Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

E?EAEI ??eia Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 947.3 (477) «1922-1930»

CAIAEUeI? A?IIAAeE I?AAeAIII? OE?A?IE

(1922–1930 ??.)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eyo Na?a?e ?iiaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Ia?i/ei Aaneeue ?aaiiae/,
noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie 20–30-o ?ie?a OO
no. ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie (i.
Ee?a)

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aieioei Ieaen?e Ieaen?eiae/ aeioeaio eaoaae?e
caaaeueiii?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo
I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17.051.01 o Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai,
66, ei?i.V, aoae.327.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 330600,
i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai, 68, ei?i.??.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 29 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oei/aiei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie. Aa?a?i? aiaeiineie noaiiaeyoue
iaeio c iaeaaaeeeaioeo neeaaeiaeo inoi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo eiaeiiai ia?iaeo.
Na?aae ?icieo noi?ii noniieueiiai aeeooy aiaeiineie, iia’ycaii c
i?aoeath ia caiei, c a?aaoethaaiiyi iicaiaeueieo noinoieia, ? ai/ieie, a
a inoi?i? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo – iaeiiai c iaeaeaaiioeo oeiai?ianueeeo
ia?iaeia – aiie caeiathoue iniaeeaa iinoea. Oiio ieoaiiy, iia’ycaii c
aea/aiiyi oi?i aeaniinoi ia caieth, aeaiaeyoue ian ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaenooo?aioeo noi?ii ethaenueeiai aoooy.

Inoi?iy Oe?a?ie cia? ?icii nenoaie oa niiniae ?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo
aiaeiinei, ?icii oi?ie i?aaiicaoei? oa aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo aaaaonoa,
na?aae yeeo i?eaa?oathoue oaaao o?aaeeoeiei? ?inoeoooe naeyinueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Oe? nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe ni?eyee caa?aaeaiith aoii/ii?
naiiiaeaioeoieaoei? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aieeioee ia oi?ioaaiiy
naioiaeyaeo iaoe?iiaeueii? iioaeiaaioei?. Cie?aia, a 1920-o ?ieao ye
oi?ia naeyinueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy i iaeii/anii ye oi?ia ea?iaieoeoaa
naeyiaie c aieo aea?aeaae iinoaee caiaeueii a?iiaaee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy inoi?i? caia?iiaae aeiiiiaaa? ae/eaioaaoe oi?ie
naiioi?aae?iiy, aei yeeo naeyie iaeaieueo cae/ii, ioeiieoe iioaioeiae
naii?aaoethaaiiy, a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiinoi, i?aaiicaoeieii?
ni?iiiaeiinoi naeyinoaa.

Aiaeic aeiyeueiinoi caia?iiaae ia? aeiiiiiaoe a iiooeao aiaeiiaiaei ia
ieoaiiy no/aniinoi, a naia – a aeeneon?? uiaei iiaeeeaino? aeiiouaiiy
iiaii? i?eaaoii? aeaniinoi ia caieth i a i?iaiicoaaii? ianeiaeeia
oeueiai e?ieo. Iaaii aeaiaioe ?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei,
noinoie?a i?ae aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie ? naeyiaie iiaeooue aooe caiice/ai?
no/anieie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee i naiioi?aaeiiiy.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aia
oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo «I?eaaoia i?aei?e?iieoeoai ia Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’?
a OV???–OO noie?ooyo»; iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? V OA 01001047 ?.

O?iiieiai/ii ?aiee aeineiaeaeaiiy – 1922–1930 ?iee – aecia/athoueny
/anii inioaaiiy a Oe?a?ii caia?iiaae ye oi?ie naeyinueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. A 1922 ?. ia 3-e nani? Anaoe?a?inueeiai Oeaio?aeueiiai
Aeeiiaa/iai Eiiioaoo aoei caoaa?aeaeaii Caiaeueiee eiaeaen ON??, yeee
oaia iinoeooo caiaeueieo a?iiaae. A?iiaaee i?iinioaaee, iinoieii
caoaeoth/e eiei nai?? aeiyeueiinoi oa iiae oeneii aeaaee ia?aaeath/e
nai? ooieoei? nieue?aaeai, aei na?aaeeie 1930 ?ieo.

Oa?eoi?iaeueii iaae? aeineiaeaeaiiy – Iiaaeaiia Oe?a?ia. I?ae oeei
oa?i?iii ?icoii?oueny noaiiaee i?e?iaeii-?noi?e/iee ?aaiii. Noai
aiae?iciyany aenieei nooiaiai caieacaaacia/aiinoi naeyi, caa?aaeaiiyi
cia/iiai aiaenioeo iaueiiiai caieaaieiaeiiiy, ui iaeeaei aiaeaeoie ia
oa?aeoa? aeiyeueiinoi caiaeueieo a?iiaae o noa?i iicaiaeueieo aiaeiinei,
eiiia?oaaiiy naeyinoaa.

Iiney i?iaaaeaiiy aaeiiiino?aoeaii-oa?eoi?iaeueii? ?aoi?ie 1923–1925
?ie?a aei neeaaeo I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie oaieoei 14 ie?oaia – A?oaiianueeee,
Aeiii?iiao?ianueeee, Caii?icueeee, C?iia’?anueeee, E?eai?icueeee,
Eoaainueeee, Ia?ioiieuenueeee, Iaeioiiieuenueeee, Ieeiea?anueeee,
Iaeanueeee, Ia?aiiaenueeee, Noaeiinueeee, Noa?iaieuenueeee,
Oa?niinueeee. Noai caeiaa 44,2% oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie, ooo i?iaeeaaei 35,6%
?? ianaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeaii? aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe coiiaeth?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith
aeine?aeaeai?noth i?aeoe/ii? aeiyeueiinoi a?iiaae, iaiaoiaeiinoth
aea/aiiy ?o iiceoeaiiai aeinaiaeo a ni?aa? ?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo
aiaeiinei aeey iiaeeeaiai canoinoaaiiy o nueiaiaeaiii. Aaoi? ?iaeoue
ni?iao ?aeiino?othaaoe aeiyeueiinoue caiaeueieo a?iiaae ye niaoeeoi/ii?
oi?ie nioe?aeueii? naii?aaoeyoei? iaeiiiniaieo naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa
20-o ?ieia, aeyaeoe iniaeeainoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy caia?iiaae Iiaaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie, ocaaaeueieoe inoi?e/iee aeinaiae caiaeueieo a?iiaae aeey
iiaeeeaiai canoinoaaiiy a no/aniee iiiaio i?e aecia/aiii aca?iei iiae
naeyiaie i aea?aeaaith.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oei?? iaoe aaoi? noaaeoue ia?aae niaith oaei
aeineiaeieoeueei caaaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiaeicoaaoe i?aaiicaoeieio no?oeoo?o caia?iiaae. ?icaeyiooe ?o
nioeiaeueiee neeaae.

2. Aecia/eoe iniaeeainoi oa niaoeeoieo caiaeueieo a?iiaae Iiaaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie, coiiaeaii i?e?iaeiiee?iaoe/ieie oaeoi?aie, inoi?e/ieie
o?aaeeoeiyie.

3. I?inoaaeeoe niaaeei?ii?noue caia?iiaae 20-o ?ie?a ? aei?aaiethoe?eieo
n?euenueeeo a?iiaae.

4. Aeyaeoe aeaiaioe iaueiiiai naiioi?aaeiiiy a caia?iiaaeao 20-o ?ieia.
Anoaiiaeoe nooiiiue caa?aaeaiiy iaueiieo o?aaeeoeie a ii?aaiethoeieio
aeiao.

5. Aeineiaeeoe iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ui iaaeaaaeeny caia?iiaaeai caeiiiaeaa/eie
aeoaie oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo: i?iaiae?coaaoe ?o oiiainiao aaco,
anoaiiaeoe ?ieue a?iiaae o i?iaaaeaii? caieaaii?yaeieo ?iaio oa
?aaoethaaii? i?aiaeieo noinoieia.

