IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

NAOIAIEI AIEIAeEIE? AAAeEIIAE*

OAeE 632.9.118.3/477.42/

CANOINOAAIIss IIAEO IANOEOeEAe?A A ?IOAA?IAAI?E NENOAI? CAOENOO ICEII?
IOAIEOe? A?Ae IAEA?EUeO IIOE?AIEO CAOAeIEE?A OAI?IA A OIIAAO
I?AAIAA?AAEIIAI E?NINOAIO OA IIE?NNss OE?A?IE

06.01.11 — o?oiiaoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? caoenoo ?ineei OAAI.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeaaeai?e OAAI, aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
IA?ANEIE?I Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?oiiaoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

IIEIAEAIAOeUe A?eoi? Ieoaeeiae/,

Aea?aeaaia aa?iaeieia?/ia aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e naeaeoe?? ?
o?oiiaaeeoeeie

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

EIAAEEOEIA Aaiia Ieeiea?aia,

Ie?ii?anueeee ?inoeooo ioaieoe? ?i.A.I.?aian-ea OAAI, caa?aeoth/a
a?aeae?eii caoenoo ?ineei

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo caiea?ianoaa OAAI, nio. *aaaie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 18 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 15,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ? 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041, i.Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a
Iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iaiaeaeoe A.?.10

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A Oe?a?i? iceia ioaieoey ? iniiaiith
i?iaeiaieue/ith eoeueoo?ith, yea a no?oeoo?? ca?iiaeo caeia? aeecueei
50% ieiu ? caaacia/o? iiiaae iieiaeie aaeiaiai cai?o ca?ia. Ae?iaieoeoai
ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe? noaiiaeoue o noaiia?e cii? — 50, e?ninoaiia?e — 35
oa iie?nuee?e — 15 a?aenioe?a. Iioaioe?aeuei? iiaeeeaino? oe???
eoeueoo?e aeoaea aenie? — 50 ? a?eueoa oeaioia??a ca?ia c aaeoa?a
(E.A.AEeaioeia, 1989).

Iaeii/anii aeei?enoiaoth/e aenieii?iaeoeoeai? ni?oe oa ?ioaineaio
oaoiieia?th ?o ae?iuoaaiiy, ainiiaea?noaa ui??/ii ao?a/athoue iiiaae 30%
a?iaeath a?ae o?aaeaiiy iceii? ioaieoe? oai?iaaie, iioeiaeaeaiiy
oe?aeieeaie, a oaeiae ?c-ca caao?’yiaiino? (A.O.Ia?aneie?i, 1979; 1987;
1991; A.I.Aaneeue?a, I.I.E?niaee, ?.A.Aanaeianueeee, 1993; E.?.Aoaeee,
A.?.Aana/ei, A.I.Aaneeue?a oa ?i., 1999).

A ?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai? caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo
aeaiaio?a ? canoinoaaiiy iiaeo o?i?/ieo i?aia?ao?a: ooia?oeeae?a,
?inaeoeoeeae?a, aa?a?oeeae?a. Oiio iiooe, aea/aiiy oa canoinoaaiiy a
?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai? caoenoo iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo i?aia?ao?a ?
aeooaeueiei ? ia? ia?oi/a?aiaa cia/aiiy aeey ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa
ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe?.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue
a?aeae?eo caoenoo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ?inoeoooo caoenoo ?ineei OAAI
“Caoeno ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?” iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie
“I?iaeiaieuenoai-95”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 01.08.0.046818.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?ioaa?iaaii? nenoaie caoenoo iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae
iaea?eueo iioe?aieo oai?ia, a oaeiae o?oioaa?a ? ao?’yi?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo i?aia?ao?a a oiiaao I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio oa
Iie?nny Oe?a?ie c iaoith caaacia/aiiy i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeath oa yeino?
ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ia?aaeaa/aeinue:

— aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue oa oaoiieia?th canoinoaaiiy i?io?oeiee?a ian?iiy
iaenei, 2,5 o.e.n.; aeea?aeaiae, 3% o.e.n.; i?iiao, 40% ie.n., a oaeiae
ooia?oeeaeo o?eo-i?ai?oi, 37,5% c.i.; noi?o? ooia?oeeae?a (o?eo +
aeueoi); aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n, 18% c.i.;

— aecia/eoe aieea ia?a?aoiaaieo i?aia?ao?a ia ??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineei,
a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane a ?ineeiao, o?iaeae oa ye?noue ca?ia iceii?
ioaieoe?;

— aeaoe aeieia?/io oa aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo iioeiaeueieo ii?i aeo?aoe
i?aia?ao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa a oiiaao
I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio oa Iie?nny Oe?a?ie aea/aii ae?th
i?aia?ao?a-i?io?oeiee?a — iaenei, aeea?aeaiae; ?inaeoeoeeaeo i?iiao,
ooia?oeeaeo o?eo-i?ai?oi, noi?o? ooia?oeeae?a oa aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n ia
?icaeoie ? ?iciiiaeaiiy eiiieaeno i?aai?ci?a, ??no ? ?icaeoie iceii?
ioaieoe?, a?io?i?/i? i?ioeane a ?ineeiao, o?iaeae ? ye?noue ca?ia oa ?o
aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue.

Oaeineiiaeaia oaoiieia?y canoinoaaiiy noi?o? ooia?oeeae?a (o?eo +
aeueoi) i?ioe eiiieaeno oai?ia iceii? ioaieoe?, ui iioei?co? o?i?/iee
caoeno eoeueoo?e a ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath.

Ooi/iaia nenoaia caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae iaea?eueo iioe?aieo
caoaeiee?a oai?ia o ?aa?ii? aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeei?enoaiiy noeoiiino? ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue caaacia/o?
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae eiiieaeno oe?aeeeaeo
i?aai?ci?a, ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ye /a?ac ian?iiy, oae ? a ia??iae
aaaaoaoe?? ?ineei.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue
canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaieo ii?i aeo?aoe iiaeo i?aia?ao?a, ye? aeinoia??ii
iioei?cothoue oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia
oa ?ioeo oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a. Eiiieaenia canoinoaaiiy i?io?oeiee?a
iaenei, 2,5% o.e.n., i?iiao, 40% ie.n., a oaeiae ooia?oeeaeo
o?eo-i?ai?oi, 37,5% c.i. oa aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n, 18% c.i. iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai uiaei ioi?iie aeiae?eey ii??aiyii c ?ioeie
nenoaiaie caoenoo ?ineei.

