nai?o oai?ao i?aaioa
a?aeiia?noe ia aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ?in?enueeiai aeeooy 30-60-o ?ie?a OIX
noie?ooy. Oeaio?aeueiith oaiith oai?/ino? Aii/a?iaa-?iiai?noa aoea aeiey
a?o/ecie, ?? no/ania ? iaeaooi?. Oai?aoeue «Iaueiiaaiiie enoi?ee»,
«Iaeiiiaa», «Ia?uaa» o nai?o ?iiaiao a?aeaea oe?eo ?noi?e/io aiioo,
ia??iae aeeaiei? e?ece oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueei? nenoaie ? noaiiaeaiiy
iiaeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei o ?in??. ? a oe?e a?aiae?ici?e ea?oei?
iniaeeai aeae?ey?oueny iioea ae?ii/i? aeie?, ae?ii/eo iaoe?iiaeueieo
oa?aeoa??a o ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo i?iyaao. Aii/a?ia oi?iaeiaae onueiai
naiai na?aeiiiai aeeooy aaaaoi ?ici??eiaoaaa iaae i?noeai ae?iee a
noni?euenoa?, iieeaaeaa aaeee? iaae?? ia oa, ui ?in?enueea ae?iea
c?iaeoue na?e aianie o aeooiaia ia?aoai?aiiy aeeooy.

?iiaiia niaaeueia ienueiaiieea aoea ? caeeoa?oueny ia’?eoii ieeueiiai
aea/aiiy. sse o i?eaeeoo?a?e Aii/a?iao e?eoeoe?, oae ? a e?eoeoe?
ianooiieo ?ie?a, a oaeiae o no/aniiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? iaia ?aeiino? a
ioe?ioe? ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a ?iiai?noa. A.A.A?e?inueeee,
I.I.Aeia?iethaia, I.A.Ae?oaeei?i, Ae.I.Ianyieei-Eoeeeianueeee ienaee i?i
aii/a?ianueeeo aa?i?iue ?c caoiieaiiyi, i?aee?anethaaee ooaeiaeith
iaenoa?i?noue ienueiaiieea o noai?aii? ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a. I.A.Oaeaoiia,
I.I.Neaae/aanueeee, Ai..A?eai?’?a, I.I?eea?, I.E.Oeaa?eeiaa,
?.O.Aiiainueeee, I.I.Ieetheia, I.Ae.Aooa?oiia, ?.N.Ia/oe-Eaaeoeueeee
ioe?ithaaee ae?ii/? ia?ace a ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa o ??cei e?eoe/ieo oiiao,
caeioaa/oaaee aaoi?a o ?o iaaeoiaiino?, o ii?ooaii? ooaeiaeiuei?
oe?e?niino? e eia?ee o cia?aaeaii? ae?ii/eo oa?aeoa??a. Iaiaeiicia/iei
aoei ? noaaeaiiy aei ieo Ae.?.Iena??aa.

O OO noie?oo? i?i aa?i?iue Aii/a?iaa ienaee Ae.Ia?aaeeianueeee,
?.A.Eyoeueeee, I.A.Oeaeoe?i, I.I.?eaania, A.?.A?eiianueeee,
I.I.I?ooeeia, Ae.A.Iie?oeei, I.E.I?enaiia, ?.A.E?aniiuieiaa,
?.A.No?aoia, A.?.Eoeaoia, I.Noa?inaeuenueea, A.I.Oeoiie?ia,
TH.A.Eaaaae?a, A.A.Iaaecaaoeueeee oa ?io?. Aiie ia caia?a/oaaee
aaaeeeaino? ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a o nthaeaoii-eiiiiceoe?eiiio, ?aeaeiiio
ieai? aii/a?ianueeeo ?iiai?a, a?aei?/aee iaenoa?i?noue ienueiaiieea o
ciaethaaii? ae?iie. Iaeiae, ye ? ?ai?oa, aeaye? e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?
iai?aaii??ii aaa/athoue ii?ooaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? eia?ee o ae?ii/eo
oa?aeoa?ao Aii/a?iaa (A.A.Oeaeoe?i, Ae.A.Iie?oeei), caeioaa/othoue
aieiaieo aa?i?iue ?iiai?a «Iaeiiia», «Ia?ua» a aai?ci?, naaaethaiino?,
neaaeino? iaoo?e (Ae.A.Iie?oeei, ?.E?aniiuieiaa, A.?.Eoeaoia,
TH.A.Eaaaae?a). I?e oeueiio ae?ii/ei ia?acai Aii/a?iaa a?aeaiaeeoueny
eeoa aeiiii?aeia ?ieue o ?ice?eoo? ?aeaeiiai ci?noo oai?o, o aeyaeaii?
aaoi?nueei? iiceoe?? ? iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiao?oueny ?o naiino?eia
?aeaeii-ooaeiaeiy oe?ii?noue, neaaei i?inoaaeothoueny o?aaeeoe??, ye?
oai?/i ?icaeaaa Aii/a?ia, iaaeinoaoiuei oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny ooaeiaei?i
caniaai noai?aiiy ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a.

Ona cacia/aia aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ae?ii/? ia?ace
Aii/a?iaa, ?o i?noea o ooaeiaeiueiio na?o? ienueiaiieea ia aea/ai? c
iaiao?aeiith aeeaeiith ? ia’?eoeai?noth, yea iiaeiia a?oiooaaoeny ia
?aoaeueiiio aiae?c? oaeno?a ?iiai?a, noai?iio a?aooaaii? aaoi?nueei?
iiceoe??. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe o oeueiio ca’yceo, ui cayaeaia a aeena?oaoe??
oaia ia aoea aei oeueiai /ano i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy.
Aeinoaoiuei neacaoe, ui o a?o/eciyi?e, a oaeiae o e?oa?aoo?? e?a?i
aeeaeiueiai ca?oa?aeaey ia ?nio? ?ia?o ocaaaeueithth/iai iiiia?ao?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o c aeaii? oaie.

Aeuaaeeeaaeaieie i??eoaaiiyie ? coiiaeaiee aea?? oaie eaiaeeaeaonueei?
aeena?oaoe?? «AE?ii/? ia?ace a ooaeiaeiueiio na?o? ?.I.Aii/a?iaa».

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i aoe/iei ?
anoaoe/iei ci?noii ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a aeaeaoiiai ?iiai?noa. Aiie iathoue
iaieioua caaaeueiiethaenueea cia/aiiy, oiio ui ianooue o nia? aaeeeee
anoaoe/iee ? ii?aeueiee iioaioe?ae,aaaeeeaee aeey no/anii? ? aeey
ianooiieo aiio.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o iaaeao ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe eaoaae?e na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei,
ui a iueiio ieoaiiy i?i i?noea ? ?ieue ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o ooaeiaeiueiio
na?o? ?.I.Aii/a?iaa aia?oa noaei ia’?eoii oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
iiiia?ao?/iiai aea/aiiy. Oea ni?ey? a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith
noni?eueieo ? e?oa?aoo?ieo iiceoe?e, ii?aeueieo oyaeaiue aeaeaoiiai
ieooey, ?aeaeii? oa ooaeiaeiuei? nai???aeiino? eiai oai?/ino?.
Aeine?aeaeoaaia a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaia ia? cia/aiiy ? a a?eueo oe?ieiio
oai?aoe/iiio oa ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iiio ieai?.

I?iaeaia ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o, ii?yae c oaeeie i?iaeaiaie, ye aa?ie /ano,
«iaeaiueea ethaeeia», «caeaa ethaeeia», — iaeia ?c no?eaeiaaeo o
?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? OIX noie?ooy. Aeaaii iac??ea iio?aaa a
ocaaaeueithth/?e ?iaio?, o ye?e ae iacaaia i?iaeaia aeine?aeaeoaaeanue
ye iane??cia oaia ?in?enueei? eeane/ii? e?oa?aoo?e. Noai?aiiy oaei?
iaoeiai? i?aoe? ni?eyei a a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith «oa?ie ienoaoeoaa»
oiai /e ?ioiai ienueiaiieea, nai???aeiino? eiai na?oiaeyaeo, aoe/ieo
iiaeyae?a, naii? iniaenoino? oai?oey. Oaea ooiaeaiaioaeueia i?aoey iiaea
aooe cae?eniaia eieaeoeaieie coneeeyie ca oiiae iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy
oe??? i?iaeaie noiniaii oai?/ino? ie?aieo ienueiaiiee?a.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. No/aniee noai aea/aiiy iinoaaeaii? a
aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaie aecia/ea iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeaoe oe?e?nio
anaa?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?noey ? ?ie? ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o ooaeiaeiueiio
na?o? ?.I.Aii/a?iaa.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ?ica’ycothoueny oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe aoe/i? iiaeyaee aeaeaoiiai ?iiai?noa, ?icoi?iiy iei ?ie?
i?eno?ano?, ethaia? o aeeoo? ethaeeie, ae?ii/iai uanoy, ui ciaeoei
ao?eaiiy o ae?ii/eo ia?acao eiai ooaeiaei?o oai??a, a oaeiae o e?eoe/ieo
noaooyo;

— ?ice?eoe o?aeoiaeo ienueiaiieeii ae?ii/iai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

— aecia/eoe nooue ?icoi?iiy Aii/a?iaei «ae?ii/iai ieoaiiy»;

— ?ic?iaeoe oeiieia?th ae?ii/eo oa?aeoa??a o ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa;

— aeyaeoe ?ieue noai?aieo ienueiaiieeii ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a a ?aeaei?e
eiioeaioe?? eiai ?iiai?a;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ooaeiaei? caniae noai?aiiy ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o ?iiaiao
Aii/a?iaa;

— aeyaeoe o?aaeeoe??, ia ye? nie?aany ?iiai?no i?e noai?aii? ae?ii/eo
ia?ac?a, ?ice?eaoe ?o iiaaoi?nueeee oa?aeoa? ?, ioaea, aecia/eoe i?noea
ae?ii/eo oei?a Aii/a?iaa a aaea?a? ia?ac?a ?in?enueei? ae?iee a
e?oa?aoo?? XIX noie?ooy.

Ae??oaiiy iacaaieo caaea/ aeicaiey? aeine?aeieeia? aeeth/eoeny a
iaaiai?aiiy aeooaeueii? aeey no/aniiai e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa i?iaeaie:
iniaeno?noue ? aeooiaia iaee//y oai?oey «Iaueiiaaiiie enoi?ee»,
«Iaeiiiaa», «Ia?uaa».

Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? iaoeia? i?aoe?
no/anieo e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a, i?enay/ai? niaoeeo?oe? e?oa?aoo?e,
iaoiaeieia?/iei ? iaoiaee/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu, a
oaeiae ?iaioe ?noi?ee?a e?oa?aoo?e.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?iiaie ?.I.Aii/a?iaa «Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»,
«Iaeiiia», «Ia?ua».

