17

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

Oonoaiianueea ??EIA AIEIAeEIE??AIA

OAeE 349.6

CANOINOAAIIss I?AAA A AAEOC? IOI?IIE AeIAE?EEss

A OE?A?I? OA NOA

(II??AIssEUeIEE AIAE?C)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.06 — caiaeueia i?aai; aa?a?ia i?aai;

aeieia?/ia i?aai; i?e?iaei?ano?niaa i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa aeieia?/iiai i?aaa
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?aa/aiei Na?oeaia Ieeiea?aia

i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa oaeoeueoaoo i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaeeoaaa Iaoae?y ?aoaae?aia

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?iai?
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aiaeiaa Aioii?ia A?eai??aia

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ainiiaea?nueeiai i?aaa Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y, eaoaae?a
aa?a?iiai, aeieia?/iiai oa i?e?iaei?ano?niaiai i?aaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee c th?eaee/ieo iaoe E 35.051.03
o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.O?aiea ca aae?anith:
290001, i.Euea?a, aoe. N?/iaeo no??eueoe?a, 14 (cae can?aeaiue
th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, aoae.409).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea (290005, i.Euea?a,
aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, A.I.Einnae

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ye?
aino?i iinoaee ia?aae oe?a?inueeith aea?aeaaith oa iathoue aeiaaeueiee
oa?aeoa?, ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c, ioe?ieo, a?aooaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy
i?aaiaeo aeinyaiaiue, iaa?iiaaeaeaieo na?oiaei ni?aoiaa?enoaii, cie?aia
a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey.

Iaei??th ?c canaae Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ? anoaiiaeaiiy iaia`yceo
aea?aeaae uiaei caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie,
iiaeieaiiy iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe — eaoano?ioe
ieaiaoa?iiai ianooaao, caa?aaeaiiy aaiioiiaeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
(no.16 ). A?aeiiino? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – 1996., ?30. — no.141.

Eiinoeoooe?ei? canaaee ioi?iie aeiae?eey iio?aaothoue naiai i?aaiaiai
caaacia/aiiy, aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaeo i?eioeei?a ? ii?i o oe?e
noa??. A oiiaao iaeaea noi?iiaaii? iiai? nenoaie aeieia?/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie iaaecae/aeii aaeeeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aiae?c oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a eiai canoinoaaiiy. A oe?e noa?? iniaeeaee
?ioa?an aeeeeea? aeina?ae NOA — iaeiiai ?c na?oiaeo e?aea??a o ae??oaii?
aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai.

O?eaaeee /an o noa?? aeieia?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? ia iaaeaaaeinue
aeinoaoiuei? oaaae ii??aiyeueiiio i?aaiciaanoao. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny ii??aiyiiy ??cieo noni?eueii-?noi?e/ieo oei?a i?aaa. Oei
/anii, naia ii??aiyeueia i?aai aea? iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa i?ciaoe oa
iie?aueoe nai? iaoe?iiaeueia i?aai.

Niieo/ai? Ooaoe iathoue aeaai? o?aaeeoe?? ?icaeoeo i?aaa iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua. O oe?e aea?aeaa? noai?aii aoaeoeaiee iaoai?ci eiai
canoinoaaiiy. ?acii c oei a iueiio iayai? ? aeaye? iaaeie?ee, aiae?c
yeeo ni?eyoeia ?o oieeiaiith a Oe?a?i?. Aena?oeaiiy iiceoeaiiai
aeina?aeo NOA o noa?? canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai i?aaa ia? cia/aiiy aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy ye anueiai oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, oae ? aaciina?aaeiuei i?ioean?a eiai canoinoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue o noa?? ioi?iie aeiae?eey i?aai?a
I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie (I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie), a oaeiae noae?a — iaeieo c
iniiaieo ?? noa`?eo?a, iio?aao? aaeineiiaeaiiy. Cie?aia, oea noino?oueny
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?o o ian o/ano? o i?e oa aieea ia ia? a?iiaaenueeino?.
Oaeiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ia iiaeia aeinyaiooe aac iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ?ic?iaeaieo ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co nenoaie oe?a?inueeiai
aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aaicanoinia/i? i?aeoeee, niaoeeo?ee
i?aaiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, ?? i?aaiaeo o?aaeeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi e?aueo
aeinyaiaiue aia?eeainueei? th?eni?oaeaioe?? ? ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy
aenieiai ??aiy i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

Ona aeua aeacaia ? aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o oiio,
uia:

— i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie oa NOA a
aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey;

aecia/eoe iiiyooy, iniiai? ?ene oa eiei noa`?eo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a
aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? oa NOA;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oa ii??aiyoe i?aaicanoinia/o ae?yeuei?noue aieiaieo
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?aai?a iaio e?a?i — I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie oa
Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA;

— aeine?aeeoe i?aaicanoinia/o ae?yeuei?noue noae?a a Oe?a?i? ? a NOA o
noa?? ioi?iie aeiae?eey;

— nie?ath/enue ia aiae?c a?aeiia?aeiiai aia?eeainueeiai aeina?aeo,
aeyaeoe oeyoe iineeaiiy o/ano? a?iiaaenueeino? a i?aaicanoinia/eo
i?ioeanao, iia`ycaieo c ioi?iiith aeiae?eey, a Oe?a?i?;

— c`ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? iniiaieo ia?aoeiae ia oeyoo aei aoaeoeaii?
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i?;

— noi?ioethaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Ia`?eoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i? aeaea?aea,
caeiiiaeaanoai a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey Oe?a?ie oa NOA. Aii??e/iith
aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aaicanoinia/a i?aeoeea i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee
Oe?a?ie, Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA, iaoa??aee
noaeiai? oa i?ieo?i?nueei? i?aeoeee.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe??. O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
eiiieaeniee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co. Aeniiaee
oa iieiaeaiiy, ui aenoaathoueny a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?,
aacothoueny ia eiinoeoooe?eieo canaaeao, aiae?c? ia?aaeon?i
aeieia?/iiai, a /anoeiai ? aeayeeo ?ioeo aaeocae i?aaa Oe?a?ie ?
Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee, aeinyaiaiiyo a?o/eciyii? (aeeth/ath/e e?au?
caeiaooee ?aaeyinueeiai i?aaiciaanoaa) ? aia?eeainueei? aeieiai-i?aaiai?
iaoee, i?aeoe/iiio aeina?ae? canoinoaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc?
ioi?iie aeiae?eey.

Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/io aaco aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeieia?/iiai i?aaa: oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a —
A.?.Aiae?aeoeaaa, A.A.Aiaeiai?, O.?.Caoa?/aiei, A.I.Aaoueiaia,
A.A.Einoeoeueeiai, N.I.E?aa/aiei, I.?.Iaeeoaai?, A.E.Ioioyia,
A.E.Iiiiaa, A.A.?icianueeiai, I.?.Oeoiai?, TH.N.Oaioo/aiea; ?in?enueeeo
a/aieo — O.N.Aaeoi?ii?, A.I.Aaey?aa, N.I.Aiaiethaiaa, I.I.A??i/oea,
I.?.Aaneeue?ai?, A.?.Aieeiaa, A.E.Aie?/aieiaa, I.E.Aeoaiaee,
?.I.E?aniiai?, I.N.Eieaaniaa, A.A.Ea??iiiaa, ?.I.Eeneoeeia, A.A.Iao?iaa,
A.A.Oa?iaanueeiai; aia?eeainueeeo a/aieo oa i?aeoee?a — No?aaia Aeeaia,
Aaeaia Aaae/a, Aeaeicaoa Aeiea, Aeaeiia Aiiaeia, Oa?ee Aanna?iai,
Aeaeao?? Aaaa, Oaiaei?a Aa??aoa, Eaa?ia Aaeii?a, ?aeiiiaea Aeioaaia,
Iaoae? Aethaaeue, I?oa?a ?aa?a, Iaeeea Aeneaeia, Oiiana Eaee?, Eao?e
Eaee, I?ei Ianiia, Ea?ie Iaaeaeie, I?eieana ?ia?ina, Aeaeicaoa Naena,
Iaoea Ni?oa, N’thcai Ni?o, Ia?o?ia Ni?oca?a, A?eueyia Ooo?aeea, Aeaa?aea
Oiaeana, ??/a?aea Oaa?oea oa ?i.;

— iieiaeaiiy c oai??? i?aaa, aeeeaaeai? o i?aoeyo N.N. Aeaena?aa,
I.A.A?o?oea, I.I.Aiieaiei, A.A.Aeace??ia, ?.ss.Aeth?ya?ia,
A.I.Ea?oaoiaa, A.A.Eaca??aa, I.I.Iaaeaaeea, I.O.I?c?oa, I.I.?aa?iiae/a,
TH.N.?aoaoiaa, A.A.Oiaeueiai?, A.A.THnoiiaa, Oa?ieaea Aa?iaia, Oa??? Ii,
?iaa?oa Naiia?na, Aa?i Oieeae;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy c ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaa (I.Ainaey, ?. Aeaa?aea, A.
E?nna).