6. I?iaiaeicoaaoe ?aaeicaoeith iiaiiaaaeaiue a?iiaae ia i?aeoeoei:
anoaiiaeoe i??o aieeao a?iiaae ia aeai? ?o /eaiaie oi?i
caieaei?enooaaiiy, ?ieue a?iiaae ye noaeiaiai i?aaio o ae?ioaiii
niiaeieo oa iiaeniiaeieo caiaeueieo noia?a/ie, oi?io oa ii?o o/anoi a
i?iaaaeaiii iiaeaoeiai? iieioeee.

7. C’ynoaaoe iinoea a?iiaae a nenoaii aeaaee ia naei: iieacaoe ?o
aca?ieie c nieuenueeeie ?aaeaie ? eiiiacaiaie.

I?aaeiaoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? aaeiiiino?aoeaii-i?aaiaa,
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ia oa iiaooiaa noa?a aeiyeueiinoi caiaeueieo a?iiaae
Iiaaeaiii? Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiiy ? eiiieaen aeaea?ae c inoi?i? caiaeueieo a?iiaae
Iiaaeaiii? Oe?a?ie ia?iiaeo 1922–1930 ?ieia.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
niaoe?aeueii aea/aii ?aaeueiee aieea caiaeueieo a?iiaae ia o?ae
uiaeaiieo ni?aa oe?a?inueeiai ii?aaiethoe?eiiai naea. Aia?oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy caia?iiaae i?iaaaeaii ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?;
anoaiiaeaia niaoeeo?ea oeueiai nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo ia I?aaei?
Oe?a?ie. Ooi/iaii e?euee?noue caia?iiaae. ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa???
oeiieia?caoe?? caia?iiaae 20-o ?ie?a. Ia i?eeeaae? 1.133 caiaeueieo
a?iiaae ia aii??e/iiio ??ai? i?inoaaeaia niaaeei?ii?noue
aei?aaiethoe?eieo n?euenueeeo a?iiaae ? i?ney?aaiethoe?eieo caia?iiaae.
Aianaii iii?aaeo a io?oe?ei? aeai? 20-o ?ie?a uiaei ieoiii? aaae
iaueiiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy a caaaeueiiio ianyc? naeyinueeiai
caieaei?enooaaiiy; anoaiiaeaii, ui ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie o 1927 ?. aiii
ia?aaaaeaei eeoa o 9,7% caia?iiaae.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaia iiae /an aenooiia ia
aocianueeeo eiioa?aioeiyo 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998 ??., ia eiioa?aioei?
«Aician i iinoi» (Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1994 ?.), ia O?ao?o iaoeiaeo
/eoaiiyo, i?enay/aieo iai’yo? i?ioani?a Ae.I.Iieaee «Ieoaiiy aa?a?ii?
?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?in??» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998 ?.), a eaeoe?ei?e
?iaio? i?e aena?oeaii? ieoaiue ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaueie a eo?ni «Inoi?e/ii
oi?ie nioeiaeueii? naii?aaoeyoei? a Oe?a?ii (V–OO no.)», i?e /eoaiii
niaoeeo?no «Iiaaeaiia Oe?a?ia a ia?oie /aa?oi OO no.».

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoaii i?e iaienaiii ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c inoi?i? naeyinoaa
Oe?a?ie. Ie?aii iieiaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii i?e
/eoaiii caaaeueieo eo?nia c inoi?i? Oe?a?ie i niaoeeo?nia c inoi?i?
nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ieo noinoieia ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie a 20-o ?ieao.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aia iaoiaeieia?/iith
oa oai?aoe/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai ii/aoeiaeo iiceoe?e; aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo
iao?, i?aaeiaoo oa caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe; aeei?enoaiiyi /enaeueieo a?o?aieo
oa ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe iiaeii?yaeeiaaia iaoi oa caaaeaiiyi aeineiaeaeaiiy.
Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icaeieia,
aeniiae?a, iineeaiue aei ?icaeieia, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
eioa?aoo?e (457 iaeiaioaaiue). Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 160 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii o 8
ioae?eaoe?yo, c ieo 4 noaoo? o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue, o?iiieia?/i? oa
oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny eiai i?aaeiao oa
ia’?eo. Ie?aneththoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
iaa?oioiaothoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aea oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy» – ?icaeyaea?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?iaeoueny iaeyae aeaea?aeueii? aace oa
aeeeaaeathoueny iaoiaeeea oa iaoiaee, ui aoee aeei?enoai? a
aeena?oaoe??.

I?aoei, a yeeo ciaeoea aiaeia?aaeaiiy aeiyeueiinoue caiaeueieo a?iiaae
20-o ?ieia, neiae iiaeieeoe ia aeai a?oie:

1) eioa?aoo?a i?aaiaoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, yea aeoiaeeea a 20-o ?ieao, –
a?ioo?e, noaooi, iieaii/ii iioaoee, – aaoi?aie yeeo aoee aa?iiiie,
caieaaii?yaeieee, aeiiiiinoe, th?enoe, oi?aaeiioei, ia?oieii
ooieoeiiia?e, aaioaoi?e;

2) aeania inoi?e/ii oai?e, ia?oi c yeeo c’yaeeeny ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a.

Eioa?aoo?a ia?oi? a?oie ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? i?ecia/aiiyi iaea
i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?: ?ic’ynithaaea naeyiai iieiaeaiiy Caiaeueiiai
eiaeaeno ON??, ooieoei?, i?aaa oa iaia’ycee caiaeueieo a?iiaae; aeaaaea
?aeiiaiaeaoei? iinoeaaei aeaaeiei no?oeoo?ai ii ?aaoethaaiith
iicaiaeueieo noinoieia oa aca?iei nieue?aae c caia?iiaaeaie; i?noeea
ni?iae i?iaiicoaaiiy oeyo?a ?o o?ainoi?iaoe??, eaae?o?eiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaaaeaiith caieaono?ith, oai?aoeei-aa?iiii?/i?
?ic?iaee.

A oeieiio aeey i?aoeue 20-o ?ie?a aoee oa?aeoa?ii aocueeinoue
o?iiieiai/ieo ?aiie, ?iciiaeai?iainoue, o?aaiaioa?iinoue aeaea?aeueii?
aace (ocaaaeueiaiiy caeaa?eueoiai ?iaeeeny ia iniiai eeoa iaeiiai
noaoenoe/iiai ianoaaeaiiy), i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. Eiiieaenii? inoi?i?
caiaeueieo a?iiaae o 20-o ?ieao ia aoei noai?aii. Ieoaiiy iaoeiaiai
aiae?co caiaeueieo a?iiaae ia?aae ?noi?eeaie ia noiyei.

Iiney eieaiaeaoei? caiaeueieo a?iiaae ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a aea/aiiy
oeueiai nioeiaeueiiai iinoeoooo ia caeienithaaeiny. I eeoa c ii/aoeo
60-o ?ie?a ?icii/aeiny ?aaeueia aeineiaeaeaiiy inoi?i? a?iiaae
inoi?eeaie.

Ca oa?aeoa?ii ? a?oioiai?noth caa?iaiiy aei i?iaeaie a?iiaae inoi?e/ii
i?aoei 60-90-o ?ieia iiaeia iiaeieeoe ia aeai a?oie:

1) caaaeueii i?aoei, a yeeo caiaeueii a?iiaaee caaaeothoueny iiaiaeii, a
ca’yceo c ?icaeyaeii iioeo i?iaeai;

2) niaoeiaeueii i?aoei, i?enay/aii aeeeth/ii caiaeueiei a?iiaaeai.

Ia?oo a?oio ?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue noaiiaeyoue aeineiaeaeaiiy, a yeeo
?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy inioaaiiy a?iiaae a eiioaenoi aiaeico
caeiiiaeaanoaa ON?? oa N?N?, i?iaaaeaiiy caieaono?ith, aiaeico ooieoeie
caia?iiaae.