Canoinoaaiiy iiaeo i?aia?ao?a aeey caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae
eiiieaeno oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a caaacia/o? caa?aaeaiiy aei 11,6 oe/aa
ca?ia aeniei? yeino?, aeiiii?/iee aoaeo — 144,9 a?i./aa.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii? “Ia?ae?eo
ianoeoeeae?a ? aa?io?i?eao?a, aeicaieaieo aei aeei?enoaiiy a Oe?a?i?”,
1996 ??e.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?ieoee oe?ieo ae?iaie/o ia?aa??eo oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ainiiaea?noaao I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio ? Iie?nny
Oe?a?ie: ooia?oeeae o?eo-i?ai?oi — ia 47 oen. aa; ?inaeoeoeeaeiee
i?aia?ao i?iiao — ia 2,5 oen. aa; aa?a?oeeae nao?n — ia 8,4 oen. aa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia aaoi?ii
naiino?eii. Ieaioaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
o?i?/ieo cania?a caoenoo ?ineei, iae?ee, niinoa?aaeaiiy, iaoaiaoe/ia
ia?iaea iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeeiiai? aeena?oaioii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 ??.),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao ia’?aeiaiiy “Oe?aa?io?i” (1994, 1995, 1996,
1997, 1998 ??.). Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa iaaiai?aia oa noaaeaia ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo caoenoo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ?inoeoooo
caoenoo ?ineei o 1999 ?ioe?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 165
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a c ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie ae?iaieoeoao, aeeth/a? 53
oaaeeoe? a oaeno? oa 18 oaaeeoeue a aeiaeaoeao, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ?c 156 iaeiaioaaiue, o oiio /ene? ?iicaiieo aaoi??a — 48.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

IAEssAe E?OA?AOO?IEO AeAEA?AE

Iiaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue ?ioaa?iaaiiai caoenoo
iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia. O ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai?
oai?iae, iniaeeaino? ?iciiiaeaiiy eiiieaeno oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a o
iin?aao iceii? ioaieoe?, no/ania nenoaia caoenoo ?? a?ae oai?ia oa
aa?iaeieia?/i? aniaeoe canoinoaaiiy iiaeo ianoeoeeae?a.

OIIAE OA IAOIAeEEE I?IAAAeAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iaoai?ieia?/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae

Iieueia? aeine?aee ?c caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia i?iaiaeeee a
1986-1988 ??. o eieaini? ?i. OO?V c’?caeo EI?N Aiaoneaanueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano?; noaoe?iia?ii-ae?iaie/? aeine?aee uiaei caoenoo
iin?a?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a, oai?ia oa ao?’yi?a — o 1992-1997 ??. ia
Aa?iiii?/i?e aeine?aei?e noaioe?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? oa a aeine?aeiiio
ainiiaea?noa? ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Iie?nny; eaai?aoi?i?
aiae?ce ?ineei ? a?oioo — a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? oa
eaai?aoi??yo ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa Iie?nny.

Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee o ??ci? ca iaoai?ieia?/ieie oiiaaie ?iee, ui aoee
ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ae?iuoaaiiy iceii? ioaieoe?.

Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Aeine?aee ?c caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? caeeaaeaee ca?aeii c “Iaoiaeeeaie
i?iaaaeaiiy iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a ?c ca?iiaeie eoeueoo?aie” (1968, 1992).
sse o E?ninoaiia?e, oae ? a Iie?nuee?e ciiao o aeine?aeao ae?iuoaaee
iceio ioaieoeth ni?oo Ie?ii?anueea 61, yeee ? na?aaeiueino?eeei aei
oai?ia. Ioaieoeth n?yee ian?iiyi ia?oiai eeano. An? ?iaioe aeeiioaaee
ca?aeii aeiia ?ioaineaii? oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo?e. Ia?iaeo
ian?iiy oa iin?a?a i?aia?aoaie i?iaiaeeee ca?aeii noai aeine?ae?a.
O?iaeae cae?aee eiiaaeiii “Naiii”.

O iieueiaeo oa eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aeeiioaaee oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aieea i?io?oeieea iaenei 025, 2,5% o.e.n. ia ?icaeoie ei?aiaaeo
aieeae iceii? ioaieoe?, a?iaeae ? ye?noue ca?ia. I?e oeueiio aea/aee
ii?ie canoinoaaiiy i?aia?aoo — 1,5, 2,0, 2,5 e ia 1 o ian?iiy ii??aiyii
c eiio?ieai (aac ia?iaee) oa aoaeiiii — ooiaeacie (aaiii?e), 50% c.i., 3
ea/o.

2. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?io?oeieea aeea?aeaiae 030 i?ioe
ei?aiaaeo aieeae iceii? ioaieoe?, eiai aieea ia a?iaeae ? ye?noue ca?ia
aeine?aeaeoaaee ca oaeith ae noaiith, ye ? i?aia?aoo iaenei.

3. Aieea ooia?oeeaeo o?eo-i?ai?oi ia ?icaeoie oai?ia iceii? ioaieoe?,
a?iaeae ? ye?noue ca?ia, aea ii??aithaaeenue ii?ie aeo?aoe — 0,25, 0,33
oa 0,5 ea/aa c eiio?ieueiei aa??aioii (aac ia?iaee), aoaeiiii —
ooiaeacieii (aaiii?eii), 0,5 ea/aa oa noaiaea?oii — o?eoii, 25% e.a.,
0,5 e/aa.

4. Aoaeoeai?noue ia?iaee iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? noi?ooth ooia?oeeaeieo
i?aia?ao?a ia ?icaeoie oai?ia, o?iaeae oa ye?noue ca?ia, aea i?iaiaeeee
ii??aiyeueio aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy noi?o? aeueoi, 40% e.n., 0,1
e/aa c o?eoii, 25% e.a., 0,25 e/aa c aoaeiiii (ooiaeacieii) oa
noaiaea?oaie — aeueoi, 40% e.n., 0,2 e/aa, o?eo, 25% e.a., 0,5 e/aa,
o?eo-i?ai?oi, 37,5% c.i., 0,33 ea/aa.

5. Aieea i?io?oeieea i?iiao 400 ia ?iciiiaeaiiy o?oioaa?a, o?iaeae ?
ye?noue ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe?. I?e oeueiio aea/aee ii?ie aeo?aoe
i?aia?aoo — 4,5 oa 6 e ia 1 o ian?iiy ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (aac
ia?iaee).

6. Aieea aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n ia caao?’yiai?noue iin?ao, o?iaeae ? ye?noue
ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe?. Ii??aithaaee ii?ie aeo?aoe nao?no, 18% c.i. —
0,10, 0,15 ? 0,20 ea/aa c eiio?ieueiei aa??aioii (aac ia?iaee) oa
aoaeiiii — aa?a?oeeaeii 2,4 Ae, 40% a.e., 2 e/aa.

Iae?eiaa ieiua ae?eyiee — 100 i2 a /ioe?ee?aoiiio iiaoi?aii?. Ae?iaie/o
ia?aa??eo iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a — ia?iaea ian?iiy i?aia?aoaie iaenei o
ii?i? 2 e/o, aeea?aeaiae — 2 e/o, i?iiao — 5 e/o, ia?iaea iin?ao
ooia?oeeaeii o?eo-i?ai?oi, 37,5% c.i. o ii?i? 0,33 ea/aa, noi?ooth
ooia?oeeae?a aeueoi, 0,1 e/aa c o?eoii — 0,25 e/aa, aa?a?oeeaeii nao?n —
o ii?i? 0,15 ea/aa i?iaiaeeee ia ieiu? 10 aa. Ca aoaeii a?aee ia?iaeo
ian?iiy oa aaaaooth/eo ?ineei ooiaeacieii o ii?i? 3 ea/o oa 0,5 ea/aa,
iai?eneoaaiiy iin?a?a o oaco aaniyiiai eouaiiy aa?a?oeeaeii, 2,4 Ae
ai?iia n?eue, 40% a.e., 2 e/aa.

