IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO CAAAEUeII? OA IAI?AAI?*II? O?I??

?iai? A. ?. AA?IAAeNUeEIAI

______________________________________________________

ONOEIAIEI AAEA??E IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 541.13: 533.72: 669.21

CAEIIII??IINO? IANOAOe?IIA?II? IANEAAOe??

I?IA?TH A OIIAAO EIIAAEOEAII? AeEOOC??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 02.00.05 — aeaeo?io?i?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Niioa?iiieuenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi

?iai? I.A. O?oica

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee:: aeieoi? oiii/ieo iaoe

Oaaei?aiei Ieaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/

N?ioa?iiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? oa

aiae?oe/ii? o?i??

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oiii/ieo iaoe

Ooiaiiaa Iaee? Oa/aoo??aia

Iinoeooo caaaeueii? oa iai?aaii/ii? oiii?

ii. A. I. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

aaaeo/ee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee o a?aeae?e?

aeaeo?io?i?? ?icieaa?a

aeieoi? oiii/ieo iaoe

Oeaeaiei Aeeieo??e Aiaoieaae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaoiieia??

aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa

.

I?iaiaeia i?aai?caoe?y: *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, i. *a?i?aoe?

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “14“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 12 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii Niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.218.01 i?e Iinoeoooi
caaaeueii? oa iai?aaii/ii? oiii? ii. A. I. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

(252680, Ee?a — 142, i?iniaeo aeaaeaiiea Iaeeaaeiia 32/34).

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo

caaaeueii? oa iai?aaii/ii? oiii? ii. A. I. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

ca aae?anith: 252680, Ee?a — 142, i?iniaeo aeaaeaiiea Iaeeaaeiia
32/34.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee “ 14 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe Iaiia A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? i?iieneiaino? o aaeoc?
i?enei?thaaeueii? oaoi?ee ia Oe?a?i? aeiaaa? aaeineiiaeaiiy cania?a
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy (AOI) aioo??oi?o no?iie iaaeaaeeei/anoioieo
(IA*) noioeoo?, yeeie ei?enoothoueny a e?i?eieo i?enei?thaa/ao
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie oa a iaeaaiaeaeaii? ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e a
IA*-ae?aiacii?. Iniaeea?noue aieiaieo cania?a iaea?eueo ye?niiai AOI
i?aoethth/i? iiaa?oi? oaeeo no?oeoo? ?c iaoae?a aaioeeueii? a?oie (Nb,
Zr, Ta) ? iayai?noue aai eieeaaiue aaee/eie iiey?ecoth/iai aiiaeiiai
no?oio a aeaeo?e/iiio eaioethao, aai eieeaaiue aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo
i?e iicia/aieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiiaao ia?ai?ooaaiiy ?ic/eio, — oiaoi,
o oe?eiio cae?enith?oueny ianoaoe?iia?ia ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? iaoaeo a
oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??.

Aeey aaioeeueieo iaoae?a o oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaia? ?icaeiooeo
iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue, ui iienothoue caeiiii??iino? ?o ianoaoe?iia?iiai
ianeaoaaiiy a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??, oa e o a?aeiieo e?iaoe/ieo
iiaeaeyo iaaeinoa/a? a?aeiiinoae uiaei ooieoe?eiiai ca`yceo e?iaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a (oiaoi, eiinoaio oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe??, eiao?oe??io?a aeeooc??
oa ?i.) o ??aiyiiyo noaio aeaeo?iaea ?c oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?aaeei AOI, acaaae?.

Iaia? a?aeiiinoae, yeei /eiii iioiaeaeaiiy oa oiiae aeieeiaiiy
aaoieieeaaiue no?oio aai aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo iathoue ca`ycie ?c
ci?iith oaeaeeinoae eiieo?oth/eo noaae?e ianiia?aianaiiy i?ae /an AOI
oeeo oa aeayeeo ?iueo iaoae?a, a?ae /iai caeaaeeoue iiaeeea?noue
ea?oaaiiy ieie. O ca`yceo c oeei, aeieeathoue aaeeeeo?oaeiiu? uiaei
?ic?iaee oaoiieia?/ieo cania?a ea?oaaiiy ?aaeeiii AOI oa e?eoa???a
ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oeueiai i?ioeano.