Cia/io oaaao caiaeueiie a?iiaaei oa iaueii ii?aaiethoeieieo /ania
i?eaeieeee a nai?o i?aoeyo ?inienuee? inoi?eee A.I.Aeaieeia oa
A.A.Eaaaiia. Aeey oeeo aeine?aeiee?a oa?aeoa?ia ioioiaeiaiiy
oe?a?inueei? caia?iiaaee c iicaiaeueiith iaueiith, ia?aa?eueoaiiy
nooiaith nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a a ii?aaiethoe?eiiio nae?, ?aeaae?caoe?y
aca?iei caia?iiaae c n?eue?aaeaie.

A 80–90-o ?ieao iaea?eueo na?eicii i?ae?eoia aei aea/aiiy ie?aieo
ieoaiue ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaae A.A.Eaeiii/aiei. A?i iaeiei c ia?oeo
caa?ioa oaaao ia ??cieoeth i?ae caiaeueieie a?iiaaeaie ye
oa?eoi??aeueiei ia’?aeiaiiyi caieaei?enooaa/?a oa aei?aaiethoe?eieie
n?euenueeeie a?iiaaeaie ye iaeieae/ith aaei?i?no?aoeaiith iaeeieoeath.
A.A.Eae?i?/aieo aaeaeiny iiaeieaoe iaaaoeai? ?ene iiia?aaeiuei?
?noi??ia?ao?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? i?e ?icaeyae? noinoie?a a?iiaae c aeaaeieie
no?oeoo?aie.

Iia? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee i?e aiae?c? iicaiaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
a?iiaae a eiioaeno? ?icaeyaeo ?ioeo i?iaeai i?enooi? a aeena?oaoe?yo
A.?.Ia?i/ea ? A.A.Na?a??aa.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy, a yeeo caiaeueia a?iiaaea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?aaeiao
niaoe?aeueiiai inoi?e/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy, c’yaeeeny eeoa a 60-o ?ieao.
Oei aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue ae?oao aeae?eaio iaie a?oio inoi?e/ieo
i?aoeue c ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Ia?oeie ?c niaoeiaeueieo i?aoeue c inoi?i? caia?iiaae Oe?a?ie noaee
noaooi A.A.A?a/ea oa I.?.A?iiaiea.

Aea/aiiyi aeiyeueiinoi caia?iiaae N?N? oa ?ini? niaoe?aeueii caeiaeeny
?inienueei inoi?eee I.?.Eiciiaa oa A.ss.Inieiia. I?aoe? oeeo
aeine?aeieoeue iicia/ai? iaaei??iith iie?oeciaai?noth, oia?aaeaeaiei
noaaeaiiyi aei yaeu, ui ia aienoaaeeny a caaaeueiii?eeiyoo ?aeaieia?/io
noaio. Aiie ?icaeyaeaee caiaeuei? a?iiaaee ye oeyo aei eieaeoea?caoe??
naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa.

?aeeiith ni?iaith eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? caia?iiaae a
Oe?a?i? ? eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y A.A.Ai?n?iiaa «Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee
Oe?a?ie (1921–1929 ??.)», caoeuaia a 1997 ?. a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. O.Oaa/aiea. Aaoi? a?ae?eoia a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo ooaii?a ?aaeyinueei?
?noi??ia?ao??. Aieiaio oaaao A.A.Ai?n?iia i?eae?eea aeine?aeaeaiith
i?aaiaiai iiey ae?yeueiino? caiaeueieo a?iiaae, a i?aeoe/iee a?e ?o
?nioaaiiy ?icaeyioa o caaaeueieo ?enao.

Iiaeaiaey/e iiaenoiie iaeyaeo noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiinoi inoi?i?
caia?iiaae, o?aaa aiaecia/eoe, ui aeania inoi?iia?aoi/ia o?aaeeoeiy
aeaii? i?iaeaie ei?ioeio?eaaea, i?aaenoaaeaia iacia/iith eieueeinoth
?iaio.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue ?icii ca
nai?i iioiaeaeaiiyi i aeaeiaith iaeaaeiinoth a?oiaii oa iioaeieiaaii
iaoa?iaee.

Aiaeic aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aoa i?iaaaeaiee ca oaeeie ?iaiyie: 1) ca
oi?iaeueieie iciaeaie; 2) ca iioiaeaeaiiyi; 3) ca aeaeiaith
iaeaaeiinoth.

Ca oi?iaeueieie iciaeaie aeaea?aea, yei aoee ii?aoeueiaai? aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoei?, iiaeieythoueny ia iioaeieiaaii oa a?oiaii.

Iioae?eiaai? iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe ia: 1) ioioeieii-aeieoiaioaeueii
aeaeaiiy (eiaeaene, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, noaiia?aie c’?cae?a ?aae, ca?oe
o?yaeo); 2) noaoenoe/ii iaoa?iaee; 3) iaoa?iaee ia?iiaeeee.

Cia/io eieueeinoue aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa?iaeia c inoi?i? caiaeueieo
a?iiaae noaiiaeyoue a?o?ai? aeaea?aea. Aaoi?ii ii?aoeueiaaii aeieoiaioe
i iaoa?iaee o?eaeoeyoe aeaio oiiaeia Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao
aeueo i?aaiia aea?aeaaii? aeaaee i oi?aaeiiiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie),
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie
(OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie), ?inienueeiai oeaio?o caa?aaeaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
aeieoiaioia iiaioiuei? inoi?i? (?OeCAAeII), aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?, Caii?icueei?, Ieeiea?anueei?, Iaeanueei? oa
Oa?niinueei? iaeanoae.

A caeaaeiinoi aiae iioiaeaeaiiy aeaea?aea, ui iinoyoue iioi?iaoeith i?i
caia?iiaaee, ?iciiaeieythoueny ia aeieoiaioe i iaoa?iaee: 1) aeueo
i?aaiia aeaaee (caeiie ? iinoaiiae AOOeAE, ?IE, iaoa??aee c’?cae?a ?aae,
Caiaeueiee eiaeaen ON??); 2) iinoeaaeo i?aaiia aeaaee (aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee ?aae on?o ??ai?a ? ?o aeeiieii?a, aoaa?inueeeo, ie?oaeieo,
?aeiiieo c’?cae?a ?aae); 3) a?iiaaenueeeo oa iie?oe/ieo i?aaiicaoeie
(eiiia?o??, EIN); 4) ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo onoaiia (Ia?eiicaio,
?ia?oie/i-naeyinueei? ?iniaeoe??, Oeaio?aeueiiai noaoenoe/iiai
oi?aae?iiy ON??); 5) caiaeueieo a?iiaae (i?ioieiee caaaeueieo cai??a,
aeoyae c i?ioieie?a, nea?ae naeyi aei aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, iiaea??i?
nienee oa ?i.).

Ca aeaeiaith iaeaaei?noth aeaea?aea c inoi?i? caiaeueieo a?iiaae
iiaeieythoueny ia aeoiai, aeieiaiaenueei, noaoenoe/ii oa ia?aoeai?.

Aeoia? aeaea?aea iiaeia ?iciiaeieeoe ia o?e iiaea?oie: 1) caeiiiaeaa/i
aeoe (iinoaiiae aeueo oa iinoeaaeo i?aaiia aeaaee, oeace, iieiaeaiiy,
iino?oeoei?); 2) caioii iaoa?iaee o?yaeo, Ia?eiicaio, iinoeaaeo i?aaiia
aeaaee oa caiaeueieo i?aaiia; 3) oee?eoey?e aeaaeieo no?oeoo? onio
?iaiia.

Cia/ia /anoeia aeoiaeo aeieoiaioia ia?oi? oa ae?oai? iiaea?oie
iioaeieiaaii, a aeieoiaioe o?aouei? iiaea?oie aianeiaeie niaoeeoiee
naiai iioiaeaeaiiy oa ciinoo ia iioae?eiaai?, aiie caa?iaathoueny a
a?oiaieo oiiaeao.

