3

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO NOIAeICIAANOAA ?I. A. E?EINUeEIAI

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Oai?ae Ieaen?e Ieaenaiae?iae/

003.075+091.01+930.27

Canoinoaaiiss OI?IAE?CIAAIIAI AIAE?CO II*A?E?A

I?E IIENAII? ?A?AENUeEEO ?OEIIEN?A

(AeIAA NA?AAeIUeIA?**ss XVIII NO.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.13 Iiae ia?iae?a Ac??, Ao?eee, aai?eaai?a
Aia?eee oa Aano?ae??.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo

iaoe Aeoa?ia?ia E. A.

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? Aeecueeiai oa Na?aaeiueiai Noiaeo ?inoeoooo
noiaeiciaanoaa ?i. A. E?einueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee Aeoa?ia?ia Ethaia Aiae???aia, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?, ?inoeooo ?oeiieno, Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?ioaea Oe?a?ie ?i.
A. ?. Aa?iaaenueeiai, aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Iieuaiei Ieaen?e Naiaiiae/, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? o?einionueeeo
iaoe, i?ioani?, Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?ioaea Oe?a?ie ?i. A. ?.
Aa?iaaenueeiai, aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi?.

Aiaiiieia Ieaenaiae? A?eoi?iae/, eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iia oa oeea?e?caoe?e Aeecueeiai Noiaeo EAeEO.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y Naieo-Iaoa?ao?cueeee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “10” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
ni?oe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.174.01 ?c caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e a
?inoeooo? noiaeiciaanoaa ?i. A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aae?ana: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.A?ooaanueeiai, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
noiaeiciaanoaa ?i. A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aae?ana: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.I.A?ooaanueeiai, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 6 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aoaaiie I. A.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O eieainoiaeuao Oe?a?ie, cie?aia o oiiaeao Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee
Oe?a?ie ?i. A. ?. Aa?iaaenueeiai, /eiaei ?oeiienieo iaoa??ae?a
?a?aenueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui ai?iaeiaae e?eueeio aeanyoee?oue aoee
i?aeoe/ii aeeo/ai? c iaoeiaiai ia?ao. Iia? caaaeaiiy, ui iinoaee c /ano
i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ia?aae aeine?aeieeaie, ye?
i?aoeththoue o aaeoc? iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??, aeoea?coaaee i?ioean
iiaa?iaiiy oeeo iaoa??ae?a aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao, ?oiuei?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ia?iaee ?c caeo/aiiyi no/anieo oaoiieia?e a aaeoc?
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a?ae?ioa/ii? ni?aae. Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi o
i?ioean? ia?iaee aeuacaaaeaieo iaoa??ae?a ? ao?eaooe?y oa iien
?oeiien?a. Oey ?iaioa caaaeii ia aeeeeea? o?oaeiiu?a, eiee eaeaoueny i?i
aeaoiaai? ?oeiiene, aea o aeiaaeeo o?aaiaioa?ieo iaoa??ae?a, ui, ye
i?aaeei, ia i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeaoo ?oiueiai noai?aiiy oa
eieae?caoe?th, aiia iio?aao? iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy, caeo/aiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? i?aaenoaaeyoeiooue iino?eio noeoii?noue
/?oei ae?aaeaieo iciae aeieoiaioa.

sseui ?oeiiene cao?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue a?aeiinii aiaaiaii
aeaooaaoeny ca noeoii?noth ciai?oi?o iciae, iathoue a?aei?aoeueiaaiee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aia?ao ? o?aaeeoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi no?aei?
?oeiiene /anoi ia iiaeooue aooe ?aeaioeo?eiaai? ?iaeoa, ye oeyoii
aiae?co a?ao?ee aeieoiaioa. Ni?aaa oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui a?eueo?noue
oaeeo iaoa??ae?a ? eii?yie a?aeiieo oaeno?a, oiio iaeiei c iniiaieo
iiiaio?a ao?eaooe?? ? aeaooaaiiy o?aaiaio?a ?oeiieno c iaoith
a?aeianaiiy ?o aei iaaieo i?ii?aee?a /ano oa oa?eoi???.

Iae?ath/e ia’?eo aea/aiiy, aaoi? cina?aaeea oaaao ia aeine?aeaeaii?
oi?iae?ciaaieo iciae ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a c iaoith aea/aiiy
iiaeeeaino? iaae?eiiai aeaooaaiiy aeieoiaioa ca aeiiiiiaith aiae?co eiai
a?ao?ee.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? aea/aiiy ii/a?eo,
iaiao?aeiei ? anaa?/ia aea/aiiy ?noi??? ?a?aenueei? a?ao?ee oa
?oeiienii? o?aaeeoe??, a oiio /ene? e ia oa?eoi??? no/anii? Oe?a?ie.
A?aoiaoth/e iaai? ia’?eoeai? o?oaeiiu?, ui iinoathoue ia oeueiio oeyoo,
cie?aia a?aenooi?noue o a?ae?ioaeao Oe?a?ie no/anii? aeia?aeeiai? oa
niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e c ?a?aenueei? iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??,
iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? aeie?aieaiiy oi?iaeueieo iciae ienueia, ye?
caaacia/eee a iaae?eio ao?eaooe?th ?oeiieno ca oa?aeoa?ii a?ao?ee.
Noai?aiiy nenoaie iieno, ui aeicaieeea a aeine?aeieeai noi?aeieo aaeocae
i???iooaaoeny a iaoa??ae?, cia/ii ?icoe?eei a noa?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeeo
aeieoiaio?a. Ie?aii ne?ae neacaoe i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaioiaee
iaoeiaeo eaae??a c oe??? niaoe?ae?caoe??, a /iio aeaia ?iaioa oaeiae
iiaea aooe ei?eniith.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie.

Iiiyooy “?a?aenueea eiaeeeieia?y” aia?oa aoei aecia/aii o a?aeii?e
iiiia?ao?? I. Aaeo-A?’? “Hebrew codicology. Tentative typology of
technical practices employed in Hebrew dated medieval manuscripts”, ui
aeeoea a ??onaeei? 1981 ?ieo. A ?io?e eieaeoe? (The making of the
medieval hebrew book, Jerusalem, 1993) oeae aaoi?, ocaaaeueithth/e
aeina?ae iienaiiy oa ao?eaooe?? ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, aecia/a? oae?
oeie ii/a?eo: aoeaiacueeee, ?oae?enueeee, naoa?aenueeee, a?caio?enueeee,
no?aeiee oa ?iainueeee. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ia?o? ni?iae eeaneo?eaoe??
ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a ?iaeeeny ua a iieniaeo eaoaeiaao, oaeeo,
ye eaoaeia Iieaaoa?a, aea ?inn? oiui. Iienaiiy ii/a?e?a o oeeo ?iaioao
aoei iia’ycaii c aecia/aiiyi i?noey iaienaiiy ?oeiieno ? ia a?ae?a?aaaei
cia/ii? ?ie? a eiai ao?eaooe??. Oea iiynith?oueny, ianaiia?aae, oei, ui
aei aeuacaaaeaieo eaoaeia?a aeeth/aeeny ia?aaaaeii aeaoiaai? ?oeiiene. C
?icaeoeii ?a?aenueei? iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia?? iinoa? iaiao?aei?noue
ie?aneaiiy iciae eiie?aoiiai ii/a?eo aeey iieaaoaiiy ao?eaooe??
iaaeaoiaaieo ?oeiien?a, iniaeeai o aeiaaeeao, eiee oea aaaeei c?iaeoe ca
noeoii?noth ?ioeo iciae. O oe?e ni?aa? aecia/athoueny aeaa i?aeoiaee:
ia?oee iieyaa? a oeeaaeaii? ieaioao?a c oaenei?ea aeaoiaaieo oa
eieae?ciaaieo ?oeiien?a; ae?oaee o aecia/aii? oeiieia?/ieo ?en,
i?eoaiaiieo eiie?aoiei ii/a?eai, noeeyi ? ia??iaeai.

Iaeiiai?oei ca e?euee?noth oei?a ?, aacia?a/ii, c?a?aiiy N. A??iaaoia,
ui neeaaea?oueny c 339 oaenei?ea oa 188 aeoaa?oieo oaaeeoeue.
Aeine?aeiee aeae?ey? oae? oeie ii/a?e?a: iaeanoeinueeee, iaaaa?onueeee,
a?aiaenueea ienueii a ?aeio?, ?a?aenueei-a?aiaenueea ienueii,
?aeiaonueeee, aaaeeiinueeee, eaaeacueeee, eeoaenueeee, ?iae?enueeee,
?iainueeee, cao?aeiee (ia?oueny ia oaac? iaa?eanueeee), naoa?aenueeee,
i?iaainaeuenueei-naoa?aenueeee, ?oaei-naoa?aenueeee,
a?aoeueei-naoa?aenueeee, ne??enueei-naoa?aenueeee,
?aeiaonueei-naoa?aenueeee, a?aoeueeee (ca?ac eiai cacae/ae iaceaathoue
oeiii a?caio?enueei? ciie), e?ei/aoeueei-a?aoeueeee, ?oae?enueeee,
o?aioeocueeee oa aoeaiacueeee. Ie?aii ae??ciy?oueny oaeiae ea?a?inueeee
oei, ui ?iciiae?ey?oueny ia i?aaeaiiiea?a?inueeee,
a?aoeueei-ea?a?inueeee, i?ai?/iiea?a?inueeee oa ia?nueei-ea?a?inueeee
i?aeoeie. Iaaaaaoi i?ino?oith aeaeyaea? eeaneo?eaoe?y ii/a?e?a
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, cai?iiiiiaaia M. Eaii oa O. Iaaaeaeaia. Ooo
?ic??ciy?oueny eeoa o?e iniiai? ?aa?iiaeuei? iae?ioeie ii/a?e?a
na?aaeiueia?/ieo ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a — ac?enueeee,
i?ai?/iiao?eeainueeee oa ?a?iiaenueeee.

Aeaui ?ioee i?aeo?ae canoiniaaii E. Aa?iaaeia?ii — ie?aii aiae?co?oueny
eiaeia e?oa?a, ?? oi?ie iaaiaeyoueny a o?ueio ooieoe?iiaeueieo
??ciiaeaeao ca ??cieie aeaea?aeaie, oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oaeiae
e?aaoo?ai — “aeao-eaiaae”, ”aaa-ioi”, “iai-aei” oiui.