A iniiao iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeai? i?eioeeie oeiieia?/iiai oa
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai iaoiae?a. ?iiaie Aii/a?iaa c?noaaeythoueny c
oai?aie I.N.Iooe?ia, ?.N.Oo?aai?aa, O.I.Aeinoi?anueeiai, E.I.Oienoiai,
ui aeicaiey? iiai?oa inieneeoe i?ea?iaeuei?noue ooaeiaeiuei? iaia?e
ienueiaiieea, nai???aei?noue noai?aieo iei ae?ii/eo oei?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue ciaeoe aeei?enoaiiy a eo?nao ?noi??? ?in?enueei?
e?oa?aoo?e ia?oi? ? ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX noie?ooy, o niaoe?aeueieo
eo?nao ? nai?ia?ao, i?enay/aieo oai?/ino? Aii/a?iaa, o oe?euei?e
i?aeoeoe? o/eoaey-neiaanieea.

Ai?iaaoe?y iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ie?ai? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?? oa
cae?i/aia aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?eiio iaaiai?thaaeenue ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaii o aenooiao ia Ae?oaeo /eoaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo iai’yo?
E.ss.E?aoeoey (OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, 1997), ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iooe?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/aniiai
iooe?iiciaanoaa» 18 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii o
ainueie noaooyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,1 ae?.a?eoo?a, /ioe?e c yeeo
iioae?eiaaii o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Caaaeueiee ianya 178 noi??iie. O nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e 214 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoeiaa iiaecia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoa ? caaea/?, aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue
?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “AE?ii/? ia?ace a ?iiai? ?.I.Aii/a?iaa «Iaueiiaaiiay
enoi?ey» ?icaeyaea?oueny oeiieia?y ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o o oai??, yea
iiaeaia caaaeii aeaiia oeiaie, eiaeiee c yeeo ia? nai? ??ciiaeaee. Aiia
Iaae?aia Aaeo?aa, iaoe Iaae?iueee Ethaaoeueei? Ia??y Ieoaee?aia, Nio’y ?
Ia??y Ai?aaoiaa – i?aaenoaaieoe? iii?niiai aeai?yinoaa, ainiiaeei?
aa?nueeeo naaeea, ui ii?iaeeee ? aeoiaaee ?o o aeon? iao??a?oaeueieo
onoi?a, i?aaenoaaeythoue ia?oee oei. Ae?oaee oei – i?nuee? ae?iee –
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?acaie Iaae?iueee Ethaaoeueei?, E?ce, THe?? Oaoa?ai? oa
E?caaaoe Ieaenaiae??aie Aaeo?ai?.

Aii/a?ia oaea a «Iaueiiaaiiie enoi?ee», noai?thth/e iiceoeai? ae?ii/?
oeie, aiai?eoue i?i ae?iie-iaoa??a, aa?aaeiue aeiiaoiueiai aiaieua,
aeoiaaoaeueie.. Oaeith ? Aiia Iaae?aia Aaeo?aa. Aiia /eiinue iaaaaeo?
aiaie?anueeo Ioeueoa??th ?aai?aio c ?? iaaoiiieie oo?aioaie i?i naiai
/ieia?ea, oo?aai?anueeo A?eio Aean??aio c ?? eeiiioaie ? ia?aaeeaaiiyie
i?i «?ithoo», iaoa??a Iaeiiiaa ? Ooieueoey.Oaanue niene aeeooy Aiie
Iaae?aie – o aeaaiiieo//? ? uano? neia, ye aiia ?o ?icoi?ea.O na?oe?
oe??? ae?iee a?aeaeeee an? ii/oooy, ie??i iaeiiai – ethaia? aei neia.
Aii/a?ia, noai?thth/e ia?ac Aaeo?ai?, /anoi ei?enoo?oueny iiiieiaii –
ineoieia?/iei i?eeiiii, aeanoeaei oai?ai O.I.Aeinoi?anueeiai,
E.I.Oienoiai, ye? canoiniaothoue iiiieia?/ia iiaeaiiy i?e noai?aii?
aeeaiei ?ioaeaeooaeueieo aa?i?a, /e? aeeooy i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iiooeai
a?aeiia?ae? ia o?einionuee? ieoaiiy. Aii/a?ia iaae?ey? iiiieia?/iei
iiaeaiiyi ae?ieo c i?ei?oeaiith na?aeii?noth. A?aeaoaa?oueny
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oi?ie ? ci?noo. Oeei aeinyaa?oueny eii?/iee aoaeo.
Iacaaaeath/e ia eii?ci, yeei iaae?eaiee ia?ac Aaeo?ai?, ?iiai?no ia
canoaeaeo?, a ?c ni?a/oooyi ? iiaaaith noaaeoueny aei oe???
ae?iee-iaoa??, caeaoii? iiaea?oaoaaoe niaith ca?aaee aeeoeie, caeeoaoeny
c iei ye o ai??, oae ? a ?aaeino?. Iao?? Iaae?iueee Ethaaoeueei?, Ia??y
Ieoaee?aia, noiaea c Aaeo?aith: ia?aaaaa na?oey iaae ?icoiii aeanoeaa
oeei iaoa?yi. Oeueiai ae ieaio ? ia?ac Nio’?, aa?i?i? ia?oiai eioaiiy
Ieaenaiae?a Aaeo?aa. Oae? ae?iee, ye Nio’y, c iiaeyaeo Aii/a?iaa,
aei?aaaeiaothoue nai? ?nioaaiiy oaea oei, ui aioia? naiic?a/aii
neoaeeoe n?i’?, /ieia?eia?, i?enayoeoe nai? aeeooy aeoiaaiith ae?oae.

AE?ii/? ia?ace, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ae?oaiai oeio – «i?nuee? ae?iee», —
?ice?eoiai o ??cieo eiai aeyaao, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui Aii/a?ia
a?aenoith? i?aai ae?iie ia naiiaecia/aiiy, i?aai iae?aoe na?e aeeoo?aee
oeyo naiino?eii. Noai?aiee ?iiai?noii ia?ac Iaae?iueee Ethaaoeueei?
cia/eiee oei, ui ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi iiaiai iiaeyaeo ia iniaeno?noue
ae?iee, ia ?? i?noea a noni?euenoa?. O aca?iinoinoieao ?c Aaeo?aei
Iaae?iueea aeyaey? naiino?ei?noue ia o?eueee o nai?o ii/oooyo, aea e o
a/eieao ? ??oaiiyo.

Aiae?c ia?aco THe?? Oaoa?ai? iieacaa, ui aeenaa?iii?y «?icoio» ?
«na?oey», aeeeeeaia iai?aaeeueiei aeoiaaiiyi aa?i?i?, i?eaaea ?? aei
oai?iaeeai? ?iiaioe/ii? i??eeeaino?, yea i?ecaaea aei ni?eeiyooy
aa?i?iath ?nioth/i? ae?eniino? o niioai?aiiio aeaeyae?. O ?icae?e?
?icaeyaea?oueny aaaeeeaee aeey Aii/a?iaa-ooaeiaeieea i?eeii ciaethaaiiy
ethaiaieo noinoie?a aa?i?a o caieioo?e aoiinoa?? ?ioa?’??o. ? oea ia
aeiaaeeiai. Ethaia Oaoa?ai? ? Aaeo?aa ooo/ia, oiio e ianoaiiaea ?o
cono??/ae ooo/ia. Ca Aii/a?iaei, ooo/i?, iaaeoiai? i?eno?ano?
caaaaeathoue ca?iaeaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo ni?aaaeiueiai eioaiiy.

O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny oaeiae eenoe ? e?eoe/i? ?iaioe Aii/a?iaa
«A.I.Iaeeia»(1847), «Caiaoee i ee/iinoe Aaeeineiai» (1874), «Iaia?aiey,
caaea/e e eaeae ?iiaia «Ia?ua» (1876), «Niiaa «Aaieao» ia ?onneie
noeaia»(1875), «Iaiaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey» (1878), «Eo/oa iicaeii, /ai
ieeiaaea» (1879) o ?aeo?n? c’ynoaaiiy aoeei-o?einionueeeo iiaeyae?a
?iiai?noa. O?einionueea eaoaai??y ethaia? a aoe/ieo iiaeyaeao Aii/a?iaa
caeia? cia/ia i?noea ? a?ae?a?a? aaee/acio ?ieue o ?iiaii?e oai?/ino?
ienueiaiieea. Nooue aii/a?ianueei? eiioeaioe?? ethaia? caiaeeoueny, ye
i?ci?oa o o?aeoiaoe? Aieiaeeie?a Nieiaeiaa, aei ?icoi?iiy ethaia? ye
i?ae?aniiai ii/oooy, yea ? oiiaith ? cina?aaeaeaiiyi aeia?a, ?noeie,
e?ane.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui o aii/a?ianueeiio ?iiai? ethaia a?ae?a?a?
aaee/acio ?ieue o ?ice?eoo? aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo aa?i?iue. Oea ii/oooy
ia o?eueee oi?io? ? i?iaoaeaeo? ae?ii/o aeooo, aea e ?ice?eaa? ??aaiue
?? iioa?iieo ii?aeueieo iiaeeeainoae. Oei a?eueoa, ui aa?i?i? ia o?eueee
a?ae?a?athoue i?ia?aeio ?ieue a ioe?ioe? /ieia?/eo ia?niiaae?a, a
a?o?oaeoii?oe? oai?o, aea e a??ii a?aeaeaathoue oeie ?in?enueeiai aeeooy
30-60-o ?ie?a ieioeiai noie?ooy ? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ii?aeuei? ?aea?
Aii/a?iaa.