Ae?eiaiaenueea aeieoiaioaoe?y i?aaenoaaeaia eiiieaenii aeaea?ae, aei
yeiai aoiaeyoue noaiia?aie c’?caeia ?aae oa EI(a)O i ?o iinoeaaeo
i?aaiia (aiie, ye i?aaeei, iioaeieiaai?), iaoa?iaeaie aeiaiaeeiaiai
oa?aeoa?o (iioi?iaoeieii aeiaiaeee oa caioe), eenooaaiiyi iiae
aea?aeaaieie, ia?oieieie oa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeie onoaiiaaie,
aeieoiaioaie ae?eiaiaenoaa naieo caia?iiaae.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey a?aeoai?aiiy aeeooy caiaeueieo a?iiaae iathoue
noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee. O 20-o? ?iee i?aaiaie Ia?eiicaio, OeNO oa
?iaioie/i-naeyinueei? iiniaeoei? i?iaaaeeeeny iaeie, ?a?no?aoeiy oa
ianoaaeaiiy caiaeueieo a?iiaae. Ca oaiaoe/iith ni?yiiaai?noth
noaoenoe/i? ianoaaeaiiy /?oei iiae?eythoueny ia aea? a?oie: 1)
ianoaaeaiiy caieaaii?yaeeiaaiino? caia?iiaae 1924–25, 1925–26
ainiiaea?nueeeo ?ie?a oa 1927 ?.; 2) ianoaaeaiiy o?iain?a a?iiaae 1927
?. ? 1928 ?.. O?iainia? ianoaaeaiiy i?iaaaeeeeny i?aaiaie OeNO. ?o
iaoith aoei aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae i?eaooeia caiaeueieo a?iiaae, a naia –
ianyao naiiiiiaeaoeoaaiiy, no?oeoo?e a?iiaaenueeeo aeaeaoeia i
aecia/aiiy ieoiii? aaae oiiainia caiaeueieo a?iiaae a caaaeueiie nenoaii
iinoeaaiai athaeaeaoo.

Ia?aoeai? aeaea?aea i?aaenoaaeai? iaoa??aeaie i?ane – ia?enaie,
aeiienaie nieueei?ia c iinoeue, oaeeaoiiaie, e?eoe/ieie iioaoeaie,
naeyinueeeie eenoaie, aaoi?nueeeie noaooyie. Iaeaieueoa iioi?iaoei? c
aeineiaeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie iinoyoue aacaoe «?aaeyinueea naei»,
«Naeyinueea aiaeiioa», «Naeyinueea i?aaaea», aeo?iaee «?aaeyinueeee
naeyiei», «Nieuenueeee ainiiaea?», «Eiiia?iaaia a?iiaaea», «Eiiia?iaaia
naei», aoaa?inueei oa ie?oaeii ae?oeiaaii i?aaie.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiai/iith iniiaith aeineiaeaeaiiy noaee aeiaeaeoe/ii
i?eioeeie iiciaiiy inoi?e/ii? aeieniinoi – inoi?ecio, ia’?eoeaiinoi
i?ciaiiy oa iaoeiaino?. ?noi?eci ia?aaeaa/a? anaa?/io ioe?ieo iiae?e,
oaeo?a, a oaeiae a?aooaaiiy aaiethoe?? o?yaeiai? iie?oeee uiaei
naeyinoaa acaaae? ? caia?iiaae cie?aia. Ia’?eoeai?noue icia/a? ?icaeyae
?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai oaeei, yeei aiii aoei a ae?eniino?, aac
?aeaieia?/ii caaeaieo noai ? noa?aioei?a. Aeoiaey/e c i?eioeeio
iaoeiaino?, aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeoue aeniiaee ia iniiai ocaaaeueiaiiy
oai?aoe/iiai oa oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo.

?aaeicaoeiy aeacaieo i?eioeeiia aoea caeieniaia i?e canoinoaaii?
caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo iaoiae?a – ?noi?e/iiai oa eia?/iiai. ?noi?e/iee iaoiae
aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe i?ioean aeieeiaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? caiaeueieo
a?iiaae a aeeiai?oe?. Ca aeiiiiiaith eia?/iiai aiae?co aecia/athoueny
iniaeeaino? caia?iiaae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, ?o a?aei?ii?noue a?ae
aei?aaiethoe?eieo n?euenueeeo a?iiaae, niaoeeo?ea iaueiiiai ono?ith ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie ii/aoeo OO no.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee ?noi?e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?noi?eei-oeiieia?/iee, ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee,
iieniaee, noaoenoe/iee, i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iiai

Cacia/aiee eiiieaen iaoiae?a ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey?
aaoi?ia? aeena?oaoe?? aeinyaoe iinoaaeai? iaoo ? caaaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – «Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ?inoeoooo caiaeueieo
a?iiaae» – aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea niaoeeo?ee iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie, aecia/athoueny i?aaia? canaaee ae?yeueiino? caiaeueieo
a?iiaae o 1920-o ?ieao, ?icaeyaeathoueny no?oeoo?a, neeaae oa
iiaiiaaaeaiiy caia?iiaae, anoaiiaeth?oueny ?o /enaeuei?noue.

Iieaco?oueny, ui ia ?icaeoie iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
iaeeaee na?e a?aeaeoie iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia Noaio oa
?noi?e/i? ianoaaeie. Oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei Noaiiai? Oe?a?ie, iniaeeaino?
a?oio?a, aiaeiee ?aaeei, aaeee? caiaeuei? i?inoi?e aecia/eee
aenoaineaiee iai?yi ?icaeoeo naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, yeee o naith
/a?ao aeeeeeaa iaiao?aei?noue ainiiaea?nueeiai ia’?aeiaiiy naeyi,
coiiaethaaa o?eae?noue noaiiaeo naeyinueeeo ?inoeooo?a – iaueie oa
caiaeueii? a?iiaaee.

A?iiaaea, ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo, a I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? iaea aeaai?
ei?ai?. Iaueia ooo c’yaeeany iai?ee?ioe? OV??? – ia ii/aoeo O?O no.,
aiia aeeiioaaea iicaiaeueii-?iciiae?eue/?, aaei?i?no?aoeai?, noaeia? oa
o?neaeuei? ooieoe??. A oiae? naeyinueei? ?aoi?ie 1861 ?. aoea
cai?iaaaeaeaia n?euenueea a?iiaaea ye ieae/a aaei?i?no?aoeaia iaeeieoey.

?c anoaiiaeaiiyi a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeaaee n?euenuee? a?iiaaee ye
aaei?i?no?aoeaia iaeeieoey aoee e?ea?aeiaai?. Iaueia ? caiaeueia
a?iiaaea caeeoeeeny, a?aeaoaaeiny caeeaeaiiy oeeo oi?i naiioi?aae?iiy ?
iicaiaeueii? i?aai?caoe??. Ca ?aaeyinueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii iaueia aoea
ia?aoai?aia ia iaeio c oi?i naeyinueeiai caieaei?enooaaiiy a iaaeao
iaia’yceiai? caiaeueii? a?iiaaee. Aea a?aeiinii Oe?a?ie ioioiaeiaiiy
iiiyoue «iaueia» ? «iaueiia oi?ia caieaei?enooaaiiy» iai?aaii??ia.
Iaueia ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie a 20-o ?ieao a iniiaiiio aoea oi?iaeueiith. Ca
aeaieie aea??eiaiai ianoaaeaiiy caieaaii?yaeeiaaiino? caia?iiaae 1927 ?.
oi?iaeueia iaueia neeaaeaea 18,5% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
caieaei?enooaaiiy a?iiaae; ae?th/a iaueia – 9,7%; a?iiaae aac
aoaeue-yeeo caeeoie iaueiieo noinoie?a aoei 53,9% a?ae on???
/enaeueiino? a?iiaae. Naeyie ?icaeyaeaee iaueio ye ?aciaee iaoai?ci
ia?a?iciiae?eo caie?.

Oa?i?i «a?iiaaea» a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao ON?? aia?oa c’yaeany a 1919 ?.
Aeeth/aiiy caiaeueieo a?iiaae a ath?ie?aoe/io no?oeoo?o i?aai?a
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a?aeaoeiny ca Caiaeueiei eiaeaenii 1922 ?. Ooai?aiiy
a?iiaae oa ?o ae?yeuei?noue ianoaaeyeeny /enaeueieie oi?iaeueiinoyie.

Caiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai 20-o ?ie?a i?iaieiooaaei oe?ie? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
caiaeueieo a?iiaae, aea i?aeoe/ii eiaeai cao?ae caiaeueieo a?iiaae
aeiaaaa ocaiaeaeaiiy c aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie. C ii/aoeii cai?oaiiy iaio
?icii/aany ianooi ia caiaeuei? a?iiaaee.

*eaiaie caiaeueii? a?iiaaee aoei ana caiea?ianueea ianaeaiiy, ui
i?iaeeaaei ia ?? oa?eoi???. Ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie caia?iiaaee ioiiethaaee
a?ae 96 aei 98% n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy; ia 1 aeiaoiy 1927 ?.
ia?aoiaoaaeiny 8.997 caiaeueieo a?iiaae. *eainoai a caia?iiaae? ia
caeaaeaei a?ae iayaiino? o iniae iie?oe/ieo i?aa.

Aeaaea iaiaaaeany iath?ie?aoeoe i?aaie naiioi?aae?iiy naeyi oeyoii
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaeanoeaeo aeey ieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aai?a –
i?aae?iiy oa ?aa?c?eii? eii?n??. Oe? no?oeoo?e ia i?eaeeaaeeny,
iae/ano?oa a?iiaaeaie ea?oaaee cae/i? ? c?icoi?e? aeey naeyi
oiiaiiaaaeai?. Aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aia?ao caia?iiaae aoa i?i?iaeueiei. Ia
?nioaaei i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae aia?aoii oi?aae?iiy ? ?yaeiaeie /eaiaie. Ca
nioe?aeueiei neeaaeii aaei?i?no?aoeaiee aia?ao aoa na?aaeiyoeueeei, ui
aieeaaei ia eiai aeaaaeai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? caoiaee, iaaeiiouaiiy
e?aeiiu?a.

I?iaieioai? caeiiiaeaanoaii iiaiiaaaeaiiy a?iiaae ?aae?coaaeeny ia
iiai?noth. Oe? ia’?aeiaiiy caieaei?enooaa/?a ia iaee iiaiiai i?aaa ia
iicaaaeaiiy nai?o /eai?a ei?enooaaoeny caieath, ia iiaee a?eueii
?icii?yaeaeaoeny caiaeueieie eeoeaie. Oeei caeiaeeny n?eue?aaee ?
?aeaeeiieiie. I?aaa i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a naeyi ia naiino?eia
ei?enooaaiiy aeii?i/ieie, caeeoaieie, a?ae?a?aieie ca noaeiaei ae?ieii
caieyie oaeiae iaiaaeoaaeeny ?aaeyinueeeie caiaeueieie i?aaiaie.
Aeeiiaiiy o?neaeueieo ooieoe?e, i?aaa i?eiono caia?iiaae eiio?iethaaeiny
aeaaeieie no?oeoo?aie.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – «Ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue caiaeueieo a?iiaae» –
i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ?ie? oeueiai nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo o
a?aaoethaaii? iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei, i?aiaeieo aioo??a?iiaaenueeeo
noinoie?a, o i?iaaaeaii? caieaono?ith. ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaea?aea
i?eaooe?a caia?iiaae oa noaoo? aeaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiei iai?yieii ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? caiaeueieo a?iiaae,
noa?ith, a eio??e aiie iaea?eueo iiaii ?aae?coaaee nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy,
aoei ?aaoethaaiiy iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei. ?icaeyaeoaai? naeyinuee?
i?aai?caoe?? naiino?eii oi?ioaaee na?e caiaeueiee oiiae, yeee neeaaeaany
?c caiaeue ni?eueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy; ae??ai
?aaaoaaee ia ?o ia ainiiaea?nueea aeei?enoaiiy, a?aeae?ath/e aei
ni?eueiiai oiiaeo.

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee ia iiai?noth naiino?eii iae?aee oi?io
caieaei?enooaaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e ia ni?iae aeaaee iaa’ycaoe anoaiiaeaiiy
iaueiii? oi?ie ei?enooaaiiy caieath, /anoea oe??? oi?ie a naeyinueeiio
caieaei?enooaaii? i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a ciaioeeany, ca iaoeie
i?ae?aooieaie, c a?ey 30% o 1925 ?. aei 10% o 1929 ?. Oi/ aea?aeaai?
caiaeuei? ? noaoenoe/i? i?aaie, ia ?ici?ciath/e iaueio ae?th/o ? iaueio
oi?iaeueio (oiaoi caaie?ath/o), /anoeo iaueiiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy
aecia/eee o ?ici??? 57,75% aeey 1925 ?. ? 38,31% aeey 1929 ?.

Ia aea?? oi?ie caieaei?enooaaiiy aieeaaa nioe?aeueiee neeaae a?iiaaee.
Ca iaueiio oi?io caieaei?enooaaiiy aenooiaea iacaiiaeia /anoeia
naeyinoaa, iaiaaath/enue /a?ac ia?aae?eueiee iaoai?ci ia?a?iciiae?eeoe
caiaeuei? oa?aeaey.

Ii?aaiethoe?ei? a?iiaaee iaio?oe?eii caeiaeeny ?ica’ycaiiyi iiaooiaeo
caiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a, oi/ oey noa?a aeeooy naea iaeaaeaea aei
eiiiaoaioe?? caiaeueieo i?aai?a.

Aeine?aeaeoaai? iicaiaeuei? ia’?aeiaiiy no?iai ne?aeeoaaee ca aeeiiaiiyi
?o /eaiaie ni?eueieo aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, caeiaeeny eiia?oe?eiei
aeei?enoaiiyi ni?eueiiai caiaeueiiai oiiaeo. ?aaoethaaiiy ieie i?aiaeieo
noinoie?a iaei iai?aio?oe?eiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee oea ieoaiiy aoiaeeei
aei eiiiaoaioe?? ?aeaeeiieii?a oa n?eue?aae.

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee aoee iaoa??aeueii aaoiiiii?. Aieiaieie aeaea?aeaie
i?eaooe?a oeeo i?aai?caoe?e noaee iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae aeei?enoaiiy
caie?, a?ae a?iiaaenueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, aoae?aaeue, ?aiaiaioo, a?ae
naiiiiiaeaoeoaaiiy /eai?a a?iiaae. A?eueoiaeoeueea aeaaea aeyaeeany
iani?iiiaeiith eiio?iethaaoe i?ioean iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a aei
caia?iiaae. Io?eiai? eiooe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
caieaaii?yaeieo ?ia?o, aeo?a/aeeny ia i?eaeaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoei oa cia?yaeue i?aoe? o ni?eueia
ei?enooaaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo oa aaoa?eia?ieo caoiae?a, ia
oo?eiaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo caia?iiaaee oa n?eue?aaee, ia
i?iaaaeaiiy aeaaiono?ith naea.

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee Noaio a?ae??ciyeeny iaea?eueoith ii Oe?a?i?
iaoa??aeueiith caaacia/ai?noth: ia?an?/iee ?ici?? ??/iiai athaeaeaoo
noaiiaea 1.260 e?a. I?e/eiaie o?iainiai? iiooaeiino? noaiiaeo a?iiaae
aoee ?o iaeiaea??i?noue, a?aeiinii aaeeea caieacaaacia/ai?noue.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – «Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue caiaeueieo
a?iiaae» – i?iaiae?ciaaii i?noea caia?iiaae o no?oeoo?? aeaaee ia nae?,
?o o/anoue o i?iaaaeaii? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oa ?o
iiceoe?y a ieoaii? eiiia?oaaiiy naeyi.