I?eeeaaeii no?oeoo?iiai aiae?co ie?aieo a?aoai eiie?aoiiai aeieoiaioa
iiaeia aaaaeaoe “Eaeueinueeo eaooao”, aea i?e iaeaia?ao?/iiio aiae?c?
a?ao?ee a?aoiaothoueny oae? iieacieee, ye iine?aeiai?noue oa iai?yiie
?oo?a, noaiaoecaoe?y ?oo?a, aaiiao??y ieiueie oa eiioo?e eiaeiiai
ie?aiiai oo?eoa. Iiae?aiee i?aeo?ae aeaiiino?o? oaeiae I. Ooaeioiaeaea?.

I?eeeaae nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy a?ao?ee aeieoiaioa ciaoiaeeii
o I. Eaii oa O. Iaaaeaeaia aiae?co i?aeaeaii oae? oa?aeoa?enoeee:

-eiioo? e?oa?e;

-aaiiao?e/ia oi?ia ieiueie, iaiaaeaii? e?aei?ie oi/eaie e?oa?e;

-ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ai?eciioaeueieo ? aa?oeeaeueieo ?ici???a oe??? ieiueie;

-ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oiaueie oo?eo?a;

-eooia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?oa?e;

-aenioa iniiaieo oo?eo?a e?oa?e;

-iine?aeiai?noue oa iai?yiie ?oo?a (ductus).

Eiaeeeieiae/iee aniaeo aena?oeth? I.Aaeo-A?’?, yeee iaaiaeeoue ia?ae?e
aeaea?ae c oaeeo ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye eieioiie, iaoa??aee oa
cia?yaeaey ienueia, caniae caa?aaeaiiy ii?yaeeo eiaeaeno, e?ioaaiiy,
oa?aeoa? iaa?iaoe??, aei?aaeaiiy.

O eiec? E.N??ao “A?ae ienueia aei eieae”, iacaaaeath/e ia aeaui
iiioey?iee oa?aeoa? aeeeaaeo, ?iaeoueny ni?iaa eeaneo?eaoe?? ienueia
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a o o?niiio ca’yceo c oaoiieia??th ?oiueiai
aeaioiaeaiiy. Aaoi?ea iaaiaeeoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue c?ace?a ienueia
?oeiien?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy oa aiae?co? oa?aeoa? a?ao?ee ienueiiaeo
ciae?a.

A iaeyae? eaoaeia?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, neeaaeaiiio ?.Iicia?ii e
?.Oa-Oaia, e??i ia?ae?eo iaea?aeii?oeo iien?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a,
oaeeo, ye eaoaeia c?a?aiiy A?eoainueeiai iocath, eieaeoe?? O??aeeaiaea
oa a?ae?ioaee ?icaioaey, ?iaeoueny ni?iaa nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?oeiien?a ca
oaiaoe/ieie, a?ae?ia?ao?/ieie oa ?aa?iiaeueieie iciaeaie.

A. O?aeaa? iaiaaa?oueny iia’ycaoe aiae?c ? eeaneo?eaoe?th ienueia
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a c o?aaeeoe??th ?oiueiai iieno oa eaoaeia?caoe??. A
eiai ?iaio? cacia/a?oueny, ui eeaneo?eaoe?y ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a, cai?iiiiiaaia N.A??iaaoiii, iiaea aooe iieeaaeaia a iniiao
i?ney iaaiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy, i?eaa?oa?oueny oaaaa aei oa?i?iieia?/ieo
ca?a?a oa ?ica?aeiinoae o aecia/aii? ii/a?eo ie?aieo ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a. Oae, i?inoaaeaii ia?aeae? i?ae ?a?iiaenueeeie oa ?a?eonueeeie
iacaaie ie?aieo ii/a?e?a. O cacia/ai?e ?iaio? iiaea?oueny iaeyae
iniiaieo eaoaeia?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a — a?ae nieneo E.Aoenoi?oa aei
“?a?aenueeiai iaeaia?ao?/iiai i?iaeoo”, ui aoa ?i?oe?eiaaiee E.N??ao oa
I.Aaeo-A?’? 1965 ?ieo ? eia?/ii ?icaeiaiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiith nenoaiith
“SFAR-DATA”, yea ae?? a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e oa oi?aa?neoaonuee?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?c?a?eth e i?noeoue iiene 2561 aeaoiaaieo oa 1311 iaaeaoiaaieo
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, ye? ooo caa??aathoueny. ?ioi?iaoe?eia nenoaia
neeaaea?oueny c i?eaeecii 355 oeny/ oi?i iieno, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue
aeaoaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaoiaaieo oa iaaeaoiaaieo ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a.

Inoaii?i /anii ? a Oe?a?i? iinoaea i?iaeaia iieno e ao?eaooe??
?oeiienieo aeieoiaio?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo eiii’thoa?ieo
oaoiieia?e. Ieoaiiyi aaoiiaoecaoe?? oa oi?o?eaoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano
i?enay/aii i?aoe? E.A.Aeoa?ia?ii?, I.I.Aaeue/aiei, I.?.?aaiiai?,
?.A.Na?a??ai?, N.I.I?oaei?eiaa, A.A.ssnoeaeo?na. Niaoe?aeueiei i?iaeaiai
iieno ee?eee/ieo ?oeiien?a ca a?ao?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th i?enay/aii
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy E.?.Aiaoaiei. Iaeiae, iaeaea an?
aeuaiacaai? ?iaioe iathoue ocaaaeueithth/ee oa?aeoa?, i?enay/ai?,
caeaa?eueoiai, no?aeiineia’yinueeei ?oeiienai. ?a?aenuee? ?oeiiene
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny eeoa ye ia’?eo iieno ooaeiaeiueiai icaeiaeaiiy.
Ii/a?eiciaa/? aniaeoe ao?eaooe?? ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a o oeeo ?iaioao ia
?icaeyaeaeenue.

Iaoa e caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? oi?iaeueieo
iciae ienueia ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a aeey noai?aiiy oi?iae?ciaaii?
iiaeae? iieno eiie?aoieo ii/a?e?a, ui oiiaeeeaeoue aeaooaaiiy oa
aecia/aiiy i?noey iaienaiiy ?oeiieno iaa?oue ca iaaaeeei? e?eueeino?
a?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo.

Eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaaee a oiio, uia:

-i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a ? iaeaia?ao?a, i?enay/ai? niaoe?aeueiei
iienai iniaeeainoae ?a?aenueeeo ii/a?e?a; ia iniia? oeueiai aiae?co ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeee aeae?eaiiy oeiieia?/ieo ?en ii/a?e?a ee?eee/ieo
?oeiien?a XV-XVII no., aeie?aieoe iniiai? oeie ?a?aenueeeo ii/a?e?a oa
anoaiiaeoe ?oi? aeaooaaiiy e eieae?caoe?th;

-aecia/eoe niaoeeo?/i? iciaee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiie?aoiee oei
?a?aenueeiai ienueia (eaaae?aoiee, iai?aeo?nea oa eo?nea), oa?aeoa?
c’?aeiaiue e?oa? oa ie?aieo aeaiaio?a o oeeo oeiao ii/a?e?a, ei?aeyoe?th
/anoioiino? aeaiaio?a ? na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? ienueia;

-anoaiiaeoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ii/a?eo, ui iathoue oeiieia?/ia cia/aiiy i?e
a?ao?/iiio aiae?c?; aeie?aieoe aoaeiii? oeie a?ao?ee oa aeaoe aeaoaeueio
e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo an?o aeaiaio?a, c yeeo neeaaeathoueny c?acee
iaaiiai oeio ii/a?eo;

-?c canoinoaaiiyi aiae?oe/ieo iaoiaeee, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a
ii/a?eiciaa/?e aenia?oec? ienueia, ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio oi?iae?ciaaieo
iciae ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a;

-ia iniia? aoaeiiieo c?ace?a, i?aaenoaaeaieo o aeaoiaaieo oa
ao?eaooiaaieo ?oeiienao, ?ic?iaeoe aeai?eoie ao?eaooe?? o?aaiaioa?ieo
ia’?eo?a, ui ia?aaoaathoue a iaeiiio ii/a?eiaiio i?inoi??;

-aeae?eeoe oi?iaeuei? iciaee ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, ?ic?iaeoe
oi?o?eiaaio nenoaio iaae?eiiai aeaooaaiiy aeieoiaioa ca eiai a?ao?eith.

-?ic?iaeoe nenoaio caa??aaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ii/a?eia? aa??aioe
eiaeiiai a?ao?/iiai ciaea c iaoith a?aeoai?aiiy ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo
aeieoiaioa a oaenoiaiio oi?iao?.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?aaiaioe ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a c oiiae?a
?inoeoooo ?oeiieno Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?iai?
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa
noaiiaeaiiy ?a?aenueeeo ii/a?e?a ? a?aoai, ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oei?a
ienueia, ?oi? ao?eaooe?y oa aeaooaaiiy.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?e ?iaio? iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi? aeei?enoiao?
ii??aiyeueii-oeiieia?/iee, ?noi?eei-o?eieia?/iee, eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee
iaoiaee, caeo/aii oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaeeee noaoenoe/iiai oa
eiaeeeia?ao?/iiai aiae?co. Ii?aeiaiiy oeeo iaoiae?a aeicaieeei
eiiieaenii i?iaiae?coaaoe ??ci? ca /anii ? ?aa?iiaie iaienaiiy ?oeiieni?
aeaea?aea.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee c oiiaeo
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a ?inoeoooo ?oeiieno Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee
Oe?a?ie ?iai? A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai, c?a?aiiy ?oeiien?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? oa
oi?aa?neoaonueei? a?ae?ioaee ?c?a?eth (??onaeei, ?c?a?eue), iioae?eiaai?
iaoeia? oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ieoaiue eiaeeeieia?? oa
eiaeeeia?ao??, ii/a?eiciaanoaa, iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee a aaeoc?
a?ao?/iiai aiae?co ienueia.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a i?eioeeiiai iiaiio
i?aeoiae? aei aiae?co a?ao?ee ?oeiienieo aeieoiaio?a. O?aaeeoe?y, ui
neeaeany a ?a?aenuee?e iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??, iieyaa? o aea/aii?
oa ii??aiyii? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ii/a?eo a oe?eiio oa ie?aieo a?aoai
cie?aia. A aeena?oaoe?? aea/a?oueny e?euee?niee aniaeo i?iaeaie ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co. ?iaeoueny ni?iaa aecia/eoe
iaae?ei?noue ioe?iee i?eiaeaaeiino? aeieoiaioa aei o??? /e ?ioi?
ienueiiai? o?aaeeoe?? ca e?euee?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aecia/a?oueny oei, ui:

-aeaoaeueiee aiae?c a?ao?ee ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a cae?eniaiee ?c
caeo/aiiyi iaoa??ae?a, ui caa??aathoueny a i?ia?aeieo a?ae?ioaeao na?oo,
aeicaieea aia?oa aecia/eoe oeie ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a ca
oi?iae?ciaaieie e?euee?nieie iciaeaie;

-o aeine?aeaeaii? ii?aeiaii iaoiaeeee e?ei?iae?noe/ii? a?ao?/ii?
aenia?oece ienueia c iaeaia?ao?/iei aiae?cii ?oeiienieo aeieoiaio?a;

-i?e ?ic?iaoe? nenoaie oi?iae?ciaaiiai iieno a?ao?/iiai ia’?eoa, eiai
oi?iae?ciaaii? iiaeae?, aeae?eaii iciaee ii/a?eo ?a?aenueeeo aeieoiaio?a
ia iniia? aeene?aoecaoe?? eiai ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a;

-ia iniia? aiae?co aeieoiaio?a ?c c?a?aiiy ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a
?inoeoooo ?oeiieno IAOA aeae?eaii aoaeiii? c?acee ii/a?e?a oeiiaeo aeey
aeaiiai c?a?aiiy ?oeiien?a, yeeie ? a?aanueei-?a?aenueeee, aoeaiacueeee
oa ea?a?inueeee eo?neae ? iai?aeo?neae;

-aeae?eaii o?e iae?ioeie ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a aeiae
na?aaeiueia?//y oa iiaiai /ano, ye?, a naith /a?ao, iiae?eythoueny ca
iaienaiiyi ie?aieo e?oa? oa e?aaoo? ia o?noue oeiieia?/ieo ??ciiaeae?a,
ui aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe aeaoaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oeeo
??ciiaeae?a ienueia;

-?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie e?euee?niiai e ye?niiai aiae?co oa?aeoa?ieo
aeaiaio?a ?a?aenueeeo ii/a?e?a oiiaeeeaeththoue aeineoue oi/io
ao?eaooe?th oa aeaooaaiiy o?aaiaioa?ieo aeieoiaio?a ca aoaeiiieie
c?aceaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o noai?ai? nenoaie
e?euee?niiai aecia/aiiy oeio ii/a?eo, yea cia/ii iieaaoo? iien oa
ao?eaooe?th aeieoiaio?a ?a?aenueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oe?iea i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy iaoeia aeaeaiiy aeueaii?a oa aoean?a c?ace?a ?a?aenueeeo
ii/a?e?a, ui aeicaieeoue ia iniia? aoaeiiieo c?ace?a ao?eaoooaaoe
o?aaiaioa?i? aeieoiaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aiiy ?aeeii? a?ae?ioa/ii? nenoaie aac aeaieo ia
?oeiieni? iai’yoee Oe?a?ie, i?e noai?aii? i?ia?aie aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
iieno ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a i?e iaoeia?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie “Aeieoiaioaeueia
niaaeueia Oe?a?ie”. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny o
i?aeoeoe? iaoeiaiai iieno oiiaeo ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a ?? IAOA, i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? aeia?aeiee?a ca neeaaeii ? ci?noii ?oeiienieo ? eieaeeiaeo
oiiae?a, o aeine?aeaeaiiyo c ieoaiue eieaiciaanoaa oa
aeieoiaioiciaanoaa, i?aeoe/i?e eaoaeia?caoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?.
Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea cia/ii ni?iuo? neeaaeaiiy iaeaia?ao?/ieo
oaaeeoeue oa aeicaiey? caa??aaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i a?ao?eo ?oeiieno a
noene?oiio aeaeyae? Io?eiai? aaoi?ii ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieyoue ?ic?iaeoe
oa aeeeaaeaoe niaoeeo?ne o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaaii ia
i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “?a?aenueea
?noi??y oa eoeueoo?a a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie”:
I?aeia?. iaoe. eiio., Ee?a, 2-5 aa?aniy 1995 ?., “?V I?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y c ieoaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeeeaaeaiiy thaea?ee a e?a?iao
NIAe ? Aaeo??”: Iineaa, 5-8 ethoiai 1997 ?., “Ia?oa anaoe?a?inueea
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia noiaeiciaa/a eiioa?aioe?y”: Ee?a, aa?acaiue 1996 ?.,
“XII i?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an c thaea?ee” ??onaeei, ?c?a?eue, 2-8 na?iiy
1997 ?., “1000-e?ooy e?oiienaiiy ? eieaeeiai? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?: I?aeia?.
iaoe. eiio.”, Ee?a, 13-15 aeiaoiy 1998 ?., “Ia?o? noiaeiciaa/? /eoaiiy
A. E?einueeiai: I?aeia?. iaoe. eiio.”, Caaieai?iaeea, 27-31 o?aaiy 1997
?., “Ae?oa? noiaeiciaa/? /eoaiiy A.E?einueeiai: I?aeia?. iaoe. eiio.”,
Ee?a-Caaieai?iaeea, 9-12 /a?aiy 1998 ?., a oaeiae o i’yoe ioae?eaoe?yo.
Aaoi? aa?a o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey noai?aiiy
no?aoiaiai oiiaeo oa iieno ?a?aenueeeo aeieoiaio?a o i?iaeo?
I?i?noa?noaa o ni?aaao iaoee oa oaoiieia?e Oe?a?ie “Noai?aiiy aace
aeaieo oi?eaeueieo ?oeiienieo iai’yoie Oe?a?ie: no?aoiaa eii?thaaiiy,
ioae?eaoe?y”. Aaoi? iino?eii aa?a o/anoue o iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ?inoeoooo
noiaeiciaanoaa ?iai? A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?ic?iaeaii aeaa niaoeeo?ne, ui aeeeaaeathoueny ia oaeoeueoao? thaea?ee
I?aeia?iaeiiai Nieiiiiiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

?iaioa caaaeueiei ianyaii 146 n. neeaaea?oueny c anooio (nn. 6-18),
o?ueio ?icae?e?a (nn. 19-147), aeniiae?a (nn. 148-150), i?aaeiaoiiai
iieaae/eea (nn. 151-152), nieneo e?oa?aoo?e oa a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, ui
i?noeoue 279 iaeiaioaaiue (nn. 153-167). Aeiaeaoie (nn. 168-184)
i?noeoue a?n?i oaaeeoeue oa aeaaaeoeyoue /ioe?e ?ethno?aoe??. Ia?oee
?icae?e — “?ieue aiae?co ienueia a iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??”(nn.
19-54), ae?oaee ?icae?e — “Ii/a?eiciaa/? aniaeoe eiaeeeieia?/iiai iieno
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a”(54-89), o?ao?e ?icae?e — “E?euee?ni? iaoiaee
aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ii/a?eo” (89-147). O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? aeaea?aea
oe?a?inueeith, aiae?enueeith, ?in?enueeith, aaa?aenueeith, i?iaoeueeith,
?niainueeith oa ?oae?enueeith iiaaie.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny ??
aeooaeuei?noue, nooi?iue aea/aiiy, aecia/athoueny iaoa e caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe??, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?ieue aiae?co ienueia a iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??”
i?enay/aii aiae?co iiiyooy ii/a?eo ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeanoeainoae
?oeiieno o aeaeyae? noeoiiino? iaaieo iciae. Iaoiaeeea, yeo ie acyee ca
iniiao i?e ?ic?iaoe? oi?iae?ciaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co a?ao?ee
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, iia?o?, cie?aia, oaeeie aecia/aiiyie, ye
caaaeuei? oa /anoeia? iciaee ienueia. Ia?o? noinothoueny a?ao?ee
aeieoiaioa a oe?eiio, ae?oa? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ie?ai? a?aoaie, ?oi?
niieo/aiiy e aeaiaioe.

Na?aae caaaeueieo iciae iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeey aecia/aiiy oeio ii/a?eo, ia
iao iiaeyae, ? oae?: nooi?iue ? oa?aeoa? iai?aoeueiaaiino?, ?ica?i,
iaoee, ca’yci?noue, iaoene oa aiie?ooaea, caaaeueia nenoaia iai?yie?a
?oo?a, cie?aia ?oiy ia?aaaaeia oi?ia, a oaeiae ?icnoaaeaiiy. Na?aae
/anoeiaeo iciae ienueia ne?ae iacaaoe oa?aeoa? aeeiiaiiy iniiaieo
oo?eo?a, iaae?a, iai?aiaae?a, iaae?yaeeiaeo oa i?ae?yaeeiaeo,
c’?aeioaaeueieo, iiia?aaei?o ? caeeth/ieo, aeiaeaoeiaeo iaae- oa
i?ae?yaeeiaeo oo?eo?a, iniaeeaino? aeeiiaiiy ienueiiaeo ciae?a oa ?oi?o
/anoei, iniaeeaino? c’?aeiaiiy ciae?a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ciae?a oa ?oi?o
/anoei, a?aeiinia oyae?noue ?oo?a i?e aeeiiaii? e?oa? oa ?oi?o
aeaiaio?a, neeaaei?noue oa ia?aaaaeiee iai?yiie ?oo?a, a oaeiae iciaee,
ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?inoi?iao i???ioaoe?th.

Nooi?iue ? oa?aeoa? iai?aoeueiaaiino? o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ne?ae ?icoi?oe
ye ??aaiue noaiaea?oecaoe?? ciae?a i?e ienuei? oa aaee/eio a?aeoeeaiiy
a?ae noaiaea?oo, ui neeaany. Aa?oi caoaaaeeoe, ui aea/aiiy oeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeioe?eueii aeey aiae?co ??ciiaeae?a, /ee ??aaiue
noaiaea?oecaoe?? aeeiiaiiy ciae?a nyaa? iaaiiai nooiaiy, a naia: aeey
eaaae?aoiiai oa iai?aeo?neaa. Iai?aoeueiaai?noue ienueia a eo?neaao ?
nei??oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ii/a?eo aeeiiaaoey, oi/a ca
iayaiino? iaaii? e?eueeino? a?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo, ui iaeaaeeoue ??ciei
aeeiiaaoeyi, iiaeia aecia/eoe ??aaiue ?icaeoeo ienueiiai? o?aaeeoe?? a
iaaieo ni?eueiioao ? a iaai? ia??iaee.

Caaaeueia nenoaia iai?yie?a ?oo?a aecia/a? iai?yiee, aeanoea? aeaiiio
oeiia? ienueia.

?ica?i noino?oueny ye ie?aieo ienueiiaeo ciae?a, oae ? ne?a a oe?eiio oa
aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi aenioe iniiaieo oo?eo?a e?oa?, ui
neeaaeathoueny ia iaio ye ?c aeaio iniiaieo oo?eo?a aei a?aenoai? i?ae
ieie.