Ii?iaoeaiith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, Caeii Oe?a?ie
“I?i ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua“, ?io?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae caeiiiaeaanoai a aaeoc?
ioi?iie aeiae?eey Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee ? aeayeeo ?ioeo e?a?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa a
aeieiai-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo?? cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c canoinoaaiiy
i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? ? a NOA, ?ice?eoi
i?aaicanoinia/o ae?yeuei?noue iniiaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy niaoe?aeueii?
eiiiaoaioe?? (I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie oa Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA), a oaeiae oe?a?inueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo
noae?a a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey, aecia/aii oeyoe ?icoe?aiiy o/ano?
a?iiaaenueeino? o i?aaicanoinia/eo i?ioeanao. Aia?oa oea i?iaaaeaii ia
iniia? aeieia?/ii? eiioeaioe??, cae??ieaii? a iia?e Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie. Ana oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe ieceo i?iiiceoe?e
uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie oa i?aeoeee
eiai canoinoaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?:

— o ?ic?iaoe? oa i?aaenoaaeaii? aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie, Aaia?aeueii? i?ieo?aoo?e Oe?a?ie i?iiiceoe?e uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, o eiiaioa?yo aaoi?a,
c?iaeaieo aei i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i a?aeoiaee“;

— o aeei?enoaii? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a eiinoeueooaaii?
i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo oa i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, i?aoe?aiee?a
aeieia?/ieo neoaea oa ea??aiee?a i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa i. Eueaiaa c
ieoaiue canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa;

— o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? aaoi?a a Oeaio?? a?iiaaenueei? aeieia?/ii?
aaeaieaoo?e, iaaeaii? eiinoeueoaoe?e a?iiaaeyiai oa a?iiaaenueeei
i?aai?caoe?yi c ieoaiue ?aae?caoe?? ?o aeieia?/ieo i?aa oa
i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?o ?ioa?an?a a noaeiaeo i?aaiao;

— o aaciina?aaei?e o/ano? aaoi?a a i?aai?caoe?? iecee nai?ia??a c
canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui i?iaiaeeeenue aeaaiae?eiei
oiiaeii “Aeii?aai-Euea?a“ ni?eueii c I?aaie/ith ?i?oe?aoeaith aeey
Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie Aia?eeainueei? anioe?aoe?? th?eno?a
aeey noaeae?a oa i?ieo?i??a Euea?anueei?, ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?,
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeanoae, i?aoe?aiee?a Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aeieia?/ii? aaciaee o Euea?anuee?e iaeano?.

Iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe??,
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o caeiiioai?/?e ?iaio?, o i?aaicanoinia/?e
ae?yeueiino? noae?a, i?ieo?aoo?e, i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, o
ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aeieia?/iiai ni?yioaaiiy, i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, a o/aiaiio i?ioean?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o aeaa`yoe ioae?eaoe?yo. Aeena?oaoe?y
iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e o?oaeiaiai, aa?a?iiai oa
aeieia?/iiai i?aaa th?eaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy eaeoe?eieo
oa nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c eo?no “Aeieia?/ia i?aai“ oa niaoeeo?no
“A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeieia?/i? i?aaiii?ooaiiy” ia th?eaee/iiio
oaeoeueoao? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Aaoi? ?iaioe a?aea o/anoue a iaaiai?aii? i?iaeoo i?aeia?iaeii?
Eiiaaioe?? “I?i aeinooi a?iiaaenueeino? aei ?ioi?iaoe??, o/anoue o
i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue oa aeinooi aei i?aainoaeaey c ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny
aeiae?eey“.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia /eneaiieo i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao, cie?aia: “I?iaeaie i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ioi?iie aeiae?eey“ (Ee?a, 19-30 aa?aniy 1994 ?.); “I?iaeaie caiaeueiiai,
aeieia?/iiai i?aaa ? caeiiiaeaanoaa o no/anieo oiiaao“ (Iineaa, 13-16
aa?aciy 1995 ?.); I ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? th?eno?a-aeieia?a
“I?aaia? iaoai?cie caoenoo aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi“ (Aooa,
?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e iae., 11-16 /a?aiy 1995?.); “No/ani? i?aaia?
i?iaeaie oa?eoi??e, ui i?aeeyaathoue iniaeea?e ioi?ii? oa
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caaaeaii? i?e?iaeiei ?ano?nai“ (Iineaa, 24-26
aeiaoiy 1995 ?.); “Aeieia?/ia i?aai oa a?iiaaenueee ?ioa?ane“ (THaeaeei,
I?aaii, NOA, aa?acaiue 1996 ?.); II ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe??
th?eno?a-aeieia?a “Iiaeeeaino? caoenoo aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi o
e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith“ (Aoaeaiaoo, Oai?ueia, 27-29 /a?aiy
1996 ?.); “O iai?yieo aei noaeiai ?icaeoeo a ?a?ii? — aca?iiae?y
a?iiaaenueeino? o noa?? ioi?iie aeiae?eey“ (A?thnnaeue, Aaeuea?y, 25-28
aeiaoiy 1996 ?.); III ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? th?eno?a-aeieia?a
“I?aaia? iaoai?cie caoenoo aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi“ (Aiea?eaie,
Iieaeiaa, 26-28 o?aaiy 1997?.); IV ?aa?iiaeuei?e i?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? th?eno?a-aeieia?a “I?aaia? iaoai?cie caoenoo aeieia?/ieo
i?aa a?iiaaeyi“ (A?ioeeaa, Iieueua, 11-13 /a?aiy 1998?.) oa ia
iaoe?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, e?oaeeo noieao, cie?aia ia: 1-e
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ?
caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?“ (Euea?a, ethoee 1995 ?.); III
anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? “Noai eiaeeo?eaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?:
nenoaii?noue, i??i?eoaoe, oi?o?eaoe?y“ (Euea?a, a?oaeaiue 1995 ?.);
“Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa eiai canoinoaaiiy“
(Ee?a, 21 a?oaeiy 1995 ?.); III ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?“ (Euea?a,
ethoee 1997 ?.); IV ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?“ (Euea?a, ethoee
1998 ?.) oa ?ioeo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aia c o?aooaaiiyi iaoe oa caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiia neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (9
i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (295
iaeiaioaaiue). Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe — 180 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe,
?ice?eaa?oueny ?? ia`?eo, aeeeaaeathoueny iaoa, iniiai? caaaeaiiy,
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, io?eiai?
oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, iaaiaeeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?o
ai?iaaoe?th.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?icaeoie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a
aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? oa a NOA (iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e)”
i?enay/aii aiae?co noaio oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeai canoinoaaiiy i?aaa
a aeieiai-i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao a Oe?a?i? oa a NOA. ?icaeyiooi ?iaioe
N.N.Aeaen??aa, I.A.A?o?oea, ?.ss.Aeth?ya?ia, A.A.Eaca??aa,
I.I.Iaaeaaeea, I.O.I?c?oa, A.N.I?aiee?ia, I.I.?aa?iiae/a, TH.N.?aoaoiaa,
A.A.Oiaeueiai?, E.N.ssae/a, ye? ?ice?eaathoue caaaeuei? i?iaeaie
canoinoaaiiy i?aaa, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy I.E.Aeoaiaee, N.I.E?aa/aiei
oa ?ioeo a/aieo, ui noinothoueny ie?aieo aniaeo?a i?aaicanoinoaaiiy a
aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey. Na?aae aia?eeainueeeo i?aaiciaaoe?a, ye?
c?iaeee iii?oiee aianie o aea/aiiy i?e?iaee, iniiaieo ?en ? ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a?aecia/aii
Aeaeiia Aiiaeia, Iaea Aa??o?, I?ei Ianiia Ea?ie Iaaeaeie, Iaoea Ni?oa,
Ia?o?ia Ni?oca?a.

