?a?ii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco

AIOIANUeEEE NA?A?E AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 622.248

CANOINOAAIIss AIA?A?? AEAOOO A OAOIIEIA?ssO

NII?OAeAEAIIss NAA?AeEIAEI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.10 — Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiai?

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee IIENEOEI Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/, ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
ao??iiy iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ssNIA A?oae?e Aai?a?eiae/,
?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e ao??iiy iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, AIEOAIEI Aieiaeeie? Na?a?eiae/,
A?ea?onueea a??ie/a aeaaeai?y, i.I?inuee, a?oea-i?aceaeaio;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio OA?*AIEI ?aaai Aaeaioeiiae/,
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea», i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeaoaeae iaoei

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
i?e?iaeieo aac?a IAE «Iaooiaac Oe?a?ie», i.Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 eeiiy 1999? i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae20.052.02 a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco ca aae?anith: 284019,
Oe?a?ia,i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee, a.Ea?iaonueea,15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 16 /a?aiy 1999?.

A.i.a/aiiai nae?aoa?y niaoe?aaee

ae.o.i., i?ioani? Iaa?ioeueeee A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oe?a?ia aieiae?? cia/ieie ?ano?naie, caeaoieie
caaacia/eoe ieaiii??ia ia?iuoaaiiy i?iieneiaeo caian?a iaooe oa aaco ?
ia oe?e iniia? ca?eueoeoe aeaeiaooie aoaeaaiaei?a oa i?aeiyoe ??aaiue
iie?eooy nai?o iio?aa aeanieie aia?aiiin?yie.

A no/anieo oiiaao ao??iiy oa inai?iiy naa?aeeiaei, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
cia/ieie aeeaeiaie, aenieeie oeneaie ? oaiia?aoo?aie, neeaaeieie
eiino?oeoe?yie eiiiiiiaie ? a??ie/eo ae?iaie, ieoaiiyi iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?
e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e oa oneeaaeiaiue i?e nii?oaeaeaii? naa?aeeiaei ne?ae
a?aeaanoe iaeia c /?eueieo i?noeue. Aea/aiiy i?e?iaee oneeaaeiaiue,
?ic?iaea a?eueo aoaeoeaieo oaoi?ee ? iaoiaeeee ?o onoiaiiy — aaaiiee
?aca?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?icaeyaeoaaieo ?ia?o.

Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e oa
oneeaaeiaiue ? canoinoaaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo. Caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith
oi?iaae ? ia?oi?aoi??a aaea?oueny e?ea?aeiaoaaoe ??ci? aaa???, iia’ycai?
c i?eeeiaiiyi o?oa i?ae ae??th ia?aiaaeo oeneo, caeeeithaaiiyi a
aeieiaao ? i?noeyo caoaeaiiy noaiea naa?aeeiaeie, ooai?aiiyi naeueieea
ia ao?eeuei?e eieii?, ao?aoith oee?eoeyoe?? i?iieaaeueii? ??aeeie,
caeeoaiiyi noi?iii?o i?aaeiao?a ia aeai? ? o.i. Oi?iaaeoaaiiy a
naa?aeeiaei? aoaeoeaia aeey “no?oooaaiiy” ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo,
?icaaei/oaaiiy ??cueiaeo c’?aeiaiue, c??coaaiiy eieiie c iaoith
i?aeiyooy ia iiaa?oith a?eueii? ae?eyiee o?oa. Ca aeiiiiiaith
ia?oi?aoi??a ae??oothoue caaea/? i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeaea/? ieano?a,
i?iaaaeaiiy ?cieyoe?eieo ?ia?o, a?aeiiaeaiiy oee?eoeyoe?? a
naa?aeeiaei?, oiui.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oe?eee ?yae ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c
i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeie ?iaioaie o naa?aeeiaei? caeeoathoueny
iaeiaea/aieie, iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieie. A?aenooi?e iaa?oioiaaiee
iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy a?aeiinii? aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo
aeaooiaeo i?eno?i?a, aeai?o aaee/eie ca?yaeo aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie aeey
e?ea?aeaoe?? aeieia?a o ii?iaeao c ??cieie iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie,
ia ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeeiai?ee ao?eeueii? eieiie i?e
oi?iaaeoaaiiyo c iaoith e?ea?aeaoe?? ??ciiai ?iaeo oneeaaeiaiue a
i?ioean? nii?oaeaeaiiy naa?aeeiaeie. Iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii aea/ai? aeaye?
aaaeeea? iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy aeaooiaeo ?ia?o ia aaeeeeo aeeaeiao, a
oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo oene?a ? oaiia?aoo?, iaeiai ae?aiao?a o?oa ? o.?i.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth
?icaeoeo ?nioth/eo oa noai?aiiy iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a,
oaoi?/ieo cania?a ? oaoiieia?e, iia’ycaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi aia?a??
aeaooo a i?ioean? nii?oaeaeaiiy naa?aeeiaei.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o a ?aieao ainiaeiaiai??a c i?iieneiaeie i?aei?e?inoaaie
Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? Oe?a?ie. ?yae ?ic?iaie ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??, ui
noinothoueny iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy iaae i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo, aeae?eaiiy ae?eyiie c ??ciei nooiaiai ia/eneaiiy eieiie
o?oa oa eiio?ieth ca i?ioiaeaeaiiyi i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a aei
?ioa?aaeo ?ia?o, iia’ycai? c ?iaioaie I?eea?iaonueei? oa Aaeaee?enueei?
aeniaaeeoe?e c aaio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a naa?aeeiaeiao ia’?aeiaiiy
“Oe?aaio?ceea”.

Iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe, ca’ycai? c ?ic?iaeith aieiaieo iai?yi?a
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iaooo ? aac a aea?aeaa?, aa?eoee
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aei caoaa?aeaeaieo o?yaeii Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
“Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie aei 2010 ?ieo” oa “Eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
i?ia?aeueii-ne?iaeiii? aace, ye iniiae noaa?e?caoe?? i?ia?aeieo aaeocae
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae aei 2010 ?ieo”.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?e aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo i?e
ao??ii? oa inai?ii? naa?aeeiaei ia iniia? ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iieneiaeo aeaieo.

Iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe:

1. Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iieneiaeo aeaieo i?i oneeaaeiaiiy i?e ao??ii? oa
inai?ii? naa?aeeiaei, aiae?c oni?oiino? aeei?enoaiiy
i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a (IAA) oa ioe?iea cao?ao ia e?ea?aeaoe?th
aaa??e.

2. Aecia/aiiy ?aae?aeueieo nee oa aeaoi?iaoe?e nenoaie “ae?eyiea o?oa —
ciia i?eoiieaiiy” i?ae /an aeaooo oi?iaaee.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aia?a?? aeaooo ia aeeiai?eo ao?eeueii? eieiie:

i?e “no?oooaaii?” ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo;

i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue aeieioa;

i?e ?icaaei/oaaii? oa c??coaaii? ao?eeueieo o?oa.

4. I?aea?? aaee/eie ca?yaeo aeaooiai? aaee/eie aeey e?ea?aeaoe??
aeieia?a o ii?iaeao c ??ciith aia?ai?ii?noth ?oeioaaiiy.

5. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae eoeueiai? ? eoioeyoeaii? ia?oi?aoe?e
oa ioe?iea aieeao ia?aiao??a eiia?iiaaii? ia?aiiie “i?iieaaeueia ??aeeia
— ianaaeia o?oaa — oeaiaioia e?eueoea — a??nueea ii?iaea” ia aeeaeio
i?iieeiaiiy a ieano.

6. Aea?? oeio ia?oi?aoi?a ? ?aaeeio eiai ?iaioe aeey aoaeoeaiiai
?ice?eooy i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a.

7. I?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaoe oa ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ aoa aeei?enoaiee
eiiieaeniee iaoiae, ui aeeth/a? aiae?oe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a ii?aeiaii? c ?ic?aooieaie ia AII ? ia?aa??eith iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ? iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Iaaaaeai? a ?iaio? iaoiaee iiaoaeiae ?ica’yce?a aeicaieythoue
?aoe?iiaeueii aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea ia?aiao??a iaoai?/ieo nenoai ia
noaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? neeaaeia? nee oa iai?oaeaiue a iiia?a/ieo
ia?a??cao ianaaeieo oa ao?eeueieo eieii. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe
iieyaa? a iiaeaeueoiio iaa?oiooaaii? oa ?icaeoeo oaoiieia?e aeei?enoaiiy
aia?a?? aeaooo i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo,
onoiaii? aeieiaiooai?aiue, eoioeyoeai?e oa eoeueia?e ia?oi?aoe?yo o?oa.
Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? a ianooiiiio:

1. Oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iaae cii i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo oa aeae?eaiiy ae?eyiie c ??ciei nooiaiai iaoeniaiiy eieiie
o?oa ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aeonoe/iiai ea?ioaaeo.

2. Oaeineiiaeaii oaoi?eo (eieaoi?e) ? iaoiaeeeo eiio?ieth ca
i?ioiaeaeaiiyi IAA ana?aaeei? o?oa ? oi/iei ?o anoaiiaeaiiyi iaai?ioe
ia’?eo?a ?ia?o. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy aeey
i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo ?ia?o (IA?) oa aea?eueiaiiy aea?eieo aeaeaoi?a
a?ae i?eoiieaiue, ui i?noyoue niaoe?aeueii iaiaai?/ai? ioooe, i?e
i?ioiaeaeaii? e??cue ye? a ?iaeoeoeaieo eioooeao eieaoi??a aeieea?
aeaeo?i?oo?eia neea aeinoaoiy (i?ney i?aeneeaiiy) aeey i?ae?eaaiiy
ca?yae?a aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie (A?).

3. Noi?ioeueiaaii ? ?ica’ycaii inaneiao?e/io caaea/o oai??? i?oaeiino?
?aae?aeueieo eieeaaiue no?iie i?eoiieaii? ao?eeueii? o?oae i?ae ae??th
oaea?ii? oaee? aeaooo.

4. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeeiai?ee ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo i?e
“no?oooaaii?”, e?ea?aeaoe?? cauaieaiue aeieioa, ?oeioaaii? noi?iiiueiai
iaoaeo ia aeai?, ia?a??caii? ao?eeueieo o?oa, ui aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
ciaoiaeeoe aeeiai?/i? neeaaeia? ci?uaiue, nee oa iai?oaeaiue, ye
ooieoe?e eii?aeeiaoe iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co ao?eeueii? eieiie. Aeaii
aiae?oe/io ioe?ieo ci?ie e?ooiiai iiiaioo a ??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii? i?e
eiai oi?iaaeoaaii? c iaoith ?icaaei/oaaiiy.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie ca?yaeo A? i?e
oi?iaaeoaaii? aeieia?a a ii?iaeao c ??ciith aia?ai?ii?noth ?oeioaaiiy.

6. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?iaioe no??eyth/eo ia?oi?aoi??a oaeineiiaeaii oaoiieia?th
anoaiiaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ca’yceo ieanoa ?c naa?aeeiaeiith i?ney
nioneo ianaaeii? eieiie oeyoii ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aeai?o oeio
ia?oi?aoi?a ? iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio eiai ?iaioe.