Aii/a?ia o nai?o o?einionueei-aoe/ieo iiaeyaeao ooaa?aeaeo? ?aeaae
aa?iii?eii? ethaeeie, o yei? ?icoi ? na?oea o??aiiaaaeai?. Aioo??oiy
aeooiaia ae?aia ethaeeie o ?iiaiao ?ice?eaa?oueny a ?ioaeaeooaeueieo
ia?acao aieiaieo aa?i?iue, ye? a?aeaeaathoue i?aaiaiiy Aii/a?iaa
ciaethaaoe na?e ?aeaae ae?iee, a ye?e ae aa?iii?eii ii?aeioaaeenue
«?icoi» ? «na?oea». Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?eoe/ieo noaoae ienueiaiieea
iieacaei, ui a aoe/ieo iiaeyaeao Aii/a?iaa iiiyooy «?aeaaeueiee aa?ie»,
«iaoo?a» ? «oei» aca?iiiia’ycai? ? ia i?ioenoaaeythoueny iaeei iaeiiio.
O iiooeao oeyo?a noai?aiiy ?aeaaeueiiai aa?iy, o yeiio a aa?iii?eii
ii?aeioaaeenue «?icoi» ? «na?oea», Aii/a?ia a?aoiaoaaa ? i?e?iaei? aeai?
ethaeeie, ? iniaeeaino? ?? oa?aeoa?o, ? aieea na?aaeiaeua oa ianoaaei.
Aoe/iee ?aeaae ao?eeany a eiai ?iiaii?e oai?/ino? ia?aaeon?i o
noai?aieo iei ae?ii/eo ia?acao. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo iaaecae/aeii
iieaciaei ? ia?ac Eecaaaoe Ieaenaiae??aie Aaeo?ai?. Noai?thth/e ia?ac,
Aii/a?ia aeei?enoiao? e?oa?aoo?io, iaoeiao eaeneeo. ?? iiaa oaeiai ae
??aiy, ye iiaa ?? ina?/aieo ni?aaan?aeiee?a–/ieia?e?a. Aa?i?iy oiiei
ioe?ith? /ieia?e?a. Eecaaaoa Ieaenaiae??aia ?icoi??, ui o ieai?iieea
«?icoi ia eaea ia??ai? c na?oeai», ? ca?aene aanue o?aa?ci eiai
noaiiaeua, a o /ieia?ea, iaaiaee, «?icoi caa?a caiaaeoi aia?aae», ?
aaaeaiiy eiai ne??cue ? ana i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoe o?eueee ?icoio iaiaaeo? ?
ca?aeith? aeeooy oe??? iacae/aeii? ethaeeie. Aiia ona?aeiieth?, ui ?icoi
? ii/oooy iiaeii? aooe o??aiiaaaeai?. Aoaeo/e oiniaeaiiyi aoe/ieo
ia?aeiiaiue naiiai aaoi?a, Eecaaaoa Ieaenaiae??aia iaaeeaea?oueny aei
aoe/iiai ?aeaaeo Aii/a?iaa. Aa?i?iy caeaoia a?ae/oaaoe ? iieoi’yi
ii/oooy ina?oethaaoe oeyo ?icoio. Iai?ee?ioe? ?iiaio aiia, iicaaaeaia
ethaia? ? ?icoi?iiy, caana? aeooiaii ? o?ce/ii o aacethaiaiiio na?o?.

O ?icae?e? oaeiae aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia iaenoa?iino? ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co Aii/a?iaa. Iniaeea?noue eiai ineoieia?cio iieyaa? a oiio, ui,
ciaeueiaoth/e aeooiaiee ci?no, ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/iee noai iniaenoino?,
ienueiaiiee, ye ? Oo?aai?a, ia iieaco? naiee i?ioean ci?ie ethaenueeiai
oa?aeoa?o, aeooaaieo ii?eaaiue aa?i?a. I?e oeueiio ineoieia?ci Aii/a?iaa
nai???aeiee. Ia a?aei?io a?ae Oo?aai?aa,o yeiai cia?aaeaiiy
ineoieia?/iiai i?ioeano noenea, eaeii?/ia, Aii/a?ia ciaeueiao? noai
aeoo? aa?i?a ?icai?iooi, aeoaea aeieeaaeii, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeueiai
ineoieia?/iee ii?o?ao ye aaaeeeaee aeaiaio nenoaie ineoieia?/iiai
aiae?co. O Aii/a?iaa ineoieia?/iee ii?o?ao aeeiai?/iee, eiio?anoiee,
o?nii iia’caiee c? ci?iaie o aeooiaiiio aeeoo? ethaeeie (ii?o?ao
Eecaaaoe Ieaenaiae??aie).

O ?iiai? Aii/a?iaa «Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey» oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?aco ?
iia’ycaiee c iath ineoieia?/iee ii?o?ao ii?aeio?oueny c iienii iaecaaeo.
Ia aeoieo Aii/a?iaa, o?eueee ni?aaaei? ethaiai? noinoiee ia?aaoaathoue o
aa?iii?? c i?e?iaeith. Oiio ?iiai?no iaia’yceiai noi?iaiaeaeo? i?aaaeea?
ii/oooy aa?i?a iaecaaeiei oiiii. sseui ae oae? ii/oooy cieeathoue, aai
cian?i ?o iaia?, aa?i? ciaeueiaothoueny o?eueee a iaaeao caieiaii?
aeiiaoiuei? ianoaiiaee. Eecaaaoa Ieaenaiae??aia Aaeo?aa, ui oae ? ia
i?ciaea ni?aaaeiueiai eioaiiy, caa’yioaoe a oiiaao eiioi?oo,
ciaeueiao?oueny Aii/a?iaei o?eueee a o?ni?e aoiinoa?? ?ioa?’??o, aea
i?eiee ia i?e?iae?.

O cia?aaeaii? ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a Aii/a?ia oai?/i ?icaeaaa o?aaeeoe??
Iooe?ia. Aea Iooe?i, ye a?aeiii, aaaaeaa, ui n?i’y iiaea ?nioaaoe
iaa?oue eiee ae?iea ia a?ae/oaa? ethaia? aei /ieia?ea. ? Aaeo?aa, ye ?
Oaoueyia Ea??ia, n?iaei? oce aaaaeaea nayuaieie. Oa Aii/a?ia ?aea aeae?
o ciaethaaii? iiae?aii? aeeoo?ai? neooaoe?? ? aeyaey? caoai? iane?aeee
aacethaiaiiai na?oo, o yeiio ia?aaoaa? aa?i?iy. Aaeo?aa, ia ciaeoiaoe
?aeaaeo ethaia? o n?i’?, /aoia, caaeeoa?oueny, aea ia iieeoa? n?iaeiiai
eiea, /anii aeeiioth/e iaia’ycee ae?oaeeie. Oaeei ??oaiiyi aeaii?
i?iaeaie Aii/a?ia yaii caia?a/o? Iooe?io. Aooe a??iith /ieia?eia? ua ia
icia/a? iaoe uanoy, niie?e, ethaia, ?aae?noue aeeooy. sseui ae?iea
anueiai oeueiai iicaaaeaia, oi aeeooy ?? o?aa?/ia. Ia iiaeia iacaaoe
ii?aeueiei oaea aeeooy. Aii/a?ia o ?iiai? «Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»,
?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaio ae?ii/iai uanoy a ii?aeueii-aoe/iiio ieai?,
ciaethaaa oe?ieee niaeo? ae?ii/eo oei?a, i?iaeooth/e ?in?enueeo
ae?eni?noue ieioeiai noie?ooy a e?oa?aoo??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «?iiai «Iaeiiia». «Aieiaia caaea/a ?iiaio, eiai
aeooa – ae?iea» (Aii/a?ia) i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeine?aeieee,
aiae?coth/e ?iiai «Iaeiiia», caa?oathoue oaaao ia?aaaaeii ia nioe?aeueio
i?iaeaio oai?o-aee?eooy iaeiiiaueie ye ce?niiai yaeua, ui aaeueio?
?icaeoie noni?eueiiai aeeooy a ?in??. I?ae oei o ?iiai? cia/ia i?noea
caeiathoue i?iaeaie ae?ii/iai uanoy, i?ecia/aiiy ? i?noey ae?iee a
noni?euenoa?, ae??oaiiy yeeo iia’ycaia ?c ae?ii/eie ia?acaie. Ine?eueee
ae?ii/? ia?niiaae? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?aae?caoe??
eiioeaioe?? ?iiaio, aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? aeciaa iaiao?aeiei aeeeanoe nai?
?icoi?iiy ?aeaeii? ni?yiiaaiino? «Iaeiiiaa», oei a?eueoa, ui a
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? iaia ?aeiino? o ?? o?aeoiaoe?. A?aeiii, ui
ienueiaiiee i?ney aeoiaeo noaoo? Aeia?iethaiaa «*oi oaeia iaeiiiaueia?»
iiai?noth iiaiaeeany c ioe?ieith e?eoeeii iaeiiiaueie. Iacaaaeath/e ia
oaa?aeo iiceoe?th Aii/a?iaa a?aeiinii aeia?iethaianueei? ioe?iee ?iiaio
«Iaeiiia», o ye?e e?eoee iaa?oioiaaii ? /?oei cayaea, ui o oai??
iieacaiee ?iciaae e??iinieoeueei? ?in??, a aa?ie ?iiaio neiaie?co?
e?iiu?, aacae?yeuei?noue, cano?e e??iinieoeueei? nenoaie, o
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? /an?a Aii/a?iaa, oae naii ye ? a no/ani?e iaooe?,
?niothoue aeine?aeieee (I.A.Ae?oaeei?i, TH.A.Eaaaae?a), noeeuei?
caia?a/oaaoe oeth oi/eo ci?o, i?aaio/e ooi/ieoe aeia?iethaianueeo
o?aeoiaeo «iaeiiiaueie». Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui «ia?ianoai»
(«ie/aaiiaaeaeaiea») Iaeiiiaa – nai???aeiee i?ioano i?ioe na?onueei?
no?oe ? ao?aeoaciiai ae?eyoeoaa, a a iiiyooy «iaeiiiaueia» aoiaeeoue
oe?eee iao??a?oaeueiee ono??e ?in?enueeiai aeeooy ia o?eueee c
iaaaoeaieie, a e c aeeaiei iiaoe/ieie noi?iiaie, ui oe?ethua, iiceoeaii
aieeaathoue ia ethaeeio. O aeaiiio aeine?aeaeai? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui
iiae?aia o?aeoiaea iaeiiiaueie ia a?aeiia?aea? i? aaoi?nueeiio caaeoio,
i? ia’?eoeaiiio ci?noo ?iiaio, a oi?ie ai?ioueae c a?aenoaeeie,
cano?eieie cae/ayie ?in?enueeiai aeeooy oyaeyeenue Aii/a?iao ii-?ioiio.
«Iaeiiiaueia» – niin?a aeeooy, nooue yeiai, ca aecia/aiiyi naiiai
ienueiaiieea, iieyaa? o a?aenooiino? aeoeaiiai, ae?yeueiiai noaaeaiiy
aei aeeooy. Oea noai ianeaiino?, e?iiu?a ? canoith. Iiiyooy
«iaeiiiaueia» ia iiaeia ioioiaeithaaoe c iiiyooyi «iao??a?oaeueiee
oeeaae». «Iaeiiiaueiith» iiaeooue aooe o?aaeai? ??ci?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? nenoaie. Oey «oai?iaa» iiaea i?iyaeyoeny a ??ci?
?noi?e/i? ia??iaee ? a ??cieo oi?iao. Iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i iiaoe/i?
noi?iie iao??a?oaeueiiai oeeaaeo ?in?enueeiai aeeooy, eiee iiaa eaea i?i
i?e?iaeo, i?i ca’ycee ethaeeie c i?e?iaeith, i?i ia?iaei? iiaoe/i?
oaioac??, aea aae i?ye ia iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i iiaoe/i? noi?iie
«iaeiiiaueie». Oea aoei c?icoi?eei ? aeey oai?oey «Iaeiiiaa». O ca’yceo
c oeei o ?icae?e? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui Aii/a?ia,
iane?aeoth/e iooe?inuee? o?aaeeoe??, ia?aa??y? aeooiai? ? i?aeoe/i?
iiaeeeaino? aieiaiiai aa?iy, aei?iaiaoth/e eiai ethaiaieie i?eno?anoyie,
ye? Aii/a?ia, ye ? Iooe?i, aicaaee/o?. O ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa i?eno?ano?
aa?i?a noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ae?aiaoe/ieie ia?aaeeaaiiyie. Ethaia, ia
aeoieo ?iiai?noa, iiaea a?ae?iaeeoe ethaeeio, aa?iooe eiio iiaiioe?iia
aeeooy.. Caaaeyee eioaiith Iaeiiia a?ae?iaeeany ye ethaeeia, oi/ ? ia ia
caaaeaee. ? a oeueiio ia?ac aa?i?i? ?iiaio – Ieueae ?eue?inueei?
a?ae?a?a? ia?oi?yaeio ?ieue.