C iaeyaeo ia oi?aae?inueeee ca nai?i nioe?aeueiei ci?noii oa?aeoa?
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoeiao
e?oa?aoo?o c i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy a aaeoc? ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua (A.A.Aoaiai/oe, A.I.Aaey?a, A.E.Aie?/aieia,
A.A.Eoi?a, I.?.Iaeeoaaa, I.A.I?iaeca?a, I.A.No??eia, A.A.?icianueeee,
TH.N.Oaioo/aiei). Oeae aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui i?aaicanoinia/a
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie, caeeoeeany iica oaaaith
a?o/eciyieo a/aieo. Iaoii?noue aia?eeainuee? aeine?aeieee a?oioiaii
aea/athoue ? iiioey?ecothoue ae?yeuei?noue iiae?aiiai i?aaio a NOA —
Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (?aeiii Aeioaai, Iaoae?
Aethaaeue, Aeaeaee Ii?oii oa ?i.).

A oe?a?inuee?e oa ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? /e ia iaeaeoeai?oa
iaaiai?thaaeanue oaia th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aeieia?/i?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy (A.?.Aiae?aeoeaa, O.N.Aaeoi?ia, N.I.Aiaiethaia,
I.I.A??i/oe, I.?.Aaneeue?aa, A.I.Aaoueiai, A.E.Aie?/aieia, I.E.Aeoaiaee,
O.?.Caoa?/aiei, I.N.Eieaania, A.A.Einoeoeueeee, N.I.E?aa/aiei,
?.I.E?aniiaa, I.?.Iaeeoaaa, A.E.Ioioyi, A.I.Iaa?ioeueeee, A.A.Iao?ia,
A.E.Iiiia, I.O.?icaaeueae??a, A.A.Oa?iaanueeee, I.?.Oeoiaa,
TH.NOaioo/aiei.). Oey oaia iiioey?ia ? na?aae aia?eeainueeeo aaoi??a
(Eaoe?i A?ane?i, Iain? Aien?i, Eaa?i Aaeii?, Iaoae? Aethaaeue, ?iaa?o
Eo?io, Eao?a Eaee, No?aai Iaaeiiia, N`thcai Ni?o, Aeaeoaenii Noa??,
Aeaa?ae Oiaean).

Ie?ai? ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo i?enay/ai? ae?yeueiino? o noa??
ioi?iie aeiae?eey, a oiio /ene? i?aaicanoinia/?e i?noeaaeo ?aae
(I.?.Iaeeoaaa, A.A.Einoeoeueeee, TH.N.Oaioo/aiei). I?ioa ?ieue i?aai?a
i?aainoaeaey, cie?aia noae?a, aena?oeaia a aeieiai-i?aaia?e iaooe?
caeaa?eueoiai i?e ?icaeyae? ieoaiue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny ieoaiue noaeiaiai caoenoo aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi, ye? a
no/aniee ia??iae iaaoaathoue iaea?eueoi? aeooaeueiino?. Caeeoa?oueny aac
iaeaaeiiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy o a?o/eciyiiio i?aaiciaanoa? ?
o/anoue a?iiaaenueeino? a i?aaicanoinia/eo i?ioeanao a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, a oie /an ye a aia?eeainuee?e aeieiai-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo?? oey
i?iaeaia iin?aea? i??i?eoaoia i?noea.

Caneoaiao?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, on?eyeeo coneeue a?o/eciyieo
i?aaiciaaoe?a-aeieia?a a?oioiaia aea/aiiy iiceoeaiiai aia?eeainueeiai
aeina?aeo o noa?? i?aaiai? ioi?iie aeiae?eey (uiaei ie?aieo ia`?eo?a
i?e?iaee oea c?iaeee A.?.Aieeia, I.TH.Aaeyoei, aeaye? ieoaiiy i?aaa
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA aeeeaaeai? a ?iaioao O.?.Caoa?/aiei.
Iineeaiiy ia aeina?ae Niieo/aieo Ooao?a o noa??, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny,
iiaeia ciaeoe o ?iaioao I.I. A??i/oea, N.I.E?aa/aiei, A.A.Ea??iiiaa,
A.A.Oa?iaanueeiai, A.A.O?ai?ia, oa ?ioeo). Iniaeeai o?aaa a?aecia/eoe
iiiia?ao?th ?.I.E?aniiai? “Aeieia?/ia i?aai ? oi?aae?iiy o NOA“ (I.:
Aaeeaeueneay Aeaaeaiey, 1992. — 238 n.), aea aaoi? aiae?co? no?oeoo?o ?
oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy i?aaa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA, aoaeoeai?noue
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia an?o ??aiyo aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa ?i.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e a oe?eiio ?nioth/ee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii?
iaoeiai-i?aaiai? aeoiee, iiaeia i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui ia aeaiee /an ia
?nio? ie?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo canoinoaaiith i?aaa a aaeoc?
ioi?iie aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? ? NOA. Oea iaiaaaany c?iaeoe aaoi? o nai??
?iaio?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iiiyooy oa noa`?eoe canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc?
ioi?iie aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? oa NOA“ aeine?aeaeothoueny oa
ii??aiththoueny iiiyooy canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a oe?a?inuee?e oa
aia?eeainuee?e i?aaia?e eiioeaioe??, i?ine?aeeiao?oueny ?o aaiethoe?y,
aecia/a?oueny eiei noa`?eo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui
?aaoeth? aeieia?/i? a?aeiineie a Oe?a?i? oa NOA, .

I?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a Oe?a?i? ? a NOA nooo?ai
??ciyoueny. A oe?a?inuee?e oai??? i?aaa aeii?io? oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?ieo iciae i?aaicanoinoaaiiy, i?noey canoinoaaiiy i?aaa o
nenoai? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c oi?iaie ?aae?caoe??
i?aaa (aeeiiaiiyi, aeei?enoaiiyi oa aeio?eiaiiyi), noaae?e canoinoaaiiy
oiui. Aia?eeainuee? th?enoe ?icaeyaeathoue eaoaai??th i?aaicanoinoaaiiy
caeaa?eueoiai a ?? i?eeeaaeiiio, i?aeoe/iiio eiioaeno?. Eiaeiee c oeeo
i?aeoiae?a ia? nai? ia?aaaae. ?o ia ne?ae i?ioenoaaeyoe, aiie iathoue
aca?iiae?yoe, aeiiiaithaaoe oa caaaa/oaaoe iaeei iaeiiai.

C a?aooaaiiyi oai?aoe/iiai aei?iaeo a?o/eciyieo a/aieo (N.N.Aeaen??aa,
A.A.Eaca??aa, I.I.Iaaeaaeea, I.I.?aa?iiae/a, A.A.Oiaeueiai?) a
aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaaii aecia/aiiy canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc?
ioi?iie aeiae?eey ye aeaaeii? i?aai?caoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? niaoe?aeueii
oiiaiiaaaeaieo in?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeieiai-i?aaiaeo ii?i
ia?nii?o?eiaaieie noa`?eoaie, ui cae?enith?oueny o anoaiiaeaieo
i?ioeaaeo?ii-i?ioeanoaeueieo oi?iao. I?e oeueiio canoinoaaiiy i?aaa ia
iiaeia caiaeeoe eeoa aei aeaeaiiy aeo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa; oea a?eueo
neeaaeia yaeua, ui aeeth/a? iaoa??aeueii-i?aaia?, i?ioeanoaeuei?,
i?aai?caoe?ei?, ineoieia?/i? oa ?io? ca`ycee ? a?aeiineie.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeicaieea aeyaeoe ni?euei? iciaee eaoaai??e
“canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai i?aaa“ a oe?a?inuee?e i?aaia?e eiioeaioe?? oa
“Environmental Law Enforcement“ a aia?eeainueeiio i?aa? oa aeaa
iiaeeea?noue ?o ii??aiyiiy.

Ine?eueee iiiyooy i?aaicanoinoaaiiy oa i?aai?aae?caoe?? ae?aeaeoe/ii
iia`ycai? (aaoi? iiae?ey? iiaeyae i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy
canoinoaaiiy i?aaa ye ie?aii? i?aaiai? eaoaai???), o aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyaea?oueny ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a Oe?a?i? oa NOA.