7. ?ic?iaeaii ?yae i?eno?i?a aeey aeaooiaeo ?ia?o, ?ice?eooy oa inai?iiy
naa?aeeiaei, eieae?caoe?? ae?? aeaooo o ae?iaeao, iaoeiaa iiaecia yeeo
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia 28 aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ia aeiaoiaee.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe a i?iieneiaino?. Iaea?aeai? a
aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe noaee aacith aeey ?ic?iaee eiiieaeno oaoi?/ieo
? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? IA? o
naa?aeeiaeiao:

— ?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e iaoiaeeee ?
oaoi?/i? caniae (eieaoi?e EIO-36 oa EAI-1-60) aeey eiio?ieth ca nioneii
IAA ana?aaeei? ao?eeueieo o?oa ? oi/iith ?o onoaiiaeith a ?ioa?aae?
?ia?o;

— ?ic?iaeaii ia ??ai? aeiaoiae?a ? ia?aaeaii aeey
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o AAO NEOA “Oaoi?ea” ?yae i?eno?i?a
aeey IA? oa aea?eueiaiiy aea?eieo aeaeaoi?a a?ae i?eoiieaiue, ui
aeicaieythoue aaoiiaoe/ii aeeeth/aoe aeaoi?iaoe?? a?iiueiaaiiai eaaaey
i?e anoaiiaeaii? IAA iaai?ioe ia’?eo?a ?ia?o;

— ?ic?iaeaii, aei?iaoaaii ? ia?aaeaii o aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao
aenieoaoaoe?th naeaeoeai? oi?iaaee, oi?iaaee ca?eueoaii? iiooaeiino?,
eieae?caoi?e ae?? aeaooo o naa?aeeiaei?;

— noai?aii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoeeo IA? “?ino?oeoe?th canoinoaaiiy
i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a o naa?aeeiaeiao”.

?ic?iaee ai?iaaaeaeai? o aea?aeaaieo aaieia?/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao
“Iieoaaiaooiaacaaieia?y”, “*a?i?a?aiaooiaacaaieia?y”,
“Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y”, “Oe?aaio?ceea” c aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 1 iei. 914
oen. a?eaaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, io?eiai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue:

— ia Ananithcieo oeieao ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo “Ia?aaeia? iaoiaee ?
oaoi?ea IA? o naa?aeeiaeiao” (i. Iineaa, 1983-1987 ?.?.);

— ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie-96” (OIAA, i.
Oa?e?a, o?aaaiue 1996 ?.);

— ia 5-?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie — 98” (OIAA,
i. Iieoaaa, aa?anaiue 1998 ?.).

A iiaiiio ianyc? ?iaioo caneooaii a ?OAeOOIA ia ?icoe?aieo iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e ao??iiy iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei (aa?acaiue
1999 ?., ea?oaiue 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 55 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
na?aae ieo 1 iaeyae, 1 ?ino?oeoe?y, 20 noaoae, 28 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa
ia aeiaoiaee.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e
c 196 iaca oa aeiaeaoe?a. Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 237 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 43
?enoiee ? 16 oaaeeoeue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, ia?a/eneaii
iniiai? iai?yiee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? iiaeaii caaaeueio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii no/aniee noai ?ano?n?a
iaooe ? aaco Oe?a?ie oa iieacai? ia?niaeoeae ?ica?aeaieo caian?a
aoaeaaiaei?a. ?icaeyaeathoueny aieiai? iai?yie aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo
?ia?o ia iaooo ? aac o No?aeiiio (Aei?i?ianueei-Aeiiaoeueea caiaaeeia),
Cao?aeiiio oa I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.

No?aeiee ?aa?ii ? aieiaiei ca ?ano?naie aoaeaaiaei?a, ?o aeaeiaooeo oa
ianyaao aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiooee iiaeo
?iaeiaeu. O eiai iaae?ao cina?aaeaeaii ua ia?ica?aeaieo iaeaea 1,8 o?ei.
i3 aaco ? 326 iei. o ??aeeeo aoaeaaiaei?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia aenieee
eiao?oe??io ?aae?caoe?? ii/aoeiaeo ?ano?n?a (56,6%), oeae ?aa?ii
a?aeiineoueny aei iaeia?niaeoeai?oeo o iaooiaaciaiio a?aeiioaii?.

O Cao?aeiiio ?aa?ii? inai?ii 34% ii/aoeiaeo ?ano?n?a, ia?ica?aeai?
neeaaeathoue 545 iei. o ??aeeeo aoaeaaiaei?a ? 614,4 ie?ae. i3 aaco.

O I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii? cia/i? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo iaooiaaciaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie iia’ycai? c aeaaoi??yie *i?iiai ? Acianueeiai ii??a,
aea ia?ica?aeai? ?ano?ne noaiiaeyoue 1473 iei. o oiiaiiai iaeeaa, c yeeo
213 iei. o – iaooa c eiiaeainaoii. Ii/aoeia? ?ano?ne oaeueoo ?aae?ciaai?
anueiai ia 4%, a inai?iiy eiioeiaioaeueiiai noeeo *i?iiai ii?y (c
ioe?ieith ?ano?n?a a?eueoa 0,3 ie?ae. o oiiaiiai iaeeaa) ua ia
ii/eiaeiny.

Iaaaaeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui Oe?a?ia aieiae?? aeinoaoi?ie
iioaioe?aeueieie ?ano?naie aeey ?icaeoeo ne?iaeiii? aace iaooiai? ?
aaciai? i?iieneiaino? oa a?aeiia?aeiiai c?inoaiiy aeaeiaooeo
aoaeaaiaei?a.

Ao??iiy oa aenieoaoaoe?y naa?aeeiaei a neeaaeieo aaieia?/ieo oiiaao
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ??ciiai ?iaeo aaa??yie oa oneeaaeiaiiyie, oaoiieia?y
e?ea?aeaoe?? yeeo ia?aaeaa/a? iine?aeiaia canoinoaaiiy ?yaeo ae?e oa
cania?a. Aei oaeeo ae?e a ia?oo /a?ao ne?ae a?aeianoe: ?icoiaeaeaiiy ?
i?iaa?oaiiy eieiie ?ioi?ii, anoaiiaeaiiy aaii, canoinoaaiiy i?eno?i?a
?iioeuenii? ae?? (yn?a, a?a?aoi??a, a?ae?ioaea?iee?a ? o.i.),
?icaaei/oaaiiy ao?eeueii? eieiie ae?ai ? aeoyaaiiy ?? /anoeiaie,
iaao?thaaiiy i?eoiieaiiai ?ino?oiaioo, a?aeiiaeaiiy oee?eoeyoe?? ?
i?iieaaiiy naa?aeeiaeie.

*?eueia i?noea na?aae oeeo niinia?a caeiathoue oi?iaaeoaaiiy ?
ia?oi?aoe?y, ui a?oioothoueny ia aeei?enoaii? aia?a?? aeaooo. A ?ic?iaeo
? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??cieo oei?a oi?iaae ? ia?oi?aoi??a oa iaoiaeee
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo ?ia?o o naa?aeeiaeiao aaaiiee aianie
c?iaeaii I.A.A?eai?yiii, A.Ae.E?iuaieii, N.A.Eiaeath,
E.ss.O??aeeyiaea?ii, A.N.Aea?aeaaoeai, ?.A.Eaa?iei, ?.I.A?oeai?,
Ae.N.Iiiaooiii, A.A.Ee?aaioeai, ?.I.Ionoiaieoaieii, A.N.Caiaoa?aei oa
?ioeie.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c aaa??eiino? ia aea?aeaaieo aaieia?/ieo
i?aei?e?inoaao “Iieoaaiaooiaacaaieia?y”, “*a?i?a?aiaooiaacaaieia?y” ?
“Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y” ca ia??iae c 1973 aei 1997 p.p. cana?ae/ea, ui
ao?aoe /ano ? eioo?a a?ae i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo aeineoue
cia/i? ? a noi? neeaaeathoue 411,1 oen. aiae. ? iiiaae 3,5 iei. e?a. (a
oe?iao aei 1991 ?.). Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ae?iaie, i?e nii?oaeaeaii?
yeeo iaee i?noea i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueieo eieii, — 506 naa?aeeiaei, a oiio
/ene? 311 naa?aeeiaei ia ieiuao, ?icao?thaaieo AeAI IIAA, 153
naa?aeeiaeie — ia ieiuao AeAI *IAA ? 42 naa?aeeiaeie — ia ieiuao AeAI
COA.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? noo? eiia??ieo i?e/ei oneeaaeiaiue oa
ianoaaei ?o aeieeiaiiy ?nioth/? aeaee i?eoiieaiue iiae?eaii ia o?e
eaoaai???: i?eoiieaiiy i?ae ae??th ia?aiaaeo oeneo (i?eeeiaiiy);
caeeeithaaiiy ?ino?oiaioo i?ae /an eiai ?ooo a naa?aeeiaei?; i?eoiieaiiy
aiane?aeie caoaeaiiy noiaao?a naa?aeeiaeie.

I?eoiieaiiy ia?oi? eaoaai??? cao?eniaai? ia 164 naa?aeeiaeiao. Ia ?o
e?ea?aeaoe?th ca 25 pie?a cao?a/aii 150,1 oen. aiae. ? 1 iei. 125 oen.
e?a. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith i?eoiieaiue ? ia?aiaaee i?ae a?ae?inoaoe/iei
oeneii a ioai?? naa?aeeiaeie ? ieanoiaei oeneii, ui ae?thoue ia caeeoaio
aac ?ooo ao?eeueio eieiio a ?ioa?aaeao caeyaaiiy aenieii?iieeieo ii??ae.
Ia aeieeiaiiy ?icaeyaeoaaieo aaa??e nooo?ai aieeaathoue
no?oeoo?ii-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? i?iieaaeueieo ??aeei.

Iaea?eueo /enaeueio a?oio neeaaeathoue i?eoiieaiiy ae?oai? eaoaai???
— 38,7 % aeiaaee?a (196 naa?aeeiaei). Noia?i? cao?aoe /ano ? eioo?a ia
?o e?ea?aeaoe?th neeaee 158,9 oen. aiae. oa 1 iei. 166 oen. e?a. Ia
e?euee?noue caeeeithaaiue aieeaa? c?inoaiiy aeeaei ao??iiy ?, ye
iane?aeie, canoinoaaiiy EIAE, ui aeeth/athoue IAO aaeeei? aeiaaeeie ?
ae?aiao?a.

Iaeiaioo e?euee?noue cao?eniaaieo i?eoiieaiue a?aeianaii aei o?aouei?
eaoaai??? — 146 na. Aaniethoi? cao?aoe /ano ? eioo?a neeaee 133,2 oen.
aiae. ? 1 iei. 226 oen. e?a. Oaeee noai ?a/ae iiynith?oueny oe?ieei
niaeo?ii i?e/ei, ui ii?iaeaeothoue oe? oneeaaeiaiiy (ineiaiiy oa iaaaee
ii??ae, aeieiae, eaaa?ie, naeueieee, in?aeaiiy oeaio oa iaaaaeithaa/?a),
oa aeineoue i?eaeeciith ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i oiiae, a yeeo aaaeooueny
iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe. Caoaeaiiy iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co
naa?aeeiaeie, caoyaeee ? iinaaeee eieiie ? iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieie aeey
?ioa?aae?a caeyaaiiy e?aiaoi?nueei? naeoe, i?aaenoaaeaii? eai’yiith
n?eeth c i?ioa?eaie iaai??aeo nieae, aeniea ?ic/eii?noue yeeo aaaea aei
ooai?aiiy ia’?iieo eaaa?i.

Iayaiee ianya noaoenoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aeaa iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
eiia??iino? eaoaai??e i?eoiieaiue aeey ??cieo iaooiaaciaeo ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie, ui aoaea ei?eniei i?e neeaaeaii? oaoi?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
i?iaeo?a, i?iaiicoaaii? aeo?ao ia aoae?aieoeoai naa?aeeiaei, aeai??
?aoe?iiaeueieo niinia?a e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo.

