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I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

OE?A?INUeEEE IAOEIAI – AeINE?AeIEE ?INOEOOO

IAAeE*II? ?AAA?E?OAOe?? OA EO?I?OIEIA??

AOIUeEI

IAO?I IA?EIAE*

OAeE: 615.825.004.14:612.015.036:616-001.17

Canoinoaaiiy o?ce/ieo e?eoaaeueieo

/eiiee?a a ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a

14.01.33 – Eo?i?oieia?y oa o?c?ioa?ai?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a a?aeae?eaii? ii?e?a – Oe?a?inueeee ii?eiaee oeaio? –
Ee?anueeiai IAe? aaiaoieia?? ? ia?aeeaaiiy e?ia? IIC Oe?a?ie, a
a?aeae?eaii? ii?e?a A?iieoeueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ?i.
I.?.Ie?iaiaa IIC Oe?a?ie, a a?aeae?eaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ii?eiaeo
?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a naiaoi??y “Aaaiaa?ae”, AO “Oe?i?ioicaei?iaieoey”.

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie
Iianoyiee Ieeiea THoeiiae/, Ee?anueeee IAe? aaiaoieia?? oa ia?aeeaaiiy
e?ia? IIC Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiy ii?e?a.

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oiiae?e Eaii?ae Aeieo?iae/,
Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o?c?ioa?ai?? oa eo?i?oieia??.

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ioaoaeianueeee Eineo Ethaeaeaiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee IAe? iaaee/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa eo?i?oieia??, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eaiiy caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a iii?o ? ?ooo oa
ia?aiai? nenoaie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: E?einueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
N.?. Aai?a??anueeiai, IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iaaee/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??,
eo?i?oieia?? oa o?c?ioa?ai??, i. N?ioa?iiieue.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 9 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae.41.608.01 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
IAe? iaaee/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa eo?i?oieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith:270014, Iaeana-14, Ea?iiioianueeee i?iaoeie, 6.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe?
Iaaee/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa eo?i?oieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie. (Iaeana-14,
Ea?iiioianueeee i?iaoeie, 6.)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 4 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

A/aii? ?aaee,eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo

iaoe,noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aeieo???aa A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Iia?aoeaia a?aeiiaeaiiy ao?a/aii? oe??e
aeicaieeei ca inoaii? ?iee cia/ii i?aeaeueoe aeaeeaa?i?noue oai?eo c
aeeaieeie ii?eaie nei?ioeoe no?iee ?o e?eoaaiiy (A.A.Aeaenaaa 1993;
Jovanovic M. at all 1995).

I?ioa i?ney a?aeiiaeaiiy oe??iiai iie?eao o 18-24 ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a
?icaeaathoueny ii?eia? eiio?aeoo?e oa aeaoi?iaoe?? (A.A.THaeaie/
A.I.A?eoeaae/ 1986; A.E.Aonae ? ni?aaao.1992; A.A.Acieia ? ni?aaao.,
1996), a a 15-25 ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a ye? iaee iiaa?oiaa? ii?ee IIIA
nooiaiy oi?iothoueny a?ia?o?io?/i? aai eaei?aei? ?oaoe? (A.I.A?eoeaae/
TH.A.Ii?ic 1996; Prasad S.K. at all 1997). A?ae 05 aei 69 iaia/aieo
i?ie?eiaaieo a noaoe?iia?? a iaeaooiueiio iai?aoeacaeaoi? aiane?aeie
ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? iio?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo na?oeaai-noaeeiii? oa
aeeoaeueii? nenoai (A.Ae. Aeieo?eaa 1996;).

Naiino?eia aeic??aaiiy i?neyii?eiaeo ?oaoe?a i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aei 1-2
?ie?a (I.A.Iianoyiie 1996; De Santis at all 1997) a noaa?e?caoe?y
i?eaeeaoeo oe??ieo o?ainieaioao?a iio?aao? a?ae 6 i?nyoe?a aei 1 ?ieo
(A.N.Aeo?eaa A.I.Ao?ieno?ia 1986). Oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy eiina?aaoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iai?aaeaii? ia i?enei?aiiy
aeic??aaiiy ?oaoe?a noaa?e?caoe?th i?eaeeaoeo oe??ieo o?ainieaioao?a
iie?ioaiiy ooieoe?e na?oeaai-noaeeiii? oa aeeoaeueii? nenoai.
Aeei?enoaiiy c oe??th iaoith EOE iaoaiioa?ai?? ?icniieooth/eo i?aia?ao?a
oa o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/ieo iaoiae?a aaeueiaie?eoaaiiiy niaeaioa?ai?? aac
noii?ao aeeeeeathoue iaaiee iiceoeaiee aieea ia ?oaoe? oa ?oaoeueia?
iiey, noai ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a (I?) (?.I.A?aeei 1994; G.Maglicani
at all 1997). I?ioa o 35-40 c ieo, i?iaaaeaiiy caaaeueiii?eeiyoi?
eiina?aaoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia aea? caaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a
(A.E.Aeieo?eaa1996; I.I.Iao?e/aiei 1997).