I?aenoaaaie canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey ye a Oe?a?i?,
oae ? a NOA ?: 1) iaiiaeeea?noue o iaaieo aeiaaeeao aeei?enoaiiy
noa`?eoaie aeieia?/ieo a?aeiinei nai?o i?aa iica ae?yeuei?noth
eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a; 2) ii?ooaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, yea aeiaaa? i?eoyaiaiiy noa’?eo?a aei th?eaee/ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Niaoeeo?ea aeieia?/ieo a?aeiinei iieyaa? o oiio, ui
cae?enithaaoe i?aai niaoe?aeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy i?e?iaeieie ?ano?naie
(iai?eeeaae, i?aai aiaeiei?enooaaiiy) iiaeia eeoa c a?aeiia?aeiiai
aeicaieo eiiiaoaioiiai i?aaio; aoaeue-yea ae?yeuei?noue, ui iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia noai aeiae?eey, iiaeeeaa eeoa i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii?
aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece (ioe?iee aieeao ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua o NOA)
/e aeaea/? aeicaie?a ia aeeeaee, neeaee, iiaiaeaeaiiy c a?aeoiaeaie.
Oiio canoinoaaiiy i?aaa caeia? aaaeeeaa i?noea ye ia noaae?? aeieeiaiiy
i?aaia?aeiinei, oae ? ia noaae?? i?eoyaiaiiy aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
aeieia?/ia i?aaiii?ooaiiy.

I?aaicanoinoaaiiy ia?aaoaa? o o?niiio aca?iica`yceo c i?aaioai?/?noth.
Aoaeoeaiiio canoinoaaiith i?aeeyaathoue eeoa iiai?, yni? oa iaaeaicia/i?
i?aaia? ii?ie. Aiaeii/an o i?ioean? i?aaicanoinoaaiiy aeyaeythoueny ye
iaaeineiiae?noue i?aaiaeo ii?i, oae ? i?iaaeeie o caeiiiaeaanoa?, ui
noeioeth? i?ioeane i?aaioai?/ino?. Oiio cia/ia i?noea a ?iaio? caeia?
ii??aiyiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ui ?aaoeththoue aeieia?/i?
a?aeiineie a Oe?a?i? oa NOA.

I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy aeieia?/ieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? oa NOA
cae?enith?oueny oeyoii i?eeiyooy caeii?a oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeo?a. O NOA, e??i oiai, i?iaeiaaeothoue ae?yoe aeieo?eie oae caaiiai
“caaaeueiiai“ aai i?aoeaaeaioiiai i?aaa (Nommon Law).

Iiiaeaiiy oa ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?eiaaea? a
Oe?a?i? ia 90-o?, a o NOA — ia 70-o? ?iee, ii/eiath/e a?aeiia?aeii c
i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ioi?iio iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua” (1991) oa Caeiio NOA “I?i iaoe?iiaeueio aeieia?/io
iie?oeeo“ (“NEPA“, 1969). Iniiao aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa NOA
neeaaeathoue oaaea?aeuei? caeiie (o NOA ?niothoue oaeiae caeiie ooao?a,
ui ?aaoeththoue aeieia?/i? a?aeiineie), ye? ia iathoue aaoiiiiii?
?iei?ii?iaaii? oi?ie oa aeeth/athoueny o Ca?ae caeii?a NOA.

sseui aeey oe?a?inueeiai aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa?aeoa?ia aaeeea
e?euee?noue eiiieaenieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a (ui, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
? iiceoeaiei yaeuai), oi aia?eeainuee? caeiie a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, ca iaaaeeeei aeeeth/aiiyi, ioiieththoue eiie?aoi? noa?e
aca?iiae?? noni?euenoaa oa i?e?iaee (iai?eeeaae, Caeii i?i ioi?iio
cieeath/eo aeae?a (“ESA“), 1973 ?.).

Iniaeea?noth canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai i?aaa ? oe?iea eiei eiai
noa`?eo?a, ye? iathoue ??cio eiiiaoaioe?th, o oiio /ene? uiaei
cae?eniaiiy i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?. A Oe?a?i? oea i?aaie
I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii?
aaciaee, ?io? i?i?noa?noaa oa a?aeiinoaa, noaee oa ?io? i?aaiioi?iii?
i?aaie, i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??;
o NOA — Aaaionoai c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (Environmental
Protection Agence, A?A) i?e?iaeiioi?iii? aaaionoaa ooao?a, ??ciiiai?oi?
i?aaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, noaee. A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeoueny
eeaneo?eaoe?y aeaieo noa`?eo?a a?aeiia?aeii aei aeae?a i?aaicanoinia/i?
ae?yeueiino?. Iniiaieie oaeeie noa`?eoaie ca ianyaii ?o eiiiaoaioe?? o
noa??, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ? i?aaie I?iaeiaaciaee, A?A, oa noaee, oiio
iaiaaeaiee ianya ?iaioe aeicaiey? coieieoeny eeoa ia aiae?c?
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? naia oeeo i?aai?a.

Cia/io oaaao o ?iaio? i?eae?eaii i?iaeai? a?aeianaiiy a?iiaaeyi aei
eiea noa`?eo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oai??? i?aaa
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA, yea o iaaieo aeiaaeeao a?aeiineoue
a?iiaaeyi aei noa`?eo?a i?aaicanoinoaaiiy, th?eaee/ia aeieo?eia Oe?a?ie
ia aeicaiey? oeueiai c?iaeoe. I?ioa aei oaeeo noa`?eo?a iiaeia a?aeianoe
a?iiaaenueeeo ?iniaeoi??a ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua
(?inoeooo ia a?aeiiee caeiiiaeaanoao ? i?aeoeoe? NOA), ine?eueee aiie
iathoue aeaye? aeaaei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa cae?eniththoue iniiai? noaae??
i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?. A ?ioeo ie?aieo neooaoe?yo a?iiaaeyie
Oe?a?ie iiaeooue i?eeiaoe o/anoue o i?aaicanoinia/eo i?ioeanao.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “I?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a
I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA“
aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaiaiai noaoono oa ae?yeueiino?
aeaieo i?aai?a, aeine?aeaeothoueny ?o ooieoe??, iia`ycai? ?c
i?aaicanoinoaaiiyi.

A Oe?a?i? (o 1991 ?.) ? NOA (o 1970 ?.) aoee noai?ai? oeaio?aeuei?
niaoe?ae?ciaai? i?aaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ye? cina?aaeeee iniiai?
ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy o noa?? ioi?iie aeiae?eey — I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua Oe?a?ie (?ai?aai?ciaaia a 1995
?ioe? a I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa
yaea?ii? aaciaee ) oa Aaaionoai c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
NOA. I?aaiaee noaoon oeeo i?aai?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny: 1) eiiieaeniei
oi?aae?iiyi a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey; 2) iaa?aeianaiiyi ?o aei eiea
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?i?noa?noa oa a?aeiinoa; 3) a?aeiaaeoaaiiyi ooieoe?e
aea?aeaaiiai aeieia?/iiai eiio?ieth a?ae ea??aieoeoaa aenieoaoaoe??th
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. I?ioa a caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie a?eueo iine?aeiaii,
i?ae a caeiiiaeaanoa? NOA, ao?eaii i?eioeei ?aeeiiai ea??aieoeoaa
ioi?iiith aeiae?eey, yeee iaoiiaeaiee ?aei?noth ? aca?iiiia`ycai?noth
aeieia?/ieo nenoai oa i?eioeei iaaea?aeii/iai oa?aeoa?o ??oaiue i?aai?a
I?iaeiaaciaee (oi/a aeoaethaaiiy ie?aieo ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy c ?ioeie
i?i?noa?noaaie ? a?aeiinoaaie ua ia? i?noea).

O a?o/eciyiiio i?aaiciaanoa? iaa?oioiaaii aaaaea?oueny, ui
i?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue ia? aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueeo i?e?iaeo. Aea
ia aoaeue-yeo oi?aae?inueeo ae?yeuei?noue iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
i?aaicanoinia/o. Caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ui cae??ieththoue eiiiaoaioe?th
i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie oa Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua NOA, iaae?eythoue ?o oi?aae?inueeeie ooieoe?yie, ye?
eeaneo?eothoueny o ?iaioe ia eii?aeeiaoe?eio, ?aaoeyoeaio, aeica?eueio,
eiio?ieueio, aeieiai-i?ina?oio, iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eio, ?ioi?iaoe?eio.
Ine?eueee ae i?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeueiinoue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeieeiaiiyi, ci?iith /e i?eieiaiiyi i?aaia?aeiinei, anoaiiaeaiiyi aeey
ia?nii?o?eiaaieo noa`?eo?a i?aa ? iaia`yce?a aiane?aeie oaei?
ae?yeueiino?, oi ooieoe?yie, iia`ycaieie ?c i?aaicanoinoaaiiyi, ne?ae
aaaaeaoe eeoa aeica?eueio oa eiio?ieueio.