I?e e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue i?ino??eueii-aeaooiao
aia?aoo?o. ?c 506 ?ica?aeoaaeueieo naa?aeeiaei, ia yeeo o 1973-1997 ?.?.
iaee i?noea i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo IAA aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o
283 aeiaaeeao. Oi?iaaeoaaiiy aoei oni?oiei o 248 c 277 aeiaaee?a, a
ia?oi?aoe?y — o 7 c 8 aeiaaee?a.

Aeiaaeee oi?iaaeoaaiiy c iaoith e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueii?
eieiie ?icae?eaii ia /ioe?e a?oie: oi?iaaeoaaiiy c iaoith ?icaaei/oaaiiy
??cueiaeo c’?aeiaiue, c iaoith “no?oooaaiiy” ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo, c
iaoith ia?eaaiiy aai ia?a??coaaiiy ao?eeueii? eieiie, ?io? aeiaaeee. A
ie?aio i’yoo a?oio caa?aii aeiaaeee aeei?enoaiiy ia?oi?aoi??a.

Aei ia?oi? iaea?eueo /enaeueii? a?oie a?aeianaii ae?iaee, a yeeo
oi?iaaeoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee aeey iineaaeaiiy ??cueiaeo c’?aeiaiue ?
a?aeaaei/oaaiiy a?eueii? eieiie o?oa. ?c 216 cao?eniaaieo aeiaaee?a 211
aeyaeeenue oni?oieie. Aei oaeeo a?aeiineee o? naa?aeeiaeie, a yeeo
oaeaaaeinue ?icaaeioeoe ao?eeueio eieiio oi/a a iaeei ?ac. Aeineoue
/anoi aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo aeicaiey? aea?eueieoe aanue aai
a?eueoo /anoeio i?eoiieaiiai ?ino?oiaioo oeyoii aaaaoi?aciaiai
a?aeaaei/oaaiiy a ii?aeiaii? c i?iieaaiiyi o?oa ? naa?aeeiaeie /a?ac
?ic’?aeiaio eieiio.

Ae?oao a?oio neeaee aeiaaeee oi?iaaeoaaiiy c iaoith iiaiiai aea?eueiaiiy
ao?eeueii? eieiie iaoiaeii noai?aiiy aeaooiai? oaee?, yea “no?ooo?”
eiiiiiiaeo. Oni?oi?noue 34 ?c 52 naa?aeeiaei. Ia ia? ?noioii aieeaa? /an
a?ae ii/aoeo i?eoiieaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy “no?oooaaiue” c? cia/iei
cai?ciaiiyi a /an? a?aoo?-?aoo aaaea aei aaaeeeo aaa??e, cia/ii
oneeaaeith? ?iaioe, ni?yiiaai? ia ?o e?ea?aeaoe?th. Oi?iaaeoaaiiy c
iaoith “no?oooaaiiy” aeioe?eueia i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ia?oi? oa
ae?oai? eaoaai??e, eiee aeiaaeeio i?eoiieaii? ciie iiaeia ia?ae?eoe
caaaeueiith aeiaaeeiith oi?iaaee, a /an a?ae ii/aoeo aeieeiaiiy aaa??? –
iacia/iee.

sseui iiia?aaei? ?iaioe c e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??? ia iaee oni?oo,
aea?eueieoe i?eoiieai? o?oae iaiiaeeeai aai aeiiii?/ii iaaea?aeii, oi
?aeeiei niiniaii e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??? ? ca??caiiy ae?oaiai noiaao?a aai
i?eieiaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aaa??eieo ?ia?o acaaae?. Iai?eoiieai? o?oae
c??cathoue aai ia?eaathoue. Oea iaei i?noea ia 16 naa?aeeiaeiao.
Oni?oi?noue oi?iaaeoaaiiy — 100 %.

On? ?io? aeiaaeee oi?iaaeoaaiiy ia’?aeiaii o /aoaa?oo a?oio. ?o
e?euee?noue iacia/ia – 14 naa?aeeiaei, ui neeaaea? 5 %. Ca iaoith
oi?iaaeoaaiiy oe? aeiaaeee aeoaea ??ciyoueny. Oea ? oi?iaaeoaaiiy aeie?o
(9 naa?aeeiaei), oea ? ?iaioa oio?iaeie oi?iaaeaie ia ?ic?yaeeo AOEa (1
na.) /e caeeeiaiiy aaea oo?aiao?a (2 na.) c iaoith eiai ca?eueiaiiy a?ae
i?eoiieaiiy; oea ? oi?iaaeoaaiiy c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiy oee?eoeyoe??
i?iieaaeueii? ??aeeie (2 na.).

I’yoo a?oio neeaee aeiaaeee ?c canoinoaaiiyi ia?oi?aoi??a aeey
i?iaeaaiiy ioai??a a i?eoiieaieo ao?eeueieo o?oaao c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiy
oee?eoeyoe?? (6 na.) aai ianooiiiai anoaiiaeaiiy aaii (2 na.).

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, i?iieneiaiai iaoa??aeo ?
aeina?aeo ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei eiinoaoiaaii, ui:

— i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueieo o?oa a oiiaao aeeaieiai
ao??iiy, i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? ? oene?a, neeaaeieo eiino?oeoe?e
naa?aeeiaei ? eiiiiiiaie ieco ao?eeueieo eieii aoaeoeai?noue aeaooiaeo
iaoiae?a a ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie ?noioii aeua;

— iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaia ae?y aeaii? oaee? aeaooo acaeiaae noiaao?a
naa?aeeiaeie ia aaeeeeo a?aenoaiyo a?ae i?noey oi?iaaeoaaiiy, a naia oea
ieoaiiy ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey caa?aaeaiiy oe?e?niino? ao?eeueieo
o?oa, ianaaeii? eieiie, i?aaeeueiiai aeai?o aaee/eie ca?yaeo aeaooiai?
?a/iaeie;

— aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith ana ua caeeoa?oueny ?ic?iaea oaoi?ee ?
iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ieaeiuei? iaae? i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo, eiio?ieth ca nioneii aeaooiaiai aia?aoa a naa?aeeiaeio,
oi/iiai anoaiiaeaiiy oi?iaae a ?ioa?aae? ?ia?o;

— iaia? iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie ca?yaeo aeaooiai?
?a/iaeie aeey ai?ioueae c aeieiaaie;

— iii?oii a?aenoathoue oaoiieia?y, oaoi?ea ? iaoiaeeea ?ice?eooy
ieano?a, iniaeeai ia oaeiio aaaeeeaiio aoai? nii?oaeaeaiiy naa?aeeiaeie,
ye anoaiiaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ca’yceo c ieanoii oa iaea?aeaiiy
i?eoieo oeth?ae?a o neeaaeieo aaieiai-oaoi?/ieo oiiaao;

— a?aenooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny aieeao eoioeyoeaii?
ia?oi?aoe?? ia aeaoi?iaoe?th ao?eeueieo o?oa a i?ioean? a?aeiiaeaiiy
oee?eoeyoe?? i?iieaaeueii? ??aeeie.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa i?iieneiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue cana?ae/ea iaiao?aei?noue ?icaeoeo ?nioth/eo ? noai?aiiy
iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a, oaoi?/ieo cania?a ? oaoiieia?e,
iia’ycaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi aia?a?? aeaooo i?e aoae?aieoeoa? naa?aeeiaei,
aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe iaoo oa iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiae?a ? oaoi?/ieo
cania?a aecia/aiiy iaae i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueii? eieiie ? i?noey
anoaiiaeaiiy i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a. ?nioth/? oaoi?ea ?
iaoiaeeea ?ia?o uiaei aecia/aiiy i?noey i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo, eiio?ieth ca nioneii IAA o naa?aeeiaeio ? oi/iiai
anoaiiaeaiiy oi?iaae iaai?ioe ia’?eoa ?ia?o ua ia aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeai?,
ine?eueee aiie a nai?e a?eueoino? ?ic?aoiaai? ia iae? oa na?aaei?
aeeaeie, a c ?inoii aeeaei ae?iaie cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny o?eaae?noue
e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e, ci?iththoueny eiiiiiiaee ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo ?
oa?iiaa?e/i? oiiae o naa?aeeiaei?. E??i oeueiai, ieaeith iaaeo
i?eoiieaii? eieiie iaea?eueo aaeeaaiei aecia/ieeii i?eoiieaiue
eiino?oeoe?? o?anoo “Aciaooiaaio?ceea” aecia/eoe iaiiaeeeai, iaeiae
ciaiiy iaae i?eoiieaiiy ? iaia’yceiaith oiiaith an?o no/anieo iaoiaeee
e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?aeiiaiaeiaaii c oe??th
iaoith canoiniaoaaoe aeonoe/iee iaoiae, ui aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ia
o?eueee iaae? iaei??? /e e?eueeio cii i?eoiieaiiy, aea e aeae?eyoe
ae?eyiee eieiie c ??ciei nooiaiai iaoeniaiiy o?oa.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo ieoaiue, a?ae ae??oaiiy yeiai caeaaeeoue aoaeoeai?noue
i?iaaaeaiiy IA?, ? caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiiai eiio?ieth ca i?ioiaeaeaiiyi
IAA ?ioa?aae ?ia?o. Canoiniaoaai? ia ae?iaieoeoa? oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y
ia caaacia/othoue iaae?eiiai eiio?ieth ca i?ioiaeaeaiiyi IAA a
naa?aeeiaei?, iathoue o? /e ?io? iaaeie?ee.

Aeey iino?eiiai eiio?ieth ca nioneii aia?ao?a o naa?aeeiaeio iaie
cai?iiiiiaaii i?inoee ? iaae?eiee o ei?enooaaii? i?eno??e EAI-1-60, o
yeiio a ?ie? /ooeeai? nenoaie aeei?enoiaothoueny aeaeo?iaeeiai?/i?
aeao/eee. Aeaeo?iiaai?oieie ia?aoai?thaa/aie aenooiathoue naeniii?eeia/?
anoaiiaeai? o eaaaeueiiio iaeiia/ieeo aai niaoe?aeueiiio eiioaeia??.
Cai?iiiiiaai? i?eno?i? EAI-1-60 aeicaieythoue iaae?eii eiio?iethaaoe
nione IAA a ao?eeueieo o?oaao, aeaioiaeaieo c ??cieo iaoa??ae?a ?
nieaa?a, a oa?iiaa?e/ieo oiiaao aeeaieeo ? iaaeaeeaieeo naa?aeeiaei i?e
i?i?iaeueieo oaeaeeinoyo ?ooo oi?iaaee.

C? ca?eueoaiiyi aeeaei naa?aeeiaei aeieeathoue o?oaeiiu? c onoaiiaeith
i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a a ?ioa?aae? ?ia?o. Aiinyoueny cia/i?
iioeaee (a?ae e?eueeio aei aeanyoee iao??a), a oiio /ene? ?
noa’?eoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o, ia aeeeth/ai? aeiaaeeia? iiieeee.