Oaeei /eiii, aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy
I?ia?th, ye aeaiaioa a?oie aa?oeeueieo iaoae?a, a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii?
aeeooc?? ia? aeooaeueia iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii IAe? eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o?i?? NAeO
“Neioac e enneaaeiaaiey eii?aeeiaoeeiiiuo niaaeeiaiee iaoaeeia
iiaea?oiiu iaaee, oeeiea, aethieiey e aaiaaeey” (Iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? AI
O?N? a?ae 27.12.85, ? 474, iiia? Aea?aeaa??noaoe?? 01.87.0023646); 2.17.
“Neioac e enneaaeiaaiey eii?aeeiaoeeiiiuo niaaeeiaiee n ooi?-, acio-,
eenei?iae e na?oniaea?aeaueie eeaaiaeaie” (iiia? Aea?ae?aa?no?aoe??
01.91.0030306), a oaeiae, noiniaii ieaio IAe? eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? oa
aiae?oe/ii? o?i?? NAeO “?ic?iaea aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai ei?eaoaaiiy
?ic/ei?a aeaeo?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a ia?iaee i?ia?th ? i?ae? oa aeeo/aiiy
oeeo iaoae?a c a?aei?aoeueiaaieo aeaeo?ie?o?a e no?/ieo a?ae” (iiia?
Aea?ae?aa?no?aoe?? 2.02.03/060 – 92) o ?aieao aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? i?ia?aie Aea?aeeii?oaoo Oeiaoie c ieoaiue iaoee oa
oaoiieia?e 2.2.3 “Aeaeo?io?i?/ia aeieia?y”.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeey iienoaaiiy noaio
aeaeo?iaea iaoae-?ic/ei (iaoae iaeaaeeoue aei aaioeeueii? a?oie) c
iino?eiei aeaeo?iaeiei iioaioe?aeii a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??,
aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ia?aoiaeo i?ia??aiai aiiaea i?ae noaoe?iia?iei
oa ianoaoe?iia?iei ianeaiaaiei noaiaie, aea/aiiy aieeao oaeaeeino?
eiieo?oth/eo noaae?e ianiia?aiino ia oe? ia?aoiaee, ?ic?iaea cania?a
ea?oaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?iei noaiiiaiiaea i?ae /an AOI iiaa?oi? iaoaeo,
aeyaeaiiy, a oe?eiio, ioe?ithaaeueieo e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? ?aaeeio
AOI. Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o ?icaeoeo iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue
uiaei iaoai?cio ianeaaoe??-aeoeaaoe?? iaoae?a: 1 — cai?iiiiiaaia
iiaeaeue noaio i?ia??aiai aiiaea o eeneeo ?ic/eiao, yea iiynith?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeieeiaiiy oa cieeiaiiy
no?oiiaeo aeaeo?io?i?/ieo eieeaaiue (AOE) o iioaioe?inoaoe/iiio ?aaeei?
iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?iaea a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??; 2 — ciaeaeaii,
ui no?ee?noue noaoe?iia?iiai oa ianoaoe?iia?iiai noaiiaeu aeaeo?iaea
I?ia?e-?ic/ei caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiue oaeaeeinoae eiieo?oth/eo
noaae?e ianiia?aianaiiy; 3 — aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii caniae ea?oaaiiy
noaiii aeaeo?iaea I?ia?e-?ic/ei, ye? aeicaieythoue aeiaaee /an
i?aeo?eioaaoe oaea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae noaae?e ianiia?aianaiiy,
yea oa?aeoa?ia aeey ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? I?ia?th; 4 —
?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeuei? iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy noaio aeaeo?iaea
I?ia?e-?ic/ei, ui aeicaiey? ia?aaeaa/eoe iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy no?eeeo
no?oiiaeo AOE o aeaeo?e/iiio eaioethao oa ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue ?aaeeio
AOI iiaa?oi? iaoaeo.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoaii o
ae??oaii? ianooiieo i?iaeai: 1. Ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy I?ia?th ? iiaeeea?noue a?aooaaiiy
aca?iiiai aieeao ea?oth/eo i?ioeanii ia?aiao??a oa iiaycaiiy ?o ?c
?aaeeiii iiey?ecaoe??. 2. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ea?oaaiiy oaeaeeinoyie
noaae?e ianiia?aianaiiy, yea aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe no?ee?noue noaiiaeua
ianoaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe?? iiaa?oi? I?ia?th ?, caaaeyee oiio, i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue ?aaeeio AOI. 3. ?ic?iaeaii oa caoeuaii aaoi?nueeei
na?aeiooeoaii ?ic/ei aeey iie??oaaiiy I?ia?th, o yeiio a?eueo no?ee? ca
/anii no?oiia? AOE ? yeee ia? aaea?/? a?eueoee ?ano?n i?aoeacaeaoiino?.
4. ?ic?iaeaii e caoeuaii iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie: a) — iiaee niin?a eiio?ieth
oa ei?aaoaaiiy iie??oth/i? cae?aiino? ?ic/eio aeey AOI, yeee ia iio?aao?
i?iaaaeaiiy o?i?/iiai aiae?co ?ic/eio; a) — iiaee niin?a AOI I?ia?th ?c
noaa?e?caoe??th no?oiiaeo AOE caaaeyee i?eioeeio cai?ioiiai cayceo, ui
cia/ii iie?ioo? eiai iiaa?oith o iaaeao /ooeeaino? aei??thaaeueieo
i?eeaae?a; a) — iiaee niin?a AOI I?ia?th c ?iioeueniei ?aaeeiii eiai
iiey?ecaoe??. 5. Ia?iaeaia ?iioeueniei iaoiaeii iaaeaaeeei/anoioia
no?oeoo?a c I?ia?th aeey e?i?eiiai i?enei?thaa/a ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie
ii caaaeaiith IIE EOOe iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo aeaeo?io?ce/ii?
aia?aoo?e ?i. Ae.A.?o?aiiaa (i. Naieo — Iaoa?ao?a).