Aeica?eueio ooieoe?th i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie iiaeia ?icoi?oe o
oe?ieiio oa aocueeiio cia/aiiyo. O ia?oiio aei ia? iaeaaeeoue
i?aai?caoe?y i?iaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece, i?aaiaeie
iane?aeeaie yei? ? ?? aeniiaee ? ??oaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue
(iaiiaeeea?noue) ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo, ui cae?enith? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia
iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua. O ae?oaiio cia/aii? — aaciina?aaei?
iaaeaiiy i?aaiaie I?iaeiaaciaee aeicaie?a ia aeeeaee, neeaee
caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei o iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua, iiaiaeaeaiiy
c a?aeoiaeaie oa niaoe?aeueia i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy. Aeica?eueia ooieoe?y
Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA iieyaa? eeoa o
iaaeaii? aeicaie?a ia cae?eniaiiy ae?yeueiino?, ui aieeaa? ia noai
aeiae?eey, ine?eueee iaia`ycie i?iaaaeaiiy ioe?iee aieeao ia iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua (aiaeia aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece a Oe?a?i?) iieeaaea?oueny ia
ainiiaea?nueea i?i?noa?noai /e a?aeiinoai (ui, ia iaoo aeoieo, ia ?
aeioe?eueiei), A?A ae aeeiio? eeoa ooieoe?th io?oe?eiiai aenia?oa
i?iaeoo.

O ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny i?ioean iaaeaiiy aeicaie?a ia cae?eniaiiy
ae?yeueiino?, ui aieeaa? ia noai aeiae?eey a Oe?a?i? ? a NOA (ia
aeeeaee, neeaee caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei, iiaiaeaeaiiy c a?aeoiaeaie)
i?aaiaie I?iaeiaaciaee oa A?A, yeee a iaio e?a?iao aeineoue iiae?aiee,
ui aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe (aacoth/enue ia iiceoeaiiio aia?eeainueeiio
aeina?ae?) /eneaii? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iie?aoaiiy i?aaicanoinia/i?
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee o aeai?e noa??.

Aaaeeeaei ?inoeoooii o i?aeoeoe? i?iaaaeaiiy ioe?iee aieeao ia
iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua oa iaaeaiiy aeicaie?a ia cae?eniaiiy
ae?yeueiino?, ui aieeaa? ia noai aeiae?eey o NOA, ? o/anoue o aeaieo
i?ioeanao a?iiaaenueeino?. Oeae ?inoeooo ?aoaeueii ?icaeyaea?oueny o
aeine?aeaeaii?, ui aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe ?ic?iaeoe Iieiaeaiiy i?i
o/anoue a?iiaaenueeino? o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue, ui aieeaathoue ia noai
aeiae?eey. I?eeiyooy oaeiai aeoo ni?eyoeia oaeiae ?iieaiaioaoe?? a
oe?a?inueea caeiiiaeaanoai iieiaeaiue i?aeia?iaeii? eiiaaioe?? “I?i
aeinooi a?iiaaenueeino? aei ?ioi?iaoe??, o/anoue o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue oa
aeinooi aei i?aainoaeaey c ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny aeiae?eey“,
i?aeienaii? Oe?a?iith o /a?ai? 1998 ?.

O ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a
I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie oa Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
NOA i?e cae?eniaii? ieie eiio?ieueii? ooieoe??, aeathoueny iiiyooy
aeieia?/iiai eiio?ieth a Oe?a?i? oa NOA. Cacia/a?oueny, ui aeieia?/iee
eiio?ieue ia caiaeeoueny aei canoinoaaiiy aeieiai-i?aaiaeo ii?i, eiai
ci?no iaaaaaoi oe?oee.

Ni?eueiei aeey Oe?a?ie oa NOA ? oa, ui iniiai? i?e?iaeiioi?iii? i?aaie
oeeo aea?aeaa iathoue o nai?io neeaae? niaoe?aeuei? i?ae?icae?ee,
aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi yeeo ? canoinoaaiiy aeieiai-i?aaiaeo ii?i —
Aea?aeaaia aeieia?/ia ?iniaeoe?y (a Oe?a?i?) oa neoaeaa canoinoaaiiy
i?aaa oa iii?oi?eiao (o NOA). Iniiaieie oi?iaie ?o ae?yeueiino? ?
cae?eniaiiy ia?aa??ie (?iniaeoe?e) aeio?eiaiiy oa aeeiiaiiy aeieia?/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? iaeeaaeaiiy naieoe?e ca i?aaiii?ooaiiy.

I?aaicanoinia/? caoiaee i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie iiae?eythoueny ia
iiia?aaeaeoaaeuei?, caoiaee aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai noyaiaiiy oa
eiiiainaoe?ei?; Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua — ia
iiia?aaeaeoaaeuei? oa caoiaee aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aieeao; o ?iaio?
i?iaiaeeoueny ?o aiae?c oa ii??aiyiiy.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “I?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue noae?a Oe?a?ie oa NOA
a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey“ i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ieoaiue
noaeiaiai caoenoo aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi, ?icaeyaeo noaeaie
oeea?eueieo oa e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, iia`ycaieo ?c ioi?iiith aeiae?eey.

Ieoaiiy ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua aeaaii aaea ?
aeaiaioaie oe?a?inueei? oa aia?eeainueei? noaeiai? i?aeoeee. I?ioa a
Oe?a?i?, iacaaaeath/e ia oaiaeaioe?th c?inoaiiy aeieia?/ieo
i?aaiii?ooaiue, ieoiia aaaa aeieia?/ieo noaeiaeo ni?aa, ia a?aei?io a?ae
NOA, caeeoa?oueny aeoaea iacia/iith. I?e/eie, ia iaoo aeoieo, e?ethoueny
o ianeaiino? a?iiaaeyi, ye? ia a??youe o iiaeeeaino? noaeiaiai caoenoo
?o i?aa, iaaeinoaoiueiio ciaii? ieie ii?i aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, o
iaaaaeaii? i?aoe?aiee?a i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo i?aai?a aeiaiaeeoe ni?aao aei
noaeo (/anoeiai o ca`yceo ?c iaaeinoaoi?i ooaoii th?eno?a o oaeeo
no?oeoo?ao), o cae?eoo? i?iaaaeaeaiiy oe??? eaoaai??? ni?aa i?aaiaie
i?ieo?aoo?e ca oi?iaeueieie iciaeaie, o cacaeaeaa?aeue aeciai?e
iani?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoa eiiiainoaaoe iaoa??aeuei? caeoee,
caiiae?yi? aeieia?/ieie i?aaiii?ooaiiyie, o iaaeinoaoi?e ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
aeieia?/i? i?aaiii?ooaiiy oa ?i.

A inoaii? ?iee oa?aeoa? noaeiaeo ni?aa a aaeoc? ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? iinooiiai cacia? ci?i. Oiio aaoi?
oiiaii iiae?ey? i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey noaeaie Oe?a?ie (caaaeueii? th?enaeeeoe?? oa a?a?o?aaeieie) ia
o?aaeeoe?eio (?icaeyae ni?aa uiaei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caiiae?yii?
aea?aeaa? aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ?icaeyae
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa) oa iao?aaeeoe?eio (iia`ycaio ?c caoenoii
aeieia?/ieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi), ui eeoa ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny.