A ?iaio? i?iaiae?ciaaii ??ci? niiniae anoaiiaeaiiy aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a a
?ioa?aae? ?ia?o (c i?ea’yceith aei ae?aa?ai aeaeo?e/iiai ?
?aae?iaeoeaiiai ea?ioaaeo, ca ?aia?iith ioooith, ?aae?iaeoeaiei ?aia?ii,
ca oei?i/aiith o?oaith, yea /?oei aeae?ey?oueny ia oii? ioooiaeo
c’?aeiaiue, oa ca iaai?oiith iicia/eith). Inoaii?e niin?a iaea?eueo
iaae?eiee, aea oi/ii anoaiiaeoe oi?iaaeo ia iooo? aac niaoe?aeueieo
?ino?oiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue, ye? aeiaaathoue aaaaoi /ano, ia eaaei.
?ic?iaeai? iaie eieaoi? iooo oi?o?eiaaiee EIO-36 oa eieaoi?
aeaeo?iiaai?oiee EAI-1-60 aeicaieythoue iaae?eii aecia/eoe
i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy ioooiaeo c’?aeiaiue; cae?enithaaoe ni?eueiee nione
?acii c ca?yaeii A?, i?e/iio ia aeeaeie c oeneii aei 150 IIa ?
oaiia?aoo?ith 250 (N; oi/ii anoaiiaethaaoe ca?yae ? i?ae?eaaoe eiai aac
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao cania?a ? /ano. I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy eieaoi??a ia
naa?aeeiaeiao AeAI “Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y” aeaee iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

A i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiue EAI-1-60 aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e i?ioiaeaeaii?
ioooiaeo c’?aeiaiue a ?iaeoeoeaieo eioooeao iaaiaeeoueny no?oi aei 0,3
iA, a?ey iaai?oieo iicia/ie aaee/eia no?oio iiaeaith?oueny, a i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueii iaiaai?/aieo ioooiaeo c’?aeiaiue
ca?eueoo?oueny a 10 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a. I?ae/an i?ioiaeaeaiiy oeeo iooo a
?iaeoeoeaieo eioooeao i?eeaaeo aeieea? aeaeo?i?oo?eia neea, yea i?ney
i?aeneeaiiy ? aeinoaoiueith aeey i?ae?eaaiiy aeaooiaeo iao?ii?a oeio
OAAe ? IAIAe. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo ?ia?o iineoaeeee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee
?yaeo i?eno?i?a aeey IA? (a.n. 1034443, 1113509) oa aeey aea?eueiaiiy
aea?eieo aeaeaoi?a a?ae i?eoiieaiue (a.n. 1238437, 1138476), ye?
aeicaieythoue aaoiiaoe/ii aeeeth/aoe aeaoi?iaoe?? a?iiueiaaiiai eaaaeth
a i?ioean? onoaiiaee IAA iaai?ioe ia’?eo?a ?ia?o.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?? aia?a?? aeaooo a naa?aeeiaeiao.
Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? aea/aiiy iai?oaeaiiai noaio ao?eeueieo o?oa ?
aecia/aiiy ?o ?aae?aeueieo ci?uaiue i?e oi?iaaeoaaiiyo c iaoith
e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueii? eieiie aac ?oeioaaiiy aeaiaio?a
inoaiiuei?, ui ia? i?noea i?e “no?oooaaii?” ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo.
Ia?aae ii/aoeii iia?aoe?? aecia/athoue iaae? i?eoiieaiiy, i?eeeaaeathoue
aei eieiie oe?eeii aecia/ai? neeo iaoyao ? e?ooiee iiiaio,
ia?ae?eaathoue anth i?eoiieaio ae?eyieo o?oa oeee?iae?e/iei ca?yaeii. A
?acoeueoao? ae?? oaea?ii? oaee? ia aioo??oith no?ieo eieiie cao?oaia
ii?iaea a?aeeeaea?oueny ? ou?eueith?oueny.

(?en. 1). Cao?oaiee iaoa??ae, ui aca?iiae?? c ciai?oiueith no?ieith
eieiie ?aae?ona r2, iiaeaii i?oaeieie aeaiaioaie c eiao?oe??ioii
aei?noeino? (.

caienaii o aeaeyae?

(1)

– eiao?oe??io oaieiaiai ?icoe?aiiy, O – oaiia?aoo?a.

A?aie/i? oiiae (a iai?oaeaiiyo) ianooii?:

(2)

iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy. Aeioe/i? iai?oaeaiiy, ui ae?thoue a iai?yi?
in? Iz, i?eeiyoi ??aieie ioeth.

?ica’ycie caaea/? iiaeaii noiith

, (3)

ioeueia? a?aie/i? oiiae. I?e oeueiio

(4)

– ooieoe?y, ui aecia/a?oueny c ??aiyiiy

(5)

aea

(6)

no?iie i?eoiieaii? ao?eeueii? o?oae i?ae ae??th oaea?ii? oaee?
aeaooo. Oeae ?ica’ycie aea? iiaeeea?noue iaa?oioiaaii i?aeae?aoe ieoiio
iano q (ea/i) oeee?iae?e/iiai ca?yaeo, uia oieeiooe caeeoeiaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?e o?oa i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue aeacaiei niiniaii aai ia
aeicaieeoe ?i ia?aaeueoe aeiionoeiee ??aaiue.

Iiaeaethth/e aeeiai?eo ao?eeueii? eieiie i?e i?iaaaeaii? IA? iaiao?aeii
ciaoe oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo oeneo acaeiaae ioai?o i?eoiieaieo o?oa oa
no?iie noiaao?a naa?aeeiaeie. Aaoi?ii i?iaiaeeeenue aei??thaaiiy oeneo
oaea?ii? oaee? ia ??cieo a?aenoaiyo a?ae i?noey i?ae?eaaiiy oi?iaaee o
naa?aeeiaei?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui oa?aeoa? iioe?aiiy oeneo
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae caeaoiino? no?iee ae?iaee aai eieiie
a?aeaeaaoe oaea?io oaeeth.

Iayai?noue a ao?eeueieo o?oaao aeaoaeo?a, o??uei, ia?oi?iaaieo ae?eyiie
iii?oii ci?ith? oa?aeoa? iioe?aiiy oaea?ii? oaee?. I?e cai??ao oene?a a
eieii? ao?eeueieo o?oa ae?aiao?ii 140 ii, ui ia? 20-iao?iao ia?oi?iaaio
ae?eyieo ia a?aenoai? 10 i a?ae i?noey aeaooo ca?yaeo, a?aecia/aii
cia/iee niaae oeneo ia o?iio? oaea?ii? oaee?. Aeaia ianoaaeia aeaco? ia
oa, ui oaea?ia oaeey iiaea iaiineoe iioeiaeaeaiiy ao?eeueiei o?oaai
aeaeaei a?ae i?noey aeaooo ? a ia?oo /a?ao ineaaeaiei ?? ae?eyieai.

ia aioo??oith no?ieo o?oae. Ia iniia? ?ica’yceo noi?ioeueiaaieo caaea/
iaoaiaoe/ii? o?ceee aea?oueny ioe?iea aieeao ia?aiao??a ?icaeyaeoaaieo
nenoai ia aeeiai?/i? neeaaeia? nee oa iai?oaeaiue a iiia?a/ieo ia?a??cao
o?oa.

Ianooiiith caaea/ath, ?icaeyiooith a ?iaio?, noaei aecia/aiiy ci?ie
e?ooiiai iiiaioo a ??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii? i?e eiai oi?iaaeoaaii? c iaoith
?icaaei/oaaiiy.

, i?eeeaaeaiee ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?a, ? ??cueiaa c’?aeiaiiy
?icaaioaaeaia a?ae aaae ?ici?uaieo aeua o?oa. sseui oey oiiaa ia
aeeiio?oueny, oi oaea?ia oaeey, yea aeieeea a ?acoeueoao? aeaooo,
iioe?thth/enue i?iieaaeueiith ??aeeiith, iiaea aeeeeeaoe ?icaaei/oaaiiy
a ia?oiio ae ??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii?, aei yeiai ae?eoei iai?oaeaiiy
ne?o/oaaiiy, ?iiae? ia cia/i?e a?aeaeae? a?ae oi?iaaee. Iai?aaeeueii
aea?aia aaee/eia iaoyao ?, ye iane?aeie, iaiiaia ?icaaioaaeaiiy
??cueiaiai c’?aeiaiiy oo?oaeiththoue ?icaaei/oaaiiy o?oa.

a oii?iiio ??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii? aei ? i?ney oi?iaaeoaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii iiaeai? caeaaeiinoyie

, (7)

– eiao?oe??io oa?oy i?ney oi?iaaeoaaiiy, ui ia/eneth?oueny /a?ac
aoaeoeaio aiie?ooaeo eieeaaiue eiiiiiiaee.

ia aca?iiae?th aeaoaeae o c’?aeiaii?.

ia?aaeueoue c?oooaaeueiee iiiaio a ??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii?, oi
ii/iaoueny ?? ?icaaei/oaaiiy ? iia?aoe?th c ?ic’?aeiaiiy ao?eeueii?
eieiie iiaeia aaaaeaoe oni?oiith.

I?e ?icao?thaaii? i’yeeo ii??ae ?ioi?iei niiniaii ca ?aooiie iaa?oaiiy
o?oa oa nionei-i?ae?eiaeueieo iia?aoe?e o naa?aeeiaei? i?ioe?athoueny
aeieiae. I?eoiieaiiy o?oa aiane?aeie aeieiaiooai?aiue oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iiyaith ieoo?aeo caoyaeie ? iinaaeie i?ae /an ?ooo ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioa. C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?ioa?aae?a ooai?aiiy aeieia?a oa
i?noeue caoaeaiiy ioai?o naa?aeeiaeie a iaianaaeaeaiiio noiaao??
i?iaiaeyoue i?io?eaiao??th.

ooai?aieo aeieia?a, ye i?aaeei, ??aia ciai?oiueiio ae?aiao?o IAO.
Iaea?eueo /anoi aeieiae ooai?ththoueny o aeeiao ? aeaa?ie?oao, ??aeoa –
o i?neiaeeao ??cii? oaa?aeino?. Naa?aeeiaeie i?e oeueiio iioee?, cia/ii
aee?eaeai?, a aeieiae niinoa??aathoueny ye ia ieaei?e, oae ? ia aieiaeo
? aa?oi?e no?ieao noiaao?a.

. Aeey iaeo?ae?caoe?? aeieiaa o naa?aeeiaei? iio??aii c?oeioaaoe
ii?iaeo, ?ici?uaio i?ae aeaiia eieaie oa ?o iaa?aeiith (caoooiaai?
ciie).

ca?yaeo A?

, (8)

– iaoai?/iee aea?aaeaio oaieioe a oa?iiaa?e/ieo oiiaao naa?aeeiaeie.

Ia?oee iiiaeiee o (8) a?aeiia?aea? ca i?noea onoaiiaee oi?iaaee o
aeeaei? aeieiaa. Ine?eueee iaae?eieo niinia?a eiio?ieth oeueiai
ia?aiao?a iaia, oi ne?ae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe a?eueoa ?c cia/aiue ae?aiaciio
aeey oeueiai iiiaeieea.

Aea?? ca?yaeo ca oi?ioeith (8) aea? iiaeeea?noue ciaioeoe aeo?aoo
aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie, caeiiiieoe /an ? eiooe ia onoiaiiy aeieiaiooai?aiue.
E?eoa???i ioe?iee i?iaaaeaiiy caoiae?a uiaei iaeo?ae?caoe?? aeieiaa
ne?ae aaaaeaoe a?aenooi?noue a cii? oi?iaaeoaaiiy caoyaeie ? iinaaeie
i?e nionei-i?ae?eiaeueieo iia?aoe?yo.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia?oi?aoe?? ianaaeieo ?
ao?eeueieo eieii. Ia?o? ia?oi?othoue aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ca’yceo ieanoa ?c naa?aeeiaeiith, a ae?oa? – c iaoith
a?aeiiaeaiiy oee?eoeyoe?? i?iieaaeueii? ??aeeie oa anoaiiaeaiiy
i?noeaaeo aaii i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo.

A ?iaio? ocaaaeueiaii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ?iaioe eoeueiaeo ?
eoioeyoeaieo ia?oi?aoi??a, ui aeathoue ciiao ioe?ieoe aieea aae?noe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ? ia?aiao??a eiia?iiaaii? ia?aoeiaee “i?iieaaeueia
??aeeia – ianaaeia eieiia – oeaiaioia e?eueoea – a??nueea ii?iaea” ia
i?iaeaio caeaoi?noue aia?ao?a.