A aeaiee /an a o?c?i- oa ?aoeaenioa?ai?? noi?ioaaany iiaee iai?yiie
–“A?iaaeueaai?caoe?y” (AA) caniiaaiee ia aeei?enoaii? caeaoiino?
a?ieia?/ieo nenoai aaia?oaaoe neaae? no?oie (A.A.Iaeaoe 1986-1997). Eiai
?aae?caoe?y iaoiiaeaia aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiinii o?i?/ii ?ia?oieo
aaeueaai?/ieo aeaeo?iae?a (aeiii??a oa aeoeaioi??a a?eueieo
ca?yaeiiin??a) ye? aeicaieythoue aac ciai?oi?o aeaea?ae no?oio
?i?oe?thaaoe o?ainii?o ?iciiae?e oa ia?a?iciiae?e inoaii?o a a?ieia?/ieo
nenoaiao.

Ia nueiaiaei? i?e eiina?aaoeai?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? I? ia a?aoiao?oueny
?ioaa?aeueia cia/aiiy oe??e ye niaoeeo?/iiai i?aaio i?aaenoaaeyth/iai
ia?eoa?e/io ia?aiao nenoaio ?c cia/iei ?aoeaioi?iei aia?aoii ?
i?eeiath/iai o/anoue a i?ioeanao aeeoaiiy aaciiai?io iai?io ?a/iaei
oa?ii?aaoeyoe??. Aei oiai ae oe??a ? ?ioiieiiiaoaioiei i?aaiii
caaacia/o? no?ee? eooaiii-a?noea?aeuei? aca?iica’ycee ? aieeaa? ia
ooieoe?? neiiaoi-aae?aiaeiai? nenoaie (Ae.I. *a?ioo A.I.O?ieia 1982).

A e?oa?aoo?? (ca aeeeth/aiiyi iaoeo ?ia?o) a?aenooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy
noiniaii aeei?enoaiiy AA ? a?ioi?aco (AO) e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei i?e
?aaa?e?oaoe?? I?. I/aaeaeii ui ?ic?iaea iiaeo aaciaaeeeaiaioicieo
iaoiae?a aieeao ia i?neyii?eia? ?oaoe? ?oaoeueia? iiey ? caaaeueiee noai
I? caeaoieo i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue eiiieaenii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? I? ?
aaaeeeaith iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith iaoiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue aeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai iaoo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie ieaiaie oaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe??
iia’ycaia c ieaiiaith iaoeiaith ?iaioith Ee?anueeiai IAe? aaiaoieia?? ?
ia?aeeaaiiy e?ia? IIC Oe?a?ie ? ? ?acoeueoaoii IAe? “?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio
i?io?eaeoeee ?oaoeaooai?aiiy oa eiina?aaoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iaia/aieo a
oiiaao eo?i?oo” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0196U016247).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeieia?th ?aiiueiai a?aeiiaiiai
e?eoaaiiy ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a c iaoith ii?iae?caoe?? aiiainoaco
oa iie?ioaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo ? einiaoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy a eiiieaeni?e ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco
e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei (e?aeaca oa ?io?).

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao ?aiiueiai ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo o
ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a.

2. Aea/eoe ii?oieia?/iee noai oeaiei oaa?ei, yeei o?eaaeee /an
i?iaiaeeeanue a?iaaeueaai?caoe?y.

3. Aea/eoe aieea a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco ia ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a
?oaoeueiaiai i?ioeano ? aeaye? iieacieee iaoiaaiaco ii?eiai? oai?iae a
ia??iae? ?aeiiaaeanoeaioe??: ia?eoa?e/iee e?iaiia?a, noai i?neyii?eiaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iii?ii-?ooiaiai aia?aoo, noai aaaaoaoeaii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie, ?ioiieia?/io ?aaeoeai?noue oa oa?aeoa? aaeaioaoe?eieo ?aaeoe?e
i?aai?cio, a oaeiae niaoeeo?/ieo ci?i iieaciee?a e?ia? ii aeaiei
niaeo?ioioiiao???, eeneioii? noaa?eueiino? oa aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ii?
?ooeeaino? a?eo?ioeeo?a.

4. Aea/eoe oa ii??aiyoe oa?aiaaoe/io aoaeoeai?noue naiino?eiiai
canoinoaaiiy a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco c ?o eiiieaeniei
canoinoaaiiyi c ?ioeie o?ce/ieie e?eoaaeueieie /eiieeaie (?aaeiiia?
aiaee, iaai?oia iiea, eaca?ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy, oeueo?acaoeia? oaee? oa
e?eoaaeueia o?ceoeueoo?a).