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee aoee o?aaeeoe?eiith oi?iith naeyinueei?
naii?aaoeyoe??. Ii?yae c ieie ?nioaaa aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo n?euenueeeo
?aae. I?ae a?iiaaeaie ? ?aaeaie a?aeaoaaeiny i?ioenoiyiiy ii an?o
iai?yieao. Ia?o ca ana iaei i?noea noia?ieoeoai caiaeueiiai noiaeo ye
i?aaio oi?aae?iiy caia?iiaaeaie ? noiaeo n?eue?aaee (noiaeo aeai?oe?a),
ui aeyaeyeiny o eiioe?eo? iiaiiaaaeaiue aeaio aeae?a noiae?a naeyi,
i?e/iio noiae caieaei?enooaa/?a iiaeeiaa cai?e aeai?oe?a n?eue?aaee.
Iino?eiei aeaea?aeii noia?ieoeoaa aoee o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? caia?iiaae
? o?ii?/iee a?ae eioo?a o n?eue?aae. Aeey caaeiaieaiiy nai?o
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo iio?aa ?aaee iiaeii? aoee caa?oaoeny
ca aeiiiiiaith aei a?iiaae. Iniaeeai aino?i noia?a/iino? i?ae aeaiia
i?aaiaie aeaaee ia nae? aeyaeeeny i?ae /an oe?aicaaio?aaeueii? e?ece
1927–28 ?ieo, eiee aeai?i? i?aaie caiaeueii? a?iiaaee i?ioeae?yee
ai?iii-eiioi?noe/iei caniaai aeeo/aiiy oe?aa o naeyi.

C iaoith onoiaiiy a?iiaae a?ae ea??aieoeoaa naeii aeaaeith
cae?enithaaeeny e?iee o iai?yieo ciaioaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue caia?iiaae:
iineeeany iaaeyae ca a?iiaaeaie c aieo ?aeaeeiieii?a oa n?eue?aae,
inoaii?i ia?aaeaaaeeny i?eaooee caia?iiaae. Caia?iiaaee aoee onoioo?
a?ae aaciina?aaeiueiai i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, ine?eueee aiie
yaeyee niaith noaiiao i?aai?caoe?th naeyi ? aoee iaeii?eaeaoieie aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy «eeaniaiai i?eioeeio» a iiiaeaoeoaaii?. ?aae?caoe?y oeueiai
i?eioeeio aoea iieeaaeaia ia n?eue?aaeo. Aea aeaaei? no?oeoo?e ana ae
ciooai? aoee caeo/aoe caia?iiaaee aei noyaiaiiy iiaeaoe?a. Oea caeo/aiiy
iaei iaio?oe?eiee oa?aeoa? ? a?oiooaaeiny ia aeei?enoaii? iaoai?ci?a
naeyinueei? aca?iiaeiiiiiae ? aeaiaio?a e?oaiai? ii?oee.

Eiiia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai oio?ei aa/eoe a a?iiaae?anueeiio naeyinueeiio
eieaeoea?ci? ca?iaeee eiioie. Aiii aioiaa aoei aeciaoe ca eieaeoeaia
ainiiaea?noai aoaeue-yea ia’?aeiaiiy, a yeiio aoa i?enooi?e oi/a a
iaeiaioee aeaiaio ononi?eueiaiiy. Aea o?aaeeoe?eia naeyinueea
eiiia?aoe?y o oi?i? noi?ya, oieie oa ?i. iaea i?eioeeiia? a?aei?iiino?
a?ae ?aaeyinueei? eiiia?aoe??, ui i?iaaaeeeany cai?e, aac aeinoaoiueiai
a?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a naeyi. Eieaeoea?ci aoa ?iaiaioii i?eoaiaiiee
a?iiaae?, aea a?i noinoaaany eeoa oeo noa? ?? ae?yeueiino?, eio?? ia
iaiaaeoaaee ?iaeea?aeoae?ci naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa ? oeo, o/anoue o
yeeo aoea aeey naeyi aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiith. Oaeiai ?iaeo eieaeoea?ci
noinoaaany ae?iaie/i? ? aei iaaii? i??e oi?aae?inueei? noa?e.

Aea?aeaaa iaiaaaeany ia?aoai?eoe caia?iiaaee ia eieainie aeaiia
iaoiaeaie: noai?aiiyi ia ?o aac? oiaa?enoa ii ni?eueiiio ia?ia?oeo caie?
? eiiia?oaaiiyi a?iiaae iaoiaeii eiio?aeoaoe??, noai?aiiy o?aeoi?ieo
caaii?a, aea??eiaiai o?iainiaiai e?aaeeooaaiiy. Iaeiae niiae?aaiiy
aeaaee ia oaeaeeo «eiioi?caoe?th» naea /a?ac aeaiee nioe?aeueiee
?inoeooo ia aei?aaaeaeeny.

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee iaee aeaai? ?noi?e/i? ei?ai?, aoee i?e?iaeieie
naeyinueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie. I?ae aieeaii i?ney?aaiethoe?eiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa oa ?aaeyinueei? ae?eniino? aiie iaaoee ?en
iai?aio?oe?eii? i?aaenoaaieoeueei? naeyinueei? i?aai?caoe??. Noaoe
io?oe?eieie ?i ia aeicaieyee, ine?eueee aiie ia aeciaaaee «eeaniaiai
i?eioeeio» i?e ae??oaii? nai?o aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Naia oey
aaceeania?noue, caia?a/aiiy ?nioaaiiy eeaniai? ai?ioueae, a oaeiae
o?iainiaa naiino?ei?noue i?ecaaee aei e?ea?aeaoe?? oeueiai nioe?aeueiiai
?inoeoooo a oiiaao ci?i a o?yaeia?e iie?oeoe? iai?ee?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a.
E?ea?aeaoe?eiee i?ioean ?icii/aany o 1928 ?. ? cae?i/eany o 1930 ?.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE IAOEIAIAI

AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee ye noni?eueiee ?inoeooo c’yaeeeny aeaaii. Aea oa?i?i
«caiaeueia a?iiaaea» oa?eoia aei caeiiiaeaa/iai ia?ao eeoa ia ii/aoeo
20-o ?ie?a. «?aaeyinuee?» caia?iiaaee ia?aeiyee a?ae aei?aaiethoe?eieo
caiaeueieo a?iiaae ie?ai? aeaiaioe i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e. Aeuei
i?aaiii oi?aae?iiy oeueiai noaiiaiai ia’?aeiaiiy naeyi aoei caaaeueia
c?a?aiiy eiai /eai?a – noiae. I?ioean ooaaee ??oaiiy noiaeo a?aecia/aany
aeaiie?aoe/i?noth ? ia iie?oeciaai?noth. Aaaaeai? aeaaeith ea??ai?
i?aaie – i?aae?iiy oa ?aa?c?ei? eii?n?? – ia iaaoee cia/iiai iioe?aiiy.

Iniaeeainoyie caiaeueieo a?iiaae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie aoee ?o
iaeiaea??i?noue, a?aeiinii aaeeea caieacaaacia/ai?noue, cia/ia /anoea
iaueiii? oi?ie caieaei?enooaaiiy oa a?eueoa o?iainiaa caaacia/ai?noue
ii??aiyii c caia?iiaaeaie ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a. Niaoeeo?eith
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo naeyinueeeo ia’?aeiaiue aoei oaeiae caa?aaeaiiy
i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a noinoie?a oeio iaueiieo, ye? ?aae?coaaeeny a
iicaiaeuei?e noa??, o oi?ioaaii? ea??aieo i?aai?a ca i?eioeeiii
aaoi?eoaoiino?, a canoinoaaii? ii?i cae/a?aiai i?aaa, o
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? an?o /eai?a ca i?iaaaeaiiy aa?ioaoi?/ieo caoiae?a, o
caeeoaii? iaaieo aeaiaio?a e?oaiai? ii?oee i?e nieao? a?iiaaeith
aea?aeaaieo iiaeaoe?a.

Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a aea??eiaeo ianoaaeaiue o?iainiai? ni?iiiaeiino?
caiaeueieo a?iiaae, ui aoee i?iaaaeai? Ia?eiicaiii o 1927 ? 1928 ??.,
aea? i?aenoaao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaoa??aeuei? iiaeeeaino? caia?iiaae
i?eaeecii a 10 ?ac?a ia?aaeuoaaee o?iainiao caaacia/ai?noue n?eue?aae.
Caieaono??e aoa ni?aaith aeeeth/ii caiaeueieo a?iiaae. E??i oiai, aiie
naiino?eii iae?aee oi?io caieaei?enooaaiiy oa i?iaaaeeee aa?ioaoi?/i?
caoiaee. ?aaoethaaiiy i?aiaeieo noinoie?a ia aoei i?a?iaaoeaith a?iiaae,
aea aiie caeiaeeny oe??th noa?ith iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei iai?aeaaaeueii.