O no/ani?e Aii/a?iao e?eoeoe? ia?ac Ieueae ?eue?inueei? iaea?aeaa
iaiaeiicia/io ioe?ieo. Aeaye? e?eoeee ia ni?eeiaee nai oaeo ??
caoiieaiiy Iaeiiiaei, a?aeiiaeyee o aeeoo?a?e i?aaaeeaino? noai?aiiai
ienueiaiieeii ia?aco, caeioaa/oaaee aa?i?ith o i?aaiaii? «iia?aoe a
ethaia», o aeeiiaii? aeey caaeiaieaiiy aeanii? ieoe iaaii? «i?n??»,
iieeaaeaii? ia ia? aeieath (I.I.I?etheia, ?.O.Aiiainueeee). Aeaye?
no/ani? e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe? oaeiae caeioaa/othoue aa?i?ith ?iiaio a
aai?ci?, naaaethanoa?, o iine?aeiaiiio ?ic?aooieo, ia aaaaeathoue
aa?i?ith caeaoiith ia ue?? ii/oooy ? aacei?eneea? a/eiee
(?.A.E?aniiuieiaa, TH.A.Eaaaae?a). Aeoiaey/e c ?aoaeueii i?iaaaeaiiai
ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co “iiaie eioaiiy” Iaeiiiaa oa ?eue?inueei?, aaoi?
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoue aaci?aenoaai?noue iiae?aieo noaeaeaiue c
i?eaiaeo aieiaiiai ae?ii/iai ia?aco ?iiaio.

Ethaia «noaea i?iaiei eaiaiai» aeey Ieueae, aeyaeaoe iaee?au? aeooaai?
yeino? aa?i?i?. Ethaia aaaea aa?i?ith aei iiaeeaeaiiai aiae?co naiai
aioo??oiueiai na?oo, aei ?icaeoi?a i?i ci?no ethaia? ? aeeooy. Neeueia
ii/oooy Ieueae ia ia?anoaaaei aooe na?aeiiei. A oea aeicaieeei ?e
naiie?eoe/ii ioe?ieoe nai? iiaeeeaino? o a?ae?iaeaeaii? Iaeiiiaa aei
aeeooy. Neea ona?aeiieaii? ethaia? i?aeeacaea Ieuec?, ui ii/aoa iath
ai?ioueaa aaciaae?eia. Ieueaa ?c noiii ?icoi??, ui iaa?oue «eai?iue ae
iaeea» a?ae oiai, ui aiia cae?enieea. ?ic?ea Ieueae c Iaeiiiaei
coiiaeaiee ooaeiaeiueith eia?eith ?? ia?aco. Ienueiaiiee iieaco?, ye o
eiai aa?i?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny ai?ioueaa i?eno?ano?, ii/oooy c ?icoiii.
Ii/oooy Ieueae ia aioe? Iaeiiiaa. Aea oa?aeoa? Ieueae, caniiaaiee ia
aa?iii?? ii/oooy ? ?icoio, ciooo? caaiai?eoe ?? ?icoi, aeineooaoeny aei
iueiai. O aa?i?i? ia?aiaaa? caei?iaee aeocae, ?icnoaeeea?noue, ui ?
?yoo? ?? a?ae iaieio/i? caaeaae?. Uanoy ia o?eueee ethaeoe ? aooe
ethaeiith, aea e ia coieiyoeny i?e oeueiio o nai?io aeooiaiiio,
?icoiiaiio ?icaeoeo, i?eeeanoe nai? cae?aiino? ? neee aei eiie?aoii?
ni?aae Ieueaa ia ciiaea iaea?aeaoe c Iaeiiiaei. Aiia, caeaaaeinue,
iaea?aeeoue eiai c? Ooieueoeai. Iaeiae ?eue?inueea c ?? «ianiie?eiei
?icoiii» c /anii ii/eia? ana aino??oa a?ae/oaaoe iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
Ooieueoea ?? ?aeaaeo. Aii/a?ia, ia iiae?eyth/e oo?aai?anueei? ?aea?
c?a/aiiy iniaenoiai uanoy a ?i’y aeeiiaiiy iaia’yceo, aaaaea? aeey
nai?? aa?i?i? iiaeeeaei, aae ia caaeiooe a iaeiiianueeiio na?o?, i?oe c
iueiai, ia naiic??eath/enue uanoy ? ia aea?oaoth/e niaith.

O aeine?aeaeaii? a?aei?/a?oueny iaenoa?i?noue ooaeiaeiueiai cia?aaeaiiy
ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a Aii/a?iaei-ineoieiaii. Iniaeeai oe?eaaei ? i?eeii
?iciiae iiaeyaeaie ? oni?oeaie Ieueae c Iaeiiiaei ? Ooieueoeai. Oeae
i?ea?iaeueiee ineoieia?/iee i?eeii i?ci?oa aeei?enoaa Oienoie i?e
noai?aii? ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o ?iiaiao «Aieia e ie?», «Aiia Ea?aieia».
Noai?thth/e ia?ac Ieueae ?eue?inueei?, ienueiaiiee aeei?enoaa
ineoieia?/iee ii?o?ao, ui a?aeaeaa? aeooaaiee noai aa?i?i? o ??ci?
iiiaioe ?? aeeooy, iieacaa Ieueao ? ?? ii/oooy aei Iaeiiiaa o ?icaeoeo ?
a aa?iii?ei?e ?aeiino? c i?e?iaeith.

Ieueaa ?eue?inueea – ??aee?niee oei ae?iee, iaeiae ?aaeueii ?nioth/ee.
Oaeei ae?ieai i?eoaiaiia e?ana ? a?aoe?y. I?aaiaiiy aei aenieiai, ua ia
aeinyaiooiai caaaeaee aoaea oaeethaaoe oeae ae?ii/ee “nooue ?aaeueiee
oei ae?eniino?”.

Oei «iiceoeaiiai» ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?acii Aaao’?
Iaoa??aie Ioaieoeeii?. Aaao’y Iaoa??aia – iiaia i?ioeeaaei?noue Ieuec?
?eue?inuee?e. Iaeaai?iaeaeoth/?e, iaeeaeyth/?e ethaia? Iaeiiiaa aei
Ieueae i?ioenoaaeai? eiai ii/oooy aei Aaao’? Iaoa??aie. Aii/a?ia
iaaienia i?ioenoaaey? ?icaeoie eioaiiy Ieueae oa ?ee? ?ee?/a, yeee
i?ioiaeeoue a iniiaiiio ia oii? i?e?iaee, ia?aa?ao ii/ooo?a Iaeiiiaa ?
Aaao’? Iaoa??aie, ui ?icai?oa?oueny o iaaeao ?ioa?’??o o?nieo e?iiao o
aoaeeieo ia Aeai?cuee?e noi?ii?. Iaa?oue ina?ae/aiiy a eioaii? c
Ieueaith a?aeaoaa?oueny o e?oiueiio ia?eo, a c Aaao’?th Ioaieoeeiith —
o caaeooeea?e e?iiao?. Aaao’y Iaoa??aia aeeea o?eueee na?oeai, o i?e
iiai?noth a?aenooi? ?ioaeaeooaeueia ia/aei. Ethaia Aaao’? Iaoa??aie
iaaeaea ci?noo ?? aeeooth. Oey aii/a?ianueea aa?i?iy ethaeea ii-nai?io,
ye oi?ea, aaaeath/e Iaeiiiao uanoy, aeia?a, aoea aioiaa ia naiiiiaea?oao
ca?aaee aeaaiiieo//y ? niieith eioaiiai. Aii/a?ia i?ioenoaaey? a ?iiai?
aacae?yeueiiai, aai?noe/iiai Iaeiiiaa oo?aioeea?e, oaaaei?e Aaao’?
Iaoa??ai?, ui aeeaa aeey ?ioeo ? i?eiineoue naaa a aea?oao aeey uanoy ?
aeia?iaooo n?i’?. Aei oeueiai ae?ii/iai oeio iaeaaeeoue ? Ai?nuey,
ae?oaeeia Caoa?a, — ethaeeia i?aoe?, oo?aioeeaa ? oa?iaeeaa ae?iea.
Aii/a?ia i?aaaeeai ciaeueiao? oei ae?iee-iaoa??, iyiueee, ainiiaeei?
aeiiaoiueiai aiaieua, aea aac iniaeeaeo aenieeo ono?aie?iue oa
?ioa?an?a. Oea iaea?eueo iioe?aiee ?aaeueiee oei ae?eniino? ye ieioeiai,
oae ? iei?oiueiai noie?ooy.

Aii/a?ia ia a?aeaea? ia?aaaae aoaeue-yeiio ?c cia?aaeaieo ae?ii/eo oei?a
?iiaio “Iaeiiia”. Nai? aaoi?nueea ni?a/oooy ? neiiao?? a iaeiaeia?e i???
a?aeaea? ? ae?ioe?-aa?aaei? aeiiaoiueiai aiaieua, ? aiaineiiaai?e
ae?ioe?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Ai?ioueaa «noa?iai» c «iiaei» ? ae?ii/? ia?ace a
?iiai? Aii/a?iaa «Ia?ua» aiae?cothoueny ??ci? ae?ii/? oeie o caeaaeiino?
a?ae oa?aeoa?o i?eno?anoae, yeeo aiie caciathoue.