O aeena?oaoe?e i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c noaeiaeo iaoai?ci?a,
a Oe?a?i? oa NOA uiaei:

1) caoenoo i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia aacia/ia aeey aeeooy oa caei?ia`y
aeiae?eey (aecia/athoueny th?eaee/i? e?eoa??? oeueiai i?aaa, iniiaieie c
yeeo ? ii?iaoeae aeieia?/ii? aaciaee, eiai ianya oa iiaeeeaino?
noaeiaiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i?; caeiiiaeaanoai NOA oi/ aaciina?aaeiuei ia
cae??ieth? oeueiai i?aaa, i?ioa iaaea? cia/i? iiaeeeaino? a?iiaaeyiai
eiio?iethaaoe ae?yeuei?noue, yea iiaea ni?e/eieoe aeieia?/io iaaaciaeo,
oeyoii iiaeaiiy aei noaeo oae caaieo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aaicanoinia/eo
iicia?a — (citizen enforcement suits);

2) i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia iiaeaiiy aei noaeo iicia?a i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy
oeiaee, caiiae?yii? ?o caei?ia`th oa iaeio aiane?aeie iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
ia aeiae?eey (aiae?cothoueny oaeoi?e, ye? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe noaeai
Oe?a?ie i?e ?icaeyae? oaeeo nii??a, ?icaeyaeathoueny aeieo?eiaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy aeae?eoiiai i?aaa NOA, ye? ? th?eaee/ieie i?aenoaaaie
iiaeaiiy oaeeo aeae?a iicia?a — “onoiaiiy ia?aoeiae“, “i??i?eoao
ioae?/iiai i?aaa“, “iaaeiiouaiiy ia?aoeio iaae aeaniino?“, “noai?a
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue“ oa ?i.);

3) i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ii?aeueii? oeiaee, ni?e/eiaii?
aeieia?/iei i?aaiii?ooaiiyi (caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, ia aeeaey/enue ia
iaai? iaaeie?ee oa i?iaaeeie, ui e?eoeeothoueny aaoi?ii, aeaea?oueny ooo
a?eueo i?ia?aneaiei, i?ae o NOA, ine?eueee a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo
a?iiaaeyie ia iathoue iiaeeeaino? aeiaaaoe a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy “aiioe?eieo
?iceaae?a” (“ii?aeueii? oeiaee” ca oe?a?inueeith oa?i?iieia?th), yeui
aiie ia ciiaeooue aeiaanoe, ui oae? ?iceaaee i?ecaaee aei iia??oaiiy ?o
caei?ia`y);

4) caoenoo i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia a?eueiee aeinooi aei ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai
aeiae?eey (ia a?aei?io a?ae NOA noaeiaa i?aeoeea caoenoo oeueiai i?aaa
a Oe?a?i? ua ia noi?ioaaeanue, iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aianaiiy
ci?i a caeiiiaeaa/a ?aaoethaaiiy aeieia?/ieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeiinei);

5) i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia inea?aeaiiy a noae? ??oaiue, ae?e /e
aacae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, aeciaiiy iaae?enieie ?o aeo?a, ui
ii?ooothoue aeieia?/i? i?aaa (noaee a Oe?a?i? iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoe aeaio
eaoaai??th iicia?a ye a aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio, oae ? o iiciaiiio
i?iaaaeaeaii?, iaaiaeeoueny i?aeoeea ?icaeyaeo oaeeo nii??a a Oe?a?i? oa
a NOA).

I?aeoeea ?icaeyaeo a noaeao Oe?a?ie oeea?eueieo ni?aa, iia`ycaieo ?c
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi oeiaee, caaaeaii? aea?aeaa? aiane?aeie ii?ooaiiy
aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, noaea aaea o?aaeeoe?eiith. Oey oaiaoeea
aeinoaoiuei aena?oeaia o a?o/eciyi?e aeieiai-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo??. Oiio
ii?yae ?c ?icaeyaeii iniaeeainoae oe??? eaoaai??? nii??a, aiae?cii
iaaeie?e?a i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino? noae?a i?e ?o ?icaeyae?,
coiiaeaieo ieceith ia`?eoeaieo oa noa`?eoeaieo oaeoi??a
(iaaeineiiae?noue ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee oa oaen, neeaaei?noue aeiaaaeaiiy
i?e/eiiaiai ca`yceo i?ae oaeoii caa?oaeiaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noth iaaiiai
noa`?eoa oa ?i.), aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny a?aeiia?aeiiio aeina?aeo
Niieo/aieo Ooao?a.

?icaeyaeath/e oeea?euei? ni?aae i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, ni?e/eiaii?
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeuo, noaee NOA iaeeaaeathoue ia aeiio iniao
oeea?euei? oo?aoe (ye? ca?aoiaothoueny aei aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo), a
oaeiae, ye i?aaeei, aeiinyoue noaeia? iaeace, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue
ianoaiiy iaaieo iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a aeey i?aaiii?ooieea (“ia?aeaeuei?
iane?aeee“), ye, iai?eeeaae, iicaaaeaiiy i?aaa oeeaaeaoe oaiaee ?c
oaaea?aeueiei o?yaeii, cae?eooy i?aei?e?inoaa oa ?i. (ia a?aei?io a?ae
oe?a?inueei? i?aeoeee, aea noaee, iath/e iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeiineoe ie?ai?
ooaaee o ?ac? aeyaeaieo ii?ooaiue, aeineoue /anoi iaooothoue oeei).
Oo?aoe a NOA iathoue ye eiiiainaoe?eiee, oae ? ea?aeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Noaee NOA i?e aecia/aii? noie oo?aoo aa?ooue aei oaaae: 1) aaee/eio
io?eiaii? a?aeiia?aea/ai aeiiii?/ii? aeaiaee a?ae a/eiaiiy aeieia?/iiai
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, yea ia iiaea aooe a?eueoith a?ae iaeeaaeaiiai oo?aoo –
“eiiiiiaio aeaiaee”; 2) oa?aeoa? nei?iiai i?aaiii?ooaiiy -«eiiiiiaio
oyaeeino?»; 3) noa`?eoeaio noi?iio i?aaiii?ooaiiy, cie?aia, oi?io aeie
i?aaiii?ooieea (oienae /e iaiaa?aaei?noue); 4) iiia?aaei? aeio?eiaiiy /e
iaaeio?eiaiiy (aeeiiaiiy /e iaaeeiiaiiy) caeiiiaeaanoaa; 5) o?iainia?
iiaeeeaino? i?aaiii?ooieea nieaoeoe oo?ao; 6) nooi?iue ni?ai?aoe?
(aca?iiae??) i?aaiii?ooieea ?c i?aaiioi?iiieie oa i?e?iaeiioi?iiieie
i?aaiaie. A?eueo?noue aeieia?/ieo caeii?a NOA ai?uothoue ua e iieiaeaiiy
i?i oa, ui, noia oo?aoo iiaeiia eiiiainoaaoe iaaaoeai? iane?aeee, ye?
noaeeny /e iiaeooue noaoeny aiane?aeie i?aaiii?ooaiiy.

O NOA ?niothoue I?aaeea ioe?iee oeiaee, caaaeaii? i?e?iaeiei ?ano?nai,
ye? aacothoueny ia aeae?eueeio e?eoa??yo — «a?aeiiaethaaeueieo
caoiae?a», “niiaeea/i? aa?oino?“, “ianiiaeea/i? aa?oino?“ (?o ci?no
?ice?eaa?oueny a ?iaio?). Ia a?aei?io a?ae noaeae?a Oe?a?ie, ye? iiaeii?
/?oei aeio?eioaaoenue ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee ? oaen, noaeae? NOA,
ae??ooth/e ni?aao, naiino?eii aecia/athoue, ye? ?c e?eoa???a o?aaa
canoinoaaoe aei eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai aeiaaeeo.

Aea/ath/e i?aeoeeo canoinoaaiiy noaeaie e?ei?iaeueieo naieoe?e ca
aeieia?/i? cei/eie a Oe?a?i? oa a NOA, aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo,
ui ia a?aei?io a?ae Niieo/aieo Ooao?a a Oe?a?i? ia aeieeaaea?oueny
aeinoaoi?o coneeue o ai?iouea? c aeieia?/ieie cei/eiaie, aaaaoi c yeeo
caeeoathoueny eaoaioieie.

Aaeaeaaoia noaeiaa i?aeoeea o e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aaao a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey, ui a?aeiia?aea? iayaiiio a aea?aeaa? noaio aeieia?/ii?
cei/eiiino?, i?aaeeuei?noue aeianaieo noaeii ae?ie?a ia?aaoaa? o
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeeo oaeoi??a ye: 1) ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa iniiaa
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aeieia?/i? cei/eie (aaoi?
i?iaiaeeoue aiae?c oa e?eoe/io ioe?ieo EE Oe?a?ie, i?iaeoo EE Oe?a?ie,
aeieia?/ieo caeii?a NOA uiaei ?aaeaiaioaoe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
aeieia?/i? cei/eie); 2) aeei?enoaiiy noaeaie i?ioeanoaeueieo iaoai?ci?a
o i?ioean? ?icaeyaeo aeieia?/ieo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa (a?aecia/athoueny
iaaeie?ee a ?o aeei?enoaii?, ye? i?eoaiaii? ye Oe?a?i? oae ? NOA); 3)
i?aai?caoe?y iiia?aaeiueiai ne?aenoaa (a Oe?a?i?, ia a?aei?io a?ae NOA
naia iaiaeaaeia ?icne?aeoaaiiy aeieia?/ieo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa ?
iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei ?o eaoaioiino?); 4) aeieiai-i?aaiaa
na?aeii?noue i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a oiui.