5. Aea/eoe ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo a?iaia?aiae?aaiinoeee ooieoe?iiaeueiee
noai aaaaoaoeaii? ia?aiai? nenoaie ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a.

6. ?ic?iaeoe e?eoaaeueii-?aaa?e?oaoe?ei? eiiieaene aeey ii?eiaeo
?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a ia noaoe?iia?ii-iie?ee?i?/iiio oa naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiio
aoaiao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

– iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii aeei?enoaiiy a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco
?icniieooth/eo ?a/iaei a eiiieaeni?e ?aaa?e?oaoe??, iai?aaeaii?e ia
ciaioaiiy iaoieia?/ieo ooai?aiue niieo/ii? oeaieie, i?enei?aiiy
aeic??aaiiy iaoieia?/ieo ?oaoe?a, noaa?e?caoe?th i?eaeeaoeo oe??ieo
o?ainieaioao?a;

– aia?oa aea/ai? iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao ?aiiueiai ia??iaeo ?aaa?e?oaoe??,
i?ae aieeaii a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei;

– aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? ? canoiniaai? iaoiaee a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ?
a?ioi?aco, iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue ?o o?eaaeiai aeei?enoaiiy a
noaoe?iia?ieo ? aiaoeaoi?ieo oiiaao eiina?aaoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a;

– aeiaaaeaia aeniea aoaeoeai?noue aieeao a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco
ia ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai aaaaoaoeaii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, oa?aeoa?
aaeaioaoe?eieo ?aaeoe?e, aiiainoac, ia?eoa?e/io noaeeiio nenoaio
ae?eyiie ii?e?a, ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie ?oaoeueiaeo oeaiei;

– anoaiiaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aea/aiiy no?eeino? aaaaoaoeaii? ia?aiai?
nenoaie caniaii ooieoe?iiaeueii? a?iaia?aiae?aaiinoeee;

– ?ice?eo? iaoai?cie ae?? a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco, caniiaai? ia
ii?iae?caoe?? iaia?aiiiai aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ? aeoeaiino?
eae?e-iao???aeo ianin?a a?eo?ioeeo?a oa ia?eoa?e/iiai e?iaiia?ao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

– aea/ai? iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao ?aiiueiai ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a oa iiceoeaiee aieea ia iueiai
a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco;

– ?ic?iaeaia oa iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia canoinoaaiiy
a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco ye naiino?eiiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy, oae ?
a eiiieaen? ?o c o?ce/ieie /eiieeaie ia ??cieo aoaiao e?eoaaiiy
(aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/iiio, noaoe?iia?iiio, naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiio);

– iaa?oioiaaii i?ecia/aiiy a?iaaeueaai?caoe?? ? a?ioi?aco o?eaaeiai
eo?niaiai canoinoaaiiy, ui iiia?aaeaeo? ?icaeoie ?oaoe?a oa ?oaoeueiaeo
iie?a, i?enei?th? ?o aeic??aaiiy, noaa?e?caoe?th aooio?ainieaioao?a
oa a cayceo c oeei nei?i/o? no?iee o??o?a?/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ia 5-6
i?nyoe?a. I?e oeueiio iaeii/anii ca?eueoo?oueny ia 16 eiioeiaaio
?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a (c 27,6 aei 43,6), o yeeo iiai?noth a?aeiiaeth?oueny
ooieoe?y aeaoi?iiaaieo noaeia?a oa ciaioo?oueny ia 50 ia’?i
iine?aeoth/eo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, o ?aooe ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a;

– ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia eiio?ieth ca ooieoe?iiaeueiei noaiii aaaaoaoeaii?
ia?aiai? nenoaie, yea aeicaiey? ia’?eoeaii ioe?ithaaoe aoaeoeai?noue
eiiieaenii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? iane?aee?a ii?eiai? oai?iae;

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a?aee?eoi ia?oa ia Oe?a?i?
a?aeae?eaiiy ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a ia 60 e?aeie a
naiaoi??? “Aaaiaa?ae” (i. Iaie??a, A?iieoeueei? iaeano?) ? oeaio?
aiaoeaoi?ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? a i.A?iieoe?.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a,
aoaeoeai?noue yeeo

i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoeeith ??cieo iaaee/ieo onoaiia: Oe?a?inueeiai
ii?eiaiai oeaio?o