Ia caoeno aeiineoueny:

— iiaeaeue noaio iiaa?oi? i?ia?th, ui iieno? eiai aiiaeio iiey?ecaoe?th
a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc?? o o?i?/i?e nenoai? HF-SO3-H2O;

— i?iiiceoe?th i?i caeaaei?noue no?eeino? noaio noaoe?iia?iiai aai
ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? i?ia?th a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
oaeaeeinoae eiieo?oth/eo noaae?e ianiia?aianaiiy;

— iaoiaeeee ia?aaeaa/aiiy iiaeeeaino? ia?aoiaeo aeaeo?iaea I?ia?e-?ic/ei
aei noaio ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy;

— iia? caniae ea?oaaiiy noaiii aeaeo?iaea I?ia?e-?ic/ei o
iioaioe?inoaoe/iiio ? ?iioeueniiio ?aaeeiao iiey?ecaoe?? oa
ioe?ithaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? AOI iiaa?oi?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ii aeena?oaoe?? aoee c?iaeai? aeiiia?ae? ia IX
Ana?aaeyinueeiio n?iiic?oi? ii o?i?? iai?aai?/ieo ooi?eae?a
(*a?aiiaaoeue, — eeiaiue 1990?.); ia ae?caei?e nan?? IAI Oe?a?ie —
a?aeae?eaiiy o?i?? (Oa?nii, — aa?anaiue 1993?.), ia 1-io
Anaoe?a?inueeiio c?cae? ii aeaeo?io?i?? (Ee?a, — o?aaaiue 1995?.), ia
2-io can?aeaii? naeoi?a aeaeo?io?i?? CIO IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, — 6 /a?aiy
1997?.), ia 8-e I?aeia?iaei?e E?einueei? eiioa?aioe?? “IA*-oaoi?ea ?
oaeaeiiioi?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??” (E?eI?Ei98 — i. Naaanoiiieue, -14-17
aa?aniy 1998?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaae?oeiaaii (o ni?aaaoi?noa?) 9 iaoeiaeo noaoae, 6 oac?a
aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, iaeia aaoi?nueea na?aeiooeoai oa
o?e iaoaioe Oe?a?ie. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a aeena?oaoe??. Onoeiaiei
A.I. i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a i?aai?caoe?? oa o iinoaiiaoe?
oai?aoe/ii? e aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoei, a ?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii?
oaoiieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oai?. Iniaenoi ?ic?iaeaia noaia aieiaieo
?aaeoe?e oa iiaeaeue aiiaeiiai ?ic/eiaiiy I?ia?th, ciaeaeaii oa?aeoa?
cayceo e?iaoe/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a c? no?ee?noth noaio
noaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy I?ia?th, cai?iiiiiaaii iiaa iaoiaeeea ia?iaee
oeeee?/ieo aieueoaiia?ia?ai o aiiaei?e iaeano? iioaioe?ae?a oa iia?
ae?aaiinoe/i? e?eoa??? aeey ioe?ithaaiiy noaiiaeua aeaeo?iaea ? iia?
iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? AOI, oaeiae, iiaa iaoiaeeea i?eaiooaaiiy
?ic/ei?a “ii ian?”.

No?oeoo?a ? ia?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iyoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (158 aeaea?ae); ia? aeiaeaoee
(A, A, A). ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 148 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 36 ?enoie?a, 8 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaiee e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae aeaieo noiniaii
aeaeo?io?i?/ii? iiaaae?iee I?ia?th a ?ic/eiao oethi?iaiaeiaai? oa
n?/aii? eeneio, i?e?iaee niinoa?aaeaieo aeaeo?io?i?/ieo eieeaaiue no?oio
aai iioaioe?aeo i?ae /an eiai aiiaeii? iiey?ecaoe??. ?icaeyiooi
iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeieeiaiiiy AOE ia aeaeo?iaeao, ui ianeaothoueny, ?
na`ycie oiia ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy iaoae?a c aoaeoii
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy ?o iiaa?oi?. I?eaaaeaii iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy
i?i oiiae aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy iaoae?a. Aeyaeaia a?aenooi?noue
iaoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue noaio aeaeo?iaea, ui ianeao?oueny, a oiiaao
eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??. ?ic?iaeaia ocaaaeueiaia noaia a?aeiieo o?i?/ieo ?
aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue I?ia?th oa eiai niieoe o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao
oethi?iaiaeiaai? oa n??/aii? eeneio.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii ia?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?eoii
ia?aii iaa?oiaee aeeneiaee aeaeo?iae (IAeA) Nb(HF, H2SO4 , H2O);
aea/aeinue eiai noaiiaeua i?ae /an ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy ye o
iioaioe?inoaoe/iiio ?aaeei? iiey?ecaoe??, oae ? i?ae /an ?iioeueniiai
iaeeaaeaiiy ia iueiai aiiaeiiai iioaioe?aeo. Aeaeo?io?i?/i? i?ioeane c
o/anoth eiiiiiaio?a ?ic/eio aea/aeenue iaoiaeaie aieueoaiia?iiao??? ?c
e?i?eiith ?icai?oeith iioaioe?aeo. Aaoi? ei?enooaaany aeine?aeiith
noaiaeiaith onoaiiaeith, yea aeicaieyea i?iaiaeeoe oei/aniaee eiio?ieue
oaiia?aoo?e oa ieoiii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?ic/eio, io?eioaaoe
aieueoaiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?iaea ? aecia/aoe caaaeueio aaee/eio
ca?yaeo, ui i?ieoia e??cue aeaeo?iae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? noaio aeaeo?iaea i?iaiaeeeenue ca
aeiiiiiaith AII ia aac? iia?aoe?eii? nenoaie IathNad.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeaaaeaii ae?iaie/i? ii??aiyiiy noaio aeaeo?iaea
Nb(HF, H2SO4 , H2O) ? iieacaia a?aeiia?aei?noue e?iaoe/ii? iiaeae?
aenia?eiaioaeueiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai eiai ianeaiaaiiai noaiiaeua.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa noaia noaiiaeua iiaa?oi? i?ia?th o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao
oethi?iaiaeiaai? n??/aii? eeneio, a ye?e a?aoiaaii iacai?ioi?noue
noaae?e eiai ianeaoaaiiy oa aeaianeaoaaiiy (?en.1), — oey noaia
c?iaeaia ia i?aenoaa? noai?aii? aaoi?ii ocaaaeueiaii? noaie a?aeiieo
o?i?/ieo oa aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue I?ia?th ? eiai niieoe. ?ic/eii?
n??ei- oa oethi?ioo?eioth/? niieoee I?ia?th (III) e I?ia?th (V)
iicia/aii ia noai? ye Nb3+ oa Nb(V)?. ?iaeaen “ s “ a?aeiineoueny aei
aaeni?aiaaieo /anoeiie, ?iaeaen “ p “ — aei ?ic/eiieo niieoe I?ia?th.

Ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? eaea ii iaeii- oa aaaaoiaeaeo?iiiiio iaoai?ciai,
aeeth/ath/e noaae?th nieaaiai ianeaoaaiiy c o/anoth aaeni?aiaaieo
eao?ii?a (Nb3+)s , — oea i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? ?ic??ciyoe
aeae?eueea noai?a ianeaiaaii? iiaa?oi? ca?aeii ?c ?en.1, a naia:
nooi?iue ianeaoaaiiy (/), yea iaoiiaeth?oueny oaeaee?noth oi?ioaaiiy
iiaa?oiaaiai a?ae?ieneaeo (NbOH)s oa aeeaeiith i?ioiaeaeaiiy o iueiio
oiiio?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e; nooi?iue ianeaoaaiiy (//), yea iaoiiaeth?oueny
oaeaee?noth ieeneaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo eao?ii?a (Nb3+)s c o/anoth iieaeoe
aiaee. Iiaeeeai i?eionoeoe, ui oiiio?i?/i? ?aaeoe?? oa ianiia?aianaiiy
?ii?a ona?aaeei? ianeaoth/i? ie?aee eeoa o?ioe ci?iththoue nooi?iue
iie?eooy iiaa?oi? () o ii??aiyii? ?c o?i?/ieie ? aeaeo?io?i?/ieie
noaae?yie ?ic/eiaiiy ianeaoth/iai oa?o oa noaae?yie eiai oi?ioaaiiy.

Neeaaeaia nenoaia ii??aiyiue noaio iiaa?oi? i?ia?th:

? = ?a(1- ) + ?i , (1)

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00000b0200000000050000000c020004e0010e00000026060f001200ffffffff00000800
0000c0ffa1ffa001a1030b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000c00008000000
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1d02a00117000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e20437972000100040000002d01010009000000320a8b01570001000000
64009e000a000000320aaa0374000200000064749e00610010000000fb02e0fe00000000
00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0000040000002d01020004000000f0010100
09000000320a8b01f50001000000710097000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000
000010000000fb021000080000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00060400
00002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000840026d0e0e7ece5f0007900940026d1
e2e5f0edf3f2fc0000008500a400d026e0e7e2e5f0ed0000000000000000= = Vo +
KC(1- )ao?() — [Vo + V — Vh] , (2)
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 + v.C = D.2C , (3)
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 , (4)

C = — (N-N0)/ , (5)

aea 1/ = 1/ + 1/ + 1/ , v= v — v , (6)

= 1,61D1/31/6-1/2 , = /v , (6/)

— aeeooc?eiee oa? o a?aenooiino? eiiaaeoe?? — ? a?aenoaiue i?ae aiiaeii
? ?iciiae?eyth/ith ae?ao?aaiith o /a?oioe?; — aeeooc?eiee oa? o
aeiaaeeo eiiaaeoeaiiai ianiia?aianaiiy; — aeeooc?eiee oa?, iaoiiaeaiee
o?eueee oaeaee?noth ?ic/eiaiiy iaoaeo; D — aoaeoeaiee eiao?oe??io
aeeooc??; — a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia a?oci?noue ?ic/eio; — eooiaa /anoioa
iaa?oaiiy IAeA; v- caaaeueia oaeaee?noue iaa?aaiiy no?oio ?ic/eio aei
aeaeo?iaeo; N e N0 — aiae?oe/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? I?ia?th o aeeooc?eiiio
oa?? oa a ?ic/ei?; V e Vh — ieoii? oaeaeeino? ?ic/eiiino? I?ia?th ?
oaeaeeino? c?inoaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai ianeaoth/iai oa?o ia oiaueio o iaeei
iiiioa?; Vo — oaeaee?noue ianeaoaaiiy I?ia?th a /eno?e aiae? ?c iaaiei
iioaioe?aeii; E — aaoa?iaaiia iino?eia aaeni?aoe?eii? neeaaeiai? noaae??
aeaeo?iaeiiai i?ioeano, — aoo?aeoe?eiee ia?aiao?.