O ?iaio? aenoioo? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? noae?a
i?e ?icaeyae? ieie ni?aa, iia`ycaieo c ioi?iiith aeiae?eey.

Aeniiaee

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy caaa?oothoue aeniiaee, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny i?aeoe/ieie i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aaicanoinia/i? i?aeoeee a Oe?a?i? c
o?aooaaiiyi e?auiai na?oiaiai aeina?aeo, cie?aia aia?eeainueeiai, a
oaeiae iinoaiiaeith aeayeeo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai, ui iio?aaothoue aeeaieiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaieie aeniiaeaie ? ianooii?:

1. A Oe?a?i? noai?aii a oe?eiio aeineoue ?icaeiaio nenoaio aeieia?/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Oi/ i?ioean ?icaeoeo oe??? nenoaie ia coieieany, ?nio?
iaiao?aei?noue ?? iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. Oiio ia ia?oee ieai
aenooia? i?iaeaia aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy aeieiai-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui ?
iaeiei c iniiaieo ?ino?oiaio?a o aeinyaiaii? iaeaaeiiai aaeaino i?ae
noni?euenoaii ? i?e?iaeith. I?e oeueiio caneoaiao? ia oaaao aea/aiiy oa
oai?/a caiice/aiiy aaeeeiai aeina?aeo Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee a oe?e
noa??.

2. Aeecueeei aei iiiyooy “canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie
aeiae?eey” a Oe?a?i? ? iiiyooy “Environmental Law Enforcement“ a
aia?eeainuee?e i?aaia?e aeieo?ei?; a iaio aeiaaeeao oea: a) i?ioean
uiaei caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeieiai-i?aaiaeo ii?i; a) aeaaeia
ae?yeuei?noue a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey eiiiaoaioieo noa`?eo?a, a ia?oo
/a?ao, aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a; a) ae?yeuei?noue, ui ni?yiiaaia ia
ae??oaiiy eiie?aoii? aeeoo?ai? neooaoe??.

3. I?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue a Oe?a?i? ? a NOA oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aaeeeei eieii ?? noa`?eo?a, na?aae yeeo iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue
i?aaiai I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa
yaea?ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua NOA, a oaeiae noaeai. Aia?eeainueea aeieiai-i?aaiaa
aeieo?eia a?aeiineoue aei noa`?eo?a canoinoaaiiy i?aaa ? a?iiaaeyi (o
ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiii aeiaaeeao); ca oe?a?inueeith oai???th a?iiaaeyie,
ia iaae?eai? aeaaeieie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie, ia iiaeooue aooe noa`?eoaie
i?aaicanoinoaaiiy, aea caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie iaaea? ?i iaai?
iiaeeeaino? a?aoe o/anoue o i?aaicanoinia/eo i?ioeanao.

4. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?aaicanoinia/i? i?aeoeee i?aai?a
I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie i?e iaaeaii? aeicaie?a ia cae?eniaiiy
ae?yeueiino?, ui aieeaa? ia noai aeiae?eey, iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ieceo
i?iaeai, cie?aia: e?ea?aeoaaoe ?nioth/? i?iaaeeie o caeiiiaeaanoa?
(i?eeiyoe ii?iaoeae aeieia?/ii? aaciaee; ?ic?iaeoe ii?yaeie iaaeaiiy
aeicaie?a ia aeei?enoaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y ye ne?iaeie iniiaiiai
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy; ?ic?iaeoe ii?yaeie oa ?ino?oeoe?th uiaei
iiaiaeaeaiiy c a?aeoiaeaie, ui ia ? ?aae?iaeoeaieie oa io?oeieie
?a/iaeiaie); iaaeaoe i?aai i?aaiai I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie o i?ioean?
iaaeaiiy aeicaie?a aeiaaaoe ia eeoa ?ioi?iaoe?th, ui ia?aaeaa/aia
a?aeiia?aeiith ?ino?oeoe??th, aea e ?io? a?aeiiino?, yeui aiie ?
iaiao?aeieie aeey ae?iaeaiiy oiia aeicaieo; cai?iaaaeeoe i?e iaaeaii?
aeicaie?a ?aoaeueiee aiae?c iiia?aaeaeaiiy caa?oaeiaiiy ia an?o noaae?yo
ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano oa iineeeoe eiio?ieue ca aeinyaiaiiyi i?ii?aeieo
oa?i?i?a aeicaieaieo aaee/ei caa?oaeiaiiy; a?aaoethaaoe a aaeocaaiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? eiei noa`?eo?a, i?ioeaaeo?o, oa?i?ie inea?aeaiiy ??oaiue
i?i iaaeaiiy aeicaie?a ia cae?eniaiiy ae?yeueiino?, ui aieeaa? ia noai
aeiae?eey.

5. Iie?auaiith ?iniaeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie
ni?eyoeia: i?eeiyooy ?ino?oeoe?? i?i i?iaaaeaiiy ?iniaeoe?e (a ye?e
aecia/eoe ?o ii?yaeie, ia??iaee/i?noue, i?ioeaaeo?o i?iaaaeaiiy);
?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?aeoeee i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo ?iniaeoe?e ?c
caeo/aiiyi th?eno?a; anoaiiaeaiiy iaia`yceo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
?a?no?aoe?? i?aei?e?inoa iaaeneeaoe aei i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie
ia?ae?e iiainoai?aieo i?aei?e?inoa ?c cacia/aiiyi ?o noaoooieo
caaaeaiue; i?iaaaeaiiy o?ai?iaiaeo i?ia?ai aeey aea?aeaaieo ?iniaeoi??a
c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua; ca?eueoaiiy ooaoo
th?eneiinoeueo?a.

6. Aeoeaiiio caeo/aiith a?iiaaenueeino? aei i?aaicanoinia/eo i?ioean?a
a Oe?a?i? ni?eyoeia: aaaaeaiiy iaia`yceo i?aai?a I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie
ioae?eoaaoe a caniaao ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia?ae?e i?iaeo?a, ui iaae?eoee
ia aea?aeaaio aeieia?/io aenia?oeco; ?ic?iaea Iieiaeaiiy i?i o/anoue
a?iiaaenueeino? o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue, ui aieeaathoue ia noai aeiae?eey
(?c aecia/aiiyi o iueiio i?ioeaaeo?e iia?aeiieaiue a?iiaaenueeino? i?i
iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeo?a, ui cae?eniththoue aieea ia aeiae?eey,
iaia`yceo oiiaiiaaaeaieo noa`?eo?a iaaeaaaoe eiiaioa?? aei an?o
caoaaaeaiue a?iiaaenueeino?, ui iaae?eoee o i?ioean? iaaiai?aiiy
i?iaeoo, ?iia?aoeaiino? oa ii?yaeeo i?iaaaeaiiy a?iiaaenueeeo neooaiue a
i?ioean? aeieia?/ii? aenia?oece oiui); iineeaiiy aeieiai-i?aaiai? ina?oe
a?iiaaeyi.