(i.Ee?a), Aieeinueeiai, ??aiainueeiai, Euea?anueeiai, Aeiiaoeueeiai,
AEeoiie?nueeiai iaeanieo ii?eiaeo a?aeae?eaiue, a naiaoi??yo “Aaaiaa?ae”
(i.Iaie??a), “I?ie?nie” (i.Ii?oei), “Aa?aciaee aae”, (i.Oi?eueiee).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aia eiina?aaoeaii?
?aaa?e?oaoe?? I? a aiaoeaoi?ieo noaoe?iia?ieo ? naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oieo
oiiaao iaa?oioiaai? ? ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee eiiieaenii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi AA ? AO e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei. C?a?ai? iaoa??aee
niinoa?aaeaiue i?iaaaeaiee ?o aiae?c aea/aia aoaeoeai?noue ?aaa?e?oaoe??
c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo iniaenoi iaoiaeee ? o?aaeeoe?eieo cania?a
eiina?aaoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??. Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue a e?eoaaii? a?eueoa
50 I?. A ?iaioao aeeiiaieo a ni?aaaoi?noa? ?aae?ciaai? iaoeia? ?aea?
iiooea/a iaeii/anii c i?eeiyoith a o?c?ioa?ai?? eiioeaioe??th
aeei?enoaiiy a iaaeeoeei? AA ? AO ye? ?ic?iaeai? ae.i.i. A.A.Iaeaoeii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia: V-e Aieaa?nuee?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii a?iiaaee/i?e iaooe? ? oaoi?oe? (Nio?y 1988); VI
?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ii i?iaeai? “Ii?ee” (Oa?e?a 1988);
?anioae?eainueeeo nai?ia?ao caa?aeoth/eo ii?eiaeie a?aeae?eaiiyie
Oe?a?ie (Oiaeueieoeueeee 1993 Iaie??a 1996); I (XVII) c’?cae? o??o?a?a
Oe?a?ie (Euea?a 1994); ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oece/aneea
ea/aaiua oaeoi?u a iaaeeoeeineie ?aaaeeeoaoeee” (Ie?ai?iae, 1995);
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie a?io?ce/ii? iaaeeoeeie”
(Ee?a 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ?ia?o c ieo iaeia
iiiia?ao?y 3 ?iaioe a aeo?iaeao 9 a iaoa??aeao c’?cae?a, eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee oai?eo aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ueio ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeniiae?a ? aeac?aieea e?oa?aoo?e. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia
ia 169 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno (112 noi??iee oaenoo) ?ethno?iaaia 28
oaaeeoeyie oa 43 iaethieaie (57 noi??iie). Aeac?aiee e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a?
321 aeaea?aei.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee. ?iaioa aaco?oueny ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeeiiaieo ia 25 ieoao e?i?? N57A1/6 iannith o?ea 20-26a.
? 36 a?eeo iae?i?eieo uo?ao ianith o?ea 210-270a. oa 722 noaiaeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Ee?i?/ia niinoa?aaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii iaae 763 ii?eiaeie
?aeiiaaeanoeaioaie a?eii a?ae 1 aei 69 ?ie?a yeei i?iaiaeeeanue
eiina?aaoeaia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y iane?aee?a ii?e?a.