Ia an?o aa??aioao aecia/aee iin?ai? yeino? ian?iiy, i?iaiaeeee
oaiieia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy.

Iae?e o?aaeaieo ?ineei ei?aiaaeie aieeyie i?iaiaeeee a oac? eouaiiy oa
iiei/ii? noeaeino?. ?ineeie aeeiioaaee ii ae?aaiiae? ieiu? c aeaio
noi?nieo ?yaee?a caaaeiaaeee 0,5 i.

Iae?e oai?ia cae?enithaaee iaoiaeii niiiiai? i?iae ca oeaeith, a ye?e
a?aoiaoaaee oaeoe/ii caeiyoo a?eaieoeath /e ieyiaie ieiuo eenoea ?
noaaae (A.O.Ia?aneie?i, 1979; 1989).

*enaeuei?noue a?oioiaeo oe?aeiee?a aecia/aee iaoiaeii a?oioiaeo ?iceiiie
(A.A.A?aoi?eia, 1992).

Iae?e ao?’yi?a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii iae?eiaeo ae?eyiie ?ici??ii
0,25 i2 o oac? eouaiiy iceii? ioaieoe?, /a?ac 20 aei?a i?ney ia?iaee
aa?a?oeeaeaie ? ia?aae cae?aiiyi o?iaeath.

Ieiuo eenoy aecia/aee iaoiaeii “aen?/ie”, ai?no i?aiaio?a o eenoeao — a
aoeaoiiiaiio aeno?aeo? ia niaeo?ioioiiao?? NO-10 c ianooiieie
?ic?aooieaie ca O.I.Aiaei?aei (1963). *enoo i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco
?ic?aoiaoaaee ca oi?ioeith E?aeaea oa ?ioeo (1961).

Ai?no a?eea oa ne?i? eeaeeiaeie a ca?i? aecia/aee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith
iaoiaeeeith (I.I.Aaa?eia, 1983).

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aeaieo i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co c
??aiai a??ia?aeiino? 05 (A.A.Aeiniaoia, 1985).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aieea ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy i?aia?aoaie iaenei 025 oa aeea?aeaiae 030

ia o?aaeaiiy ?ineei iceii? ioaieoe? ei?aiaaeie aieeyie, o?iaeae

oa ye?noue ca?ia

O ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ei?aiaaeie aieeyie o?aaeoaaeinue a na?aaeiueiio
16,6% ?ineei, o oiio /ene? a neeueiiio nooiai? 4,1 a?aenioea, ui cia/ii
iicia/aeinue ia iieacieeao o?iaeaeiino?.

Ia?iaea ian?iiy i?aia?aoii ooiaeacie, 50% c.i. a ii?i? 3 ea/o,
caaacia/eea caoeno ?ineei a?ae ei?aiaaeo aieeae ia 43,4%, o?aaeaiiy
?ineei ciaioeeinue aei 9,4%, o oiio /ene? a neeueiiio nooiai? aei 1,9
a?aenioea. ?icaeoie caoaeiee?a oaa?aei? ? eaoth/i? naaeie oa o?aaeaiiy
ieie ?ineei ciaioeeinue aei 0,8% aai ia 63,4%, oiaoi aei ??aiy, yeee ia
aieeaa? ia a?iaeae. ?ie?onoaoe?y ian?iiy i?aia?aoii iaenei, 2,5% o.e.n.
c ii?iaie aeo?aoe 1,5, 2,0 oa 2,5 e/o aeyaeeanue a?eueo aoaeoeaiith. I?e
oeueiio ii?ia i?aia?aoo 1,5 e/o a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee caaacia/eea
aoaeoeai?noue i?ioe ei?aiaaeo aieeae 65% oa i?ioe naaeie — 91%, ui ia
2,7 oa ia 27,8% aeua aoaeoeaiino? aoaeiio (ooiaeacieo). Ii?ia aeo?aoe
i?aia?aoo iaenei 2,0 e/o cieceea o?aaeaiiy ?ineei ei?aiaaeie aieeyie a
na?aaeiueiio ia 71,1% oa ia 100% a?ae caoaeiee?a naaeeiaeo oai?ia. I?e
ii?i? 2,5 e/o o?aaeaiiy ?ineei ei?aiaaeie aieeyie ia ia?aaeuoaaei 2% i?e
iiaiiio caoeno? ?ineei a?ae caoaeiee?a oaa?aei? ? eaoth/i? naaeie
(?en.1).

O aa??aioao ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy i?aia?aoii iaenei, 2,5% o.e.n. ?ineeie
a on? oace ?inoo oa ?icaeoeo iaee aeia?a ?icaeiaio ei?aiaao nenoaio oa
iaaecaiio iano. *?oei i?iyaeyeanue oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy ?o
eouenoino?, aonoioe noiyiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae oa aenioe.

?ie?onoaoe?y ian?iiy i?io?othth/ei i?aia?aoii iaenei 2,5% o.e.n. c
ii?iaie aeo?aoe 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e/o caaacia/eea ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiinii
iieaciee?a eiio?ieth: aeiaaeeio eieino – ia 12,7-19,7%, e?euee?noue
ca?ai o

eiein? – ia 16,6-24,4% oa iano 1000 ca?ai – ia 10,5-13,2%, ui i?aeaeueei
a?iaeae ca?ia ia 11,9-21,2% (4,6-8,2 oe/aa) oa iii?oii iie?ioeei eiai
ye?noue.

Ii?yae c i?aia?aoii iaenei i?ioe ei?aiaaeo aieeae canoiniaoaaee i?aia?ao
aeea?aeaiae (aeeoaiieiiacie), 3% o.e.n., aoaeoeai?noue yeiai ca
?acoeueoaoaie eaai?aoi?ii-iieueiaiai oa ae?iaie/iai aeine?ae?a
aeyaeeanue aeaui aeuith.

Aoaeoeai?noue i?aia?aoo o?eo-i?ai?oi oa noi?o? aeueoi c o?eoii

i?ioe oai?ia ? ?o aieea ia a?iaeae oa ye?noue ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe?

O ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue iceia ioaieoey o?aaeaeanue aieiaiei /eiii
ai?ioienoith ?inith oa naioi??icii, nooi?iue ?icaeoeo yeeo cia/ii
eieeaaany ii ?ieao ? a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaea a?aeiia?aeii 14,5% oa
26,8%. ?icaeoie ?ioeo oai?ia aoa iacia/iei. Ca aeaieie iae?e?a ia?iaea
iin?ao o oaco aeoiaeo a o?oaeo ooia?oeeaeii ooiaeacie (aoaeii)
cieaeoaaea o?aaeai?noue ?ineei ai?ioienoith ?inith a 3 ?ace, a
naioi??icii — a 3,5 ?aca. Canoinoaaiiy ooia?oeeaeo o?eo, 25% e.a. c
ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,5 e/aa cieaeoaaei o?aaeai?noue ?ineei ai?ioienoith
?inith a 3,6 ?aca (c 14,5 aei 4%) oa naioi??icii — o 4,4 ?aca (c 26,8
aei 6,1%). A?eueo aoaeoeaiith aoea ia?iaea iin?ao o?eoii-i?ai?oi, 37,5%
c.i. c ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,33 ea/aa, i?e ye?e o?aaeai?noue ?ineei
ai?ioienoith ?inith a na?aaeiueiio cieaeoaaeanue a 4,5 ?aca (c 14,5 aei
3,2%) oa naioi??icii – a 5,8 ?aca (c 26,8 aei 4,6%).