?ice?eaath/e ?aeaeii-eiiiiceoe?eio ?ieue ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a o ?iiai?
«Ia?ua», aeena?oaio i?aaia ooi/ieoe ?aeaeii-oaiaoe/iee ci?no oai?o. O
?iaioao i?i Aii/a?iaa iniiaiee eiioe?eo ? iaoin ?iiaio aeine?aeieee
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ye ai?ioueao «noa?iai» ? «iiaiai» (I.I.?eaania,
I.?.I?ooeeia, I.A.Oeaeoe?i, I.E.I?enaiia, A.A.I?eiea?a, N.I.Iao?ia oa
?io?). Aiae?c ?iiaio ? ia?aaeon?i ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a, ?o i?noey ? ?ie?
o oai??, niene ?o ae?aeia?a-aan?ae c ooaeiaeieeii ?aenueeei, a/eiee
aa?i?iue aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe ia o?eueee nioe?aeueio, aea e
ineoieia?/io aeii?iaioo oai?o. O neiaie?/iiio ia?ac? «ia?eao»
ceeaathoueny nioe?aeueia ? ineoieia?/ia ia/aea. Ia?ea – oea neiaie?/iee
ia?ac ia o?eueee «a?iae?iiy», e?aoo noa?eo aeeoo?aeo onoi?a ?
noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo, aea e «ia?eae»-ae?aie, i?eno?ano?-oai?iae aa?i?iue:
aaaooee, A??e, Ia?eie, Oeaiueee, ae?oaeeie Eiceiaa oa ?ioeo). A «Ia?uaa»
Aii/a?iaei cia?aaeai? «ae?iee eoeueoo» – ae?iee ooo/ieo i?eno?anoae.
I?aei?iath/e oaio i?iiaui? ae?iee, yeo a ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo??
aena?oethaaee I.A.Aiaieue a «Iaaneii i?iniaeoa» (1835), I.A.Iae?ania o
a??o? «Aaeo ee ii/ueth ii oeeoea oaiiie» (1847), O.I.Aeinoi?anueeee a
«Oieaeaiiuo e inei?aeaiiuo» (1861), «I?anooieaiee e iaeacaiee» (1866) oa
?ioeo, Aii/a?ia ?ic?iaey? ?? o ii?aeueii-aoe/iiio ieai?, ia a?aei?io
a?ae iacaaieo aeua ienueiaiiee?a, ui i?aeiyee oeth oaio ia ??aaiue
nioe?aeueiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy. On? aeaaaeai? Aii/a?iaei ??ciiaeaee
«ae?eoeue eoeueoo» aeine?aeaeothoueny ienueiaiieeii ye oeie ae?eniino?
40-o ?ie?a. Ia aeoieo ?iiai?noa, ii?aeueia nionoioaiiy ae?iee na?ae/eoue
i?i ii?aeueiee noai noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio.

A a?enoie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? iaia? i?noey aeeaiio ii/oooth. Aii/a?ia
cia?aaeo? a «Ia?uaa» Nio’th A?eiaiaeiao – na?onueeo ae?ieo, ia/enoi
iicaaaeaio aeeaieiai ii/oooy. Na?aaeiaeua, ui ae?inoeei ??, cieueei a
i?e onyeee i?iya aeooaaieo ii?ea?a. ?iiai?no, aaaaeath/e, ui «aeeooy
na?oey» iano?eueee ae aaaeeeaa ? iaiao?aeia, ye ? «aeeooy ?icoio»,
iieaco?, ye caoaii aieeaa? ia iniaeno?noue a?aenooi?noue aoaeue-yeiai c
ieo. AEeooy o?eueee «na?oeai» (TH.Oaoa?aa «Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»). aai
o?eueee «?icoiii» (N.A?eiaiaeiaa) i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiaaeaiino?, aei
aacci?noiaiiai niiniao aeeooy, /anoi – aei iauaneeai? aeie?.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? a?aei?/a?oueny i?ea?iaeueiee i?eeii
Aii/a?iaa, eiee a?i i?aaia iieacaoe, ye neooathoue ae?iee ?iciiae
/ieia?e?a. Ienueiaiieee-eeaneee ii-??ciiio ?ice?eaathoue iiaeeeaino?
ae?iie ni?eeiaoe, neooaoe /oaeo, naia /ieia?/o ?iciiao. O ?iiaiao
Aii/a?iaa ae?iee ii-??ciiio neooathoue /ieia?e?a. Oea caeaaeeoue a?ae
iniaeeainoae ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o ? a?ae ?icoi?iiy naiei aaoi?ii
i?ecia/aiiy ae?iee a noni?euenoa?. O Eecaaaoe Ieaenaiae??aie Aaeo?ai?
neiaa ?? /ieia?ea aeeeeeathoue ii/oooy aeeaieiai ?ic/a?oaaiiy, a
aeneiaethaaiiy Ieaenaiae?a – aeaeue, ni?a/oooy aei ieai?iieea. Iaoe
Ieaenaiae?a Aaeo?aa, o?oea, Nio’y, THe?y Oaoa?aa ?aaie?inoaothoue ia?aae
/ieia?eaie, aiie iie??i? e neooiyi?, ?aae?thoue aoaeue-yeiio aeyao oaaae
c ?o aieo. Iaae?iueea Ethaaoeueea, iaaiaee, ia?anoaea aeineooiaoaaoenue
aei ne?a Ieaenaiae?a. Aiie ?e iaa?eaeee. Oea iciaea ?? ?icoio. Ieueaa
neooa? Iaeiiiaa oaaaeii, ?c caoe?eaaeaiiyi, aea/ath/e eiai. Ioaieoeeia
acaaae? i?yeeo aan?ae ?c Iaeiiiaei ia aaaea, aiia eiai aeia?ia?eueia
i?eneoaeieoey.

O o?aoueiio ?iiai? Aii/a?iaa aaaaoi ae?iie, ? a oiio, ye aiie
a?aeaoeothoueny ia neiaa /ieia?e?a, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?o aeeoo?aa iiceoe?y.
AE?iee a «Ia?uaa» noaee cia/ii aeoeai?oeie, naiino?eieie, ca aeiyoeii
Ia?o?iueee, yea aeia?ia?eueii ia aaaea? a?aeoiaeeoe a?ae aaaoneii?
i?aaaee ? oiio iie??ia ?? aie?. Aii/a?ia Ia?o?iueeo a?aeiineoue aei
iiceoeaieo ae?ii/eo oa?aeoa??a. ?e i?eoaiaiia /enoioa aeoo?, aeeoy/a
iai?ae?iaia ia?ai?noue, aeecuee?noue aei ??aeii? i?e?iaee, i?ia?ioe?eia
i?inoioa ? ne?iii?noue. A ia?ac? Oaoueyie Ia?eiaie Aa?aaeeiai? Aii/a?ia
a?aeaea e?au? ?ene ?in?enueei? ae?iee. Aaaony – aeaaeia iii?ueoey,
iaeiae o ia? /oeia na?oea, iiaia oo?aioe i?i aeecueeeo. O ?in?enuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? i?eeiyoi ioe?ithaaoe ii?aeueiee iioaioe?ae /ieia?ea /e ae?iee
ca ?o noaaeaiiyi aei eioaii? ethaeeie, aea, e??i oeueiai, ii?aeueiee
no?eaeaiue ethaeeie ia?aa??y?oueny ua e noaaeaiiyi aei ae?oae.
Aa?aaeeiaa aeoiaaea o?ueio ne??o, i?e oeueiio aiie aaaaeaee ?? ??aeiith,
iiaaaeaee ? ethaeee. Oaoyia Ia?e?aia i?eaaaeth? nai?th caeaoi?noth
?icoi?oe aeooaaiee noai ?ioeo ethaeae, aioiai?noth aea?oaoaaoe niaith
ca?aaee aeeiiaiiy naiai iaia’yceo. O oeueiio aiia aeecueea iooe?inuee?e
Oaoueyi?. No?ee?noue ? a??i?noue iaia’yceo ??aeieoue ?? ? c E?cith
Eae?o?iith Oo?aai?aa.

C iniaeeaith ethaia’th a «Ia?uaa» ciaeueiaaia A??a. A ia?ac? aa?i?i?
Aii/a?ia iaiaaaany ao?eeoe ?ene ? i?aaiaiiy «iiaiai iieie?iiy». O A???,
ca neiaaie Aii/a?iaa, a?i aaaeaa ao?eeoe oa?aeoa? ?aeaaeueiee.
Ienueiaiiee ?oia i?e oeueiio ca iooe?inueeith o?aaeeoe??th, aea a oie
aea /an iaaeaa aa?i?i? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene /ano. Ia?ac aa?i?i? a?ae?a?a?
ia?oi?yaeio ?ieue o ni?inooaaii? i?a?e?noe/ieo ?aeae Ia?ea Aieioiaa. O
A??e aeieea? iaeea aaaeaiiy, oae naii ye ? a Ieueae ?eue?inueei?,
ia?aaeoiaaoe, ni?yioaaoe ia oeyo ?noeiiee i?aaeiao nai?? ethaia?. I?ae
/an inoaiiueiai iiaa/aiiy Aieioiaa ? A??e i?ae caeioaieie aeieea?
iai/?eoaaia ?iciiaa. Oea caoyaeia oai?aoe/ia noia?a/ea aeaio iieiaeeo
ethaeae. Iiae?aio neooaoe?th iiaeia a?aeiaeoe a»I?anooieaiee e
iaeacaiee» Aeinoi?anueeiai o noeai? iiaa/aiiy ?aneieueieeiaa c Niiath a
?? iioio??e e?iiao?, aea aiie nia?a/athoueny i?i i?aai ethaeeie ia
aaeanoai. sse a?aeiii, iiceoe?? aa?i?a i?yii i?ioeeaaei?. Ua a?eueo
iai?eie?ei? iiceoe?? A??e ? Ia?ea. Ia?e i?iiia?aeo? oai??th «ethaia? ia
no?ie». A??a aaaaea?, ui ae?iea aeae?a? nia? /ieia?ea iacaaaeaee, «ia
ana aeeooy». Aiia aeieeaaea? iaiaeeo coneeue, iaiaaath/enue aieeiooe ia
ii/oooy, ia ?icoi Ia?ea, uia ia?aeiiaoe eiai ? noeeeoe aei nai??
i?aaaee. Iaeiae A??a inoaoi/ii ia?aeiio?oueny, ui ?? eioaiee ia iiaea
?iceo/eoeny c «aia/ith i?aaaeith». Ooo/i?, iaaeoiai? oai??? Ia?ea, ui ia
a?oioothoueny ia aeeoo?aiio aeina?ae?, ia caoiieee A??o. Ia?aiiaea ??
«caei?iaa neeueia iaoo?a», yea cioneea ?? i?oe ia ?ic?ea c Aieioiaei.

Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui caa?iaiiy Aii/a?iaa aei oaie aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino? ia aeiaaeeiaa. Oaia aeoiaaiiy a o?e /e ?io?e oi?i? caaaeaee
aoea neeaaeiaith o i?iaeaiaoeoe? oai??a ?in?enueeeo eeanee?a. Aeooiaia
iiiaeaiiy, «a?aeiiaeaiiy a ethaeei? ia?aco ethaenueeiai», ca neiaaie
Aeinoi?anueeiai, — oea o? ieoaiiy, ye? oaeethaaee ienueiaiiee?a XIX
noie?ooy. O iaiaaaiiyo A??e ia?aaeoiaaoe Ia?ea Aieioiaa ia aoei i?/iai
iaaeoiaiiai, ooo/iiai i? c iiaeyaeo eia?ee ae?ii/iai ooaeiaeiueiai
ia?aco, i? c iiaeyaeo aaoi?nueei? iiceoe??. O oeueiio ?icoi?ii? ?iiai
Aii/a?iaa «Ia?ua» i?aai?/ii aieno?oueny o caaaeueiee e?oa?aoo?iee
i?ioean. Oi/a a ia?ac? A??e Aii/a?ia ? ia ci?a iiaiith i??ith ao?eeoe
na?e ?aeaae iniaenoino?, ui ae?aaea?oueny neiao???th «?icoio» ?
«na?oey», iaeiae aiia ?aeeia c on?o ia?niiaae?a ?iiaio iaeneiaeueii
iaaeeaea?oueny aei iueiai.