Ii oa?aeoa?o eiina?aaoeaii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? an? ii?eia? ?aeiiaaeanoeaioe
aoee iiae?eai? ia 4 a?oie: ia?oa a?oia – 136 iaoe??io?a (17,4) –
eiina?aaoeaia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y i?iaiaeeeanue a aiaoeaoi?ii-iie?ee?i?/ieo
oiiaao ia aac? o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/ieo eaa?iao?a e?eoaaeueieo oa naiaoi?ieo
caeeaae?a i. A?iieoe? ? i. Oi?eueieea. ?i i?iaiaeeany aeaeo?ioi?ac ia
aia?ao? AAI ii iicaeiaaei?e aai iiia?a/i?e iaoiaeeeao, 30 oaeeei
uiaeaiii ia i?ioyc? 20 aei?a; ae?oaa a?oia – 192 ?aeiiaaeanoeaioe (26,1)
– eiina?aaoeaia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y, ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaie i?ia?ai?,
i?iaiaeeeanue ia aac? ii?eiaiai a?aeae?eaiiy A?iieoeueei? iaeanii?
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ?i. I.?. Ie?iaiaa. Aiia aeeth/aea EOE, ianaae,
iaoaiioa?ai?th, aea a iniia? ?? eaaeaee i?ieiiaiaai? naaine AA oa AO
e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei a ciio i?neyii?eiaeo ?oaoe?a. Eo?n AA ? AO
e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a neeaaeaa 20 aei?a ? i?iaiaeeany ia aia?ao?
“A?OA-01I” ii iicaeiaaei?e /e iiia?a/i?e iaoiaeeeao uiaeaiii ia i?ioyc?
12 aiaeei; o?aoy a?oia – 286 /ieia?e (37,3) – eiina?aaoeaia
?aaa?e?oaoe?y i?iaiaeeeanue ia aac? iaeanii? o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/ii? e?ea?i?
i. Oi?eueiee. Ia i?ioyc? 20 aei?a aiie io?eioaaee ia eo?n e?eoaaiiy
12-14 ?aaeiiiaeo aaiie ?c na?aaeiueith eiioeaio?aoe??th ?aaeiio (40-60
iE/e). Iaeii/anii ?i i?iaiaeeeenue EOE, ianaae, oeueo?acaoe,
aeaeo?ioi?ac c e?aeacith ? iaoaiioa?ai?y; /aoaa?oa a?oia – 149 oai?eo
(19,2) – eiiieaenia ?aaa?e?oaoe?y, ii ?ic?iaeai?e iaie i?ia?ai? c
aaceniith a?iaia?aioa?ai??th, aeeiioaaeanue ia aac? a?aeae?eaiiy
?aaa?e?oaoe?? ii?eiaeo ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a a naiaoi??? “Aaaiaa?ae” (i.
Iaie??a) ia i?ioyc? 24 aei?a. Eiiieaen ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo i??ii?e?inoa
aeeth/aa: a) EOE, ianaae; a) oeueo?acaoe; a) a?ycae?eoaaiiy, ia?ao?i; a)
eaca?ioa?ai?th; ae) iaai?oioa?ai?th; a) aioa?ini?aoe?th c aeei?enoaiiyi
ni?aaioo “Aioa?inaaeue”; ?) iaaeeeaiaioicio oa?ai?th ii iieacaiiyi; ae)
aacenio a?iaia?aioa?ai?th ii cai?iiiiiaai?e iaie noai?.

Na?aae I? aoei 419(549) in?a /ieia?/i? noao? ? 344(451) – ae?ii/i?.
Iniiaio /anoeio oai?eo neeaaeaee ae?oe aei 14 ?ie?a (229 in?a-30) iniae
i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo (459 in?a-602) ? ethaee noa?o? 50 ?ie?a (75 in?a
98).

I?e/eiaie ii?eiai? o?aaie aoee: ??aeeie ia? (400 aeiaaee?a-5243) iieoi’y
(232 aeiaaeee-3041) aeaeo?ioa?i?/i? o?aaie (57 aeiaaee?a-747) eeneioe oa
eoaei? ?ic/eie (43 aeiaaeee-563) eiioaeoi? ii?ee (31 aeiaaeie-406).

Ieiua ii?e?a ?? – ???A – ???A ? ?V noaiai? neeaaeaea a?ae 2-3 aei 50
iiaa?oi? o?ea. A?eueo?noue I? iaea ia?aeii? aeeaie? ii?ee ? iia?oaaeanue
a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ii?eiaeo a?aeae?eaiiyo Oe?a?ie (429 in?a – 562). O
334 (438) oai?eo ii?eia? ?aie caaeeee aac iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy /a?ac
o?e – /ioe?e oeaei? oiaoi iaee i?noea ii?ee ?? – ???A noaiai?. I?e
oeueiio a iaeano? eieae?caoe?? ii?eiai? o?aaie o 185 (2424) in?a
niinoa??aaany ?icaeoie a?ia?o?io?/ieo oa eaei?aeieo ?oaoe?a ye? ia
o?eueee oi?ioaaee cia/i? noa’?eoeai? a?ae/oooy (a?eue naa?aey/eo
ia?anoac??) aea e ia??aeei iaiaaeoaaee ?ooe a noaeiaao.

Iniiaieie iane?aeeaie oa?i?/ii? o?aaie a on?o a?oiao niinoa?aaeaiiy
aoee i?neyii?eia? eiio?aeoo?e (394 iniae –5164) a?ia?o?io?/i? ?
eaei?aei? ?oaoe? (172 iniae –2254) ?oaoe? c ae?aceaie oa o?io?/i?
ae?acee (72 iniae – 944). Oe? iaoieia?/i? i?ioeane iia’ycai? c
oi?ioaaiiyi ?oaoe?a niinoa??aaeenue o ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? I? (638
/ieia?e – 8362).

?aaa?e?oaoe?y ia?aaaaeii i?iaiaeeeanue a ?aii?e ia??iae (aei 6 i?nyoe?a
i?ney aeienee ?c noaoe?iia?o – 454 ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a 595) ??aeei ia
i?ioyc? ia?oiai i?nyoey i?ney caaithaaiiy ?aie (48 in?a 629) ? a i?ci?
no?iee (a?ae 1 aei 2 ?ie?a – 102 iniae 1337).