Iaoee aecia/a?oueny i???ioaoe??th iniiaieo oo?eo?a aai aa?oeeaeueii? an?
e?oa?e uiaei e?i?? ?yaeea. Aecia/aeueiith oey iciaea iiaea aooe aeey
noaiaea?oeciaaieo ??ciiaeae?a oei?a ii/a?eo, aea, ia iao iiaeyae, eeoa a
noeoiiino? c ?ioeie iciaeaie.

Ca’yci?noue oa?aeoa?eco?oueny e?euee?noth oo?eo?a ? ciae?a, ui
aeeiiothoueny iaeiei aacia?a?aiei ?ooii ? oaeiae ia? aeiiii?aeia
cia/aiiy aeey aecia/aiiy oeio ienueia a oe?eiio. Uiaei aieeao ca’yciino?
ia oa?aeoa? aeeiiaiiy ie?aieo e?oa?, oi eiai aeioe?euei?oa ?icaeyaeaoe a
iaaeao /anoeiaeo iciae. Oey oa?aeoa?enoeea ? iaenooo?a?oith aeey
eo?nea?a.

Iaoene aecia/a?oueny oiaueiith iniiaieo oo?eo?a ? ? aaaeeeaei i?e
aecia/aii? cia?yaeaey ienueia, ui aeicaiey? aeaooaaoe aeieoiaio iaaiei
ia??iaeii oa i?eiaeaaei?noth aei iaaii? o?aaeeoe??.

Aiie?ooaea ?icoi??oueny ye a?aenoaiue ia e?i?? ienueia, ai?iaeiaae yei?
ciaee aeeiiothoueny aac ci?ie oi/ee iii?e. Oey oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaea
aeiiiiiaoe i?e aecia/aii? aeiiii?aeieo cia?yaeue ienueia, oi/a oea
aaea?oueny aeaeaei ia caaaeaee.

Aei iniiaieo oo?eo?a iaeaaeaoue aeaiaioe, ui aeeiiothoueny ia?aaaaeii
i?yiie?i?eieie ?ooaie. ?ic??ciythoue i?ea?aei? (aei naaa), a?aea?aei?
(a?ae naaa) oa ai?eciioaeuei? oo?eoe.

Iaaee oa iai?aiaaee – oea iai?yiie?i?ei? oo?eoe a?aeiia?aeii? oi?ie.
?ic??ciythoue i?aaie?oaei? oa e?aie?oaei?, aaeee? oa iae? iaaee e
iai?aiaaee.

Uiaei a?aeiinii? oyaeino? ?oo?a i?e aeeiiaii? e?oa? oa ?oi?o aeaiaio?a,
iaae?yaeeiaeo oa i?ae?yaeeiaeo, c’?aeioaaeueieo, iiia?aaei?o ?
caeeth/ieo, aeiaeaoeiaeo iaae- ? i?ae?yaeeiaeo oo?eo?a, o?aaa
caoaaaeeoe, ui ?oi?e aeiiii?aeiee oa?aeoa? coiiaeth?, c iaeiiai aieo,
iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeyaeo oeeo aeaiaio?a o noeoiiino? c ?ioeie, c
ae?oaiai aeioe?euei?noue aea/aiiy e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a aeei?enoaiiy
oeeo aeaiaio?a o aeieoiaio? a oe?eiio. Cie?aia, ?ic??ciythoueny iaae- oa
i?ae?yaeeia? oo?eoe o aeaeyae? iaoaeue (aaeeeeo ? iaeeo) oa i?yieo
oo?eo?a.

Neeaaei?noue ? ia?aaaaeiee iai?yiie ?oo?a aecia/athoueny e?eueeiia
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a naia ia?aaaaeiei iai?yieii ?oo?a i?e aeeiiaii?
ie?aieo e?oa?, c’?aeiaiue oa aeaiaio?a, oi?iith ?oo?a, oyae?noth ?oo?a
oa ?? aieeaii ia aeeiiaiiy ? c’?aeiaiiy aeaiaio?a, oi?iith ?oo?a (ia
a?aei?io a?ae ia?aaaaeii? oi?ie ?oo?a eaeaoueny i?i niin?a aeeiiaiiy
ie?aieo e?oa? oa aeaiaio?a), e?euee?noth aeaiaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue
ienueiiaee ciae, iine?aeiai?noth ?oo?a, nooiaiai aacia?a?aiino?.

Iciaee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?inoi?iao i???ioaoe?th, aeeth/athoue a naaa
?ici?uaiiy oi/ie ii/aoeo oa e?ioey ?ooo, a oaeiae c’?aeiaiiy oa
ia?aoeiaiiy, aa?oeeaeueio oa ai?eciioaeueio i???ioaoe?th ?oo?a.

I?aenoiiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia, iiaeia caanoe iciaee ienueia, aaaeeea? i?e
aecia/aii? oeio ii/a?eo, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, aei
oaeeo oei?a ia?aiao??a:

— oa?aeoa? oi?ie ?oo?a;

— oa?aeoa? i???ioaoe?? ?oo?a;

— oa?aeoa? aeeiiaiiy ?oo?a.

Caeaaeii a?ae oiai, ye? iciaee, caaaeuei? /e /anoeia?, i?aeeyaathoue
aiae?co, oie /e ?ioee ia?aiao? iaaoaa? eiie?aoiiai ci?noo.

Aiae?c ii/a?eo aeei?enoiao?oueny a na?oia?e iaeaia?ao?/i?e o?aaeeoe??,
cie?aia, ao?eaooe?? aeaaiuei?onueeeo ?oeiien?a. Oi?iae?caoe?y iciae
ii/a?e?a ia nyaa? oaeiai ??aiy, ye o e?ei?iae?noeoe?, aea iiaeia
aeae?eeoe iaai? aeaiaioe (“uiaee”, “oainoe” oa ?i.), a oaeiae aeaye?
noaiaea?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee, oae?, ye iaoee, oyae?noue oa ?i.

Oae, I. A. U?ie?ia, ?icaeyaeath/e iiaeeea?noue ioioiaeiaiiy ii/a?e?a
aeaaiuei?onueeeo ?oeiien?a, caa?oa? oaaao ia oa?aeoa? aeeiiaiiy ie?aieo
e?oa? oa ?oi?o aeaiaio?a. I?e iienaii? i?eioeei?a ioioiaeiaiiy oa
oei?caoe?? ii/a?e?a ?onueeeo ?oeiien?a XVI – XVII E. I. Einotho?ia
cacia/a?, ui i?e aiae?c? ienueia iaaeinoaoiuei aeei?enoiaothoueny oi/i?
e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Ia iaoa??ae? Aaeeoeueeiai ?aaiaae?y ?iaeoueny
ni?iaa nenoaiaoecaoe?? oeiiaeo iciae /ioe?ueio ii/a?e?a, yeeie aeeiiaii
aeaiee ?oeiien. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ni?iaa ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
ia?aienoaa/?a ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ienueia nei?iienieo ?oeiien?a. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui aeaaiuei?onueea ?oeiienia o?aaeeoe?y ia? aaaaoi ni?eueiiai
c ?a?aenueeith c iaeaia?ao?/ii? oa eiaeeeieia?/ii? oi/ie ci?o. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, onoaa, iai?aonoaa oa nei?iien iiaeia i?eaanoe o
a?aeiia?aei?noue aei eaaae?aoiiai, iai?aeo?neao oa eo?neao ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Ii/a?eiciaa/? aniaeoe eiaeeeieia?/iiai iieno
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a” i?enay/aiee oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oei?a ii/a?e?a
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a c iaeaia?ao?/ii? oa eiaeeeieia?/ii? oi/ie ci?o.

I?e ao?eaooe?? ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, iniaeeai no?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
iaaaeyeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ei?aeoia aecia/aiiy i?eiaeaaeiino? ii/a?eo,
yeei aeeiiaii ?oeiien, aei o??? /e ?ioi? oeiee ienueia.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui cia/io e?euee?noue ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, ui
caa??aathoueny a ?? IAOA, neeaaeathoue iaaeaoiaai? aeieoiaioe
o?aaiaioa?iiai oa?aeoa?o iaaecia/aiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, aaeeeiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? ei?aeoia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y oa eieae?caoe?y ?oeiieno ca a?ao?/ieie
iciaeaie. Aeina?ae oi?iae?caoe?? iciae ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a
na?ae/eoue, ui aeioe?eueiei ? canoinoaaiiy aiae?oe/ieo iaoiaeee, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny o a?ao?/i?e aenia?oec? ienueia. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui
iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi inoaiiuei? ? aecia/aiiy iniae aaoi?a aeieoiaioa,
oiae? ye eiaeeeieia?/ia oa iaeaia?ao?/ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ia? ca iaoo,
ianaiia?aae, i?inoi?iao oa /aniao eieae?caoe?th ?oeiieno.

Ca ooieoe?iiaeueiei i?ecia/aiiyi o?aaeeoe?eii aeae?eythoueny o?e
??ciiaeaee ienueia — eaaae?aoia, eo?nea oa iai?aeo?nea, aai ?aaei?noe/ia
ienueii.

Eaaae?aoia ienueii ? iaenoa??oei ??ciiaeaeii ? iioiaeeoue a?ae
a?aiaenueeiai ienueia, yea, a naith /a?ao, aaco?oueny ia o?i?e?enueeiio
aeoaa?o? XI-X no. aei i. a. *a?ac iioe?ai?noue a?aiaenueei? iiae ca
/an?a aioe/iino? o no?aeiiio oa i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiio Na?aaecaiiiii?’?
a?aiaenueea ienueii iinooiiai aeo?niy? aeaaiuei?a?aenueea, ui oaeiae
iioiaeeoue a?ae o?i?e?enueeiai. A aaiethoe?? ?a?aenueeiai ienueia
aeae?eythoueny o?e aaeeeeo aoaie: aioe/iee, na?aaeiueia?/iee oa
no/aniee. Ia?oee aoai ii/eia?oueny c iiiaioo a?aeie?aieaiiy
?a?aenueeiai ienueia a?ae a?aiaenueeiai oa nyaa? II no. i. a., ae?oaee
aoai — a?ae II aei XVII no., a a aeayeeo a?aaiiiaieo aeieoiaioao aei
XVIII no., o?ao?e — c XVIII no. aei nueiaiaeaiiy. Ia?oee aoai
?iciiae?ey?oueny ia oae? ia??iaee: ia?ni-ioieaiaenueeee (V-III no. aei
i. a.), aniiiaenueeee (150-30 ??. aei i. a.), ??iae?ainueeee (30 ?. aei
i. a. — 70 ?. i. a.) oa iino-??iae?ainueeee (70 — 135 ??. i. a.).
Oaeoe/ii, ii/eiath/e c VI no. aei i. a., ?a?aenueea ienueii iaaoaa?
“eaaae?aoii?” oi?ie.