Aeey eoioeyoeaiiai no?oiaiy oa eoe? iaea?eueo i?oeiith ia?aoeiaeith ?
6-12-ii no?iea eieiie ianaaeieo o?oa aeaioiaeaieo ?c eaaiaaieo noaeae.
*ei i?oei?oa no?iea eieiie, oei iaioee ae?aiao? ioai?o a i?e ? aeeaeia
ia?oi?aoe?eiiai eaiaeo a ii?iae?. Ca iayaiino? aeai- aai o?eeieiiii?
ia?aoeiaee ooai?aiiy ia?oi?aoe?eieo eaiae?a o ii?iae? oneeaaeith?oueny.
I?e oeueiio aeineoue nooo?aei oaeoi?ii ? i?enooi?noue a i?aeeieiiiiio ?
cao?oaiiio i?inoi?? oeaiaioiiai eaiaith, oiaueia yeiai aecia/a?oueny
iniaeeainoyie eiino?oeoe?? naa?aeeiaeie.

Ia nueiaiaei? iniiaieie aia?aoaie, ui canoiniaothoueny aeey ?ice?eooy
ieano?a-eieaeoi??a, ? eoioeyoeai? ia?oi?aoi?e, ye iaea?eueo aeiiii?/i?,
aoaeoeai? oa i?iaeoeoeai?. Aeey ioe?iee ?o i?iaeaii? caeaoiino? aea/aii
a?eueoa 300 a?aeno??eyieo i?oaiae, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue iaaiei
eiino?oeoe?yi naa?aeeiaei a ?aaeueieo oiiaao.

noiaia ao?iaiai ?ic/eio, ciaioothoueny (oaae. 1) ae?aiao?e
ia?oi?aoe?eiiai eaiaeo a ianaaei?e eieii? oa i?neiaeeo, a oaeiae
caaaeueia aeiaaeeia eaiaeo. A i?ioean? i?ino??ethaaiiy i?oaiae o
naa?aeeiaei? aeyaeaii ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie neaa?iiiae?aiiai noa?aeiy,
ui ?ooa?oueny ca eoioeyoeaiei no?oiaiai, c? c?inoaiiyi a?ae?inoaoe/iiai
oeneo.

Aea/aiiy i?oaiae iieacaei, ui a aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao e?au? ?acoeueoaoe –
/eno? ia?oi?aoe?ei? eaiaee – io?eiai? i?e i?iaaaeaii? ia?oi?aoe?? a
iaoo?, a o?ioe a??o? – a ieanoia?e aiae?. I?e ?ice?eoo? ieanoa-eieaeoi?a
oeyoii ia?oi?aoe?? a na?aaeiaeu? oaoi?/ii? aiaee oa ao?iaiai ?ic/eio
niinoa??aaeanue /anoeiaa caeoii?thaaiiy ia?oi?aoe?eieo eaiae?a. I?e
caiiaiaii? naa?aeeiaeie iaaaaeiaiei ao?iaei ?ic/eiii ia?oi?aoe?ei?
eaiaee iiai?noth caeoii?thaaeenue /anoeaie eiai oaa?aei? oace.

Aaoi?ii aea/aeenue aeaoi?iaoe?y iacaoeaiaioiaaieo a?ae??ce?a ianaaeieo
eieii, i?aeaeaieo caeiia?e ia?oi?aoe?? aia?aoaie ??cieo oei?a a
?aaeueieo oiiaao naa?aeeiaeie. Ii??aiyiiy a?ae??cea 127-ii eieiie c?
noae? ia?ee E, i?iia?oi?iaaii? ia aeeaei? 1700 i (aonoeia ao?iaiai
?ic/eio — 1300 ea/i3) aacei?ionieie oa ei?ionieie ia?oi?aoi?aie
iieacaei, ui aeaoi?iaoe?y eieiie iaea?eueoa i?e ?? ia?oi?aoe?? aia?aoaie
IEN-105 oa EI?O-65, a iaeiaioa — aia?aoaie IE-85, IE-105AeO ? IE-108.

I?ci?oa aeey aea/aiiy aieeao u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? (/enea ioai??a ia 1
iia.i) ia noai ianaaeii? eieiie canoiniaoaaee aacei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e
EI?O-65.

I?e ia?oi?aoe?? c? u?euei?noth 10 ioa/iia.i aeaio ?ioa?aae?a iaei??? e
o??? ae eieiie aeynieeinue, ui aeaoi?iaoe?y eieiie caeaaeeoue ia a?ae
u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe??, a a?ae /enea caei?a, aeeiiaieo aeey aeinyaaiiy
caaeaii? u?eueiino?. O??ueie a eieii? ooai?ththoueny, ye i?aaeei, i?e
ia?oiio caei?; i?e eiaeiiio ianooiiiio caei? o??ueie ca?eueoothoueny, a
iia? — i?aeoe/ii ia ooai?ththoueny. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui ?ici?? o??uei i?ney
ia?oiai caeio iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae /enea ca?yae?a ia iaeei caei. I?e
caei? ?c aeaio ca?yae?a aoee io?eiai? o??ueie oaeeo naieo ?ici???a, ye ?
i?e 10 oa 20 ca?yaeao. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui iaa?oue i?e caeiao ?c
aeaio ca?yae?a i?e eiaeiiio ianooiiiio ca?eueooaaeenue o??ueie, ooai?ai?
i?e ia?oiio caei?.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaiiai aeua iaiao?aeii i?aaiooe aei iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeai? u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? ianaaeii? eieiie ca iaeei caei. Neacaia
a?aeiineoueny aei aacei?ionieo ia?oi?aoi??a.

I?e aeei?enoaii? ei?ionieo ia?oi?aoi??a IE-103 a aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao
ooai?aiiy o??uei ? aeaoi?iaoe?y eieiie ia niinoa??aaeanue i?e u?eueiino?
30 ioa/iia.i ? iaa?oue 100 ioa/iia.i. ?c neacaiiai iiaeia c?iaeoe
ianooii? aeniiaee:

Ianaaeia eieiia a i?ioean? ia?oi?aoe?? cacia? cia/ii? ia’?iii?
aeaoi?iaoe??, yea i?e ia?oi?aoe?? aacei?ionieie aia?aoaie oeio IEN iiaea
aeinyaaoe a?aie/ieo cia/aiue, aae aei ?oeioaaiiy eieiie; i?e oeueiio, ye
i?aaeei, ooai?ththoueny iicaeiaaei? o??ueie.

*anoi e?iaoeue iaei??? o??ueie ? ii/aoeii ?ioi?; iicaeiaaei? o??ueie
c’?aeiothoueny i?ae niaith iiia?a/ieie aai ?icaaeoaeaieie o??ueiaie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeiaaeaiiy eone?a eieiie.

I?e u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? 10 ? iaa?oue 20 ioa/iia.i ca iaeei caei
ia?oi?aoe?y ianaaeii? eieiie a 1,5-2 ?ace iaioa, i?ae i?e oae?e aea
u?eueiino? ca aeaa — i’youe caei?a; i?e iiaoi?ieo caeiao ia?aaaaeii
ca?eueoothoueny ?nioth/? o??ueie, a iia? iaeaea ia ooai?ththoueny.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ii?aeeao caeyaaiiy iecueeii?iieeieo
ieano?a-eieaeoi??a i?eeiyoa u?euei?noue ia?oi?aoe?? cia/ii caieaeaia, a
?? ca?eueoaiiy a oeeo oiiaao aei 30-40 ioa/iia. i ni?ey? c?inoaiith
aeaa?oo naa?aeeiaei ?ieiee a aeae?eueea ?ac?a.

Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa i?iieneiaeo aeaieo c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy
i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ianaaeii? eieiie a i?ioean? ?? ia?oi?aoe??
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny iaiaaeeoe, caeaaeii a?ae a?ae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo,
canoinoaaiiy ia?oi?aoi??a ca ianith ca?yae?a A? oa u?euei?noth
ia?oi?aoe?? o aeacaieo ieae/a iaaeao. Aeey eieii ?c noae? ia?ie E, I, A
c oiaueiith no?iie 11 ii:

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo aei 10 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ice?eooy
ieano?a o?eueee ei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e oeio IE c? u?euei?noth — 10-40
ioa/iia.i aai IAI c? u?euei?noth — 4-8 ioa/iia.i; aeiionea?oueny
canoinoaaiiy ia?oi?aoi??a oeio IEI c? u?euei?noth — 6 ioa/iia.i i?e
aeinoaoiuei aaeeeiio (30-50 ii) caci?? i?ae ei?ionii ia?oi?aoi?a oa
ianaaeiith eieiiith a ca’yceo c? cia/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th ei?ion?a
aeacaieo ia?oi?aoi??a; c ca?yaeaie A? aei 30 a (IEN-65, IEN-80, EI?O, I?
oa ?i.) i?e u?eueiino? — 2-5 ioa/iia.i; iiaoi?i? caeie c aeei?enoaiiyi
aacei?ionieo ia?oi?aoi??a ia oiio ae i?ii?aeeo ia aeiioneathoueny;

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo 10-20 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ice?eooy
aacei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e c ca?yaeaie A? aei 30 a (IEN-80, EI?O-65 oa ?i.)
? u?euei?noth 6-8 ioa/iia.i; aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia?oi?aoi?e IEN-105 iiaeia
o?eueee c? u?euei?noth ia a?eueoith 3-6 ioa/iia.i;

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo 20-30 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ice?eooy
aacei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e c ca?yaeaie A? aei 30 a (IEN-80, EI?O-65 oa ?i.)
? u?euei?noth 10-12 ioa/iia.i, a oaeiae IEN-105 c ca?yaeaie A? 50 a c?
u?euei?noth — 6 ioa/iia.i;

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo 30-40 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ice?eooy
aacei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e IEN-80, EI?O-65 c? u?euei?noth 12-20 ioa/iia.i,
a IEN-105 c? u?euei?noth – 6 – 12 ioa/iia.i;

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo 40-60 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe ae?e ?ice?eooy
aacei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e IEN-105, IEN-105O c? u?euei?noth 12-18
ioa/iia.i, a IEN-80, IEN-80O ? EI?O-65 c? u?euei?noth —18-24 ioa/iia.i;

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo 60-80 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ice?eooy
aacei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e IEN-105O c? u?euei?noth 18-24 ioa/iia.i, a
ei?ioni? oeio IEIO c? u?euei?noth — 20-30 ioa/iia.i;

i?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio oeneo 80-100 IIa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ice?eooy
ei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e oeio IEIO ? IIEO c? u?euei?noth 30-40 ioa/iia. i.

Ioaea, c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy i?oei?nieo aeanoeainoae ianaaeii? eieiie
iaiao?aeii i?aaiooe aei yeiiiaa iaioiai /enea caei?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
aacei?ionieo eoioeyoeaieo ia?oi?aoi??a, a aeey iiaoi?iiai ?ice?eooy aai
ca?eueoaiiy u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? iiiaae iaoiiaeaio canoiniaoaaoe
o?eueee ei?ioni? ia?oi?aoi?e oei?a IE, IIE, IEI aai IAI.

ao?eeueieo o?oa i?e eoioeyoeai?e ia?oi?aoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ia?
nooo?ai aieeaathoue i?noea onoaiiaee IAA a o?oa?, iana ca?yaeo A?,
eiino?oeoe?y ia?oi?aoi?a, a?ae?inoaoe/iee oene, u?euei?noue
i?ino??ethaaiiy, e?euee?noue caei?a.