??aiyiiy (1) aecia/a? iiaa?oiaao aonoeio iiey?ecoth/iai no?oio (?) ye
caaaeueiee no?oi e??cue on? ae?eyiee oaa?aei? oace (?a — no?oi e??cue
iaianeaiaaio /anoeio iiaa?oi?, ?i — a?aie/iee no?oi e??cue ianeaiaaio
iiaa?oith IAeA). ??aiyiiy (2) iieno? aeeiai?eo ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi?
I?ia?th oaciaith ianeaoth/ith ie?aeith. ??aiyiiy (3) iieno?
eiioeaio?aoe?eio iiey?ecaoe?th aeaeo?iaea a oiiaao iaeiii??ii?
eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc?? c e?i?eiei ?ooii iaae? ?icae?eo oac (?c
oaeaee?noth v). ??aiyiiy (4) ? a?aie/ia oiiaa aeey noie no?oi?a ?a/iaei
ia aeaeo?iae?. ??aiyiiy (5) iieno? e?i?eio noaoe?iia?io aeeooc?th.
Aeeooc?y iai?aaeaia acaeiaae in? Io ii ii?iae? a?ae oaa?aei? oace
aeaeo?iaea o aeeaeio ?ic/eio c ii/aoeiaeie oiiaaie:

t= 0, o 0, N = N0 (7)

t > 0, o , N = N

o , N = N0

I?ney ia?aoai?aiue ??aiyiiy (3) ?c ia?aooaaiiyi a?aie/ieo oiia (4)-(7)
oa aaaaeaiiy aac?ici??ieo ci?iieo ??aiyiiy (1)-(3) iathoue aeaeyae:

= p — (p — q) (8)
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 = 2(1 —
picscalex100010009000003b40000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02200440020e00000026060f001200ffffffff00000800
0000c0ffa2ff0002c2030b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000c00008000000
fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014023d024000050000001302
3d02ed0117000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e20437972000000040000002d01010009000000320a8a01600001000000
5900df0009000000320a01021f01010000003000900009000000320ac903ae0001000000
5900df000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100008000000
0000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0006040000002d01020004000000f0010100
030000000000fb021000080000000000bc02000000000102022253797374000000000000
0000)Y — Y0 — ? + (? — q)] (9)
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 = no +
nY(1 — )ao?() — m (10)
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 = — (p — q)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(11)

aea Y=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; =
picscalex100010009000003c10000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02e00460040e00000026060f001200ffffffff00000800
0000c0ffa1ff200481040b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000300108000000
fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014021d024000050000001302
1d021d0417000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200b101040000002d01010009000000320a8b01060201000000
69004f0009000000320aaa0357000100000069004f0009000000320a8704c80001000000
64009e000d000000320aaa03970104000000284846296100ed00be0061000a0000002606
0f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000080000000000bc02000000000102
022253797374656d0006040000002d01020004000000f00101000300000000007f004003
7f0040037f007ffc7f004003000040030000400300007ffc00000000000000000000;
d =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; p =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 (12)

q =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; =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; no = V0/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 ; n =
K.C(HF)/picscalex100010009000003e900000003001700000000000500000009020000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; 12/)

m = [V0 + V — Vh]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 (13)

NIF — eiioeaio?aoe?y oethi?iaiaeith o ?ic/ei?; ?d(HF) — aonoeia
a?aie/iiai no?oio, yeo no?eio? aeeooc?eia i?aeaaaeaiiy oethi?iaiaeith
aei iiaa?oi? i?ia?th:

id(IF) = zF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 C(HF (14)

aea D ? DHF — aoaeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc?? I?ia?e-oo?eioth/eo niieoe
? oethi?iaiaeith; ? IF — aoaeoeai? oiaueie aeeooc?eiiai oa?o aeey
I?ia?e-oo?eioth/eo niieoe ? oethi?iaiaeith. An? ci?ii? aaee/eie o
??aiyiiyo (1)-(7) ooieoe?eii caycai? ?c oiiaaie iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?iaea:

Vo exp(), C(H2O); K exp(); Vh ?i; V C(HF); ?a
exp();

—1/2, 1/6; ?i C(HF), 1/2, —1/6, Ta (a = 1, 2) , (15)

aeoiaey/e ?c ??aiyiue, aecia/ath/eo ia?ae?/ai? e?iaoe/i? ia?aiao?e (ooo:
O — oaiia?aoo?a, — aeaeo?iaeiee iioaioe?ae).

E?i?eiee ? a?oo?eaoe?eiee aiae?c nenoaie aeaio iacaeaaeieo ??aiyiue (9)
? (10) iieacaee, ui noai aeaeo?iaea aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi
ia?aiao??a, a naia:
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picscalex100010009000003000100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400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 ,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picscalex1000100090000030201000003001700000000000500000009020000000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 , (16)