I?e ia?iaoe? iin?ao o?eoii-i?ai?oi c ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,33 oa 0,5 ea/aa
ieiua eenoiai? iiaa?oi? aoea a?eueoith a oac? aeoiaeo a o?oaeo ia
26,8-30,0%, eiein?iiy – ia 20,5-24,1% oa o oac? oea?o?iiy – ia 35,8-44,1
a?aenioea ii??aiyii c ?ioeie aa??aioaie (?en. 2).

Iaeaeuee ai?no oei?io?eo “a” oa “a” ye o oaco aeoiaeo a o?oaeo, oae ? a
oaco oea?o?iiy a?aei?/aii o aa??aioao c ia?iaeith iin?ao ooia?oeeaeii
o?eo-i?ai?oi c ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,33 ea oa 0,5 ea/aa, i?e/iio a oeeo
aa??aioao a?aei?/a?oueny ? i?aeaeuaiiy noie ea?ioeii?ae?a (?en.3).

Ia?iaea iin?ao o?eoii-i?ai?oi c ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,33 oa 0,5 ea/aa
ni?eyea i?aeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino? oioineioaco ia 8,8-63,6 a?aenioe?a.
O oeeo aa??aioao na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no nooeo ?a/iaei oaeiae
ia?aaaaeaa iieacieee ?ioeo aa??aio?a.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui ooia?oeeaee aeueoi (oeei?ieiiacie), 40% e.a. ? o?eo
(i?ii?eiiacie), 25% e.a. iathoue aeecueeee o?i?/iee neeaae oa niaeo?
ae??, iaie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aoaeoeaiino? aoei aei?iaoaaii noi?o oeeo
i?aia?ao?a o iieiaeiieo ii?iao aeo?aoe.

I?e ia?iaoe? iin?ao iceii? ioaieoe? oe??th noi?ooth o?aaeai?noue ?ineei
ai?ioienoith ?inith ciaioeeanue ia 96,3 oa naioi??icii ia 98,8
a?aenioea, ui ia 26,6 ? 24,5% aeua aoaeoeaiino? aoaeiio (ooiaeacieo), ia
14,4-15,1% — noaiaea?o?a (aeueoi oa o?eoo), ia 10,7 ? 7,1% —
aoaeoeaiino? o?eoo-i?ai?oi c iioeiaeueiith ii?iith (?en. 4), ui
caaacia/eei aeinoia??ia i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeath ca?ia (3,2-3,74 oe/aa).

Ia?aaaae noi?o? aeueoi c o?eoii o iieiaeiieo ii?iao aoee i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao. Caeeoeiaeo e?eueeinoae ae?th/eo ?a/iaei:
oeei?ieiiacieo oa i?ii?eiiacieo a ca?i?, nieii? oa a?oio? ia aeyaeaii.

Aieea ia?iaee ian?iiy i?aia?aoii i?iiao ia /enaeuei?noue

a?oioiaeo oe?aeiee?a o iin?aao iceii? ioaieoe?, o?iaeae oa ye?noue ca?ia

sse iieacaee in?ii? ?iceiiee, ia aa??aio?, aea ian?iiy ia ia?iaeyee
?inaeoeoeeaeii i?iiao, /enaeuei?noue ae?ioyiee?a o na?aaeiueiio
neeaaeaea 9,3 aec. ia 1 i2, ui ia?aaeuoaaei ii??a oeiaei/eiiino?,
ee/eiie ieanoei/aoiaoneo – ia 76,0% oa iioeiaeaeai?noue ieie noiae?a –
ia 73,4%.

O ae?iaie/iio aeine?ae? i?e in?ii?o ?iceiieao e?euee?noue ae?ioyiee?a ia
1i2 aoea 11,4 aec., ee/eiie ieanoei/aoiaoneo – 1,6 aec. I?ney iin?ao ia
aa??aio? c ?ie?onoiaaiei ian?iiyi /enaeuei?noue ae?ioyiee?a neeaaeaea
0,8 aec./i2, aai anueiai 7% aei eiio?ieth, a ee/eiie ieanoei/aoiaoneo ia
aoei aeyaeaii.

Caeeoeiaeo e?eueeinoae i?iiaoo (oo?ao?iea?ao) o ca?i?, nieii? oa a?oio?
ia aeyaeaii.

Aoaeoeai?noue aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n i?ioe ao?’yi?a iceii? ioaieoe?

Aa?a?oeeae nao?n oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oe?ieei niaeo?ii ae?? ia aeaiaeieuei?
oa aeaye? ?io? aeaee aaaaoi??/ieo ao?’yi?a, caoeua? iin?ae a?ae no?eeeo
aei 2,4 Ae aeae?a: o?e?aaa?ieea, o?aeee, aeaa??th oa ?ioeo ao?’yi?a.

Anoaiiaeaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n 18% c.i. c ii?iith
aeo?aoe 0,10; 0,15 oa 0,20 ea/aa ii??aiyii c aa?a?oeeaeii 2,4 Ae, 40%
e.a., 2,0 e/aa. Oae, a na?aaeiueiio ca o?e ?iee e?euee?noue cieuaieo
ao?’yi?a noaiiaeea 99,9 a?aenioea. Oea caaacia/eei i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeath
ca?ia ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai ia 10,0 oe/aa oa ?ioeie aa??aioaie ia 3,6
oe/aa.

Ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea canoinoaaiiy iiaeo i?aia?ao?a

aeey caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae eiiieaeno oe?aeeeaeo i?aai?ci?a

O 1995-1996 ??. aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy o?i?/ieo cania?a caoenoo
?ineei (iaenei, i?iiao, o?eo-i?ai?oi oa nao?n) ie aea/aee ia ae?iaie/eo
iin?aao iceii? ioaieoe?.

Ianoaaeaiiy iiey iaaani? iieacaei, ui ia eiio?ie? ? a aa??aio? c
canoinoaaiiyi aa?a?oeeaeo 2,4 Ae oa ooia?oeeaeo ooiaeacie (aoaeii)
ei?aiaaeie aieeyie aoei o?aaeaii 12,7% ?ineei, a a?oio? iae?/oaaeinue
ae?ioyiee?a 8,4 aec./i2, iioeiaeaeaii ieie 10,6% noiae?a. O aa??aio? c
canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno i?aia?ao?a ei?aiaaeie aieeyie aoei o?aaeaii 0,6%
?ineei, /enaeuei?noue ae?ioyiee?a neeaea 0,8 aec./i2, yeeie aoei
iioeiaeaeaii 0,5% noiae?a, ieanoei/aoiaoneo ia aoei aeyaeaii.

O eiio?ieueiiio aa??aio? o?aaeai?noue ?ineei ai?ioienoith ?inith
noaiiaeea 11,6%, naioi??icii – 8,2%. Ia?iaea iin?ao ?ic/eiii ooiaeacie c
ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,5 ea/aa ciaioeea o?aaeai?noue ?ineei ai?ioienoith
?inith aei 3,7% oa naioi??icii – aei 2,4%, a i?e iai?eneoaaii? iin?ao
o?eoii-i?ai?oi, 37,5 c.i. c ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,33 ea/aa – aei 1,8 %
ai?ioienoith ?inith oa aei 1,1% — naioi??icii.