Aeey ioe?iee aieeao u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? ia aaee/eio aeaoi?iaoe??
ao?eeueieo o?oa i?iaiaeeeinue a?aeno??ethaaiiy iaoo?ieo i?oaiae
ca?yaeaie ia?oi?aoi?a EI?O-65-5, c?a?aieie o ae?ioyiiio ea?ean?.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iaaaaeai? a oaae. 2.

sse aa/eii, aeaoi?iaoe?y o?oa, a?aeno??eyieo c? u?euei?noth a?ae 1 aei 5
ioai??a ia iao?, caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiith, oiaoi aca?iiaieea
ca?yae?a a?aenooi?e. I?e u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? 7-8 ioa/i aeaoi?iaoe?y
aeaui ca?eueoo?oueny, aea i?oei?ni? aeanoeaino? o?oa caa??aathoueny. I?e
u?eueiino? 16 ioa/i aeaoi?iaoe?y c?inoa? a?eueoa, i?ae o 3,5 ?ace
ii??aiyii c? u?euei?noth 1 ioa/i. Ia?oi?iaoe?ei? ioai?e c’?aeiothoueny
o??ueiaie. Ia iniia? neacaiiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?e
a?aeno??ethaaii? eieiie ia?oi?iaoi?aie, nii?yaeaeaieie ca?yaeaie a
e?eueeino?, yea ia ia?aaeuo? aeiionoei? ii?ie ca?yaeee, aeaoi?iaoe?y
o?oa iacia/ia.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aieea u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? ia aeaoi?iaoe?th ao?eeueii?
o?oae

U?euei?noue ia?oi?aoe??, ioa/i Aeaoi?iaoe?y, ii

iiia? aeine?aeo

1 2 3 4 5

1 2,41 2,19 2,73 3,22 3,05

2 3,06 3,29 2.78 2.32 2,51

3 2,56 3,52 3,20 2,95 2,47

4 4,24 3,56 4,60 3,28 3,16

5 3,48 3,81 4,15 3,12 2,87

6 4,73 4,54 4,08 3.40 3,36

7 3,90 4,00 4,94 4,54 5,23

8 4,42 5,71 5,24 4,18 4,97

9 5,44 5,92 6,32 5,00 4,60

10 6,86 5,40 5,05 5,91 6,31

11 5,45 6,37 5,87 7,12 7,42

12 7,96 6,20 5,83 6,81 7,53

13 6,43 7,35 8,51 8,00 6,19

14 6,72 7,07 8,65 9,04 7,86

15 9,47 8,95 8,31 7,03 7,46

16 9,52 8,85 7,45 7,71 10,22

Aeey oiai, uia ioe?ieoe aeaoi?iaoe?th o?oa i?e iiaoi?ieo caeiao,
i?iaaaeaii a?aeno??ethaaiiy iaoo?ieo i?oaiae ca?yaeaie EI?O-65-5. sse
iieacaee ?ino?oiaioaeuei? aei??thaaiiy, o??ueie ? i?e?io??ueie
ooai?ththoueny a ao?eeuei?e o?oa?, ye i?aaeei, i?e ia?oiio caei?, a i?e
eiaeiiio ianooiiiio caei? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?o ca?eueoaiiy. Iia? o??ueie
i?aeoe/ii ia ooai?ththoueny. Ioaea, o aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy
aeniei? u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? i?e caa?aaeaii? oe?eueiino? eieiie
i?ino??ethaaiiy ne?ae aeeiioaaoe iaioith e?euee?noth ?aen?a aacei?ionieo
ia?oi?aoi??a o naa?aeeiaei?. I?e ia?oi?aoe?? ei?ionieie ia?oi?aoi?aie
IE-103 a aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao o??uei ? aeaoi?iaoe?e ao?eeueieo o?oa ia
niinoa??aaeiny i?e u?eueiino? 30 ioa/i ? iaa?oue 100 ioa/i.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? iiaa ?aea i?i i?aeoe/i? ?ic?iaee aeena?oaoe?? oa
?acoeueoaoe ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai. A iueiio aeaii iien
?ic?iaeaieo ca o/anoth aaoi?a iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e oi?iaae, ia?oi?aoi??a,
no?oieiieo ianin?a oa ?ioeo i?eno?i?a.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo i?e ao??ii? oa i?e inai?ii? naa?aeeiaei
noai?ai? ? i?ieoee oni?oi? aei?iaoaaiiy naeaeoeai? oi?iaaee, oi?iaaee
i?aeaeuaii? iiooaeiino?, i?ino??eueii-aeaooia? aia?aoe ia
ianinii-eiii?ani?ieo o?oaao, ui noi?uathoue i?iieaaiiy aeaith c
?oeioaaiiyi noi?iii?o i?aaeiao?a ia iueiio, eieaoi?e EIO-36 ? EAI-1-60,
eieae?caoi?e ae?? aeaooo o naa?aeeiaei?.

E??i oeueiai, ia ??ai? aeiaoiae?a ?ic?iaeaii ? aaoi?nueeeie
na?aeioeoaaie caoeuaii ?yae eiino?oeoe?e oi?iaae ? ia?oi?aoi??a (a.n. ??
1233617, 953845, 1129330, 1117396, 1034443, 1146416), no?oieiieo ianin?a
(a.n. ?? 1143831, 1195743), i?eno?i?a aeey ca?eueiaiiy aea?eieo
aeaeaoi?a a?ae i?eoiieaiue oa noai?aiiy a?ae?i?iioeuen?a o naa?aeeiaei?
(a.n. ?? 1113509, 1138476, 1186774, 1238437, 1120738), /anoeio c yeeo
(no?oieiiee ianin ca a.n. ? 1118008, i?eno??e aeey ia?oi?aoe?? aaciai?
naa?aeeiaeie ca a.n. ? 1129330, ca?yae aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie aeey aeaooo o
aeeaieeo naa?aeeiaeiao ca a.n. ? 1250024) ia?aaeaii aeey
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?ia?o AAO NEOA “Aaioaoi?ea”.

Aei /enea iniiaieo i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe oaeiae a?aeiinyoueny
?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee eiio?ieth ca nioneii aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a o
naa?aeeiaeio ? oi/iith ?o onoaiiaeith a cii? ?ia?o, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aeai?o oeio ia?oi?aoi?a ? ?aaeeio eiai ?iaioe i?e ?ice?eoo? ieano?a, ye?
aa?eoee aei “?ino?oeoe?? canoinoaaiiy i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo aia?ao?a o
naa?aeeiaeiao”.

C canoinoaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a ? iaoiaeee e?ea?aeiaaii
iiiaae 180 i?eoiieaiue.

Caaaeueiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy neeaa 1 iei. 914
oen. a?eaaiue.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE ? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiaee iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oaoiieia?? aeei?enoaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo i?e e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue
ao?eeueii? eieiie ? cauaieaiue aeieioa, onoiaii? aeieiaiooai?aiue,
?oeioaaii? noi?iiiueiai iaoaeo ia aeai?, eoioeyoeai?e oa eoeueia?e
ia?oi?aoe?yo o?oa, ui iiaeia eaae?o?eoaaoe ye iia? ia?niaeoeai?
aeinyaiaiiy, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo aiineoue iii?oiee aeeaae o
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an i?e ao??ii? oa inai?ii? naa?aeeiaei.

1. Aaoi?ii ?icaeyiooi aieiai? iai?yie ?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia iaooo ?
aac, iieacaii ?aca?ae aeey ia?iuoaaiiy aeaeiaooeo aoaeaaiaei?a a
Oe?a?i?.

Ocaaaeueiaii ? nenoaiaoeciaaii i?iieneia? aeai? i?i aaa??? oa
oneeaaeiaiiy i?e aoae?aieoeoa? naa?aeeiaei o nenoai?
Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? ca ia??iae 1973-1997 ?.?., anoaiiaeaii eiia??iino?
eaoaai??e i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo aeey ??cieo iaooiaaciaeo
?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie.

?c caaaeueiiai /enea i?eoiieaiue, ui iaee i?noea a 506 naa?aeeiaeiao,
32,4% a?aeianaii aei ia?oi? eaoaai??? (i?eeeiaiiy aiane?aeie ia?aiaaeo
oeneo), 38,7% — aei ae?oai? (caeeeithaaiiy eieiie i?ae /an ?ooo a
naa?aeeiaei?) ? 28,9% — aei o?aouei? eaoaai??? (i?eoiieaiiy /a?ac
caoaeaiiy ioai?o ae?iaee). Na?aaei? cao?aoe /ano ? eioo?a ia iaeia
i?eoiieaiiy a?aeiia?aeii neeaee: aeey ia?oi? eaoaai??? — 974,8 aiae. ?
7982,5 e?a., aeey ae?oai? eaoaai??? — 882,7 aiae. ? 7112,6 e?a., aeey
o?aouei? eaoaai??? i?eoiieaiue — 986,2 aiae. ? 9650,4 e?a.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui e?ea?aeaoe?y 54,9% i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai
?ino?oiaioo aaeanue c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ino??eueii-aeaooiai? aia?aoo?e
(IAA), i?e oeueiio oi?iaaeoaaiiy c iaoith ?icaaei/oaaiiy ??cueiaeo
c’?aeiaiue neeaee 78% a?ae on?o aeiaaee?a canoinoaaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo,
oi?iaaeoaaiiy c iaoith “no?oooaaiiy” ao?eeueieo o?oa — 18,4%, c??coaaiiy
aai ia?eaaiiy eieiie — 5,7%, ?io? aeiaaeee oi?iaaeoaaiiy — 5%,
ia?oi?aoe?y c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiy oee?eoeyoe?? i?iieaaeueii? ??aeeie aai
ianooiiiai anoaiiaeaiiy aaii — 2,8%. Caaaeueia oni?oi?noue on?o
aeiaaee?a oi?iaaeoaaiiy — 89,5%, a ia?oi?aoe?? — 87,5%.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeey aecia/aiiy iaae iaei??? aai e?eueeio cii
i?eoiieaiue, aeae?eaiiy ae?eyiie c ??ciei nooiaiai iaoeniaiiy eieiie
o?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe naa?aeeiaeiio aia?aoo?o aeonoe/iiai oeaiaioii??a.
?ic?iaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o i?aeoeeo aaa??eieo ?ia?o eieaoi? iooo
oi?o?eiaaiee EIO-36 oa eieaoi? aeaeo?iiaai?oiee EAI-1-60, ye?
caaacia/othoue iaae?eiee eiio?ieue ca i?ioiaeaeaiiyi IAA ana?aaeei?
ao?eeueieo o?oa aei ?ioa?aaeo ?ia?o, aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe
ni?eueiee nione ?acii c ca?yaeii aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie, oi/ii eiai
anoaiiaeoe ? i?ae??aaoe aac aeiaeaoeiaeo cania?a ? ao?ao /ano.

Ia ??ai? aeiaoiae?a ?ic?iaeaii ?yae i?eno?i?a aeey
i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo ?ia?o (IA?) oa aea?eueiaiiy aea?eieo aeaeaoi?a
a?ae i?eoiieaiue, ui aeicaieythoue aaoiiaoe/ii aeeeth/eoe aeaoi?iaoe??
a?iiueiaaiiai eaaaey i?e anoaiiaeaii? IAA iaai?ioe ia’?eo?a ?ia?o ca
?aooiie iayaiino? a eiino?oeoe?yo inoaii?o niaoe?aeueii iaiaai?/aieo
iooo, i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? e??cue ye? a ?iaeoeoeaieo eioooeao eieaoi??a
EAI-1-60 aeieea? aeaeo?i?oo?eia neea aeinoaoiy (i?ney i?aeneeaiiy) aeey
i?ae?eaaiiy ca?yae?a A?.