aea / ? a?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeino? iine?aeiaiiai ianeaoaaiiy I?ia?th (c
io?eiaiiyi iaeiaio ?ic/eiiiai NbO(OH)2F) aei ocaaaeueiaii? oaeaeeino?
“aeoeaoaaiiy” iiaa?oi? iaoaeo, o/ ? a?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeino? ianeaoaaiiy
I?ia?th o aiae? aei ocaaaeueiaii? oaeaeeino? “aeoeaoaaiiy” iiaa?oi?
iaoaeo. A iaaeao cia/aiue oeeo aac?ici??ieo aaee/ei iiaeeea? ia?aoiaee
aeaeo?iaea a?ae iaeeie/ii iiaeeeaiai no?eeiai noaoe?iia?iiai noaio aei
noaio ?c aeaiia oa o?ueiia iaoai?ciaie iiey?ecaoe??, ui cae?eniththoueny
noaoe?iia?ii (“iiiaeeia noaoe?iia?ieo noaiiaeu”, aai INN). Iai?eeeaae,
?c c?inoaiiyi a?aeiioaiue / aai 0/ (ca ciaioaiiyi aaee/eie ?c
c?inoaiiyi aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo) aeaeo?iae ia?aoiaeeoue a?ae
iaeeie/iiai noaio c iaeei nooiaiai ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? iaoaeo 0 aei
noaio INN oa, aeae?, ciia aei iaeeie/iiai noaio, aea ?c nooiaiai
ianeaoaaiiy 1. Iiae?aiee aieea iathoue, oaeiae, eiioeaio?aoe?ei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a oa oiiae iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?iaea: ?c
iaeiie/aiiyi o ?ic/ei? niieoe I?ia?th (oiaoi, c?inoaiiy aaee/eie Y0) oa
iineeaiiyi aoo?aeoe?eieo aca?iiae?e iii?ae aaeni?aiaaieie /anoeaie ia
iiaa?oi? iaoaeo (oiaoi, c?inoaiiy ia?aiao?o ) iiaeeea?noue ia?aoiaeo
yeaeo?iaea aei noaio INN c?inoa?. ?aeaenaoe?ei? eieeaaiiy no?oio
iiyniththoueny oei, ui i?ae /an iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?iae iiaea
ciaoiaeeoenue o 2-o aai o 3-o noaoe?iia?ieo noaiiaeuao, eiaeia c yeeo
iano?eea ca /anii. Iine?aeiaia i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea e??cue oe?
noaiiaeua aecia/a? oei oa ia??iae iaaeyaeo eieeaaiue no?oio.

I?iaaaeaia ia?aa??ea a?aeiia?aeiino? iiaeae? aenia?eiaioaeueiei
iniaeeainoyi ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy I?ia?th. Ia ?en.2 iieacaii
eieeaaiiy no?oio, ye? niinoa??aathoueny a aenia?eiaio? o ia?ao?aei?e
iaeano? aieueoaiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee I?ia?th, oa ciiaeaeueiaai?
eieeaaiiy no?oio o aac?ici??ieo ci?iieo, ye? io?eiai? aiane?aeie
/enaeueiiai ??oaiiy nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue noaio aeaeo?iaea
(9) ? (10).

?c c?inoaiiyi aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo iaa c?inoaiiy ? ia??iae
iaaeyaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo AOE (?en.3); oaeiae, ia??iae c?inoaa i?e
a?aeiia?aeiiio ciaioaii? aac?ici??iiai ia?aiao?o (Oaae.1).

Iaoiaeaie IAeA oa ia?iaiaaiaoiiao??? i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iiaeaeuei?
oyaeaiiy noiniaii ci?ie nooiaiy ieeneaiiy I?ia?th o ia?ao?aei?e iaeano?
ia eiai AAO (?en.4).

Cia/aiiy ?iioeueniiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio aeaeo?iaea
a?aeiia?aeii c e?ieii eiai noaoe?iia?ii? AAO (?en.5) aeacothoue ia
i?enooi?noue aaeniaoe?eiiai oa aeeooc?eiiai eiio?ieth o iaoai?ci?
ianeaaoe??-aeoeaaoe?? I?ia?th (iayai?noue aenoa?acenieo ae?eyiie ia
?iioeuenieo oeeeeia?aiao). Oaeiae, o iaaeao “i?eiaiai no?oio” i?e
c?inoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? HF a?ae 0,5 aei 6 iie.% e?eoa??e Naia?aii
(picscalex1000100090000032a010000030017000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c022003a0090e00000026060f001200ffffffff0000080
00000c0ffa3ff6009c3020b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000090000800000
0fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014025d008f0705000000130
2dd028f070500000014025d004509050000001302dd0245090500000014025d00d705050
000001302dd02090517000000fb0200ff0000000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6
573204e657720526f6d616e20437972000100040000002d01010009000000320a0002400
0010000005800c60009000000320a60022801010000007600800017000000fb02e0fe000
0000000009001000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200000
0040000002d01020004000000f00101000d000000320a00024d0304000000646c6e499e0
04f009e006f000c000000320a0002e30503000000646c6e009e004f009e0009000000320
a0002b407010000007600900009000000320ac5025308010000004500be0010000000fb0
2e0fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0000040000002d010100040
00000f001020009000000320a00024d02010000003d009e000a00000026060f000a00fff
fffff01000000000010000000fb021000080000000000bc0200000000010202225379737
4656d0006040000002d01020004000000f00101000300000000000200ffff0000fffffff
fffffffff000000000000ffffffffffffffff0301a33908007a010301d33908007b01000
0000000000000) ci?ithaaany, a?aeiia?aeii, c XV = 1,0 aei XV = 0,5. Oea
aeaco? ia ci?io aaeni?aoe?eiiai eiio?ieth iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?iaea
iaiaaeaiiyi i?ioeanaie aeeooc?? oa ia?aianaiiy ca?yaeo. Oiaoi,
ca?eueoaiiy o ?ic/ei? IF iineeeaaei aianie aeeooc?eii? neeaaeiai? o
uaeaee?noue ianiia?aianaiiy, oa eiioeaio?aoe?eia iiey?ecaoe?y IAeA
iaoiiaeaia ae?enii i?ioeanaie aaeni?aoe?? ? aeeooc?? niieoe a?ae aiiaea,
a ia iaaiaee, ui a?aeiia?aea? iiaeaeueiei oyaeaiiyi uiaei noaio
aeaeo?iaea.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea ia?aiao?o ?c ii??aiyiue (12), (13) ia aaee/eio ia??iaea
(O)

eieeaaeueieo ??oaiue nenoaie ii??aiyiue (8)-(10)