O eiio?ieueiiio aa??aio? ia eiaeiiio eaaae?aoiiio iao?? ia?aoiaoaaeinue
86 oo. ao?’yi?a. I?e canoinoaaii? aa?a?oeeaeo 2,4 Ae, 40% e.a. c ii?iith
aeo?aoe 2 e/aa e?euee?noue ao?’yi?a ciaioeeanue aei 7 oo./i2, o aa??aio?
c ia?iaeith iin?ao ?ic/eiii aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n, 18% c.i. (0,15 ea/aa) –
aei 3 oo./i2.

A?eueoa e?euee?noue ca?ai oa aeua ?o iana aecia/eee a?iaeae, yeee o
aa??aio? c eiiieaeniei canoinoaaiiyi iiaeo i?aia?ao?a (iaenei, i?iiao,
nao?n, o?eo-i?ai?oi) aeyaeany a na?aaeiueiio ia 11,6 oe/aa (35,6%) aeuei
a?ae eiio?ieth oa ia 7,2 oe/aa (19,4%) ia?aaeuoaaa o?iaeae aa??aioa, aea
canoiniaoaaany cae/aeiee caoeno ?ineei. I?e oeueiio ca?ii ioaieoe? o
aa??aio? c eiiieaenii iiaeo i?aia?ao?a a?ae??ciyeinue i?aeaeuaiith
ye?noth.

AEIIII?*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe CAOENOO

ICEII? IOAIEOe? IIAEIE IANOEOeEAeAIE

I?e aecia/aii? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ie ei?enooaaeeny oe?iaie, ye?
neeaeenue ia e?iaoeue 1996 ?ieo. I?yi? cao?aoe oa ?aioaaaeuei?noue
ae?iuoaaiiy iceii? ioaieoe? o aa??aio? aac ia?iaee (eiio?ieue) acyo? o?,
ui oaeoe/ii aoee a ainiiaea?noaao.

I?ae?aooieaie i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aenieee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ae??
i?io?othth/iai i?aia?aoo iaenei c ii?iith aeo?aoe 2 e ia 1 o ian?iiy
i?ioe ei?aiaaeo aieeae, i?e ye?e io?eiaii 225 a?eaaiue c 1 aa i?e
ieoiiino? 2,9 a?eai? ia 1 a?eaith aeo?ao.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ooia?oeeaeiiai i?aia?aoo aeea?aeaiaeo aeyaeany aeaui
aeuei. I?e eiai canoinoaaii? io?eiaii i?eaaaeo a?iaeath ia 255 a?eaaiue
c 1 aa i?e ieoiiino? 3,2 a?eai? ia 1 a?eaith aeo?ao.

Ia?iaea iin?ao i?ioe oai?ia ooia?oeeaeii o?eo-i?ai?oi c iioeiaeueiith
ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,33 ea/aa ni?eyea i?aeaeuaiith a?iaeath a a?ioiaiio
ae?ac? ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (aac ia?iaee) ia 276 a?i./aa ii??aiyii c
aa??aioii, aea aeei?enoiaoaaee ooiaeacie (aoaeii) – ia 150 a?i./aa oa
ii??aiyii c aa??aioii ia?iaee iin?ao ?ic/eiii o?eoo – ia 117 a?i./aa.
Oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie i?e oeueiio io?eiaii aeuee a?ae eiio?ieth ia 225
a?i./aa i?e ieoiiino? 5,5 a?eaaiue ia 1 a?eaith aeiaeaoeiaeo cao?ao;
aa??aio c ia?iaeith iin?ao ooiaeacieii – ia 129,0 a?i./aa oa aa??aio c
ia?iaeith iin?ao o?eoii – ia 106,1 a?i./aa.

Noi?o ooia?oeeae?a aeueoi, 40% e.a. c o?eoii, 25% e.a. c iieiaeiieie
ii?iaie caaacia/eea i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeath a a?ioiaiio ae?ac? ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai (noaiaea?o) – ia 300 a?i./aa, ooiaeacieii – 186 a?i./aa,
aeueoi 0,2 e/aa – 119 a?i./aa, o?eoii – 96 a?i./aa ? o?eoii-i?ai?oi –
ia 60 a?i./aa. I?e oeueiio ieoii?noue aeiaeaoeiaeo cao?ao oaeiae aoea
aeuith – a?aeiia?aeii ia 5,7, 1,0, 1,4, 0,9, oa 0,1 a?i. (oaae.).

Oaaeeoey

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue noi?o? ooia?oeeae?a aeueoi c o?eoii ia iin?aao

iceii? ioaieoe? (na?aaei? ca
1995-1997 ??.)

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue o ?ic?aooieo ia 1 aa ii aa??aioao aeine?aeo

Iieacieeeaac ia?iaee

(eiio?ieue)ia?iaea

iin?ao

ooiaeacieii,

50% c.i.,

0,5 ea/aa

(aoaeii)ia?iaea

iin?ao

aeueoi, 40% e.n., 0,2 e/aaia?iaea

iin?ao

o?eoii,

25% e.a.,

0,5 e/aaia?iaea

iin?ao

o?eoii-

i?ai?oi, 37,5% c.i., 0,33 ea/aaia?iaea iin?ao

noi?ooth aeue-

oi, 40% e.n.,

0,1 e/aa c o?e-oii, 25% e.a.,

0,25 e/aa1. Aa?o?noue ca?ia, a?i.1119123313081323135914192. Aa?o?noue
i?eaaaee a?iaeath,

a?i.

114

189

204

240

3003. Cao?aoe ia i?aia?aoe oa ?o

aianaiiy, a?i.

14

27,0

24,2

21,5

25,84. Cao?aoe ia cae?aiiy oa aei?ia-

eo aeiaeaoeiai? i?iaeoeoe??, a?i.

10,3

17,0

18,4

21,6

27,05. Anueiai i?yieo cao?ao, a?i.354,4378,7398,4397,0397,5407,26.
Oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie764,6854,3909,6926,0961,51011,87. Ieoii?noue 1
a?eai? aeiaeaoei-

aeo cao?ao, a?i.

4,7

4,3

4,8

5,6

5,78. ?aioaaaeuei?noue, %215,7225,6228,3233,2241,9248,5

18

I?e ?ie?onoaoe?? ian?iiy i?aia?aoii i?iiao (5 e/o) io?eiaii
oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie 592 a?eai? ia 1 aa i?e ieoiiino? 2 a?eai? ia 1
a?eaith aeiaeaoeiaeo cao?ao oa ??ai? ?aioaaaeueiino? 117,7 a?aenioea.

Caoeno iin?ao iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae ao?’yi?a ia?iaeith aa?a?oeeaeii nao?n
c iioeiaeueiith ii?iith aeo?aoe 0,15 ea/aa caaacia/ea ii a?aeiioaiith
aei eiio?ieth i?eaaaeo a?iaeath a a?ioiaiio ae?ac? 300 a?i./aa,
oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie – 254,5 a?i./aa i?e ieoiiino? 6,6 a?i. ia 1
a?eaith aeiaeaoeiaeo cao?ao. Iioeiaeueia ii?ia aeo?aoe oeueiai
aa?a?oeeaeo aeyaeeanue aeiiii?/ii a?eueo aea?aeiith ii??aiyii c
aeei?enoaiiyi aa?a?oeeaeo 2,4 Ae (2 e/aa) ? caaacia/eea i?eaaaeo
aa?oino? a?iaeath 108 a?i./aa oa oiiaii-/enoiai i?eaooeo 105,9 a?i./aa
i?e aeuiio ia 21,6% ??ai? ?aioaaaeueiino?.