Aeey eaaae?aoieo ii/a?e?a oa?aeoa?iei ? aenieee nooi?iue
noaiaea?oecaoe?? aeaiaio?a. A ie?aieo oeiao eaaae?aoiiai ienueia
ci?ith?oueny oaeoe/ii aeoaea iaaaeeea e?euee?noue oa?aeoa?enoee ii/a?eo,
oaeeo ye, iai?eeeaae, oyae?noue ?oo?a, iaoee, a oiio, ui noino?oueny
niaoe?aeueieo iciae ii/a?eo, a oaeiae ?ica?i oa ?icnoaaeaiiy, a oiio, ui
noino?oueny eiai caaaeueieo iciae.

Eo?neaia o?aaeeoe?y aeieea? a i?ciueianiiiaenueeee ia??iae,
i?iaeiaaeo?oueny a ??iaeainueeee oa iino??iae?ainueeee oa ?nio? a
iiaeaeueo? /ane, eo?neae, ia a?aei?io a?ae iai?aeaaae?aoiiai oa
iai?aeo?nea?a, canoiniaothoueny aeey i?eaaoiiai eenooaaiiy, neoaeaiaeo
caien?a. Ia?o? eo?neai? iaiene aeaoothoueny ae?oaei ?a?aenueeei
iianoaiiyi 132-135 ??. i. a.

Iai?aeo?neaiee ??ciiaeae ienueia c’yaeany o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth
a?aeie?aieaiiy iniiaiiai oaenoo a?ae eiiaioa?th, eiai aeieeiaiiy
iia’ycaia, ia a inoaiith /a?ao, c ?aaei?noe/ii-ea?a?inueeith iieai?eith.
Iai?aeo?nea aeieea? o X-XII no. ? yaey? niaith iia?aeiee aa??aio
eaaae?aoiiai ienueia ? /a?ac oea /anoi iaaeeaea?oueny aei eo?neao.
?ic??ciythoueny oaeiae ??ciiaeaee ienueia, ui ? ia?ao?aeieie i?ae
eaaae?aoiei oa iai?aeo?neaii ye? iaceaathoue iai?aeaaae?aoiei aai
eaaae?aoiei ?aaei?noe/iei ienueiii, a oaeiae i?ae iai?aeo?neaii oa
eo?neaii, ye? iaceaathoue ?aaei?noe/iei eo?neaii. O ca’yceo c
?iciianthaeaeaiiyi a?aiaenueei? iiae ye iiae aaei?i?no?aoe?? iie?oe/ieo
ooai?aiue, aei yeeo aoiaeeea oa?eoi??y ?oaea?, ? iinooiiaei aeo?niaiiyi
iath aaa?aenueei? iiae a?aiaenueea ienueii cai?ieei iaeai?a?aenueea, yea
iioiaeeoue aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae o?i?e?enueeiai. A?aiaenueeiio ienueio
o??? aiioe aoea i?eoaiaiia a?aeiinia eaae?noue aeeiiaiiy ciae?a oa
?aaoey?i?noue oi?i. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aei ?? no. aei i. a.
a?aiaenueea ienueii ia aeei?enoiaoaaeiny aeey noai?aiiy ?a?aenueeeo
aeieoiaio?a, ?icaeoie eaaae?aoii? oa eo?neaii? oi?i ienueia ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a aoa coiiaeaiee i?ioeanaie, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a a?aiaenuee?e
ienaiiino?. A iiaeaeueoiio oea ienueii, ui ia oie /an iaaoei nai??
oa?aeoa?ii? eaaae?aoii? oi?ie, iaa?ae’?iii iia’ycaia c ?noi???th
?a?aenueeiai oa ?oaeaenueeiai e?oiienaiiy, aiii io?eiaei iacao
?a?aenueeiai eaaae?aoiiai ienueia. sse a?aecia/aeiny, eaaae?aoiee o?eoo
iaei ci?ithaaany c /anii oa iaei caeaaeaa a?ae eieae?caoe?? ?oeiieno, ui
oneeaaeith? aecia/aiiy oeiieia?/ieo ?en, i?eoaiaiieo aa??aioai
eaaae?aoiiai ii/a?eo. Aeey eaaae?aoiiai oeio oa?aeoa?iith ? noae?noue
oi?ie, ui caa??aa?oueny ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio noi??/. Oea noino?oueny
cie?aia oaeeo oei?a ienueia ye aoeaiacueeee. C ?ioiai aieo, iaea?eueo
iia?aeiei oa ci?ii?i oeiii ? eo?neaia ienueii, ui caciaei aaeeeeo ci?i
oi?iaeiaae naiai ?icaeoeo ? ia? aaaaoi aa??aio?a caeaaeii a?ae i?noey
iaienaiiy ?oeiieno. Iai?aeo?nea, aai ?aaei?noe/ia ienueii, c
ii/a?eiciaa/i? oi/ee ci?o yaey? niaith i?ii?aeiee aoai i?ae eaaae?aoiei
ienueiii oa eo?neaii.

Ie?aio niaoeeo?/io /anoeio oiiaeo ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a IAOA
noaiiaeyoue a?aaiiiai? ?a?aenuee? iaoa??aee, aeeiiai? ?a?aenueeith
a?ao?eith. Oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui ii/a?ee a?aanueei-?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a
caeaaeaee a?ae oiai, aei yei? ni?eueiioe iaeaaeaa ia?aienoaa/.
Iaeiioe?ai?oeie na?aae ii/a?e?a aeuacaaaeaieo ?oeiien?a ? no?aeiee,
?iainueeee oa naoa?aenueeee oeie, i?aaenoaaeai? eo?neaaie oa
iai?aeo?neaaie. Eaaae?aoia ienueii a a?aaiiiaieo ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiienao
aeei?enoiaoaaeiny ??aeei, ia?aaaaeii aeey aeae?eaiiy iaca ?icae?e?a oa
iiaeaeoaee a oaenoao e?oo?a?eiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui aeo?ea? c? noa?e
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai oeio ienueia.

I?e a?oaia?ao?/iiio iien? aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
noo? ?oeiienii? iai’yoee, iiaeeaeaiiai ?? aiae?co, iaiao?aeii aieiae?oe
?ioi?iaoe??th, ui ? o oiiaeao ??cieo onoaiia, iia’ycaieo ?c caa??aaiiyi
oa aeei?enoaiiyi aeieoiaio?a, a oiio /ene? e a ?ioeo e?a?iao. Aeaaeae?
aeieea? iio?aaa a ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oa, aea caa??aathoueny aeieoiaioe,
aeecuee? ca /anii aei aeine?aeaeoaaii? iai’yoee ca ?noi?e/iith aiioith,
?ioi?iaoe??th, iniaeeai — iaoa??aee, ui iia’ycai? ?c ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoue aai aeiiiaiththoue eiai ci?no. Aeey
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ii/a?e, yeei ?o aeeiiaii, ia?
aaeeea cia/aiiy ? caneoaiao? ia aianaiiy aei ?ioi?iaoe?eieo nenoai, ui
noai?ththoueny.

Iniaeeai aeooaeueii oea aeey aeieoiaio?a, ui iathoue o?aaiaioa?iee
oa?aeoa? ? noaiiaeyoue, ye aaea cacia/aeiny, a?eueoo /anoeio c?a?aiiy.
Aiaeia?/i? ?oeiieni? iaoa??aee oa aeieoiaioe caa??aathoueny o aaaaoueio
e?a?iao na?oo. Oiio e aeieeea ?aaeueia iio?aaa o ?ic?iaoe?
oi?aa?naeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace, yea a ?ioaa?oaaea iaeneiaeueii
iane/aio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iai’yoee ?a?aenueei? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie, ?oi?
iiaoooaaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioae?eaoe??. Oaea nenoaia aeiaaa?
aeiaaino?ieiai? ?iaioe oao?aoe?a ??cieo aaeocae ?, niiae?aa?iinue, c
/anii aoaea noai?aia.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “E?euee?ni? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a ii/a?eo”
iaaiaeyoueny iniiai? i?eioeeie e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiaio?a
ii/a?eo

Canoiniaaii iaoiaeeeo ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ii/a?eo. Aeey noai?aiiy aoaeiiiiai c?acea iaiao?aeii aea/aiiy yeiiiaa
a?eueoi? e?eueeino? iaae?eii aeaoiaaieo ?oeiien?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo oeiieia?/ieo e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Ca o??th ae iaoiaeeeith
iaiao?aeii i?iaiae?coaaoe a?ao?eo aeieoiaioa, ui aea/a?oueny. Ia
i?aenoaa? ii??aiyiiy e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii/a?eo aeine?aeaeoaaiiai aeieoiaioa aei aoaeiiiiai c
o?aooaaiiyi noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo.

I?e aecia/aii? /eneiaeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue e?oa? aeey aeie?aieaiiy
aoaeiiiiai noaiaea?oo aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia caa?iooe oaaao ia oae?
iieacieee:

Iai?yiie ?oo?a. I?ae oe??th oa?aeoa?enoeeith ?icoi??oueny i?inoi?iaa
i???ioaoe?y iai?yie?a ?oo?a i?e aeeiiaii? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a e?oa?, ui
a?aeoai?th?oueny o aeaeyae? a?aeiinieo eii?aeeiao oi/ie ii/aoeo oa
e?ioey ?ooo oa eiai ni?yiiaaiino? uiaei iai?yieo ienueia. Aeey aeaiaio?a
ae?oai? a?oie aeioe?eueii oaeiae cacia/eoe eii?aeeiaoo aeno?aioio ?c
cacia/aiiyi eooa i?e na?aaei?e oi/oe?. I?e oeueiio iaeeieoeath aei??o
iiaea neoaeeoe aeey aa?oeeaeueieo iieaciee?a — aenioa iaae?yaeeiai?
/anoeie e?oa?e aac aeiaeaoeiaeo oo?eo?a, aeey ai?eciioaeueieo — ??
oe?eia. O ?ac? iaiao?aeiino? iiaeia iicia/eoe cnoa iaeieo aeaiaio?a
e?oa?e uiaei ?ioeo, iiaeaiee a aiaeia?/ieo iaeeieoeyo aei??o.

sse?noue ?oo?a. Aei oe??? a?oie iaeaaeaoue oae? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye
iaoene oa, o aeiaaeeo i?iaaaeaiiy aeenia?niiai aiae?co, ieiueia ci?ie
e?oa?e oa ?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c ieiueiith aaiiao?e/iiai i?inoi?o e?oa?e.