Noai aeaeo?iaea o aac?ici??ieo ci?iieo

Aaee/eia

5

2.5

0.5

0.1 = 5.5; 0/ = 0.02; / = 0.65;

0=0.01; (?-)=0.095

Aaee/eia O

2.2

3.0

5.5

11

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue aeicaiey? cai?iiiioaaoe aeniiaee.
Ii- ia?oa, e?iaoe iaeano? AOE iieaco? ia aaeeeo oaeaee?noue ianeaoaaiiy
iiaa?oi? iaoaeo iaei?ic/eiieie ieni- oa a?ae?ieni-niieoeaie I?ia?th
(V), a ii/aoie iaeano? AOE iaoiiaeaii ae??aithaaiiyi oaeaeeinoae
ianneaoaaiiy ? aeoeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi? ii aeae?eueeii iai?yieao iaoai?cio
?? iiey?ecaoe?? (?en.1). Ii-ae?oaa, ?aeaenaoe?ei? eieeaaiiy ? aieiaiei
oeiii no?oiiaeo eieeaaiue. Ii-o?ao?, i?e?iaea oeeo AOE caycaia ?c
anoaiiaeaiiyi noaoe?iia?iino? aeae?eueeio i?ioean?a, ui cae?eniththoueny
iaeii/anii: ianneaoaaiiy oa “aeoeaii? ?ii?caoe??” aeaeo?iaea; eieeaaiiy
aai ia aeieeathoue, aai cieeathoue i?e cia/iiio aeii?ioaaii? iaeiiai c
oeeo i?ioean?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy IAeA Nb(HF, H2SO4
, H2O). Aecia/aii caniae eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy iiey?ecaoe??th
aeaeo?iaea c oei, uia i?eaiaeeoe eiai aei noaio ianoaoe?iia?ii?
ianeaaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic/ei?a, aeey yeeo,
ii-ia?oa, ?nioaaee no?oiia? eieeaaiiy, ?, ii-ae?oaa, aea ianoaoe?iia?ia
ianeaoaaiiy aeaeo?iaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue aoaeoii AOI iiaa?oi? i?ia?th.
Oae, aeey oei/aniai aeaioiaeaieo ?ic/ei?a nenoaie HF-SO3-H2O ciaeaeaii
e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ye? aeinoaoiuei /ooeea? aei neeaaeo ?ic/eio ?
iathoue cia/aiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo e?eoa???a eiai cae?aiinoae; — aiie
iathoue aooe io?eiai? caaaeyee aea/aiith oeeee?/ieo AAO aeaeo?iaea, —
iniaenoi oea noino?oueny cia/aiue “i?eiaeo no?oi?a” i?yiiai (?p) oa
cai?ioiiai (??) iai?yie?a a?aie/iiai no?oio noaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe??
(?ii) oa oaeaeeino? ?icai?oee aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo (VA):
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 = (1200
50) A. i-2 ; 17)
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 = 235 … 870 A.n1/2B-1/2i-2 (18)
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 = (4200 50) A.n1/2B-1/2i-2 (19)
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 = (23,5 0,5) A. i-2
(20)

O aeiaaeeo iaioeo cia/aiue aeey iiae?aieo iieaciee?a aeanoeaino?
?ic/eio AOE ia aeieeaee; i?e a?eueoeo ?o cia/aiiyo AOE ?nioaaee, aea AOI
eoei iaye?nii. Iaiao?aei? oiiae aaia?oaaiiy AOE aeey ?ic/ei?a, iath/eo
?ic/eii? niieoee I?ia?th ((CNb:CHF 1:14), aeyaeyeenue iica aea/aiiyi ?o
ieoiii? aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? oa ?ic?aooieo cia/aiue Aa, ui ?
a?aeiia?aeiith aia?a??th aeoeaaoe?? ia?aianaiiy 1 iieue aeaeo?e/iiai
ca?yaeo /a?ac aeaeo?iae. Cia/aiiy Aa o iaaeao 10…21 eAeae/iieue
iieacoaaee ia iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy AOE i?ae /an iiey?ecaoe??
aeaeo?iaea. Cia/aiiy Aa iaioa ca 7 aai a?eueoa ca 25 eAeae/iieue
iieacoaaee, iaaiaee, ia a?aenooi?noue o ?ic/ei? iie??oth/i? cae?aiino?.

E??i oiai, aeaeyae AAO ia ?en.6 (e?ea? 1,2) ? iieacieeii ye
iaiiaeeeaino? aeieeiaiiy AOE, oae ? iaye?niiai i?iaaaeaiiy AOI iaoaeaai?
iiaa?oi? aai aiane?aeie aeinyaiaiiy e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe?? I?ia?th
(CNb:CHF 1:14), aai aiane?aeie e?iaoe/ieo iaiaaeaiue i?ioeano (oiaoi, c
a?aenooi?noth oiia INN ca?aeii c iiaeaeeth). Aeaeyae AAO, oaeiae, ?
e?eoa??e i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?ic/eio i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy AOI o iaaaaeaieo
oiiaao.