4. Oeyoii ?ica’yceo inaneiao?e/ii? caaea/? oai??? i?oaeiino? aeey
ii?iaeienoiai e?oaiaiai oeee?iae?a, aioo??oiy no?iea yeiai i?aeaeaia
aeeiai?/i?e ae?? oeneo, a ciai?oiy aca?iiae?? c i?oaeiei na?aaeiaeuai,
iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy ?aae?aeueieo
ci?oeiaiue no?iie i?eoiieaii? ao?eeueii? o?oae i?ae ae??th oaea?ii?
oaee? aeaooo, ye? aeicaieythoue iaa?oioiaaii i?aeae?aoe iano
oeee?iae?e/iiai ca?yaeo A?, uia oieeiooe caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e
“no?oooaaii?” ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo aai ia aeicaieeoe inoaii?i
ia?aaeueoe aeiionoeiee ??aaiue.

5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeeiai?ee ao?eeueii? eieiie i?e
“no?oooaaii?” ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo, e?ea?aeaoe?? cauaieaiue aeieioa,
?oeioaaiiy noi?iiiueiai iaoaeo ia aeai?, ia?a??coaaii? ao?eeueieo o?oa,
ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ciaoiaeeoe aeeiai?/i? neeaaeia? nee oa
iai?oaeaiue a iiia?a/ieo ia?a??cao o?oa ? c o?aooaaiiyi ?o cia/aiue
aecia/eoe eiao?oe??ioe caiano i?oeiino? eiiiiiiaie ao?eeueii? eieiie i?e
aeaooiaeo ?iaioao o naa?aeeiaei?. Aeaii aiae?oe/io ioe?ieo ci?ie
e?ooiiai iiiaioo a ??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii? i?e eiai oi?iaaeoaaii? c iaoith
?icaaei/oaaiiy.

6. Ia iniia? aiae?oe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
cai?iiiiiaaii oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie ca?yaeo A? ia iiaiiiee
iao? naa?aeeiaeie aeey oi?iaaeoaaiiy no?iie ae?iaee c iaoith ?oeioaaiiy
aeieia?a a ii?iaeao c ??cieie iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie. Oi?ioea
a?aoiao? aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e naa?aeeiaeie ? aeieiaa, ?ici?uaiiy oi?iaaee
o ae?iaoe?, oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaooiai? ?a/iaeie oa ia’?iio ?iaioo
?oeioaaiiy ii?iaee.

7. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeey ioe?iee aieeao aae?noe/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aia?ao?a ? ia?aiao??a eiia?iiaaii? ia?aoeiaee
“i?iieaaeueia ??aeeia — ianaaeia eieiia — oeaiaioia e?eueoea — a??nueea
ii?iaea” ia i?iaeaio caeaoi?noue eoeueiaeo ? eoioeyoeaieo ia?oi?aoi??a.

Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaeaii? caeaoiino?
aacei?ionieo oa ei?ionieo eoioeyoeaieo ia?oi?aoi??a anoaiiaeaii, ui:

— c? ca?eueoaiiyi a?ae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo a naa?aeeiaei? ciaioothoueny
ae?aiao?e ia?oi?aoe?eieo eaiae?a a ianaaei?e eieii? ia 5-10% ?
a??nuee?e ii?iae? ia 13-15%, a oaeiae aeiaaeeie ia?oi?aoe?eieo eaiae?a
ia 6-29% caeaaeii a?ae oeii?ici???a IAA ? oa?aeoa?enoee eiia?iiaaii?
ia?aoeiaee;

— c? ciaioaiiyi iane eoioeyoeaiiai ca?yaeo ae?aiao?e ? aeiaaeeie
ia?oi?aoe?eieo eaiae?a ciaioothoueny, i?e oeueiio a eaiaeao iaeeo
ae?aiao??a iae/ano?oa niinoa??aathoueny cano?yaaiiy neaa?iiiae?aieo
noa?aei?a, ui eaoyoue ne?aeii ca eoioeyoeaiei no?oiaiai.

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o oeio ia?oi?aoi?a ? iioei?caoe??
eiai ?iaioe c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? ia?oi?aoe??
i?e caa?aaeaii? oe?e?niino? ianaaeii? eieiie ? oeaiaioiiai eaiaith a
cao?oaiiio i?inoi??.

aieeaathoue ?ici?uaiiy IAA a o?oa?, iana ca?yaeo A?, eiino?oeoe?y
ia?oi?aoi?a, a?ae?inoaoe/iee oene o naa?aeeiaei?, u?euei?noue
i?ino??ethaaiiy, e?euee?noue caei?a. I?e u?eueiino? ia?oi?aoe?? 5-10
ioai??a ia iiaiiiee iao? ca iaeei caei aeaoi?iaoe?y ao?eeueieo o?oa a
1,5-2,0 ?ace iaioa a ii??aiyii? c oaeith ae e?euee?noth ioai??a,
i?iaeoeo ca 2-5 caei?a.

i?e ?o aeei?enoaii? a?ae/ooii a?eueoa a ii??aiyii? c ei?ionieie
ia?oi?aoi?aie.

9. Oaeineiiaeaii a?aeii? ? cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy
(eieaoi?e EIO-36, EAI-1-60, naeaeoeai? oi?iaaee ? oi?iaaee ca?eueoaii?
iiooaeiino?, eieae?caoi?e ae?? aeaooo), ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? IA? o naa?aeeiaei?.

I?aai?ciaaii aeaioiaeaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo i?eno?i?a o
aea?aeaaieo aaieia?/ieo i?aei?e?inoaao “Iieoaaiaooiaacaaieia?y”,
“*a?i?a?aiaooiaacaaieia?y”, “Cao?aeoe?aaieia?y”, “Oe?aaio?ceea” i?e
e?ea?aeaoe?? aaa??e oa oneeaaeiaiue, noai?aii ?ino?oeoeai? aeieoiaioe,
ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Iniiaiee ciino aeena?oaoei aiaeia?aaeaii a ?iaioao:

1. Aioianueeee N.A. Aeeiaiiea ao?eeueii? eieiie i?e aeaieueiaiii
cauaieaieo aeieio oi?iaaeoaaiiyi // ?icaiaeea i ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?.: Ao?iiiy iaooiaeo i aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei.-1998.-
Aei.35.- N.7-71.

2.Aioianueeee N.A. Aiaeioe/ia ioeiiea ?aaeiaeueieo ciiuaiue a
i?eoiieaiie ao?eeueiie eieiii iiae aei?th aeaooiai? oaeei // ?icaiaeea i
?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?iy:Ao?iiiy iaooiaeo i aaciaeo
naa?aeeiaei.- 1998.- Aei.35.- N.79-86.

3.Aioianueeee N.A., Iieneoei A.I. ?ic?aooiie aaee/eie ca?yaeo oi?iaaee
aeey ?oeioaaiiy aeieiaia o naa?aeeiaeii // ?icaiaeea i ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo
i aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?iy: Iaooiaacii?iieneiaa iaeaaeiaiiy.- 1998.-
Aei.35.- N. 153-159.

4.Aioianueeee N.A. Aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueii ?iaioe- iniiaa ?icaeoeo
iaooiaaciai? i?iieneiainoi Oe?a?ie // Iaooa i aac Oe?a?ie. Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue (iaoa?iaee 5-i? iiaeia?. eiio. «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie-98»,
Iieoaaa, 15-17 aa?aniy 1998 ?.).O.1.- Iieoaaa, OIAA, 1998.- N.37-38.

5.Aioianueeee N.A. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?icaiaeee ?iaeiaeu —
aaaeeeaee ?aca?a iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueieo ?iaio
ia iaooo i aac // Iaooa i aac Oe?a?ie. Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue (iaoa?iaee 5-i?
iiaeia?. eiio. «Iaooa ? aac Oe?a?ie-98», Iieoaaa, 15-17 aa?aniy 1998
?.).O.1.- Iieoaaa, OIAA, 1998.- N.38-39.

6.Aioianueeee N.A. I?iaeaia ia?iuoaaiiy aeaeiaooeo aoaeaaiaeiia a
Oe?a?ii // Iaooiaa i aaciaa i?iieneiainoue.- 1998.- N 6.- N.24-26.

7.Aioianueeee N.A. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?icaiaeee ?iaeiaeu-
aaaeeeaee ?aca?a iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueieo ?iaio
ia iaooo i aac // Aaieiaiy i aaioiiiy ai?th/eo eiiaeei.- 1998.- N
2(103).- N.10-12.

8.Aioianueeee N.A. Ieaooi?iaiiee aaoiooii Ea?iao — iiaee ia?niaeoeaiee
iai?yiie iiooeo ?iaeiaeu aoaeaaiaeiia // Aaieiaiy i aaioiiiy ai?th/eo
eiiaeei.- 1998.- N 2(103).- N.90-94.

9.Aioianueeee N.A. ?iciiaeie oeneo oaea?ii? oaeei ii aeiaaeeii
naa?aeeiaeie // ?icaiaeea i ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?iy:
Ao?iiiy iaooiaeo i aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei.- 1998.- Aei.35.- N.57-66.

10.Aioianueeee N.A. ?ic?iaea iioeiaeueiiai niiniao anoaiiaeaiiy
aeaooiaeo aia?aoia o caaeaiiio iioa?aaei naa?aeeiaeie // ?icaiaeea i
?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?iy:Ao?iiiy iaooiaeo i aaciaeo
naa?aeeiaei.- 1998.- Aei.35.- N.86-97.

11.Aioianueeee N.A. Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueieo ?iaio
ia iaooo i aac a Oe?a?ii (iicaathaeaeaoii eiooe) // Aaieiaiy i aaioiiiy
ai?th/eo eiiaeei.- 1998.- N 1(102).- N.9-16.

12.Aioianueeee N.A. I?i oeyoe aeoiaeo c e?ece aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueieo
?iaio ia iaooo i aac // Iiia?aeueii ?ano?ne Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- N 4.-
N.4-5.

13. Aioianueeee N.A. I?iaeaie i caaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? aaieiai/ii?
neoaeae // Iiia?aeueii ?ano?ne Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- N 3.-N.4-6.

14. Iieneoei A.I., Aioianueeee N.A. Aiaeic i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai
iino?oiaioo a nenoaii Aea?aeeiiaaieiai? Oe?a?ie ca 1973-1997 ?.?. //
?icaiaeea i ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?i?: Ao?iiiy
iaooiaeo i aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei, ?ic?iaea oa aenieoaoaoe?y iaooiaeo ?
aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu.- 1997.- Aei.34.- N. 20-31.

15. Iieneoei A.I., Aioianueeee N.A. Canoinoaaiiy i?ino?ieueii-aeaooiai?
aia?aoo?e aeey eieaiaeaoei? i?eoiieaiue a aaieiai?icaiaeoaaeueiiio
ao?iiii // ?icaiaeea i ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. Na?i?:
Ao?iiiy iaooiaeo i aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei, ?ic?iaea oa aenieoaoaoe?y
iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. — 1997.- Aei.34.- n. 69-74.

16. Aioianueeee N.A. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy eoioeyoeaii?
ia?oi?aoei? ao?eeueieo o?oa // ?icaiaeea i ?ic?iaea iaooiaeo i aaciaeo
?iaeiaeu. Na?i?: Ao?iiiy iaooiaeo i aaciaeo naa?aeeiaei, ?ic?iaea oa
aenieoaoaoe?y iaooiaeo ? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu. — 1997.- Aei.34.- N. 58-69.