Caaaeuei? iciaee ii/a?eo. A oe?e a?oi? ia?aiao??a aeioe?eueii aecia/eoe
oae? noaoenoe/i? iieacieee, ye: ia?aaaaeiee iai?yiie oa ia?aaaaeia oi?ia
e?oa?.

Ia iniia? cacia/aieo ia?aiao??a iiaeia neeanoe caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
ii/a?eo oa ie?aieo eiai aeaiaio?a.

Aeey ii/a?eo, ui i?aeeyaa? aiae?co, iaiao?aeii neeanoe oaaeeoeth
iniiaieo iae?aneaiue e?oa? oa ie?aieo aeaiaio?a c cacia/aiiyi
i?inoi?iaeo oa ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee, iiaeia oaeiae iaaanoe ia?an?/i?
aaee/eie aeey eiaeiiai c aa??aio?a ie?aii? e?oa?e, ui cono??/athoueny a
aeieoiaio?.

Aeey ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co eiie?aoiiai ii/a?eo c oeiiaei aoaeiiii
iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe e?eoa??? ioe?iee ca?a?a aai ?ica?aeiinoae iniiaieo
/eneiaeo iieaciee?a. Ia aeaiiio aoai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aaaaea?ii ca
aeioe?eueia i?eeiyoe ioe?ii/i? ia?aiao?e, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a
a?ao?/i?e aenia?oec? ienueia. Aeey oiai/iaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeioe?eueii neeanoe a?ao?e ca?a?a oa ?ica?aeiinoae, ia yeiio aoaea
a?aeoai?aii e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey eiaeii? ie?aii? e?oa?e.

Ie?aiee aeiaaeie noaiiaeyoue ?oeiiene, aeeiiai?
ia?aienoaa/aie-?ii?a?aioaie, ye? iaiaaaeeny aeeiioaaoe ?oeiiene ii/a?eii
ni?eueiioe iiaiai i?noey ia?aaoaaiiy, aea ia iicaaaeeeny iaae/ie,
i?eoaiaiieo “??aeiiio” ienueio. Ooo aeioe?eueii canoinoaaoe iaoiaeeeo
aiae?co ienueia iaaienii ci?iaiei ii/a?eii. Aeey caaaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ii/a?e?a, ui aea/athoueny iiaeia oaeiae neeanoe ae?aa?aio
ca?a?a oa ?ica?aeiinoae ca eiaeiei ie?aiei c ianooiieo ia?aiao??a:
cieaeaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?? i?yiie?i?eieo ?oo?a; cieaeaiiy eii?aeeiaoe??
e?eaie?i?eieo ?oo?a; ia??aiii??iee oaii aeeiiaiiy; ia??aia oi?ia ?oo?a;
e?oaea oi?ia ?oo?a (ia?aaaaeia aai a a?oi? e?oa?); iaiaeii?aciaa
ia?aaaaeaiiy eooiaeo c’?aeiaiue; ci?oaiee aai i?aaie?oaeiee iai?yiie
?ooo (oie, ui ia?aaaaea?, aai a a?oi? e?oa?); ??cei iacae/aeia iiaoaeiaa
e?oa?, a oiio /ene? iayai?noue e?oa? ae?oeiaaii? oi?ie; o?ea/anoa
aeeiiaiiy e?oa? (ia?aaaaeia oa a ie?aieo neiaao); ia?a?ea/anoa aeeiiaiiy
aeaiaio?a e?oa? (oa, ui ia?aaaaea?, oa /anoei aeaiaio?a e?oa?); aaeeea
aeiaaeeia ?oo?a ii aa?oeeae? (aaeeea aenioa); ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie
?oo?a i?e aeeiiaii? ie?aieo e?oa? a oe?eiio oa i?e aeeiiaii? aeaiaio?a a
ie?aieo e?oa?ao; iaoene neeueiee oa a?eueo i?ae neeueiee; ai?eciioaeueia
ia??ai?noue i?e aeeiiaii? e?oa? oa ?oi?o aeaiaio?a; oneeaaeiaiiy ?oo?a
i?e aeeiiaii? iaae- ? i?ae?yaeeiaeo aeaiaio?a e?oa?; ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? ?oo?a.

Ioaea, caaaeueieie ?enaie, ui a?ae??ciythoue ienueii ci?iaiei ii/a?eii
a?ae cae/aeiiai, aoaeooue: cieaeaiiy eii?aeeiaoe?? ?oo?a, ia??aiii??iee
oaii ienueia, aaeeea aeiaaeeia ?oo?a ? aaeeeee iaoene. Noaoenoe/iee
aiae?c aeaieo, io?eiaieo aiane?aeie aenia?eiaio?a na?ae/eoue, ui
?ioi?iaoeai?noue i?e ioe?ioe? eiia??iino? ienueia ci?iaiei ii/a?eii
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaio oaeoi??a, a naia: a?ae neeaaeiino? e?oa?e oa ??
/anoioiino?. *ei neeaaei?oith ? e?oa?a oa /ei /ano?oa aiia
cono??/a?oueny, oei a?eueoa ?ioi?iaoe?? aiia iana.

Ca neeaaei?noth iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? a?oie e?oa?:

— i?ino? — “eiae”, “aaa”, “caei”, “eao”, “ioi”, “naiao”, “?aeo”;

-na?aaeiuei? neeaaeiino?- “aao”, “a?iae”, “aeaeao”, “aae”, “oao”, “oao”,
“aei”, “oeaae?”, “eoo”, “oaa”;

— neeaaei? — “aeao”, “eaiaae”, “iai”, “iae”, “oei”, e?aaoo?e.

Aeey aaoiiaoecaoe?? aoai?a ii/a?eiciaa/iai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiao?aeii
noai?eoe nenoaio aeai?eoi?a oi?iae?ciaaii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ii/a?eo. I?e
noai?aiiy aeeoa?aioe?eii-?aeaioeo?eaoe?eiiai aeai?eoio, ui aeicaieea ae
aeei?enoaoe ia/enethaaeueio oaoi?eo i?e ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ii/a?e?a,
iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe oae? iniiai? iiiyooy:

Iaeiioeii? a?ao?/i? ia’?eoe. Aiie yaeythoue niaith a?ao?/i? ia’?eoe, ye?
iiaeia ni?anoaaeoe: ieie iiaeooue aooe ??ci? iae?aneaiiy iaei??? e?oa?e,
iaeiiai neiaa aai i?aeieno, aeeiiai? ??cieie ii/a?eaie.

Iao?ecaoe?y — eiie?aoiee niin?a ia?aaiaeo a?ao?/iiai ia’?eoa o
iine?aeiai?noue /enae, yeo iaceaathoue ii/a?eiaei aa??aioii. Oea iiaeia
cae?enieoe ca aeiiiiiaith iienaiiy aeanoeainoae oa?aeoa?ieo oi/ie, ye?
?ici?uothoueny i?ae ieie ia e?i??, ui ooai?th? a?ao?/iee ia’?eo.
Eii?aeeiaoe oeeo oi/ie oa e?i?e, ui c’?aeiothoue ?o, ooai?thth/e
/eneiaee ?yae, oa?aeoa?ecothoue oie /e ?ioee ii/a?eiaee aa??aio.

Iao?ecaoe?y cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a, aei
yeeo iaeaaeaoue, na?aae caaaeueieo iciae ii/a?eo, oae?, ye ?ica?i,
ia?aaaaeiee iai?yiie ?oo?a, ia?aaaaeiee iaoene, ia?an?/ia aenioa
iaeiioeiieo ia’?eo?a. Na?aae niaoe?aeueieo iciae aecia/aeueieie i?e
iao?ecaoe?? ? iai?yiie ?oo?a, eii?aeeiaoe oi/ie ii/aoeo oa e?ioey ?ooo,
oi/ie aeno?aioi?a oa eooia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie, iaoene, oa?aeoa?
c’?aeiaiiy aeaiaio?a, e?euee?noue oi?iaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue aeaiaio oa
e?euee?noue aeaiaio?a ie?aiiai ienueiiaiai ciaea. Iniiaiei e?eoa???i o
aecia/aii? oi/ie ?icae?eaiiy oi?iaio?a iiaeii? aooe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
iai?yieii oa oaeaee?noth ?oo?a.

Ii/a?eiaee i?ino?? — oea noeoii?noue ??ciiiai?oieo ii/a?eiaeo aa??aio?a,
ui a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaeeeaei a?ao?/iei ia’?eoai o?eniaaii? ?ici??iino?.
Cie?aia, an? iaeiioeii? ii/a?eia? aa??aioe eaaeaoue a iaeiiio
ii/a?eiaiio i?inoi??.

O?aioaaeueia iine?aeiai?noue — e?ioeaaa noeoii?noue a?ao?/ieo ia’?eo?a,
ye? iiaeia iaae?eii ao?eaoooaaoe ca oeiii ii/a?eo. A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
?ieue o?aioaaeueii? iine?aeiaiino? aeeiiothoue ao?eaooiaai? ?a?aenuee?
?oeiiene, ui caa??aathoueny a ??cieo oiiaeao.

Iine?aeiai?noue aeey ?ici?ciaiiy — e?ioeaaa noeoii?noue a?ao?/ieo
ia’?eo?a, aeeiiaieo iaa?aeiiei ia?aienoaa/ai, ii/a?e aai iniao yeiai
o?aaa ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ii/a?e?a iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aeaa caaaeaiiy:
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeecueeeo ii/a?e?a ? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ii/a?eo. A
ii/a?eiciaa/?e aenia?oec? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeai?eoie i?eeiyooy
??oaiue, ui caaacia/othoue iaae?eia oi?iae?ciaaia a?aeie?aieaiiy iaeieo
oei?a ii/a?eiaeo ia’?eo?a a?ae ?ioeo.

I?e aecia/aii? aoaeiiiiai c?acea iaiao?aeii aeaoe aeaoaeueio e?euee?nio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo an?o aeaiaio?a, c yeeo neeaaea?oueny aeaiee oei ii/a?eo,
aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?o ii??aiyiiy c oaeoe/ieie iieacieeaie ii/a?eo
?oeiieno, yeee i?aeeyaa? ao?eaooe??.

Oaeei /eiii, ao?eaooe?y ?oeiieno ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee
neeaaeaoeiaoueny c aeaio aoai?a: aecia/aiiy aoaeiiiiai c?acea aeey
aeaiiai oeio ii/a?eo oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aoaeiiiiai ii/a?eo c ii/a?eii ?oeiieno, ui i?aeeyaa? ao?eaooe??.