Ia iao iiaeyae, o ?iiai? «Ia?ua» Aii/a?ia iiae?ey? iooe?inueeo iiceoe?th
«aacethaiaiiai oethao». ?iiai?no caeeoa? A??o c Oooeiei, ethaeeiith
iiceoeaiith, aea ia ethaeiith aa?i?iath. sse ? aeey iooe?inueei?
Oaoueyie, o oeueiio, c iiaeyaeo Aii/a?iaa, iaia i?/iai i?eieaeoth/iai.
I?aeo?eiea /ieia?ea-ae?oaa aeiiiiiaea A??? aeooiaii aei?yieoeny i?ney
«ia?eao», ciaeoe niie?e ? uanoy.

Oaia ae?ii/iai uanoy o Aii/a?iaa ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c i?iaeaiith
iaeaooiueiai ?in??. C iiaeyaeo ienueiaiieea, naia ae?ioe? aoaea
iaeaaeaoe ae??oaeueia ?ieue o ia?aoai?aii? noni?euenoaa ia i?eioeeiao
aeia?a, uanoy, ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

Aeniiaee. I?iaeaiaoeea, oai?/? i?eioeeie oeiieia?/ii aeecueeeo
ienueiaiiee?a, /e? oai?e aoee iaienai? o 1840-1860-o? ?iee (Aii/a?ia,
Aa?oeai, Oo?aai?a, Oienoie, Aeinoi?anueeee), na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
?iiaie «Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey», «Iaeiiia», «Ia?ua» noai?thaaeenue ia
iaa?no?aeueieo oeyoao ?icaeoeo ?in?enueeiai ?aae?cio. Oea aeyaey?oueny o
i?eioeeiao ?aae?noe/ii? oei?caoe??, o e?eoa??yo ioe?iee ethaeeie, o
i?aaiaii? Aii/a?iaa-?iiai?noa a?aeia?aceoe iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? o
ciaethaaii? iiaooo, oeiiaeo oa?aeoa??a . O oie aea /an iniiai?
iniaeeaino? ?in?enueeiai ?aae?cio i?iyaeeenue o oai?/ino? Aii/a?iaa
nai???aeii, a?aeaeaath/e ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa? eiai ienoaoeueeiai
na?oini?eeiyooy, ui iai/ii aeyaey?oueny o noai?aieo iei ae?ii/eo oeiao.
Aeia?aaeaeath/e /anoeiai ooaeiaei? a?aee?eooy nai?o aaeeeeo no/aniee?a
Oo?aai?aa, Aeinoi?anueeiai, Oienoiai, a?i noai?ea o ?iiaiao
«Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey», «Iaeiiia», «Ia?ua» oe?eo aaea?ath ia?ac?a
?in?enueei? ae?iee. Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ene ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o o Aii/a?iaa
o a?eueoino? aecia/eeenue iniaeeainoyie ineoieia?cio ienueiaiieea,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaiiai ?ice?eooth naiia?aeaeaiino?, a??iino? nai?io
iaia’yceo, oaa?aeino? aeooo ?in?enueei? ae?iee.

O nai?e oai?/ino? a oe?eiio ? o noai?aii? ae?ii/eo oa?aeoa??a Aii/a?ia
?icaeaaa iooe?inuee? o?aaeeoe??. Oea aeyaeeinue o niaaeeoaaii?
Aii/a?iaei iooe?inueei? oeiieia?? ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o, a noai?iio
aeio?eiaii? i?eioeeio ?noi?ecio, a iaeiaeiaiio ?icoi?ii? cia/aiiy
eioaiiy o aeeoo? ethaeeie. Cayaeaia Iooe?iei oaia ae?ii/iai uanoy i?oeii
oa?eoea o oai?/?noue oaeeo ?in?enueeeo ienueiaiiee?a: I.?.Aa?oeaia,
?.N.Oo?aai?aa, O.I.Aeinoi?anueeiai, E.I.Oienoiai. Aiia noaea iaeiith c
i?ia?aeieo oai o an?o o?ueio ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa. ? iooe?inuee? aa?i?i? –
Ieueaa, Oaoueyia, ? aa?i?i? Aii/a?iaa – Iaae?iueea, Eecaaaoa
Ieaenaiae??aia, Ieueaa, A??a – a?aeiia?aeaee «nai?io iiiaioo», nai?io
?noi?e/iiio /ano. Oeei aecia/a?oueny ?o a?aei?ii?noue. sseui Oaoueyia
i?ae aieeaii na?aaeiaeua, ca aae?iiyi iaoa?? neooiyii aeoiaeeoue cai?ae,
oi aa?i?i? Aii/a?iaa -–Iaae?iueea, Ieueaa, A??a – cae?eniththoue
«i?e?iaeiee ia?ao?ae aei na?aeiiiai iae?oaeaiiy», oiio ui aiie aeeaooue
a oiiaao 1840-1860-o ?ie?a ?in?enueeiai aeeooy, eiee iaaecae/aeii aino?i
iinoaea i?iaeaia ae?ii/i? aiaineiaoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia oeiieia?y ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o ?iiaii?e
oai?/ino? Aii/a?iaa.

Ia?o ca ana ne?ae aeae?eeoe iniaeeaee, aeuee oei aii/a?ianueeeo ae?iie,
ui aeeeeea? caoiieaiiy ienueiaiieea. Oea ae?iee, yeei aeanoea?
i?eno?ani? ii?eaaiiy, aeeaie? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? caieoe. Aiie i?aaiooue
ae?aaoeny c eiea iao??a?oaeueiiai aeeooy, noa?aioei?a onoaeaiiai iiaooo
? ciaeoe nai? i?noea ia o?eueee a n?i’?, aea ? a noni?euenoa?. Oeae oei
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?acaie Iaae?iueee, Eecaaaoe Ieaenaiae??aie Aaeo?ai?
(«Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»), Ieueae ?eue?inueei? («Iaeiiia»), A??e
(«Ia?ua»). Aiie iaae?eai? yniei aeiieoeeaei ?icoiii ? /ooeeaei na?oeai.
Cacia/aiee oei ae?iie o?nii iia’ycaiee c aoeei-o?einionueeeie ooeaiiyie
?iiai?noa ? a?aeia?aaeathoue eiai i?aaiaiiy noai?eoe ?aeaaeueiee
ae?ii/ee oa?aeoa?, o yeiio a aa?iii?eii ii?aeioaaeenue ?aoe?iiaeuei? oa
aiioe?ei? ia/aea.

Noai?thth/e ia?ace ae?iie c yne?aai ae?aaeaiei ?ioaeaeooaeueiei ?
aiioe?eiei ia/aeii, Aii/a?ia iaa ca ac??aoeue o ia?oo /a?ao ia?ac
iooe?inueei? Oaoueyie, nie?aany ia aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe?? aaoi?a
«Aaaaiey Iiaaeia». Aea aoiai?ci ienueiaiieea aoa oe?oei: a?i ?c
ni?a/oooyi iaiaethaaa iiceoeaiee oei ae?iee, ianeaii? ae?acieoe? e?aueo
cae/a?a nai?? aiioe. Oeae oei ae?iee o Aii/a?iaa iaae?eaiee ?enaie
i?aoeueiaeoino?, naiic?a/aiino?, a?aeaeaiino? ?ioei ethaeyi. Ethaia oeeo
ae?iie ia iaoyaeeeaa, ia aeiiaeeaa. Aeoiaai? a oiiaao aeai?yinueeiai
aeai?o, anioaaoe a naaa eiai ii?aeuei? ii?ie, aiie i?inoi ? i?e?iaeii
ni?eeiathoue cae/a? iao??a?oaeueiiai na?oo ? oaeeaathoueny a oeueiio
na?o?: iaoe Ieaenaiae?a Aaeo?aa («Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»), Aaao’y
Ioaieoeeia, aaaooea, Ia?o?iueea («Ia?ua»). O ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? oeae
ae?ii/ee oei aa?a na?e ii/aoie a?ae ia?ac?a Ea??ii?, iaoa?? iooe?inueei?
Oaoueyie oa ?? nano?e Ieueae. Aa?i?i? Aii/a?iaa i?ica?/i?, iaaa?i?/i?,
a??i? onoiyi aeeooy, ui neeaeeny, nai?io aeeoo?aiio i?ecia/aiith. Aiie
aa?aaei? aeiiaoiueiai aiaieua, n?i’?. O oeueiio ?icoi?ii? iiaeia
aiai?eoe i?i naiia?aeaea/o, i?i neoae?iiy iaia’yceo, ?ioei ethaeyi
ainiiaeeiue aeai?yinueeeo naaeea, i?i ?o a?aeaeai?noue /ieia?eia?,
ae?oyi, aeecueeei ?i ia aeanoea? niiaeyaeaeuei?noue, ?ioaeaeooae?ci,
i?aaiaiiy aei ?aeaae?a.

O?ao?e oei ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a i?aaenoaaeaiee o ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa
ia?acaie o?oie Ieueae («Iaeiiia»), A?eiaiaeiai? («Ia?ua»). Aiie aeeaooue
aeeeth/ii caeiiaie na?oo, o yeiio i?ioiaeeoue ana ?o aeeooy, ? aei?noiei
ea?athoue iaeiaioa a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oeeo caeii?a.

Ia?ace THe?? Oaoa?ai? ? Nio’? Ieeiea?aie A?eiaiaeiai? i?aaenoaaeythoue
/aoaa?oee oei ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa. Aiie, caeaaaeinue
ae, i?ioeeaaei? ca oaiia?aiaioii, caoiieaiiyie, iiaaae?ieith o na?o?,
aea a oie aea /an ? ?acoeueoaoii aeoiaaiiyi ? aieeao naiai na?aaeiaeua
Nio’y A?eiaiaeiaa – na?onueea ae?iea, iicaaaeaia caeaoiino? ethaeoe.
I?iyae aeooaaieo ii?ea?a cieueei na?aaeiaeua, ui aeoiaaei ??. THe?y
Oaoa?aa, iaaiaee, aoea ?iiaioe/iith iaoo?ith, a?aee?eoith aeey aeyaeaiiy
aaeeeiai, ni?aaaeiueiai ii/oooy, oae aeiaai i/?eoaaiiai aa?i?iath. Aea
THe?y ia coi?ea «?icoio i?eno?anoue i?aeei?eoue», eiee ethaia i?eeoea
aei ia?. Iai?aaeeueiee ?icaeoie – iane?aeie iioai?iiai aeoiaaiiy, aai?ci
caaaaeeee aa?i?i? noaoe uaneeaith. sse eiio?ano aei ieo – Iaoaoa
(«Ia?ua»). Aeey ia? ethaia neeaaeaea ci?no anueiai aeeooy. Ethaeea aiia
niie?eii, «i?/iai ia aeiaaath/e, ia aaaeath/e iaaca?i».

A ie?aiee oei iiaeia aeae?eeoe iaoo?e ?icaauai?, ii?i/i?: Ia?eia,
Oe?iueea, Iie?ia E?eonueea.