Eiiieaenia aeei?enoaiiy a ?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai? caoenoo iin?a?a iceii?
ioaieoe? i?io?othth/iai i?aia?aoo iaenei, 2 e/o, ?inaeoeoeeaeo i?iiao, 5
e/o, aa?a?oeeaeo nao?n, 0,15 ea/aa oa ooia?oeeaeo o?eo-i?ai?oi,
0,33 ea/aa caaacia/eei i?eaaaeo a?iaeath a a?ioiaiio ae?ac? ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai – 348 a?i./aa, oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie – 144 a?i./aa oa
ii??aiyii c nenoaiith caoenoo, yea i?iiiioaaeanue ae?iaieoeoao aei 1996
?. (aoaeii) – 216 a?i./aa aa?oino? i?eaaaee a?iaeath oa 79,2 a?i./aa
oiiaii-/enoiai i?eaooeo.

AENIIAEE

1. O I?aaiaa?aaeiiio E?ninoaio oa Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie cia/ii? oeiaee
iin?aai iceii? ioaieoe? caaaeathoue oai?iae: ei?aiaa? aiee?, ai?ioienoa
?ina, naioi??ic, ao?a ??aea oa ?io?, ye? o?aaeothoue aei 35 a?aenioe?a
?ineei.

2. I?aia?ao iaenei (oeoae?ienii?e), 2,5% o.e.n. ? aenieiaoaeoeaiei aeey
caoenoo iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae ei?aiaaeo aieeae. Iioeiaeueia ii?ia
aeo?aoe i?aia?aoo – 2, 0 e ia oiiio ian?iiy caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy
?icaeoeo caoaeiee?a oai?ia ia 72-88%, aeoea?co? ??no ?ineei, ui
i?iyaey?oueny a ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? i?iaeoeoeaieo noaaae, aeiaaeeie
eieina, e?eueeino? ca?ai o eiein? oa ?o iane, i?aeaeuo? a?iaeae ca?ia ia
19.4% (7,5 oe/aa) ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (aac ia?iaee). Aoaeoeai?noue
i?aia?aoo iaenei ia 27,7-44,6% aeua ii??aiyii c i?aia?aoii ooiaeacie
(aaiii?e), 50% c.i. (3 ea/o).

3. Aeey i?io?othaaiiy ian?iiy iceii? ioaieoe? i?ioe ei?aiaaeo aieeae c
aenieith aoaeoeai?noth iiaea canoiniaoaaoenue i?aia?ao aeea?aeaiae
(aeeoaiieiiacie), 3,0% o.e.n., yeee ca iioeiaeueii? ii?ie aeo?aoe (2,0
e/o) cieaeo? o?aaeaiiy ?ineei ei?aiaaeie aieeyie ia 90,9-97,2%, ui ia
29,8% aeua aoaeoeaiino? ooiaeacieo (aaiii?eo), i?aeaeuo? a?iaeaei?noue
ca?ia ii??aiyii c? noaiaea?oii ia 4,8-5,4 oe/aa (14,8-16,9%).

4. Aeey caoenoo iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia eenoy, noaaae ?
eieina, iniaeeai ai?ioienoi? ?ine oa naioi??ico, iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei ?
iaeioiene/iee ooia?oeeae o?eo-i?ai?oi, 37,5% c. i., yeee caaacia/o?
caoeno iin?a?a ia 80-98,4%. Aoaeoeai?noue o?eoo-i?ai?oi ia 11-24% aeua
ii??aiyii c ooiaeacieii oa ia 1,1-5,6% – ii??aiyii c o?eoii, 25% e.a.

5. Iioeiaeueia ii?ia aeo?aoe ooia?oeeaeo o?eo-i?ai?oi – 0,33 ea/aa, yea
ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a o ?ineeiao ia
25-63,6% (ai?no i?aiaio?a, i?iaeoeoeai?noue oioineioaco, iaeiie/aiiy
nooeo ?a/iaei oa ?ioa) ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai, oa ia 5-33,2% ii??aiyii c
aa??aioaie, aea iin?ae ia?iaeyee ooia?oeeaeaie: ooiaeacieii aai o?eoii,
25% e.a. I?e oeueiio o?iaeaei?noue ca?ia i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 15,2-20,3%
(7,5-9,3 oe/aa) ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai, iie?ioo?oueny eiai ye?noue:
iaoo?a, neeiaeaei?noue, ai?no i?ioa?io oa eeaeeiaeie.

6. Canoinoaaiiy noi?o? ooai?oeeae?a aeueoi (oeei?ieiiacie), 40% e.a. c
o?eoii (i?ii?eiiacie), 25% e.a. a iieiaeiieo ii?iao i?aeaeuo?
aoaeoeai?noue oeeo i?aia?ao?a, caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy o?aaeaiino? ?ineei
iceii? ioaieoe? ai?ioienoith ?inith ia 92,4-96,3 ? naioi??icii ia
95,8-98,8%, ui ia 14,4-15,1% aeua aoaeoeaiino? aeueoi ? o?eoo, acyoeo
ie?aii ? ia 10,7 oa 7,1% – o?eoo-i?ai?oio. O?iaeaei?noue ca?ia i?e
oeueiio i?aeaeuo?oueny ia 16,7-30,6% (6,2-7,5 oe/aa) ii??aiyii c
aoaeiiii (ooiaeacieii), ia 8,7-24,4% (3,2-6,0 oe/aa) – ?c canoinoaaiiyi
aeueoi ? o?eoo, acyoeie ie?aii, oa ia 5,5-6,9% (1,7-2,0 oe/aa) –
ii??aiyii c o?eoii-i?ai?oi.

7. ?ie?onoaoe?y ian?iiy iecueeioiene/iei ?inaeoeoeeaeiei i?aia?aoii
i?iiao (oo?ao?iea?a), 40% ie.n. ? aoaeoeaiei caoiaeii uiaei caoenoo
iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae a?oioiaeo oe?aeiee?a. Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiith
ii?iith aeo?aoe oeueiai i?aia?aoo ? 5 e ia oiiio ian?iiy, yea caaacia/o?
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ae?ioyiee?a o a?oio? ia 86-89,2%, iiaia cieuaiiy
ee/eiie ieanoei/anoiaoneo, ia 96% ciaioaiiy iioeiaeaeaiiy noiae?a iceii?
ioaieoe? a?oioiaeie o?oioaaaie, iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ??no oa ?icaeoie
?ineei, caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino? ca?ia ia 17-31,2% (5.3-10,5
oe/aa) oa eiai yeino?.