Nooi?iue iaae?eiino? ?acoeueoao?a aecia/aoeiaoueny e?euee?noth
i?iaiae?ciaaieo c?ace?a ii/a?eo. Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui caa??aaiiy
aaeeei? e?eueeino? a?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iio?aao? caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo
?ano?n?a. Noai?aiiy ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee ii/a?eiciaa/i?
aace aeaieo, ui i?noeoue e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?ao?ee, yeith
aeeiiaii ?oeiien, aeicaieeei a cia/ii iieaaoeoe i?ioean ao?eaooe??
?oeiienieo aeieoiaio?a oa ciaioeoe eiia??i?noue iiieeee i?e aeaooaaii?
oa eieae?caoe?? ?oeiieno, c?iaeoe a?eueo iioeaiaaieie aeniiaee uiaei
iniae ia?aienoaa/a i?e iayaiino? aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? a?ao?/iiai
iaoa??aeo.

?a?aenuee? ?oeiiene, ui caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao IAOA, i?aaenoaaeai?
i?aeoe/ii an?ia iniiaieie oeiaie ii/a?e?a. Iaeneeaaei?oeie c oi/ee ci?o
ao?eaooe??, ?, aacia?a/ii, o?aaiaioe ?oeiien?a no?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
ui aeeiiai? ye aaa?aenueeith, oae ? a?aanueeith iiaaie. Ii/a?e
a?eueoino? c ieo ca aeiiiiiaith iaaaaeaii? iaoiaeeee iiaeia a?aeianoe
aei aeecueeino?aeiiai oeio XV-XVII no. c ia?aaaaith oeiieia?/ieo ?en,
i?eoaiaiieo ii/a?eai e?aainueei-ne??enueei-iaeanoeinueeeo ?oeiien?a oa
aeieoiaio?a ea??nueei? aai?ce. Aeineoue aaeeeee ianea noaiiaeyoue
ea?a?inuee? ?oeiiene, ii/a?e yeeo aeoaea iacia/ii ci?ithaaany ai?iaeiaae
/ano, /a?ac ui ?oi? aeaooaaiiy ca ii/a?eii noaiiaeoue a?eueoo i?iaeaio,
i?ae o aeiaaeeo c ?oeiienaie ?aaei?noe/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, oi/a aa?oi
cacia/eoe, ui ii/a?ee, yeeie aeeiiaii ?oeiiene i?aeaiiiea?a?inueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy iathoue aeinoaoiuei noaeeo ?en, ui aeicaieythoue
a?ae??cieoe ?o a?ae ea?a?inueeeo ?oeiien?a E?eio, oi/a oeiieia?/ii an?
ea?a?inuee? ii/a?ee iioiaeyoue a?ae aeecueeino?aeiiai iai?aeo?neao XII
no.

Aeniiaee

1. Ii/a?ee ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a aeiae na?aaeiueia?//y oa iiaiai /ano
ooai?ththoue o?e iae?ioeie, a naia: ac?enueeee, naoa?aenueeee oa
aoeaiacueeee, ye?, a naith /a?ao, iathoue o?noue oeiieia?/ieo
??ciiaeae?a, a naia: no?aeiee, ?iainueeee, a?caio?enueeee, ?oae?enueeee,
naoa?aenueeee oa aoeaiacueeee.

2. ?a?aenueea ienueii, ui iioiaeeoue a?ae a?aiaenueeiai, ia? o?e
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ??ciiaeaee: eaaae?aoiee, eo?nea oa iai?aeo?nea. Inoaii?e
aeie?aieth?oueny, ii/eiath/e c O no., eiee aoea noai?aia aaeeea
e?euee?noue eiiaioaoi?nueeeo oaeno?a aei Nayoiai ienueia (Noa?iai
Caiia?oo) ye ?aaei?noaie, oae ? ea?a?iaie. Iai?aeo?neae iathoue
niaoeeo?/i? oeiieia?/i? iciaee, ca yeeie /anoi iiaeia aeae?eeoe
iai?aeo?neae ?aaei?noe/ieo oa ea?a?inueeeo aaoi??a iaei??? aeiae. E??i
oeueiai iai?aeo?neae ? eo?neae ianooue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?noea oa /an
noai?aiiy aeieoiaioa, cia/ii a?eueoo, i?ae eaaae?aoia ienueii.

3. Ao?eaooe?th ?oeiien?a, iniaeeai o?aaiaioa?iiai oa?aeoa?o, /anoi
iiaeia cae?enieoe eeoa oeyoii aiae?co ii/a?eo, yeei ?o aeeiiaii. I?e
oeueiio aiae?cia? i?aeeyaathoue ye caaaeuei?, oae ? niaoe?aeuei? iciaee
ii/a?eo. Aei oa?aeoa?enoee, ui iathoue oeiieia?/ia cia/aiiy i?e
a?ao?/iiio aiae?c? iaeaaeaoue: ?ica?i, ?icnoaaeaiiy, ia?aaaaeiee
iai?yiie ?oo?a, ia?aaaaeia aeiaaeeia ?oo?a, iai?yiie oa aeiaaeeia ?oo?a
i?e aeeiiaii? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oa e?oa? o oe?eiio, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?oiuei? aeiaaeeie, oa?aeoa? c’?aeiaiue oa eooia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

4. I?e aiae?c? a?ao?ee aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaiaioe iaoiaeee,
ui canoiniaothoueny i?e a?ao?/i?e aenia?oec? ienueia, a o?e eiai
/anoei?, aea eaeaoueny i?i aecia/aiiy oeio ii/a?eo. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
i?ioean ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ii/a?eo ?iciiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa aoaie:
aecia/aiiy aoaeiiiiai oeio a?ao?ee oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiai iao?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ii/a?eo ?oeiieno, ui aea/a?oueny. I?e
oeueiio aiae?cia? i?aeeyaathoue ia’?eoe, ui eaaeaoue a iaeiiio
ii/a?eiaiio i?inoi??, a aecia/aiiy aoaeiia cae?enithaaoeiaoueny ca
aeiiiiiaith aiae?co iaeiioeiieo ii/a?eiaeo ia’?eo?a o?aioaaeueii?
iine?aeiaiino?, aeaea?aeii aeey oi?ioaaiiy yei?, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeii?
aooe aeaoiaai? e ao?eaooiaai? ?oeiiene, ui aeeiiai? ii/a?eii iaeiiai
oeio oa ??ciiaeaeo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oai?ae I. I. A?aanueei-?a?aenuee? ?oeiiene: ii/a?eiciaa/ee aniaeo
// Noiaeiciaanoai. – 1998. – ? 2. – N.19 – 25.

2. Oai?ae I. I. Ao?eaooe?y ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a: ii/a?eiciaa/ee aniaeo
// Iaoa??aee Ia?oi? anaoe?. iaoe.-i?aeo. noiaeiciaa/i? eiio. – E., 1998.
– N. 115 — 123.

3. Oai?ae I. I. Aei ieoaiiy oi?iae?caoe?? oei?a ii/a?eo ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a // No?aeiee na?o. — 1995/96. – ?  2/1. – N.126 — 132.

4. Oai?ae I. I. Ea?a?inuee? ?oeiiene o oiiaeao Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai // Noiaeiciaanoai. – 1998. – ?
3/4. – N. 112 – 118.

5. Oai?ae A.A. I?aaiaoe/aneea aniaeou oi?iaeeciaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e
aiaeeco a?aoeee aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae // ?a?aenueea ?noi??y oa eoeueoo?a a
e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. iaoe.
eiio., Ee?a, 2-5 aa?aniy 1995 ?. — E., 1996. — N. 82 — 86.

Oai?ae I. I. Canoinoaaiiy oi?iae?ciaaiiai aiae?co ii/a?e?a i?e iien?
?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a (aeiaa na?aaeiueia?//y – XVIII no.). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.13 – Iiae ia?iae?a Ac?? ? Ao?eee,
aai?eaai?a Aia?eee oa Aano?ae?? — ?inoeooo Noiaeiciaanoaa ?i. A.
E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeaia ?iaioa yaey? niaith ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aeei?enoaiiy
oi?iae?ciaaiiai aiae?co ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a i?e ao?eaooe??
?oeiienieo iaoa??ae?a ?a?aenueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeiee aiae?co?
na?oia? iaaeaaiiy a aaeoc? ?a?aenueei? iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??,
i?inoaaeo? oeiieia?/i? ca’ycee ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a ii/eiath/e
c aioe/ieo /an?a aei nueiaiaeaiiy.

Iniaeeao oaaao aeena?oaio cina?aaeaeo? ia aea/aii? ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a ii/eiath/e c aeiae na?aaeiueia?//y aei XVIII no. Naia a oeae
ia??iae aeieea? aaeeea ?icia?ooy aa??aio?a ii/a?e?a. Aaoi? i?inoaaeo?
iniiai? oeiieia?/i? ?ene eiaeiiai c oanoe oei?a ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo
?oeiien?a (aoeaiacueeiai, naoa?aenueeiai, a?caio?enueeiai,
?oae?enueeiai, no?aeiiai oa ?iainueeiai) a o?ueio ?oi?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo
??ciiaeaeao (eaaae?aoiiio, iai?aeo?nea? oa eo?nea?).

Aeina?ae, iaeiie/aiee a aaeoc? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? – ianaiia?aae
a?caio?enueei? – oa ee?eee/ii? iaeaia?ao?? oa eiaeeeieia??, iiaea aooe
canoiniaaiee i?e ao?eaooe?? ?oeiienieo iaoa??ae?a ?a?aenueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, ui caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee
Oe?a?ie ?i. A. ?. Aa?iaaenueeiai. O?aooaaiiy oeueiai aeina?aeo ?acii c
no/anieie aeinyaiaiiyie a aaeoc? ?a?aenueei? eiaeeeieia?? aeicaiey?
noai?eoe iaoiaeeeo ao?eaooe?? oeeo iaoa??ae?a, yea aeaea a ciiao
iaae?eii ?o aeaooaaoe a iaaeao iaaiiai ia??iaeo oa aecia/eoe ?oith
i?eiaeaaei?noue aei eiie?aoii? ?oeiienii? o?aaeeoe??, iaa?oue yeui
eaeaoueny i?i iaaeaoiaai? ?oeiieni? o?aaiaioe. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui oae?
iaoa??aee noaiiaeyoue a?eueo?noue aeuacaaaeaiiai c?a?aiiy, aiae?c
a?ao?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy. Ia aeoieo
aeine?aeieea, i?e oeueiio aiae?c? aeioe?eueii canoinoaaoe i?eioeeie
a?ao?/ii? aenia?oece.