?ice?eooy aioo??oiueiai na?oo aa?i?iue o ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa aeinyaa?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeo aeaiaio?a ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co oa ?o ii?aeiaiue,
ye: ia?ace-neiaiee, ae?aiaoe/i? nthaeaoi? neooaoe??, ineoieia?/iee
ii?o?ao, ii?o?ao ? ?ioa?’??, ii?o?ao ? i?e?iaea; ae?aeia-aan?aea,
ae?aeia-noia?a/ea, iaia?a neooaoe ni?aaan?aeieea.

Noiae?noue oeiieia?? ae?ii/eo oa?aeoa??a o Aii/a?iaa ? Oo?aai?aa
coiiaeaia aeecuee?noth ?o anoaoe/ieo i?eioeei?a, a?aei?iieo a?ae
anoaoe/ieo i?eioeei?a Oienoiai ? Aeinoi?anueeiai. Ca Oienoei, e?ana
ethaeeie aecia/a?oueny ia?aae on?i ?? ca’yceii c i?e?iaeiei ia/aeii.
Naia o oeueiio e?ana ia?aco Iaoao? ?inoiai?. Ca Aeinoi?anueeei, e?ana
ethaeeie – o ??ai? ?? ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino?. O Aii/a?iaa oae naii, ye ?
o Oo?aai?aa, ethaeeia i?aeiaaea? i?ae aieea i?e?iaeieo, noeo?eieo nee. ?
a oie aea /an ia ia? aieeaa? ?noi??y, yea ae?iaey? ii?ie ii?aeueiino?.
E?eoa???i ii?aeueii? ioe?iee aa?i?a Aii/a?iaa ,oae naii, ye ?
iooe?inueeeo, oo?aai?anueeeo aa?i?a, ? ?o caeaoi?noue ethaeoe. Aea aeey
Aii/a?iaa-?iiai?noa ia iaio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ?icoi?iiy aa?iyie noo?
ethaia?, ?? ?ie? a aeeoo?, o aeie? ethaeeie. Naia oe? ieoaiiy
c’yniaothoue aeey naaa a aan?aeao ? noia?a/eao c? nai?ie eioaieie,
/ieia?eaie Eecaaaoa Ieaenaiae??aia, Ieueaa, A??a. A?aeiia?ae? ia oe?
ieoaiiy aeey aa?i?iue ??aiicia/i? a?aeiia?aeyi ia ieoaiiy.: «O /iio
i?ecia/aiiy ? niene iiai aeeooy, caaeey /iai y aeeao?» Oiio aa?i?i?
Aii/a?iaa o nai?o aeeniooao-noia?a/eao c /ieia?eaie caeiathoue
i?eioeeiiao iiceoe?th. Aiie iaiinooieea?, oiaaiai? o nai?e i?aaio?, o
aenieiio i?ecia/aii? ethaeeie acaaae?, o oiio /ene? ? ae?iee. Ia oeueiio
a?oioo?oueny aoe/iee ?aeaae ienueiaiieea. Aii/a?ia aoa ia?aeiiaiee, ui
ii?aeueiee noai noni?euenoaa caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ie? a iueiio ae?iee. sseei
? noaiiaeua ae?iee a noni?euenoa?, oaeei aoaea ? noni?euenoai, ai ae?iea
ca nai?th i?e?iaeith iiaeiia aeeiioaaoe aeoiai? ooieoe??, iaaeeoaoe
na?o, ui ioi/o? ??.

sseui i?i oo?aai?anueeo ae?ieo iiaeia neacaoe, ui ?? ia?ac
?aeaae?ciaaiee, oi o Aii/a?iaa aiia a?eueo caiia, a?eueo naiino?eia o
aeai?? naiai aeeoo?aiai oeyoo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oo?aai?anueei? E?ce,
Ieaie Noaoiai?, ye? a aiaeeio aei?iaoaaiue ooeathoue i?aeo?eiee o Aeuiai
ii?aeueiiai aaoi?eoaoo, Eecaaaoa Ieaenaiae??aia, Iaae?iueea, Ieueaa,
A??a o iiooeao naiai uanoy iieeaaeathoueny aeeeth/ii ia naaa. I?aaaea,
A??a o aaaeeee ae?aiaoe/iee iiiaio naiai aeeooy nie?a?oueny ia aeeoo?aee
aeina?ae ? ioae??noue aaaooee ye ia iiaooi? aeaea?aei ii?aeueieo nee.
Aea c /anii, ye i?aeeaco? eia?ea ?icaeoeo ?? oa?aeoa?o, naith iiaeaeueoo
aeieth aiia aoaea ae??ooaaoe naia. Oea ?icoi?? ? aaaooea, oiiaeyth/e
Oooeia niiae?aaoenue ? aei/aeaoenue naiai /ano. A??a i?eoeeueii
noaaeoueny aei Oooeia ? iiaea aeeoe ca iueiai cai?ae. Oae naii, ye ?
aeey Oaoueyie, aeey ia? noai?th?oueny neooaoe?y, i?e ye?e, ia eioath/e
Oooeia, aiia oe?io? ? iiaaaea? eiai, ? iaeaooi?e /ieia?e ethaeoue ??.
A??a iiaea ciaeoe nai? uanoy c Oooeiei. Aea iiaeeeaee, aaaaea? Aii/a?ia,
? ?ioee aa??aio ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ae?ii/iai uanoy. A?aeiia?aeue
Oaoueyie Iiaa?io: «Ii y ae?oaiio ioaeaia, y aoaeo aae aio aa?ia»,-
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o ae??oaii? ii?aeueieo ieoaiue aa?i?iy Iooe?ia
nie?a?oueny ia aeeoo?aee aeina?ae noa?oiai iieie?iiy, ia ia?iaeio
ii?aeue. A oiiaao 20-o ?ie?a XIX noie?ooy ?in?enueeiai aeeooy ?ioiai
?icoi?iiy ae?ieith naiai uanoy, i?ae ona?aeiieaiiy iaiao?aeiino? /anii
aeeiioaaoe na?e iaia’ycie ae?oaeeie ? iaoa??, ia iiaei aooe. Aii/a?ia
?aea aeae? o ae??oaii? oe??? i?iaeaie. Ieueaa ia o?eueee caeeoeea
Iaeiiiaa, aiia caeeoeoue ? naiai /ieia?ea Ooieueoea, yeui i?eeaea aei
aeniiaeo i?i neaae?noue, iaiaaeai?noue naiai noiooieea aeeooy.

Aaaaoi iieie?iue /eoa/?a a?ae/oaaee ia nia? ii?aeueiee ? anoaoe/iee
aieea oai??a Aii/a?iaa, /a??ai?noue eiai ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a. O ?iiaiao
ienueiaiieea, o eiai ooaeiaeiueiio na?o? aeyaeeanue aeniea aeooiaia
eoeueoo?a naiiai aaoi?a. Aaoi?nueea iiceoe?y Aii/a?iaa o ciaethaaii?
ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a na?ae/eoue i?i aoiai?ci ienueiaiieea, i?i eiai aenieo
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia?aae nai?ie no/anieeaie ? ia?aae ianooiieie
iieie?iiyie.

NIENIE ?IA?O, AEAeAIEO AAOI?II CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. A.E.Naaoee/iay, I.TH.*oi?eiiaa. Eiioeaioeey aeaineiai oa?aeoa?a a
oai?/anoaa E.A.Aii/a?iaa //Ie?iaay eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea e aoca: Nai?iee
noaoae. – Oa?ueeia. — 1995. –Aui.2. — N.26-30 (0,3 ae?. a.);

2. A.E.Naaoee/iay, I.TH.*oi?eiiaa. Ineoieiae/aneee ii?o?ao a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a //Ie?iaay eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea e aoca: Nai?iee
noaoae. – Oa?ueeia.-1996. — Aei.3. –N.51–60 (0,6 ae?.a.);

3. I.TH. *oi?eiiaa. AEaineea ia?acu a ?iiaia E.A. Aii/a?iaa
«Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»//Ie?iaay eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea e aoca: Nai?iee
noaoae. – Oa?ueeia. -1996. –Aui.5. – N.41-48 (0,5 ae?.a.);

4. I.TH.*oi?eiiaa. AEaineee oa?aeoa? eae i?aanoaaiiue eaeaae a ?iiaia
E.A. Aii/a?iaa «Ia?ua»//Ie?iaay eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea e aoca: Nai?iee
noaoae. – Oa?ueeia. – 1996. – Aui.5. – N.49-55 (0,4 ae?.a.);

5. I.TH.*oi?eiiaa. «Ethaiaue», «oi» e «na?aeoea» a yoe/aneeo aicc?aieyo
E.A.Aii/a?iaa //Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na??y
«E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai». Ca??iee noaoae. – Oa?e?a. — 1997. – Aei.2(7). –
N.35-40 (0,4 ae?. a.);

6. I.TH. *oi?eiiaa. «Iiyia ecyuiie ethaae» Eeuee Eeuee/a Iaeiiiaa
//Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na??y «E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai».
Ca??iee noaoae. – Oa?e?a. — 1998. – Aei.5.(16). – N.18-22 (0,3 ae?. a.);

7. I.TH. *oi?eiiaa. Ai?ueaa «noa?iai» n «iiaui» e aeaineea ia?acu a
?iiaia E.A. Aii/a?iaa «Ia?ua». //Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na??y «E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai». Ca??iee noaoae. – Oa?e?a. —
1998. Aei.5(16) – N.23-27 (0,3 ae?. a.).

8. I.TH. *oi?eiiaa. Aoi?inoaiaiiua aeaineea ia?niiaaee a ?iiaia E.A.
Aii/a?iaa «Ia?ua». //Iaoeia? caienee OAeIO ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee. Na??y
«E?oa?aoo?iciaanoai». Ca??iee noaoae. – Oa?e?a. – 1999.
Aei.1.(22).–N.81-85. (0,3 ae?. a).

AIIOAOe??

*oi??iiaa I.TH. AE?ii/? ia?ace a ooaeiaeiueiio na?o? ?.I.Aii/a?iaa. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.02 – ?in?enueea e?oa?aoo?a. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei oe?eani?yiiaaiei iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
oaie «AE?ii/? ia?ace a ooaeiaeiueiio na?o? ?.I.Aii/a?iaa». O i?e i?ae
eooii ia?aii? oaie ?icaeyiooa ?iiaiia oai?/?noue ienueiaiieea, eiai
e?eoe/i? noaoo?, eenooaaiiy c iaoith c’ynoaaiiy aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a
Aii/a?iaa, eiai ii?aeueiiai ?aeaaeo, ui ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
noai?aieo iei ae?ii/eo oeiao.

Aaoi?ii ?iaioe aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia oeiieia?y ae?ii/eo oa?aeoa??a o
Aii/a?iaa ? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iath i?iaiae?ciaai? ia?ace ?in?enueeeo
ae?iie o eiai ?iiaii?e o?eeia??: aeyaeaia ?o ?ieue a ?aeaei?e
eiioeaioe?? aii/a?ianueeeo oai??a, i?inoaaeai? o?aaeeoe??, ia ye?
nie?aany ienueiaiiee o noai?aii? ae?ii/eo oei?a, ?ice?eoi ?o
iiaaoi?nueeee oa?aeoa?, cia/aiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iniiai? ooaeiaei?
caniae, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo ?iiai?no ciaethaaa aaea?ath yne?aaeo,
?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaieo ae?ii/eo ia?ac?a o nai?o ?iiaiao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?ii/ee ia?ac; ii?aeueiee, aoe/iee ?aeaae;
iiaaoi?nueeee oa?aeoa?; o?aaeeoe?y.