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32. A.n.1439217 (NNN?). Iaaieoiue aeenia?aaoi? / N.A.Aioianeee,
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33. A.n.1439216 (NNN?). Iaaieoiue aeenia?aaoi? / N.A.Aioianeee,
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35. A.n.1382488 (NNN?). Aeo?aaie nianeoaeue / A.E.Eacie?oe,
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36. A.n.1250024 (NNN?). Ca?yae ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa aeey ac?uaaiey a
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37. A.n.1238437 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey caaieiiai
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38. A.n.1233617 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ?ac?ooaiey ii?iaeu ac?uaii /
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39. A.n.1195743 (NNN?). Neaaaeeiiay ianiniay onoaiiaea /
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41. A.n.1146416 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ia?oi?aee neaaaeei /
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42. A.n.1143831 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ane?uoey e inaiaiey neaaaeeiu /
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43. A.n.1138476 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey oo?aiao?a io
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44. A.n.1129330 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ia?oi?aee aaciaie neaaaeeiu /
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45. A.n.1124626 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey aeae?aaee/aneiai ?ac?uaa ieanoa
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46. A.n.1120738 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey nicaeaiey aeae?ieiioeuenia
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47. A.n.1120738 (NNN?). No?oeiue ianin / A.I.Aaaeoecaaea, N.A.Aioianeee,
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48. A.n.117396 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ane?uoey ieanoia /
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3578030.

49.A.n.1113509 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey i?ino?aei/ii-ac?uaiuo ?aaio /
A.I.Aaaeoecaaea, ?.A.Aaaeoecaaea, N.A.Aioianeee e ae?. Cayae.
31.03.1983, N 3579689.

50. A.n.1103653 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ?ac?ooaiey ii?iae ac?uaii /
A.I.Aaaeoecaaea, N.A.Aioianeee, O.A.Aaaeoecaaea e ae?. Cayae.
28.01.1983, N 3543960.

51. A.n.1101547 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey eniuoaiey ieanoia /
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N 3364557.

52. A.n.1099645 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey i?ino?aei/ii-ac?uaiuo ?aaio a
neaaaeeiao / A.I.Aaaeoecaaea, A.A.Aiaioei, N.A.Aioianeee e ae?. Cayae.
14.01.1983, N 3538508.

53. A.n.1070300 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey ia?aoiiai oeaiaioe?iaaiey
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ae?. Cayae. 1.10.1982, N 3497447.

54. A.n.1047262 (NNN?). Ca?yae ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa aeey ac?uaaiey a
aeoaieeo neaaaeeiao / A.A.Ieoaeethe, I.A.Eunthe, N.A.Aioianeee e ae?.
Cayae. 1.03.1982, N 3399129.

55. A.n.823571 (NNN?). Ono?ienoai aeey eieaeecaoeee aeaenoaey ac?uaa a
neaaaeeia / A.A.Ieoaeethe, I.A.Eunthe, N.A.Aioianeee e ae?. Cayae.
17.05.1979, N 2768683.

Aioianueeee Na?a?e Aieiaeeie?iae/. Canoinoaaiiy aia?a?? aeaooo a
oaoiieia?yo nii?oaeaeaiiy naa?aeeiaei. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.10 – Ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei. ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiieia?? aeei?enoaiiy aia?a??
aeaooo i?e ao??ii? oa inai?ii? naa?aeeiaei ia iniia? ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iieneiaeo aeaieo. A i?e
io?eiai? iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ieoaiiy
e?ea?aeaoe?? i?eoiieaiue ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo, ia?a??caiiy ao?eeueieo
o?oa, ?oeioaaiiy noi?iiiueiai iaoaeo ia aeai? oa aeieiaiooai?aiue oeyoii
oi?iaaeoaaiiy. Aeaii aiae?oe/io ioe?ieo ci?ie e?ooiiai iiiaioo a
??cueiaiio c’?aeiaii? i?e eiai oi?iaaeoaaii? c iaoith ?icaaei/oaaiiy.
I?iaaaeaii aiae?oe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
aae?noe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? ia?aiao??a eiia?iiaaii? ia?aoeiaee
“i?iieaaeueia ??aeeia – ianaaeia eieiia – oeaiaioia e?eueoea – a??nueea
ii?iaea” ia i?iaeaio caeaoi?noue eoeueiaeo ? eoioeyoeaieo ia?oi?aoi??a.
?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeai?o oeio i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaiai
aia?aoa ? ?aaeeio eiai ?iaioe aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueii?
aoaeoeaiino? ia?oi?aoe?? i?e caa?aaeaii? oe?e?nii? ianaaeii? eieiie ?
oeaiaioiiai eaiaith a cao?oaiiio i?inoi??. Oaeineiiaeaii a?aeii? ?
cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaii? (eieaoi?e, naeaeoeai? oi?iaaee,
oi?iaaee ca?eueoaii? iiooaeiino?, eieae?caoi?e ae?? aeaooo), ni?yiiaai?
ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ino??eueii-aeaooiaeo ?ia?o o
naa?aeeiaeiao.

. Eeth/ia? neiaa: naa?aeeiaeia, i?eoiieaiiy ao?eeueiiai ?ino?oiaioo,
oaoiieia?y, aeaoo, oaea?ia oaeey, oi?iaaeoaaiiy, ia?oi?aoe?y,
eoioeyoeaiee no?oi?iue.

Aioianeee Na?aae Aeaaeeie?iae/. I?eiaiaiea yia?aee ac?uaa a oaoiieiaeyo
no?ieoaeuenoaa neaaaeei. — ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.10 — Ao?aiea neaaaeei. Eaaii-O?aieianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao iaooe e aaca, a. Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oniaa?oainoaiaaieth oaoiieiaee eniieueciaaiey
yia?aee ac?uaa i?e ao?aiee e inaiaiee neaaaeei. A iae iaiauaiu e
nenoaiaoece?iaaiu i?iiuneiaua aeaiiua ia aaa?eyo e ineiaeiaieyo i?e
no?ieoaeuenoaa neaaaeei a nenoaia Aea?aeeiiaaieiaee Oe?aeiu ca ia?eiae
1973-1997 a.a., onoaiiaeaiu aa?iyoiinoe eaoaai?ee i?eoaaoia ao?eeueiiai
eino?oiaioa aeey ?acee/iuo iaooaaaciauo ?aaeiiia no?aiu.

Iniiauaaynue ia ?aoaiee inaneiiao?e/aneie caaea/e oai?ee oi?oainoe aeey
iieiai e?oaiaiai oeeeeiae?a i?e aeeiaie/aneii aicaeaenoaee aeaaeaiey
oaea?iie aieiu ia aai aioo?aiithth iiaa?oiinoue, i?aaeeiaeaiu
aiaeeoe/aneea caaeneiinoe aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeeaeueiuo ia?aiauaiee
o?oau a oi?oaie n?aaea, iicaieythuea iainiiaaiii iiaeae?aoue ianno
ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa i?e i?ino?aei/ii-ac?uaiuo ?aaioao a neaaaeeia. A
?aaioa iieo/eee iao/iia iainiiaaiea e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aii?inu
eeeaeaeaoeee i?eoaaoia ao?eeueiiai eino?oiaioa, ia?a?acuaaiey ao?eeueiuo
o?oa, ?ac?ooaiey iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia ia caaia iooai
oi?iaaee?iaaiey. Aeaia aiaeeoe/aneay ioeaiea eciaiaieth iiiaioa a
?acueaiaii niaaeeiaiee i?e aai oi?iaaee?iaaiee n oeaeueth ?acaei/eaaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaia oi?ioea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu ca?yaea ac?ua/aoiai
aauanoaa ia iiaiiiue iao? neaaaeeiu aeey oi?iaaee?iaaiey noaiie
au?aaioee i?e eeeaeaeaoeee aeaeiaia a ii?iaeao n ?acee/iuie
iaoaie/aneeie naienoaaie, o/eouaathuay aaiiao?e/aneea ?acia?u neaaaeeiu
e aeaeiaa, ?aciauaiea oi?iaaeu a noaiea au?aaioee, oa?aeoa?enoeee
ac?ua/aoiai aauanoaa e iau?iioth ?aaioo ?ac?ooaiey ii?iaeu.

I?iaaaeaiu aiaeeoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey
aaeeenoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee e ia?aiao?ia eiiaeie?iaaiiie i?aa?aaeu
«i?iiuai/iay aeeaeeinoue – ianaaeiay eieiiia – oeaiaioiia eieueoei –
ai?iay ii?iaea» ia i?iaeaioth niiniaiinoue ioeaauo e eoioeyoeaiuo
ia?oi?aoi?ia. ?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o oeia ia?oi?aoi?a e
iioeiecaoeee ?aaeeia aai ?aaiou a oeaeyo aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiie
yooaeoeaiinoe ia?oi?aoeee i?e nio?aiaiee oeaeinoiinoe ianaaeiie eieiiiu
e oeaiaioiiai eaiiy a cao?oaiii i?ino?ainoaa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aeey
nio?aiaiey i?i/iinoe naienoa o?oa iaiaoiaeeii no?aieoueny e aiciiaeii
iaiueoaio /eneo caeiia n eniieueciaaieai aacei?ioniuo eoioeyoeaiuo
ia?oi?aoi?ia, a aeey iiaoi?iiai ane?uoey eee oaaee/aiey ieioiinoe
ia?oi?aoeee naa?o iaoneiaeaiiie i?eiaiyoue oieueei ei?ioniua
ia?oi?aoi?u.

Oniaa?oainoaiaaiu ecaanoiua e i?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey
(eieaoi?u, naeaeoeaiua oi?iaaeu, oi?iaaeu oaaee/aiiie iiuiinoe,
eieaeecaoi?u aeaenoaey ac?uaa), iai?aaeaiiua ia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
i?ino?aei/ii-ac?uaiuo ?aaio a neaaaeeiao. I?aaieciaaii ecaioiaeaiea e
aiaae?aiea yoeo ono?ienoa ia aaieiae/aneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo aeey
eeeaeaeaoeee aaa?ee e ineiaeiaiee i?e i?iaiaeea neaaaeei, nicaeaiu
eino?oeoeaiua aeieoiaiou, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea eo eniieueciaaiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: neaaaeeia, i?eoaao ao?eeueiiai eino?oiaioa,
oaoiieiaey, ac?ua, oaea?iay aieia, oi?iaaee?iaaiea, ia?oi?aoeey,
eoioeyoeaiay no?oy.

S.V. Goshovky. Using the explosion energy in the technologies of wells
construction

The dissertation for Doctor degree in engineering (speciality –
05.15.10 – Well drilling). Ivano-Frankivsk State Technical University of
Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999.

The dissertation deals with the improvement of the technologies using
the explosion energy in well drilling and completion the basis of the
theoretical research and commercial data.

There has been obtained the scientific ground for the further
development and solution of the problem of releasing of drilling tools
stuck. There has been proposed the solution of the problem of drill
pipes cutting, the fragmentazation of junk metal in the downhole and the
creation of keyseats be means of well shooting. There has been made the
analytical evaluation of the torque moment change in the threaded joints
an the moment of its torpedo shooting when unscrewing.

There have been carried out the analytical and experimental research of
the influence of ballistic characteristics and parameters of the
combined obstacles “washing fluid – casing string – cement ring – rock”
on the penetrative ability of the dun and jet perforators.
Recommendations have been proposed as to the choice of a type of a
shooting – explosion device and its operation regime. It has been done
for the achievement of the maximum effectiveness of the perforation to
prevent the fracturing of a casing string and cement stone in the casing
string borehole annulus. There have been improved the known technologies
and proposed new ones for the increasing of the efficiency of shooting –
explosion works in well. They are as follows: locators, selective
torpedoes, more powerful torpedoes and devices for locating the
explosive action.

. Key words: well, sticking of drilling tools, technology explosion,
explosion wave, torpedoing, perforation, jet stream.

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