A?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a ana?aaeei? a?iiaaee a?aeaoaaeiny ia iniia?
o?aaeeoe?e, aieeao aaoi?eoaoo a?iiaaee ia nai?o /eai?a.

O/anoue caiaeueieo a?iiaae o i?iaaaeaii? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aeaaee i?iyaeyeany a ni?euei?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? on?o
?o /eai?a ca aeeiiaiiy ie?aieie naeyiaie n?eueainiiiaeaoeo. A?ae
i?ioeano ia?aooaaiiy noie iiaeaoeo a?iiaaee aoee onoiai?.

Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee yaeyee niaith aeueoa?iaoeaio n?eue?aaeai oa EIN oi?io
naeyinueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?aae oa EIN aiie aoee
noaiiaeie naiia?yaeieie i?aai?caoe?yie onueiai naeyinoaa, ine?eueee
a?aeiia?aeaee ?ioa?anai on?o nai?o /eai?a. Iaae?? a?eueoiaee?a ia eaaea
?o ia?aoai?aiiy o eieainie ia aei?aaaeaeeny, ai ae?yeuei?noue oeeo
?inoeoooe?e aacoaaeany ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio caieaei?enooaaii? ?
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ainiiaea?nueeiio ?ioa?an? naeyi.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy

aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Eyo N.?., E?eaei ?.I. Naeyinueea i?aei?e?iieoeoai ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie
o 20-o? ?iee // Iaoeia? i?aoe? ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. – Aei.??. –
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: II «I?ii?iue», 1997. – N.123–135.

2. E?eaei ?.I. Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie (1922–1930 ??.) //
Caienee iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? eaai?aoi??? I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia OO noie?ooy. – Aei.1 (4). –
Caii??aeaey: ?A «Oaiaeai-O», 1998. – N.151–163.

3. E?eaei ?.I. Iaueiia caieaei?enooaaiiy i/eia ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee:
e?eoeea iaoiaeeee ianoaaeaiiy caia?iiaae 1927 ?ieo // Iaoeia? i?aoe?
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. –
Aei.IV. – Caii??aeaey: I?ina?oa, 1998. – N.69–75.

4. E?eaei ?.I. Ai?ioueaa iaaeiei n?euenueeeo athaeaeao?a o 1920-o? ?iee
(Aei ?noi??? caia?iiaae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie) // Iaoeia? i?aoe?
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. –
Aei.V. – Caii??aeaey: I?ina?oa, 1999. – N.81–88.

5. E?eaei ?.I. Iniaeeaino? oiaa?iiai naeyinueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a ia??iae iaio // I?aei?e?iieoeoai I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
inoaiiuei? /aa?o? OV??? – ia?oi? /aa?o? OO noie?ooy. – Caii??aeaey:
CAeO, 1995. – N.65–70.

6. E?eaei ?.I. O?aaeeoe?? iaueiiiai eaaeo ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie a 20-o
?ieao OO noie?ooy // Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a
eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie CAeO. – Aei.2. – Caii??aeaey: ?A «Oaiaeai-O»,
1997. – N.53–56.

7. E?eaei ?.I. Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a no?oeoo?? i?aai?a
aeaaee ia nae? (1922–1930 ??.) // Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? nooaeaio?a oa
ani??aio?a eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie CAeO. – Aei.4. – Caii??aeaey: ?A
«Oaiaeai-O», 1998. – N.73–76.

8. E?eaei ?.I. Caiaeuei? oa n?euenuee? a?iiaaee ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie
(1921–1928 ??.) // Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e aeeeaaea/?a ?
nooaeaio?a Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Aei.?V. –
*anoeia ??. – Caii??aeaey: CAeO, 1994. – N.12–13.

E?eaei ?.I. Caiaeuei? a?iiaaee I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie (1922–1930 ??.). –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao. Caii??aeaey, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii eiiieaeniiio aiae?co i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
caiaeueieo a?iiaae I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a 20-o ?ieao oa nooiaiy
?aae?caoe?? ieie nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue, i?iaieioaieo ?aaeyinueeei
caeiiiaeaanoaii. A aeena?oaoe?? ?aae?ciaai? iia? iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?aeoiaee a ioe?ioe? ae?yeueiino? caiaeueieo a?iiaae ye noaiiaeo
naeyinueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Anoaiiaeaia niaoeeo?ea caia?iiaae I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie, yea iieyaaea a ?o iaeiaea??iino?, a?aeiinii aaeee?e
caieacaaacia/aiino?, caa?aaeaii? iaueiieo o?aaeeoe?e, a?eueo?e
o?iainia?e ni?iiiaeiino? ii??aiyii c a?iiaaeaie ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a.
Noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith aeina?aeo ?aaoethaaiiy
iicaiaeueieo a?aeiinei caia?iiaaeaie, noinoie?a i?ae aeaaeieie
no?oeoo?aie ? naeyiaie, no/anieie i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
naiioi?aae?iiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??y Oe?a?ie, aa?a?ia ?noi??y, naeyinoai, iiaa
aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea, caiaeueia a?iiaaea, iaueia, I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia.

Kryvko I.M. The land societies of Southern Ukraine (1922–1930). – The
Scroll.

The dissertation is to pursue the candidate’s degree in history
scholarship, faculty 07.00.01 – The History of Ukraine. Zaporizhsha
State University. Zaporizhzha, 1999.

This dissertation deals with the complex analysis of the Southern
Ukraine land societies’ activity during the 1920s as well as discoveres
how those societies were capable of using their authority, granted by
the Soviet code of law. In this research the new methodological
approaches concerning the appraisal of the «land societies as the
peasants’ organizations» have been utilized. The following assumption
has been made: the land societies of Southern Ukraine had characteristic
features of their own , which differed from the ones of some other
regions (lower number of households, substantial land fund, preservation
of the rural commune traditions, the bigger financial potential). The
proposals concerning the using of the land relation regulations by the
land societies, interrelalions between the governmental structures and
the peasants, the modern institutions of state power and self-governing,
are also being studied in this paper.

The key words: the history of Ukraine, the agrarian history, peasantry,
the New Economic Policy, the land society, the rural commune, Southern
Ukraine.

E?eaei E.I. Caiaeueiua iauanoaa THaeiie Oe?aeiu (1922–1930 aa.). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. Caii?iaeuea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
caiaeueiuo iauanoa THaeiie Oe?aeiu a 20-a aiaeu e noaiaie ?aaeecaoeee
naieo iieiiii/ee, i?iaicaeaoaiiuo niaaoneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. A
aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee aiaeece?oaony i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a
caiiauanoa, ?anniao?eaaaony eo nioeeaeueiue ninoaa. I?ineaaeaia
i?aainoaaiiinoue caiaeueiuo iauanoa iino?aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea e
aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo iauanoa, eioi?ay caeeth/aeanue a nio?aiaiee yeaiaioia
o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaueiiie no?oeoo?u, e?oaiaie ii?oee, niaianoiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. I?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea ?ac?aaioee e?eoa?eaa
oeiieiaecaoeee iaueiu iino?aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea. ?aaeeciaaiu iiaua
iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu a ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe caiaeueiuo iauanoa
a ea/anoaa nineiaiuo e?anoueyineeo i?aaiecaoeee. Eo aeayoaeueiinoue
ioeaieaaaony ia n oi/ee c?aiey eeanniauo i?ei?eoaoia, a n iiceoeee
iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu oeiainiaay aaca caiiauanoa, eo ?ieue a
i?iaaaeaiee caieaono?ienoaa e ?aaoee?iaaiee a?aiaeiuo ioiioaiee, a
?aoaiee naiaeiuo e iaaenaiaeiuo iicaiaeueiuo nii?ia; oi?iu e noaiaiue eo
o/anoey a i?iaaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie iieeoeee. Ii?aaeaeaii
ianoi iauanoa a nenoaia aeanoe ia naea: iieacaii, /oi iie auee
iieoioeoeeaeueiie i?aaenoaaeoaeueneie e?anoueyineie i?aaiecaoeeae.