8. Iaeioiene/iee aa?a?oeeae nao?n, 18% c.i. ? aenieiaoaeoeaiei aeey
caoenoo iin?a?a iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae ao?’yi?a, yeee caaacia/o? /enoioo
iin?a?a ia 91-99,9% ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai, i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino?
ca?ia ia 5,3-10 oe/aa ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai ? ia 3,6-10,2 oe/aa – c
canoinoaaiiyi aa?a?oeeaea 2,4 Ae. Eiai a?ieia?/ia aoaeoeai?noue ia
9,3-13,0% aeua ii??aiyii c aa?a?oeeaeii 2,4 Ae, 40% e.a. (2 e/aa). I?e
oeueiio c?inoa? neeiaeaei?noue ca?ia, ai?no i?ioa?io oa eeaeeiaeie
a?aeiia?aeii ia 14,0%; 3,6% oa 4,3%.

9. Canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno iiaeo cania?a caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae
oai?ia, a?oioiaeo oe?aeiee?a oa ao?’yi?a (iaenei, 2.5% o.e.n., 2 e/o;
i?iiao, 40% ie.n., 5 e/o; nao?n, 18% c.i., 0,15 ea/aa oa o?eo-i?ai?oi,
37,5% c.i., 0,33 ea/aa) caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy o?aaeaiino? ?ineei
oai?iaaie ia 85,4%, e?eueeino? ae?ioyiee?a oa ieanoei/anoiaoneo – ia
91,2%, oa cieuaiiy ao?’yi?a – ia 96,5%, ui ia 4-15% aeua ii??aiyii c
aa??aioii canoinoaaiiy ooia?oeeaeo ooiaeacie oa aa?a?oeeaeo 2,4 Ae.
Aeai? i?aia?aoe ni?eythoue iioei?caoe?? ?ioaa?iaaii? nenoaie caoenoo
iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia, a?oioiaeo oe?aeiee?a ? ao?’yi?a oa ioi?ii?
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua a?ae caa?oaeiaiiy ianoeoeeaeaie.

10. I?e canoinoaaii? aeey ia?iaee ian?iiy i?aia?ao?a iaenei oa i?iiao c
iiaeaeueoei iai?eneoaaiiyi ?ineei ooia?oeeaeii o?eo-i?ai?oi ?
aa?a?oeeaeii nao?n i?aeaeuo?oueny a?iaeae ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe? a
na?aaeiueiio ia 19,4% (7,2 oe/aa), aa?o?noue eiai – ia 216 a?i./aa ?
oiiaii-/enoee i?eaooie ia 79,2 a?i./aa ii??aiyii c iieacieeaie
nenoaie caoenoo, ui ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei 1996 ?ieo.

11. Aeey caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia, oe?aeiee?a oa ao?’yi?a ?
iaea?aeaiiy aeniei? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe
?ie?onoaoe?th ian?iiy ooia?oeeaeiei i?aia?aoii iaenei (oeoae?ienii?e),
2,5% o.e.n. aai aeea?aeaiaeii (aeeoaiieiiacie), 3,0% o.e.n., (2 e/o),
?inaeoeoeeaeiei i?aia?aoii i?iiao (oo?ao?iea?a), 40% i.e.n., 5 e/o;
iin?ae a oaco aaniyiiai eouaiiy iai?eneoaaoe aa?a?oeeaeii nao?n, 18%
c.i., 0,15 ea/aa oa a oaco aeoiaeo a o?oaeo — ooia?oeeaeii
o?eoii-i?ai?oi, 37,5% c.i., 0,33 ea/aa. ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaoe noi?o i?aia?ao?a aeueoi (oeei?ieiiacie), 40% e.n. c
o?eoii (i?ii?eiiacie), 25% e.a. a iieiaeiieo ii?iao, yea ca
aoaeoeai?noth aeaui ia?aaeuo? o?eo-i?ai?oi.

IOAE?EAOe?? ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIUe

1. Naoiaiei A.A. Aenieiaoaeoeaia oaoiieia?y caoenoo iin?a?a iceii?
ioaieoe? // Caoeno ?ineei. — 1997. — ?3. — N. 16-17.

2. Naoiaiei A.A. Oe?aeieee ioaieoe?, a?aae iioe?aiiy a Oe?a?i? //
Caoeno ?ineei. — 1997. — ?4. — N. 22-23.

3. Naoiaiei A.A. Nao?n – oea iiaia aa?aio?y // Caoeno ?ineei. — 1997. —
?2. — N. 12-13.

4. Naoiaiei A.A. Iiaa ia?niaeoeaa caoenoo iin?a?a a?ae oai?ia // Caoeno
?ineei. — 1997. — ?7. — N. 9.

5. Naoiaiei A.A. Iia? aa?a?oeeaee ia iceiei? // Caoeno ?ineei. — 1998.
— ?10. — N. 2.

Naoiaiei A.A. Canoinoaaiiy iiaeo ianoeoeeae?a a ?ioaa?iaai?e nenoai?
caoenoo iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae iaea?eueo iioe?aieo caoaeiee?a oai?ia a
oiiaao I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio oa Iie?nny Oe?a?ie — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.11 –
o?oiiaoieia?y – Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie caoenoo iin?a?a
iceii? ioaieoe? a?ae oai?ia, o?oioaa?a ? ao?’yi?a a oiiaao
I?aaiaa?aaeiiai E?ninoaio ? Iie?nny Oe?a?ie. A aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueia aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii
aea?aeieo ii?i aeo?aoe: i?io?oeiee?a iaenei 025 (oeoae?ienii?e), 2,5%
o.e.n. oa aeea?aeaiae 030 (aeeoaiieiiacie), 3% o.e.n., ooia?oeeaeo
o?eoo-i?ai?oi (i?ii?eiiacie), 37,5% c.i., noi?o? ooia?oeeae?a aeueoi
(oeei?ieiiacie), 40% c o?eoii (i?ii?eiiacie), 25% e.a.,
i?io?oeieea-?inaeoeoeeaeo i?iiao (oo?ao?iea?a), 40% ie.n., oa
aa?a?oeeaeo nao?no (o?eacoeoo?ii, 6% + oeoi?iae?eioai-aoee, 12%), 18%
c.i.

Aeine?aeaeaii ae?th i?aia?ao?a ia ?icaeoie oai?ia, ?iciiiaeaiiy
oe?aeiee?a, caao?’yiai?noue iin?a?a, ??no, ?icaeoie oa a?io?i?/i?
i?ioeane a ?ineeiao, o?iaeae oa ye?noue ca?ia iceii? ioaieoe?, a oaeiae
aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue. Iioeiaeuei? ii?ie aeo?aoe i?aia?ao?a oa ?o
eiiieaenia canoinoaaiiy ia?aa??ai? o ae?iaie/eo aeine?aeao. Ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue i?aia?aoe aeeth/ai? aei “Ia?ae?eo
ianoeoeeae?a ? aa?io?i?eao?a, aeicaieaieo aei aeei?enoaiiy a Oe?a?i?” c
1996 ?ieo, ai?iaaaeaeothoueny o ae?iaieoeoa?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iceia ioaieoey, ianoeoeeaee, ?inaeoeoeeaee, ooia?oeeaee,
aa?a?oeeaee, ii?ie canoinoaaiiy, o?iaeae, ye?noue, aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue.