7. Aoaeoeai?noue noaeiaiai ?icaeyaeo aeieia?/ieo oeea?eueieo oa
e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa iiaea aooe caaacia/aia: aaeineiiaeaiiyi Iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo ?ici???a a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeoe?a, caiiae?yieo aea?aeaa? a
?acoeueoao? iaaeii?iaoeaieo aeeeae?a caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei a
aoiinoa?ia iia?o?y; ?ic?iaeith iaoiaeeee a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee,
caiiae?yii? iaae?ai; ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o i?aeoeeo Iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy
?ici???a oeiaee, coiiaeaii? caa?oaeiaiiyi ? cani?/aiiyi caiaeueieo
?ano?n?a /a?ac ii?ooaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa; aeianaiiyi o
iaiao?aeieo aeiaaeeao ooaae uiaei caaacia/aiiy iicia?a oeyoii caai?iie
aoaeue-yei? ae?yeueiino?, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia noai aeiae?eey aei
ae??oaiiy nii?o; canoinoaaiiyi aei in?a, ye? a/eieee aeieia?/i? cei/eie
ia eeoa iniiaieo, aea e aeiaeaoeiaeo caoiae?a iiea?aiiy; i?aeaeuaiiyi
yeino? ?icne?aeoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey;
aaeineiiaeaiiyi nenoaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aeieia?/i?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, cie?aia ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi naieoe?e ca aeieia?/i?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy o aaeocaaa aeieia?/ia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie,
aeiiiaiaiiyi ia?ae?eo noa`?eo?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
th?eaee/ieie iniaaie.

8. Aeey onoiaiiy ia?aoeiae ia oeyoo noaeiaiai caoenoo aeieia?/ieo i?aa
a?iiaaeyi oa ?o ia`?aeiaiue ne?ae iaaeaoe ia?oei ? ae?oaei i?aai
caa?oaoeny aei noaeo ?c iiciaaie i?i i?eieiaiiy aeieia?/ii iaaacia/ii?
ae?yeueiino?; cae??ieoe a aaeocaaiio aeieia?/iiio caeiiiaeaanoa? i?aai
ia a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ii?aeueii? oeiaee, ni?e/eiaii? aeieia?/iei
i?aaiii?ooaiiyi; aeaoe ?ic`yniaiiy noaeai i?i caoe?eaaeai?noue o ni?aa?
a?iiaaeyi /e a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e i?e ?o caa?iaii? ?c iiciaaie i?i
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caaaeaii? aeiae?eeth, ine?eueee oae?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy iinyaathoue ia ?o i?aai ia aeieia?/ii aacia/ia aeiae?eey;
?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caiiae?yii? caei?ia`th
a?iiaaeyi aiane?aeie iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia aeiae?eey; ca?eueieoe a?ae
aea?aeaaiiai ieoa a?iiaaeyi oa a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, ye?
caa?oathoueny aei noaeo ?c ni?aaaie, iia`ycaieie c ioi?iiith aeiae?eey,
ae?th/e a a?iiaaenueeeo ?ioa?anao.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oonoaiianueea ?. Canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa o NOA //
I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 102-105;

2. Oonoaiianueea ?.A. Canoinoaaiiy aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?aaiaie
I?iaeiaaciaee Oe?a?ie // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie: Ca. iaoe. noaoae aeeeaaea/?a th?eaee/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo. — Aeione 2. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1998. — N.116-126.

3.Oonoaiianueea ?. TH?eaee/ia i?e?iaea oo?ao?a ca aeieia?/i?
i?aaiii?ooaiiy o NOA // I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa
ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee III ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. —
Euea?a. — 1997. — N.209-215;

4. Dmytro Skrylnikov, Iryna Tustanovska. Doors to Democracy. Current
Trends and Practices in Public Participation in Environmental
Decisionmaking in the Newly Independent States. — Chapter 5: Ukraine. —
Regional Environmental Center, Hungary, June, 1998. — P.135-165;

5. Oonoaiianueea ?. Eoaee caa?oaoeny aeey ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai
/ Aeieia?/i? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi: ye ?o caoenoeoe ca aeiiiiiaith caeiio. —
E.: “Yoi-Ainoie“, 1997. — N.115-124.

6. Oonoaiianueea ?. I?aai a?iiaaeyi ia aeieia?/ii aacia/ia iaaeieeoi?
i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua oa eiai noaeiaee caoeno // Iaeaooia i?aaiai?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie. I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y iieiaeeo
th?eno?a. E. — 1996. — N.47-48;

7. Irina Tustanovska. Use your public rights // Policy Matters. — N 3.
— December 1996. P.3-5;

8. Oonoaiianueea ?. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eiaeeo?eaoe?? aeieia?/iiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie oa NOA // Noai eiaeeo?eaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a
Oe?a?i?: nenoaii?oue, i??i?eoaoe, oi?o?eaoe?y. — III Anaoe?a?nueea
eiioa?aioe?y. — E. — 1995. — N.83-84;

9. Oonoaiianueea ?. I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy o/ano? a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e o noa?? caoenoo i?aaa a?iiaaeyi ia aeieia?/ii aacia/ia
iaaeieeoi? i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? oa NOA (ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c)
// I?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? caoenoo i?aa ethaeeie a Oe?a?i?.
Iaoa??aee ? ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Euea?a. — 1995. —
N.97-99.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oonoaiianueea ?.A. Canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a
Oe?a?i? oa NOA (ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.06 — caiaeueia i?aai; aa?a?ia i?aai;
aeieia?/ia i?aai; i?e?iaei?ano?niaa i?aai. — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny oa ii??aiththoueny iiiyooy
canoinoaaiiy i?aaa a aaeoc? ioi?iie aeiae?eey a oe?a?inuee?e oa
aia?eeainuee?e i?aaia?e eiioeaioe??, aecia/a?oueny eiei eiai noa`?eo?a,
aiae?co?oueny i?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?a I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa yaea?ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie oa
Aaaionoaa c ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua NOA, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue
noaeiaeo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie oa NOA o noa?? ioi?iie aeiae?eey,
i?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeoeaiiai caeo/aiiy a?iiaaenueeino? o
i?aaicanoinia/? i?ioeane. Oi?ioeththoueny /eneaii? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai aeieia?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa i?aeoeee
eiai canoinoaaiiy c a?aooaaiiyi aia?eeainueeiai aeina?aeo o oe?e noa??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: canoinoaaiiy i?aaa, i?aaicanoinia/a ae?yeuei?noue,
ioi?iia aeiae?eey, aeieia?/ia caeiiiaeaanoai, aeieia?/i? i?aaa
a?iiaaeyi.

Aiiioaoeey

Oonoaiianeay E.A. I?eiaiaiea i?aaa a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
a Oe?aeia e NOA (n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.06 — caiaeueiia i?aai; aa?a?iia i?aai;
yeieiae/aneia i?aai; i?e?iaei?ano?niia i?aai. — Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony e n?aaieaathony iiiyoey i?eiaiaiey i?aaa
a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a oe?aeineie e aia?eeaineie
i?aaiaie eiioeaioeee, ii?aaeaeyaony e?oa aai noauaeoia, aiaeece?oaony
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia Ieienoa?noaa io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu e yaea?iie aaciianiinoe Oe?aeiu e
Aaainoaa ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu NOA, ?ane?uaaaony ?ieue noaeaaiuo
i?aaiia Oe?aeiu e NOA a noa?a io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu,
iiae/a?eeaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeoeaiiai aiaea/aiey iauanoaaiiinoe a
i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiua i?ioeannu. Oi?ioee?othony iiiai/eneaiiua
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth yeieiae/aneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
Oe?aeiu e i?aeoeee aai i?eiaiaiey n o/aoii aia?eeaineiai iiuoa a aeaiiie
noa?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?eiaiaiea i?aaa, i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, io?aia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu, yeieiae/aneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, yeieiae/aneea i?aaa a?aaeaeai.

Annotation

Tustanovska I.V. Environmental Enforcement in Ukraine and the USA (the
Comparative Analysis). — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences
with specialisation in 12.00.06 — Land Law; Agrarian Law; Environmental
Law; Natural Resource Law. — Ivan Franko Lviv State University, Lviv,
1998.

The dissertation study and compare the notions of environmental law
enforcement in Ukrainian and American legal concepts, determines its
subjects, analyse environmental enforcement practice of the Ministry of
Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of the Ukraine and
Environment Protection Agency of the USA, describes the role of the
judicial bodies of Ukraine and the USA in the sphere of environmental
protection, underlines the importance of active public involvement in
law enforcement activities. As the conclusion the thesis brings many
suggestions concerning the improvement of Ukrainian environmental
legislation and its enforcement taking into consideration the American
experience gained in this sphere.

Key words: law enforcement, law enforcement activity, environmental
protection, environmental legislation, environmental citizen`s rights.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 20.11.98. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ae?oe. ?1

Ae?oe. ??cia?ao?y. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1.2. Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1.2.
Oiiai.-oa?a.a?aea. 1.2. Oe?aae 100. Cai 1805.

AEI “AIN”. 290035 Euea?a, aoe. Eeiiaa aeay, 9.

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