*oi?eiiaa I.TH. AEaineea ia?acu a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii ie?a E.A.Aii/a?iaa. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.02 – ?onneay eeoa?aoo?a. – Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei.A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony ia?aui oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui iiiia?aoe/aneei
enneaaeiaaieai oaiu «AEaineea ia?acu a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii ie?a
E.A.Aii/a?iaa». Iiae oaeii eca?aiiie oaiu i?iaaaeai ouaoaeueiue aiaeec
ia oieueei ?iiaiia Aii/a?iaa, ii e i?aeoe/anee anaai oai?/aneiai
ianeaaeey ienaoaey: e?eoe/aneeo noaoae, ioaeeoeenoeee, ia?aienee – a
oaeaea aeoaiei i?iaiaeece?iaaia nouanoaothuay iao/iay eeoa?aoo?a i
Aii/a?iaa.

Aia?aua ananoi?iiia ?ane?uoi ianoi e cia/aiea aeaineeo ia?acia a ?iiaiao
Aii/a?iaa. Auee i?ineaaeaiu e auyniaiu yoe/aneea aicc?aiey auaeathuaainy
?iiaienoa, iniiaaiiua ia eaeaaea aa?iiie/aneie ee/iinoe, o eioi?ie oi e
na?aeoea o?aaiiaaoaiu, i?e yoii ?iiaienoii o/eouaathony i?e?iaeiua
aeaiiua /aeiaaea, iniaaiiinoe aai oa?aeoa?a, ainieoaiea n?aaeie. A
iao/iii enneaaeiaaiee ?ane?uoi iiieiaiea Aii/a?iaui i?iaeaiu aeaineiai
n/anouey, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony ienaoaeai a i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneii
ieaia. Aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi a o?eeiaee iieacai oe?ieee
niaeo? aeaineeo oeiia, io?aaeathueo ?onneoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
i?ioeiai noieaoey a eeoa?aoo?a. N?aaee ieo iau/iua aeaiueiu, oeie/iua
i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoeu aeai?yinei-iiiauuee/eo onaaeaa e noiee/iiai
iauanoaa, a oaeaea /oaeaniua ia?acu i?ae?aniuo aeooie e oaeii, ii?aeueii
/enouo e /anoiuo, ai?aeuo, aaee/anoaaiiuo a naiai aeaai?iaenoaa,
neeueiuo, niaeuo aeaiuei. A enneaaeiaaiee aeieacaii, /oi acaeyae ia
aeaineea ia?acu iaiaoiaeei /a?ac i?ecio ethaae a ?iiaiao Aii/a?iaa, oae
eae ethaiaue ?ane?uaaao o?iaaiue i?aanoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae aa?ieiue.
Auea auyniaia a yoe/aneeo aicc?aieyo Aii/a?iaa ?ieue no?anoe, ethaae a
aeecie /aeiaaea. Eiaiii aeaineea ia?acu, eae yoi iieacaii a
aeenna?oaoeee, noaee iineoaeyie yoe/aneiai eaeaaea ienaoaey e ea?atho
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?ane?uoee eaeaeiiai niaea?aeaiey aai ?iiaiia. Ii
iiaieth ienaoaey, eiaiii aeaiueiai aoaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue ?aoathuay
?ieue a i?aia?aciaaiee iauanoaa ia i?eioeeiao aeia?a, n/anouey,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. AEaineea ia?niiaaee eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea a
nthaeaoii-eiiiiceoeeiiiii iino?iaiee i?iecaaaeaiee, oae eae iie
aaeeinoaaiiua iiceoeaiua aa?ie ?iiaiia “Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey”,
«Iaeiiia», «Ia?ua» Aa?ieie i?iaoaeaeatho iio?aaiinoue o /eoaoaey a
i?aanoaaiiii i/euaiee e aeooiaiii niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Ia?acu aeaiuei,
aaccaaaoii i?aaeaiiuo naiei aeaoyi, ainieoaiieeai, aeiio, naiuea, a
oaeaea ia?acu eioaeeaeooaeueiuo aeaiuei, eioi?ua no?aiyony, e?iia
eniieiaiey naiaeiuo iaycaiiinoae, iniuneeoue naith ?ieue a iauanoaa,
iaeoe a iai naia ianoi, caeeth/atho a naaa ia?iiiue ii?aeueiue
iioaioeeae.

Aaoi?ii aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia oeiieiaey aeaineeo oa?aeoa?ia
a ?iiaiiii oai?/anoaa Aii/a?iaa. Ia?aue oei aeaiuei ia?ac?uaii naycai n
yoeei-oeeinioneeie eneaieyie e aicc?aieyie ?iiaienoa, io?aaeaao aai
no?aieaiea nicaeaoue eaeaaeueiue aeaineee oa?aeoa?, a eioi?ii
aa?iiie/anee ni/aoaeenue au ?aoeeiiaeueiua e yiioeeiiaeueiua ia/aea.
Yoei aeaiueiai naienoaaiiu no?anoiua ii?uau, aeoaieea eioaeeaeooaeueiua
cai?inu, no?aieaiea iaeoe ia oieueei naia ianoi a naiuea, ii e a
iauanoaa (Iaaeaiueea, Eecaaaoa Aeaenaiae?iaia Aaeoaaa («Iaueiiaaiiay
enoi?ey»), Ieueaa Eeueeineay («Iaeiiia»), Aa?a («Ia?ua»). Neaaeothuee
oei aeaiuei iaaeaeai /a?oaie o?oaeiethaey, naiiio?a/aiiinoe,
naiiioaa?aeaiiie i?aaeaiiinoe ae?oaei ethaeyi. Iie o?aieoaeueieoeu
aeiiaoiaai i/aaa, naiuee. Ei ia naienoaaiiu nica?oeaoaeueiinoue,
no?aieaiea e eaeaaeai, eioaeeaeooaeeci (Aiia Iaaeiaia Aaeoaaa
(«Iaueiiaaiiay enoi?ey»), Aaaouey Ioaieoeuia («Iaeiiia»), aaaooea,
Ia?oaiueea («Ia?ua»). O?aoee oei iauaaeeiyao aeaiuei-i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoe
aunoaai naaoa, neaaeothueo aai caeiiai e aeanoiei ea?athueo iaeaeoea
oeeiiaiey io ieo (oaoee Ieueae «Iaeiiia», Aaeiaiaeiaie «Ia?ua»).
*aoaa?oue oei i?aaenoaaeai aeaineeie ia?niiaaeaie, o eioi?uo
aeenaa?iiiey ?acoia e /oanoaa aucaaia iai?aaeeueiui ?acaeoeai, yaeaoainy
neaaenoaeai o?iaeeeaiai ainieoaiey (THeey Oaoaaaa («Iaueiiaaiiay
enoi?ey», Niouey Ieeieaaaia Aaeiaiaeiaa («Ia?ua»). Eiio?anoe?oao n ieie
Iaoaoa («Ia?ua»), aeey eioi?ie /oanoai auei nouiinoueth aa ei?ioeie
aeecie. A ioaeaeueiue oei auaeaeythony iaoo?u ii?i/iua, iiaeaa?aeaiiua
ieceei no?anoyi (Ia?eia, Oeeiueea, Iieeia E?eoneay («Ia?ua»). Auyniaiu
iooeeineea o?aaeeoeee, ia eioi?ua iie?aeny ?iiaieno i?e nicaeaiee
aeaineeo ia?acia. Iie i?iyaeeenue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a ianeaaeiaaiee
Aii/a?iaui iooeeineie oeiieiaee aeaineiai oa?aeoa?a, a no?iaii
niaethaeaiee i?eioeeia enoi?ecia, a iiieiaiee cia/aiey ethaae a aeecie
/aeiaaea. Iaeiaei ?iiaieno ia iaoaie/anee ianeaaeoao Iooeeia, a ?aoaao
aeaineee aii?in a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie naiaai a?aiaie. A
aeenna?oaoeee ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu iniiaiua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua n?aaenoaa, i?e
iiiiue eioi?uo ?iiaieno ia?eniaae aaea?ath y?eeo, eiaeeaeaeoaeeciaaiiuo
aeaineeo ia?acia a naieo ?iiaiao. I?e nicaeaiee aeaineeo oa?aeoa?ia
ienaoaeue eniieuecoao oaeea yeaiaiou ineoieiae/aneiai aiaeeca e eo
ni/aoaiey, eae: ia?acu-neiaieu, ae?aiaoe/aneea nthaeaoiua neooaoeee,
ineoieiae/aneee ii?o?ao, ii?o?ao e eioa?uea?, ii?o?ao e i?e?iaea;
aeeaeia-aanaaea, aeeaeia-nii?, iaia?a neooaoue niaanaaeieea e ae?.
I?iaaaeaiiue aeenna?oaioii aiaeec ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai naiaia?acey aeaineeo
ia?niiaaeae ?anoe?yao nouanoaothuea i?aaenoaaeaiey i
Aii/a?iaa-ooaeiaeieea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaineee ia?ac; i?aanoaaiiue, yoe/aneee eaeaae;
iiaaoi?neee oa?aeoa?; o?aaeeoeee.

Chuprinova N.Y. The Characters of Women in the world of I.A.Goncharov’s
belles-lettres eiction.-Manuscript.

The thesis for the academic degree of a candidate of phylological
sciences (speciality 10.01.02 – Russian literature). Kharkiv State
Teacher Training University named after G.S.Skovoroda, Kharkiv, 1999.

This thesis is the first purposeful monographic research of the topic
“The Characters of Women in the world of I.A.Goncharov’s fiction”. His
novels, his critical articles, his correspondence are discussed from the
point of view of the topic in consideration to find out Goncharov’s
ethicfl views, his moral ideals which were reflected in the characters
of women that the writer created. The author of this work is the first
to work out the typology of women’s characters in the novels of by
Concharov and to analyse the images of Russian women in his novel
trilogy in accordance with it.

Their role in the ideological conception of Concharov’s works is
exposed, the traditions on which the writer rested on in creating the
characters of women are traced, their innovatory nature, their
everlasting significance are shown up. Also the main artistic devices
with the help of which the novelist depicted the gallery of bright
individualized images of women in his novels are described.

Key words: female image; moral, ethic ideal; innovator character;
traditions.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 25.06.99. Iai?? ionaoiee. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Ae?oe ionao. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1.1 Iae.-aeae.a?e.1.1 oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Caiiae. ? 35/98

Eii?thaaeueiee oeaio?. Iia?aoeaia iie?a?ao?y

61120, Oa?e?a, i?-o 50-??//y AEENI, 54a

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