Ii?aaeaeaia /eneaiiinoue iauanoa ia THaa Oe?aeiu, i?iecaaaeai eo o/ao,
ia yiie?e/aneii o?iaia enneaaeiaaia noaiaiue nio?aiaiey iaueiiuo
ioiioaiee a 20-o aiaeao, aianaiu iii?aaee a ioeoeeaeueiua aeaiiua 20-o
aiaeia ioiineoaeueii oaeaeueiiai aana iaueiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey a
iauae no?oeoo?a e?anoueyineiai caieaiieueciaaiey; oco/aii aeeyiea
caiaeueiuo iauanoa ia oiae eaaeaeiaeiaaiie aeecie oe?aeineiai naea.

Ii?aaeaeaia niaoeeoeea caiiauanoa THaeiie Oe?aeiu, eioi?ay caeeth/aeanue
a eo iaeiaeai?iinoe, aieueoae ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ?aaeiiaie
caieaiaania/aiiinoe, nio?aiaiee iaueiiuo o?aaeeoeee, ioiineoaeueii
eo/oeie oeiainiauie aiciiaeiinoyie. Auyaeaiu oi/ee nii?eeiniiaaiey
o?aaeeoeeiiiie e?anoueyineie o?oaeiaie eiiia?aoeee e
caeaeaieiaece?iaaiiie niaaoneie eiiia?aoeee; enneaaeiaaiu iaoiaeu
i?aa?auaiey iauanoa a eieoicu. Iieacai i?iaae iiiuoee eniieueciaaiey
aeaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa eiiia?oeeiuie no?oeoo?aie n oeaeueth
i?iaaaeaiey nieioiie eieeaeoeaecaoeee.

Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eniieueciaaieth iiuoa ?aaoee?iaaiey
iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaiee caiiauanoaaie, acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeanoiuie
no?oeoo?aie e e?anoueyiaie ni noi?iiu nia?aiaiiuo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e naiioi?aaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: enoi?ey Oe?aeiu, aa?a?iay enoi?ey, e?anoueyinoai, iiaay
yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea, caiaeueiia iauanoai, iaueia, THaeiay Oe?aeia.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 21.05.1999. Oi?iao 60O90 1/16. Aa?i?oo?a Oaein.

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Caiiaeaiiy ? 45. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

Iaae?oeiaaii ?A «Oaiaeai-O»

i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. 40 ?ie?a ?aae. Oe?a?ie, 41, io. 514.

Cai?iee noaoenoe/ii-aeiiiii/ieo aiaeiiinoae i?i nieuenueea
ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie. – Aei.II. – Oa?e?a, 1930. – N.1.

Aiaieoeeee A.I. Caiaeueiue eiaeaen ONN? a aii?inao e ioaaoao n
?acuyniaieyie Iniaie eieeaaee aunoaai eiio?iey ii caiaeueiui nii?ai i?e
Ia?eiicaia. – Oa?ueeia, 1925; Eociaoeia I. Caiaeueia a?iiaaea. – Oa?e?a,
1927; ?acoiia I. Naeueneea Niaaou e caiaeueiua iauanoaa. – I., 1928;
Eieanieeia A.I. E aii?ino i acaeiiioiioaieyo caiaeueiuo iauanoa n
naeueneeie Niaaoaie // Aanoiee caieaono?ienoaa e ia?anaeaiey. – 1928. –
? 4. – N.96–104 oa ?i.

Ieaaeue A.E. Cae?eniaiiy aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ia Oe?a?i? o a?aeaoaeia/ee
ia??iae. – Ee?a, 1974; Eyo ?.Ae. ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ia
Oe?a?i? (1917–1923 ??.). – Ee?a, Aeiiaoeuee, 1975; Eooeeee A. I nouiinoe
o?aaieoaeueiiai caieaiieueciaaiey a Niaaoneie ?innee // Aii?inu enoi?ee.
– 1956. – ? 9. – N.59–71; Iieyeia TH.A. Ia?aoiae e iyio e niaaoneia
e?anoueyinoai. – I., 1967.

Aeaieeia A.I. Niaaoneay aeieieoiciay aea?aaiy: ianaeaiea,
caieaiieueciaaiea, oicyenoai. – I., 1978; Eaaaiia A.A. E?anoueyineay
iaueia e eiiia?aoeey ?innee OO aaea. – I., 1997.

Eaeeie/aiei A.A. E?anoueyineay iicaiaeueiay iaueia ia Oe?aeia a
aeieieoiciue ia?eiae // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. – 1984. –
? 266. – N.3–12; Naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie a aeieieainiiee
ia?iiae (1921–1929). – Oa?eia, 1991; Naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie a
ia?iiae iaio: Inoi?eei-aeiiiii/ia aeineiaeaeaiiy. – Oa?e?a, 1997.

Ia?i/ei A.I. Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea eiiia?aoeiy. Inoi?eei-oai?aoe/iee
aniaeo (1861–1929 ??.). – Ee?a, 1995; Na?a??a A.A. Aeiyeueiinoue
Ia?eiicaio Oe?a?ie a 1921–1927 ??.: Aeen. … eaiae. inoi?. iaoe. –
Caii?iaeaey, 1993.

A?a/ei A.A. E aii?ino i acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo caiaeueiuie iauanoaaie
(caia?iiaaeaie) e naeueneeie Niaaoaie a ONN? (1922–1930 aa.) // O/aiua
caienee Oa?ueeianeiai th?eaee/aneiai einoeoooa. – Oa?ueeia, 1960. –
Aui.14. – N.139-167; A?iiaiei I.?. Caiaeueii a?iiaaee Oe?a?ie
(1927–1929 ??.) // Oe?a?inueeee inoi?e/iee aeo?iae. – 1972. – ? 9. –
N.99-102.

Eiciiaa E.A. E?anoueyineay iicaiaeueiay iaueia a 1921–1929 aiaeao:
Aaoi?ao. aeen. … eaiae. eno. .iaoe. – I., 1982; Inieeia A.ss.
Nioeeaeenoe/aneia no?ieoaeuenoai a aea?aaia e iaueia: 1920–1933. – I.,
1978.

Caiaeueiee eiaeaen ON??. – Oa?e?a, 1923; Ca?o ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueeiai
o?yaeo Oe?a?ie ca 1923–1924 ??.: Aei aeaa’yoiai Anaoe?a?inueeiai c’?caeo
?aae. – Oa?e?a, 1925 oa ?i.

sseeiaineee A. E eoiaai aa?a?iie ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia: Ii aeaiiui
aieaoiiai ianeaaeiaaiey 1922 aiaea. – Oa?ueeia, 1924; Cai?iee
noaoenoe/ii-aeiiiii/ieo aiaeiiinoae i?i nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai
Oe?a?ie. – Aei.II. – Oa?e?a, 1930; Noaoenoeea Oe?a?ie. – ? 125: O?iaine
caiaeueieo a?iiaae 1925-26 ?.: Aeai?eiaa ianeiaeoaaiiy. – Oa?e?a, 1928;
Noaoenoeea Oe?a?ie. – ? 157: Ieciai athaeaeaoe Oe?a?ie 1926–27 ?.
(?aeiiiai, nieuenueei, caia?iiaae). – Oa?e?a, 1929.

Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee a?oia aeueo i?aaiia aea?aeaaii? aeaaee i
oi?aaeiiiy Oe?a?ie. – O.27. – Ii.8. – Ni?.1343–1355; Caieaaii?yaeaeaii
oa iacaieaaii?yaeaeaii naeyinueei ainiiaea?noaa: ca ianeiaeoaaiiyi ia
aanii 1926 ?. *.I.: Oaaeeoei. – Oa?e?a, 1928; Cai?iee
noaoenoe/ii-aeiiiii/ieo aiaeiiinoae i?i nieuenueea ainiiaea?noai
Oe?a?ie. – Oa?e?a, 1929–1930; Noaoenoeea Oe?a?ie. – ? 125; Noaoenoeea
Oe?a?ie. – ? 157.

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