I?e ianoaaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaee ee?i?/i? aaiaoieia?/i? a?io?i?/i?
a?io?ce/i? ?ioiieia?/i? oa ii?oieia?/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ia?aiino a?eueieo ca?yaeiiin??a a ??aeeiiiio
na?aaeiaeu? i?iaiaeeeinue a aea?ii?ciaai?e a?aeenoeeueiaai?e cae/aei?e
aiae? c aiaeiaiio ? ?aaeiiia?e aiae? (40-60 iE/e) n??/aiiaiaeiaaeo
(50ia/e) eiaeia?iiieo (20ia/e) ? oaieieo aaii. Aeoeai?noue ia?aianaiiy
a?eueieo ca?yaeiiin??a aea/aeanue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ieiu? aeaeo?iae?a
aeiii??a aeaeo?ii?a (AeA) ? aeoeaioi??a aeaeo?ii?a (AA) a?aenoai? ?
eooiaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie iiaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy neeaaeieo ?
iaa?oue ia?an?/ieo iai?yie?a ia?aiino.

Aieea o?eaaei? AA (uiaeiaiai ii 6 aiaeei ia i?ioyc? 21 aeiae) ia noai
i?aeeaaeeo i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie AeA ? AA oeaiei aea/aany ia 25 ieoao e?i??
N57A1/6 ianith 20-26a?. ? 36 a?eeo iae?i?eieo uo?ao ianith 210-270a?.
Ia?aae aeoiaeii ?c aenia?eiaioo oaa?ei i?eneieyee aeei?enoiaoth/e
o?iiaioae-iao??th i?ney /iai aeaeai?ooaaee. A i?noeyo eiioaeoo oaa?ei c
aeaeo?iaeaie ae??caee oiaoi/ee oe??e c i?aeoe??iith ee?oeiaeiith
(05-07in). ?o o?enoaaee a 10 oi?iae?i? ia i?ioyc? 24 aiaeei
ciaaiaeaeoaaee ? caeeaaee ia?ao?iii ii caaaeueiii?eeiyo?e iaoiaeeoe?
(I.A. Aieeiaa, TH.E. Aeaoeeee, 1982). Na??ei? c??ce i?aia?ao?a
i?aeeyaaee oa?aoaaiith ? aeine?aeaeaiith.

Aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia ?ooeea?noue a?eo?ioeeo?a (AO?A) – oaeaee?noue ?o
ia?ai?uaiiy a aeaeo?iiaai?oiiio iie? – aea/aeanue ia eiiieaeni?e
onoaiiaoe? “Ia?iieaaio-2” o??ie “Ea?e-Oeaen-E?ia” ii A.A. Aa?iiaiei
(1987).

Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ia? i?iaiaeeeenue ia
niaeo?ioioiiao?? NO-46 ii iaoiaeo ?.N.Niie?inueeiai (1991).

Aeey aea/aiiy aoii?aeueii? eaiee ?ioi?oaoo ioe?ithaaee e?euee?noue
?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a eeano A I G a e?ia? ?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a ii Iancini at all
(1969) c iiiiniaoeeo?/ieie aioene?iaaoeaie i?ioe ?ioiiaeiaoe?i?a
ethaeeie. Aeei?enoiaoaaee aaeoi-aaa? o??ie “Difco” (NOA). Oee?eoethth/?
?ioii? eiiieaene (Oe?E) a ne?iaaooe? ia?eoa?e/ii? e?ia? aea/aeenue ii
iaoiaeo Hashkova at all (1977). ?ioiieia?/ia ?aaeoeai?noue i?aai?cio
(??I) aecia/aeanue ii A.E. Iae?th ? ni?aaao.(1984) c aeei?enoaiiyi
oano-eoeueoo?e noao?eieieo 209.

Aea/aiiy eeneioii? no?eeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a (ENA) i?iaiaeeeanue iaoiaeii
aea/aiiy a?eo?ia?ai (I.I. Aeoaeuecii ?.A. Oa?neia 1959).

Oa?aeoa? aaeaioaoe?eieo ?aaeoe?e i?aai?cio aea/aee ii E.O.Aa?eaa?
(1990). ?aaeoe?? “o?aioaaiiy” oa “aeoeaaoe??” a?aeiineee aei
o?c?ieia?/ieo a ?aaeoe?? “aino?iai no?ano” – aei iaoieia?/ieo.

Ioe?iea ia?eoa?e/ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee e?ioe?aie a cii? ?oaoeueiaeo iie?a ?
i?eaeeaoeo oe??ieo eeaio?a i?iaiaeeeanue iaoiaeii ?aiaacia?ao?? (?AA)
(I.?. Iaeaaa ?.I.Eayaeoea? 1975; A.A.Oa?oiaa 1977). Ioe?ithaaeenue
?aia?ao?/iee ?iaeaen nenoiei-ae?anoie?/iee iieaciee iieaciee
aeanoe/iino? ? /an nenoie?/iiai e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy (o?eaae?noue aiae?ioe
eaoae?ioe /an oaeaeeiai ? iia?eueiiai iaiiaiaiiy noaeei oa ?io?).