Naoiaiei A.A. I?eiaiaiea iiauo ianoeoeeaeia a ?ioaa?e?iaaiiie nenoaia
caueou iceiie ioaieoeu io iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aicaoaeeoaeae
aieaciae a oneiaeyo I?aaiaa?aaeiie Eaninoaie e Iieanuey Oe?aeiu. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.11 – oeoiiaoieiaey –
Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu caueou
iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu io aieaciae, oeoioaaia e ni?iyeia a oneiaeyo
naaa?iie /anoe Eaninoaie e Iieanuey Oe?aeiu. A aeenna?oaoeee i?eaaaeaii
n?aaieoaeueiia eco/aiea yooaeoeaiinoe e ?acoeueoaou ii?aaeaeaiey
yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiuo ii?i ?anoiaea i?io?aaeoaeae naiyi iaenei 025
(oeoaeeieniiee), 2,5% o.e.n. e aeeaeaeaiae 030 (aeeoaiieiiacie),
3% o.e.n., ooiaeoeeaea oeeo-i?aieoi (i?iieeiiacie), 37,5% n.i., niane
ooiaeoeeaeia aeueoi (oeei?ieiiacie), 40% e.n. n oeeoii (i?iieeiiacie),
25% e.y., i?io?aaeoaey-einaeoeoeeaea i?iiao (oo?aoeiea?a), 40% ie.n., e
aa?aeoeeaea naoen (o?eacoe-oo?ii, 6% + oeoi?iaeeeioai-aoee, 12%), 18%
n.i.

Enneaaeiaaii aeaenoaea i?aia?aoia ia ?acaeoea aieaciae, ?aciiiaeaiea
a?aaeeoaeae, cani?aiiinoue iinaaia, ?ino, ?acaeoea e aeioeie/aneea
i?ioeannu a ?anoaieyo, o?iaeae e ea/anoai ca?ia iceiie ioaieoeu, a
oaeaea yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue. Iioeiaeueiua ii?iu i?aia?aoia e eo
eiiieaeniia i?eiaiaiea i?iaa?aiu a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo.

I?io?aaeoaee naiyi iaenei e aeeaeaeaiae ieacaeenue aunieiyooaeoeaiuie
aeey caueou iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu io ei?iaauo aieeae. A iioeiaeueiie
ii?ia 2 e ia 1 o naiyi iie iaania/eaaee nieaeaiea ii?aaeaiey ?anoaiee
ei?iaauie aieeyie ia 88-97% e 100-i?ioeaioioth caueoo io naaeae,
iiauoaiea o?iaeaeiinoe ca?ia ia 15, 0-19,4% (5,4-7,5 oe/aa) i?e
iaeioi?ii oeo/oaiee aai ea/anoaa.

Aeey caueou iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu io io/ienoie ?inu e naioi?eica aieaa
yooaeoeaiui ii n?aaiaieth n ooiaeacieii (aaiiieeii) e oeeoii ieacaeny
oeeo-i?aieoi, 37,5% n.i., i?e iioeiaeueiie ii?ia ?anoiaea eioi?iai (0,33
ea/aa) nieaeaeanue ii?aaeaiiinoue ?anoaiee io/ienoie ?inie ia 78% e
naioi?eicii — ia 82,8% ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieai. A n?aaeiai ca o?e
aiaea o?iaeae ca?ia iieo/ai ia 20,5% (10,8 oe/aa) auoa o?iaeay a
eiio?iea e ia 3,9 oe/aa auoa iieacaoaey aa?eaioa n oeeoii.

Niaoeaaiea ooiaeoeeaeia aeueoi n oeeoii a iieiaeiiuo ii?iao iaania/eei
iiauoaiea eo yooaeoeaiinoe ia 14,4-15,1% i?ioea yooaeoeaiinoe i?e
?acaeaeueiii i?eiaiaiee. I?e yoii yooaeoeaiinoue niane ieacaeanue ia
7,1-10,7% auoa yooaeoeaiinoe ooiaeoeeaea oeeo-i?aieoi. I?eiaiaiea niane
aeueoi n oeeoii aeaei aeinoiaa?ioth i?eaaaeo o?iaeay ca?ia iiauoaiiiai
ea/anoaa.

Eie?onoaoeey naiyi einaeoeoeeaeiui i?aia?aoii i?iiao a iioeiaeueiie
ii?ia 5 e ia 1 o naiyi iaania/eea nieaeaiea /eneaiiinoe i?iaiei/ieea ia
85%, iieiia oie/oiaeaiea ee/eiie ieanoei/aoionuo, iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyea
ia ?ino e ?acaeoea ?anoaiee, iiauneea o?iaeae ca?ia ia 17% (5,3 oe/aa).

Ia?aaioea iinaaia iceiie ioaieoeu aa?aeoeeaeii naoen a iioeiaeueiie
ii?ia 0,15 ea/aa nieaeaea cani?aiiinoue iinaaa ia 91-99,9%, /oi ia 50%
auoa yooaeoeaiinoe noaiaea?oa (aa?aeoeeaea 2,4 Ae), iiauoaea
o?iaeaeiinoue ca?ia ia 3,6-10,2 oe/aa.

Aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue eco/aaiuo i?aia?aoia iiaeoaa?aeaeaia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaa?eie.

Ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee eco/aaiua i?aia?aou aeeth/aiu a “Ia?a/aiue
ianoeoeeaeia e aa?ioeieeaoia, ?ac?aoaiiuo e eniieueciaaieth a Oe?aeia” n
1996 aiaea, aiaae?ythony a i?iecaiaenoai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iceiay ioaieoea, ianoeoeeaeu, einaeoeoeeaeu,
ooiaeoeeaeu, aa?aeoeeaeu, ii?iu eniieueciaaiey, o?iaeae, ea/anoai,
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue.

Sakhnenko V.V. Use of new pesticides in the integrated system of winter
wheat protection against most spread pathogenic organisms under
conditions of Right Bank Forest-Steppe and Marshy Woodlands of Ukraine.

Thesis for academic degree of Doctor of Agricultural science, speciality
06.01/11 — phytopathology. — National agrarian University, Kyiv, 1998.

Thesis is devoted to the questions of improvement of the system of
winter wheat sowing protection against phytophagans, diseases and weeds
under conditions of northern part of Forest-Steppe and Marshy Woodlands
of Ukraine.

Given thesis contains the comparative studying of efficacy and
definition of economically favorable application rate: disinfectant
MAXIM 025 FS (fludioxonil), disinfectant DIVIDEND 030 (difenokonazol),
fungicide TILT-PREMIUM 37,5 WP (propikonazol), fungicide ALTO (
ziprokonazol) + TILT (propikonazol), dizinfectant-insecticide PROMET 400
CS (furatiocarb) and herbicide SATIS 18 WP (triazulphuron, 6% +
fluoroglikofen-ethyl, 12%).

The action of the products have been examined on insects reproduction,
on diseases development, on weedness of sowing, on growth, development
and biochemical process in the crops, on harwest and quality of winter
wheat grain and economical efficacy. Optimal norms of the products and
their integrated application have been tested under working conditions.

Studied products are included into “The List of Pesticides and
Agrochemicals, which are permitted to be applied in Ukraine” and
starting from 1996 are applied in industry.

Key words: winter wheat, pesticides, irsecticides, fungicides,
herbicides, application rate, harvest, quality, economical effecacy.

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