Aea/aiiy oeiieia?/ieo ?en aeuacaaaeaieo ii/a?e?a aea? ciiao neeanoe
ia?ae?e oi?iae?ciaaieo iciae, i?eoaiaiieo eiaeiiio ii/a?eo, ui aeicaiey?
c aenieei nooiaiai iaae?eiino? aecia/aoe i?eiaeaaei?noue ii/a?eo
?oeiieno aei o??? /e ?ioi? o?aaeeoe?? oa aeiae. Neeaaeai? aeine?aeieeii
oaaeeoe? aoaeiiieo /eneiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ii/a?e?a aeicaieythoue, ?c
canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e, neeanoe aaco aeaieo
ii/a?e?a ?a?aenueeeo ?oeiien?a, yea iiaea cia/ii iieaaoeoe i?ioean
ao?eaooe?? ?oeiienieo o?aaiaio?a ca aeiiiiiaith aiae?co ?oiuei? a?ao?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaa?aenueea ienaii?noue, iaeaia?ao?y, eiaeeeieia?y,
aa?aenueea ?oeiienia o?aaeeoe?y.

Oai?ae A. A. Eniieueciaaiea oi?iaeeciaaiiiai aiaeeca ii/a?eia i?e
iienaiee aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae (ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey – XVIII a.). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.13 – sscuee ia?iaeia Acee e Ao?eee,
aai?eaaiia Aia?eee e Aano?aeee — Einoeooo ainoieiaaaeaiey ei. A.
E?uineiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeaiiay ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiauaiea iiuoa eniieueciaaiey
oi?iaeeciaaiiiai aiaeeca aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae i?e ao?eaooeee ?oeiieniuo
iaoa?eaeia aa?aeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Enneaaeiaaoaeue aiaeece?oao
ie?iaua aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe aa?aeneie iaeaia?aoee e eiaeeeieiaee,
i?ineaaeeaaao oeiieiae/aneea nayce ii/a?eia aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae, ia/eiay
ni a?aiai aioe/iinoe aei naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy.

Iniaia aieiaiea enneaaeiaaoaeue nin?aaeioa/eaaao ia eco/aiee ii/a?eia
aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae ia/eiay n ia?eiaea n?aaeiaaaeiauey aei XVIII a.
Eiaiii a yoio ia?eiae aicieeaao aieueoia ?aciiia?acea aa?eaioia ii/a?ea.
Aaoi? i?ineaaeeaaao iniiaiua oeiieiae/aneea /a?ou eaaeaeiai ec oanoe
oeiia ii/a?eia aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae (aoeaiacneiai, naoa?aeneiai,
aecaioeeneiai, eoaeueyineiai, ainoi/iiai e eaiaineiai) ai anao o?ao eo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo (eaaae?aoiie, iieoeo?neaa e eo?neaa).

Iiuo, iaeiieaiiue a iaeanoe eco/aiey caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo – a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aecaioeeneeo – e ee?eeee/aneeo ?oeiienae, iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiai i?e ao?eaooeee ?oeiieniuo iaoa?eaeia aa?aeneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua o?aiyony a oiiaeao Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaeeioaee
Oe?aeiu ei. A. E. Aa?iaaeneiai. Eniieueciaaiea yoiai iiuoa, a oaeaea
nia?aiaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee a iaeanoe aa?aeneie eiaeeeieiaee iicaieyao
nicaeaoue iaoiaeeeo ao?eaooeee yoeo iaoa?eaeia, eioi?ay niinianoaiaaea
au ii?aaeaeaieth eo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e oie eee eiie ?oeiieniie
o?aaeeoeee, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/eea au eo
ao?eaooeeth, aeaaea eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iaaeaoe?iaaiiuo ?oeiieniuo
o?aaiaioao. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi oaeea iaoa?eaeu ninoaaeytho
aieueoeinoai auoaoiiiyiooiai nia?aiey, aiaeec a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee
i?eia?aoaao iniaia cia/aiea. Ii iiaieth enneaaeiaaoaey, i?e oaeii
aiaeeca oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiyoue i?eioeeiu a?aoe/aneie yenia?oecu.

Eco/aiea oeiieiae/aneeo /a?o auoaoeacaiiuo ii/a?eia aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
ninoaaeoue ia?a/aiue oi?iaeeciaaiiuo i?eciaeia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
eaaeaeiai ii/a?ea, /oi iicaieyao n aieueoie noaiaiueth iaaeaaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeyoue i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ii/a?ea ?oeiiene e oie eee eiie
o?aaeeoeee eee ia?eiaeo.

A ioee/ea io nouanoaothueo iaoiaeee iaeaia?aoe/aneie e eiaeeeieiae/aneie
eaeaioeoeeaoeee ?oeiieniuo aeieoiaioia, i?aaeeaaaaiue aeenna?oaioii
iiaeoiae iniiauaaaony ia /eneiaii aiaeeca oi?iaeeciaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
a?aoe/aneeo ciaeia, iaoaaeoai oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a
noaeaaii-iaaeeoeeineie yenia?oeca ienueia. A ?aaioa ioia/aaony, /oi
iiiyoeeiue aiia?ao e iaoiaeu aiaeeca, ?ac?aaioaiiua aeey ?aoaiey ?aoaiey
caaea/e eaeaioeoeeaoeee eniieieoaey ?oeiiene ii ii/a?eo aiieia i?eiaieiu
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeiieiae/aneeo /a?o ii/a?ea eco/aaiie ?oeiiene. I?e
yoii caaea/a eaeaioeoeeaoeee eniieieoaey ?oeiiene oaeaea iiaeao
noaaeoueny i?e iaee/ee aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa ii/a?eiaie eioi?iaoeee,
a aeaiiii neo/aa, i?e ao?eaooe?iaaiiuo ?oeiienae ecaanoiiai
eniieieoaey.

Anee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ii/a?ea ?oeiiene e oiio eee eiiio
oeio o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeeee aeatho aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth noaiaiue
iaaeaaeiinoe, oi i?e aiaeeca a?aoeee ?oeiienae, auiieiaiiuo
ienoeaie-eiiea?aioaie, ia ia?aue ieai aunooiatho iniaaiiinoe,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey ienueia iaia?aii eciaiaiiui ii/a?eii. A neeo iea?aoeee
aa?aeneiai ianaeaiey eiee/anoai iiaeiaiuo ?oeiienae aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei,
a yoii neo/aa oieueei eco/aiea eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee yeaiaioia
ii/a?ea iiaeao iaania/eoue i?eaieaioth noaiaiue iaaeaaeiinoe
?acoeueoaoa.

Ninoaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaoaeai oaaeeoeu yoaeiiiuo /eneiauo oa?aeoa?enoee
ii/a?eia iicaieytho, n i?eiaiaieai nia?aiaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee, nicaeaoue aaco aeaiiuo, eioi?ay cia/eoaeueii au iaeaa/eea e
onei?eea ao?eaooeeth ?oeiieniuo o?aaiaioia i?e iiiiue aiaeeca eo
a?aoeee. Iaoiaeeee /eneiaiai e a?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca ii/a?ea ?oeiieniiai
aeieoiaioa, eniieueciaaiiua aeenna?oaioii aeey aiaeeca ii/a?eia
aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae, iicaieytho auaeaeeoue iaaeaaeiua e?eoa?ee
ii?aaeaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ii/a?ea e eiie?aoiiio oeio, a oaeaea
na?oiie?iaaoue oeiieiae/anee ?acee/iua aa?eaiou aioo?e iaeiiai ii/a?ea,
iniiauaaynue ia oa?aeoa?iuo ?acee/eyo, ii?aaeaeyaiuo, eae i?aaeei,
eiee/anoaaiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, /oi cao?oaeiyao eniieueciaaiea
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia. Ii?aaeaeaiea eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
a?aoeee eiie?aoiiai aeieoiaioa e eo niiinoaaeoaeueiue aiaeec n o/aoii
?acoeueoaoia, iieo/aiiuo a oiaea enneaaeiaaiey, iicaieeo, ii iiaieth
aeenna?oaioa, iiauneoue iaaeaaeiinoue aeaoe?iaee aa?aeneeo ?oeiienae e
i?aaeinoaaeo enneaaeiaaoaeyi oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth ia oieueei i ianoa e
a?aiaie nicaeaiey aeieoiaioa, ii e i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe aai e oie eee eiie
?oeiieniie o?aaeeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?aeneay ienueiaiiinoue, iaeaia?aoey, eiaeeeieiaey,
aa?aeneay ?oeiieniay o?aaeeoeey.

O. O. Khamray

Application of formalised analysis of handwriting for attribution of
Hebrew manuscripts (Middle Ages – 18 cent.). – Manuscript.

A thesis submitted for a Candidate of Philology degree with the
specialisation 10.02.13 – Languages of Asia and Africa, aborigines of
America and Australia — A. Krymsky Institute of Oriental Studies of the
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

The present thesis offers a study generalising experience of application
of formalised analysis of handwritings of Hebrew manuscripts when
attributing handwritten materials of Hebrew origin. World
accomplishments in the area of Hebrew palaeography and codicoogy have
been analysed in this work, and typological correlations between
handwritings of Hebrew manuscripts from Antique time up to now have been
investigated.

Special attention is paid to examining handwriting of Hebrew manuscripts
of Middle Ages up to 18 cent. It is during this very period when a vast
diversity of variants of handwriting emerged. The author investigates
the main typological features of each of six types of post-medieval
Hebrew scripts (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Italian, Byzantine, Oriental and
Yemenite) in all their three functional classes (Square, Semi-Cursive,
Cursive).

An experience accumulated in the area of palaeography and codicology of
East European (Byzantine first and foremost) and Cyrillic manuscripts
can be applied to attributing handwritten materials of Hebrew origin
which are kept in the stocks of V. I. Vernadsky National Library of
Ukraine. Taking this experience alongside with modern achievements in
the area of Hebrew codicology into account enables the researcher to
create reliable methods of attributing of these materials even when
talking about undated handwritten fragments. Proceeding from the fact
that the latter materials present the bulk of the above mentioned stock,
the analysis of graphic information is of special importance. The
researcher thinks it is expedient to apply principles of graphic
expertise.

Investigation of formalised characteristics of the above named
handwritings has enabled the author to create a list of formalised
characteristics peculiar to every type of script which makes it possible
to attribute the handwriting of a certain manuscript to a certain
tradition and period with high accuracy. Tables of standard numeral
characteristics of handwritings compiled by the researcher enables us to
attribute the non-dated fragments of Hebrew manuscripts quickly with
assistance of modern information technologies and analysis of their
graphics.

Keywords: Hebrew writing, Palaeography, Codicology, Jewish manuscripts.

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