Ae?aaeaii?noue caiaeueieo yaeu c aieo ?oaoeueiaeo iie?a, ? noaio ia ieo
ae?acie aea/aeanue oeyoii oa?iia?ao?? ia oaieia?ci?? “?aaeoaa” c
eiii’thoa?iei noi?iaiaeii.

Aeeiai?ea noaa?e?caoe?? i?eaeeaoeo oe??ieo eeaio?a ? ooai?aieo ?oaoe?a
aea/aeanue oeyoii ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue – na?oeiai? i?e?ineii?? c
oa?aoaaiiyi aaiaoienee?iii ? aiceiii i?e?iooeneiii ii Aai-A?ciio aco? ??
aiceiii. A?iioaoe a?aeenue i?ae /an o??o?a?/ii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
i?neyii?eiaeo eiio?aeoo? (I.A. Aieeiaa, TH.E. Aeaoeeee, 1982).

A?iaia?aiae?aaiinoeea (AAAe) ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aaaaoaoeaii?
ia?aiai? nenoaie (AIN) (ooieoe?iiaeueii-aia?aaoe/ii? ??aiiaaae i?aai?cio
– OA?I) i?iaiaeeeanue ii A.A.Iaeaoeo (1993).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia?iaeyeenue aa??aoe?eii-noaoenoe/iei
iaoiaeii c o?aooaaiiyi aeinoia??iino? ii e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa
(I.E.Aaeaiueeee, 1959; I.E.Iinoiaie, 1954; I.I.Naiieeia, 1970). I?e
cia/i?e ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e ??cieoe? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaee
iaia?aiao?e/ii? noaoenoeee (?.A.Aea?aayiei ? ni?aaao. 1976).

Aiia?aoo?a, caniae i?iaaaeaiiy AA ? AO oa iaoai?cie ae??. Aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy AA aeei?enoiaoaaee aia?ao “A?OA – 01I” a iniia? ae?? yeiai
eaaeeoue caeaoi?noue aeaeo?iae?a (AeA ? AA) cae?enithaaoe ca ?aooiie
eiioaeoii? ??cieoe? iioaioe?ae?a iai?aaeaia ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeiiin??a a
i?aeaeaeo?iaei?e ae?eyioe? a?ieia?/ieo nenoai ? eiiiiceoe?eieo
na?aaeiaeu. Aeieeath/a i?e oeueiio iai?oaa eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 003-06A
ui ??aiy?oueny aaee/ei? i?e?iaei?o iaia?aiieo iioaioe?ae?a. Ia oe?e
iniia? c iaoith ?aaa?e?oaoe?? I? ie ?ic?iaeee aaciao a?iaia?aioa?ai?th,
yea aeeth/a? ne?aeoth/? iaoiaeeee:

– i?io?eaeoe/io eiee aeaeo?iaee (AeA ? AA) ?icoaoiaoaaee ia aeieiiyo
i?aeioaao /e aeieiiyo ? i?aeioaao. *a?ac 10 oaeeei aeaeo?iaee i?iyee
i?noeyie. Caaaeueiee /an AA 20 oaeeei;

– caaaeueiinoeioethth/o eiee aeaeo?iaee AeA ?icoaoiaothoue ia aooieo
?aeiaeiao aai oi/eao A36 (Oeco-naiue-e?) a aeaeo?iaee AA ia i?aeioaao
aai aeieiiyo. Caaaeueiee /an AA 20 oaeeei.

– iaoaia?ii-naaiaioa?io, eiee aeaeo?iae AeA ?icoaoiaothoue ia ?oaoeyo, a
aeaeo?iae AA ia aeieiiyo aai i?aeioaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae eieae?caoe??
?oaoe?a. Caaaeueiee /an AA aei 12 aiaeei.

– aeey i?iaaaeaiiy AAA aeei?enoiaothoue iie?eo? n?o/anoei ae?aeaeo?eeii
aeaeo?iaee, niieo/ai? i?ae niaith /a?ac aiia?ao “A?OA-01I”, ye?
iioneathoue o aaiio c aiaeith. I?iaiaeyoue AAA /a?ac aeaiue a?ae 15 aei
60 oaeeei, i?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaee a?ae 36i aei 40i.

Ci?ieaoe aeaeo?iaee a aia?ao? “A?OA-01I” ia ae?aaiinoe/i?, ie io?eio?ii
iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ooieoe?iiaeueio AAAe ii A.A. Iaeaoeo oeyoii
aei??o ??cieoe? aeaeo?iaeieo iioaioe?ae?a i?ae oeaio?aeueiith
iaciaano?aeueiith iaeanoth ? neiao?e/ieie ?ai?acaioaoeaieie ciiaie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. Iniaeeaino? ia?aiino
ca?yaeiiin??a a ??aeeiio na?aaeiaeu? iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy AA AO ?
AAA a noaoe?iia?ieo oa aiaoeaoi?ieo oiiaao aea/ai? iaie a 722 noaiaeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?

? V ia caeaaeaoue a?ae ieiu? aeaeo?iaea AA, a?aenoai? i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie
oa ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. ?acii c oei ? ? V caeaaeaoue a?ae ieiu?
aeaeo?iaeo AeA oa nooiaiy ?ii?caoe?? ??aeeie.

Anoaiiaeaii ui AAA iiaeooue i?iaiaeeoeny a ??cieo iiaooiaeo iaoaeaaeo
?ie?noyo ye? iiaeooue ii nai?e i?e?iae? aooe aai AeA (i?aeue eaooiue
ia?aeaa?th/a noaeue) aai AA (aeth?aethi?i?e ioeeieiaaia cae?ci). Oea
caaacia/o? oiiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy AA AAA ? AO a aiaoeaoi?ieo,
noaoe?iia?ieo oa naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oieo oiiaao.

Aeine?aeaeaii ui a oeaieiao nieiee ? ii??ii? iiaa?oi? e?ioe?aie oaa?ei
ui o?eaaeee /an ciaoiaeeeenue a eiioaeo? c AeA ? AA i?eioeeiiaeo
a?aei?iiinoae a?ae ii?ie ia aeyaeaii: ia aoei aeaaaia?aoeaii-iae?ioe/ieo
ci?i a aea?i? ? a i?aeeaaeeo oeaieiao. Ii?oieia?/ia ea?oeia
iiynithaaeanue ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie iniaeeainoyie oaa?ei ? a?aeiia?aeaea
ii?i?.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo niaeo?ioioiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiei c iaoai?ci?a ae?? AA ? aeoeaaoe?y oeaieiiiai
aeeoaiiy ? iane/aiiy e?ia? eeniai.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui AA aieiae?? aioeno?aniaeie iaoai?ciaie ae??, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i?aeaeuaiiyi AO?A ? ii?iae?caoe??th ?iaioe
iao??e-eae??aeo ianin?a ee?oeiieo iaia?ai.

Ca?aeii i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ENA aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoiaee AA
noeioeththoue ?aaaia?aoi?iee i?ioean a nenoai? a?eo?iiiaco.

Canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a AA a eiiieaeniiio naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiiio e?eoaaii?
ni?ey? e?auiio ?icai?oaiith eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaethaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e
ia ??ai? ee?oeie, yea i?enei?th? eiiiainaoe?th ii?ooaiue aiiainoaco, ui
aeieeee aiane?aeie ii?eiai? o?aaie.

Ii?yae c iacaaiei aeua iiceoeaiei aieeaii AA ia ieceo oaeoi??a
aiiainoaco, iaie aoei anoaiiaeaii ui i?iaaaeaiiy ?? nooo?ai
a?aeia?aaeo?oueny ia oa?aeoa?? aaeaioaoe?eieo ?aaeoe?e. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
aeeth/aiiy iaoiae?a AA ? AO e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei a eiiieaenio
?aaa?e?oaoe?eio oa?ai?th (E?O) ni?ey? ia?aoiaeo iniiaii? e?eueeino?
?aeiiaaeanoeaio?a (84,24) a ?aaeoe?th o?aioaaiiy ? niie?eii? aeoeaaoe??.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ??cea ciaioaiiy caiaeueii? ?aaeoe??, yea oae
i?eoaiaiia I?, iniaeeai a ?aii? no?iee i?ney caaithaaiiy ?ai,
ii?iae?caoe?th aaeaioaoe?eii-i?eniiniaethaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e a iniia? yeeo
eaaeaoue aioeno?ania? iaoai?cie, iia’ycai? c ii?iae?caoe??th OA?I,
no?eeino? eiai AIN ? a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo aiiainoaco i?aai?cio.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeuaneacaiiai ? ? oa?aeoa? ??I ii A.E. Iae?th,
aea/aiee iaie o 30 I? iniiaii? a?oie ? 26 I? eiio?ieueii? a?oie.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui o I? ??I iaaeeaea?oueny aei ii?iaeueieo iieaciee?a (68,3
o iniiai?e ? 67,8 a eiio?ieuei?e a?oiao).

Iaeiae i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy eo?no AA ??I a iniiai?e a?oi? ae?inea ia 13,6
(?

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