Oaeei /eiii, aeey aaia?oaaiiy AOE iio??aii aieeaaoe ia iiaaae?ieo AAO o
iaaeao ianoaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe?? /e ei?aaoaaiiyi neeaaeo ?ic/eio, /e
ci?iith ?aaeeio ia?ai?ooaaiiy oa oaiia?aoo?e ?ic/eio aai ?ioeie iiaeie
ae?yie. Uia i?eaanoe aeaeo?iae aei noaio INN (oiiae aacia?a?aieo AOE),
ei?enooaaeenue aeiaeaoeaie ioeoaaiai aia?ae?eaeo, ianeyiiai aeueaeaaeaeo
oa aoeaoiio, ye? iioe?thaaee ae?eyieo no?eeeo AOE ia AAO iaa?oue aeey
?ic/ei?a c aaeeeei oo?eioaaiiyi ?ic/eiiiai I?ia?th (1:20 CNb:CHF 1:14).

Aaia?oaaiiy AOE, oaeiae, i?iaiaeeeinue aeeth/aiiyi-a?aeeeth/aiiyi
aeaea?aea iiey?ecoth/i? iai?oae a aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei?, ia caycaiiio c
aeieeiaiiyi ia aeaeo?iae? aeanieo aacia?a?aieo aai cieeath/eo
(“iaeaoieo”) AOE.

Caaeaiei aiie?ooaeai ?iioeuen?a iioaioe?aeo a?ae 0,28 aei 8 A
a?aeiia?aeaee /?oei aecia/ai? ae?eyiee ia AAO (?en.7). Ia ?en.7
noiae?noue e?ieo e?eaeo (a, a, a) icia/a?, ui aieiai? i?ioeane i?ae /an
?iioeuenii? iiey?ecaoe?? I?ia?th oae? ae nai?, ye ? i?ae /an no?oiiaeo
aacia?a?aieo AOE a iaeano? ianoaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe??. Oiio, a??ia?aeii
i?eeiyoe ?iai/o a?iioaco i?i iiae?ai?noue iaoai?ci?a aiiaeii?
?ic/eiiino? I?ia?th o ia?ae?/aieo ?aaeeiao i?ae /an eiai ianoaoe?iia?ii?
iiey?ecaoe??, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?ioeanaie oi?ioaaiiy oa ?ic/eiaiiy
ianeaoth/i? ie?aee ?acii c ii?aeiaiiyi noaoe?iia?ieo oa ianoaoe?iia?ieo
noaiiaeu aeaeo?iaea. Oey aeiioaca iieaco? ia iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy
aoaeoo iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th a ?iioeueniiio ?aaeei?.

O iyoiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii i?iiiceoe?? a?aeiinii iioei?caoe??
?aaeei?a ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy aeaeo?iaea c aoaeoii AOI iiaa?oi?
i?ia?th, oaeiae, iia? oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? cania?a YOI
i?ia?th oa i?aeoe/ia ?o canoinoaaiiy o iiaiio ?iioeueniiio iaoiaeo AOI
i?ia?th.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iinooiiaa iioei?caoe?y oa ea?oaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?iith
ianeaaoe??th i?ia?th, oiaoi: 1 yoai aeeth/a? ioe?ieo i?aoeacaeaoiino?
?ic/eio oethi?iaiaeiaai? oa n??/aii? eeneio, 2 aoai — iiiiaethaaiiy
iie??oth/i? cae?aiino? ?ic/eio (yeui

oea iaiao?aeii), 3 aoai — ea?oaaiiy no?oiiaeie eieeaaiiyie.

Ciaeaeaii iia? oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee aoaeoeaiino? YOI i?ia?th:

1) — aoaeoeai?noue AOI (E, aiae.-1) ca /an (t, aiae) — ii cia/aiiyi
eiao?oe??io?a oi?noeino? (Ra, iei) aei oa i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy AOI (R0 ?
R1, a?aeiia?aeii):

picscalex1250100090000030b0100000400120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c026004a0060e00000026060f001200ffffffff00000800
0000c0ffb0ff600610040b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000f00008000000
fa0200000800000000000000040000002d0100000500000014021d023e03050000001302
1d02ef0408000000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0101000500000014025000
4a060500000013020f04150512000000fb0200ff0000000000009001000000cc00020020
417269616c2043797200ff85040000002d01020009000000320a80022c00010000004b00
a8000a000000320a80024402020000006c6e3800900009000000320a7c014a0301000000
5200b80009000000320ae1012104010000003000900009000000320aa903600301000000
5200b80009000000320a0f042f04010000003100900009000000320a8002160601000000
7400480010000000fb0200ff000000000000bc02000000020002001053796d626f6c0000
040000002d01030004000000f001020009000000320a80024801010000003d0098000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000080000000000bc020000
00000102022253797374656d0006040000002d01020004000000f0010300030000000000
000000000000 , (21)

2) — ?iai/ee ?ano?n ?ic/eio (h1), ui iieaco? a?aie/io ?ic/eii?noue
I?ia?th () ii oiauei? (h1, iei) c iaeeieoe? ieiueie iiaa?oi? (S, i2) o
1 ea ?ic/eio (m1):
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 (22)

3) — aia?aaoe/iee iieaciee aoaeoeaiino? (W, eAoaiae.i-2), — aeo?aoe
aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?ae /an YOI 1 i2 ieiueie i?ia??aiai ae?iao, yea iio??aia
aeey ae??aithaaiiy i?io?eth iiaa?oi? (ciaioaiiy oi?noeino? ii Ra) o a
?ac?a (a = 2,718):

W = QU/K, (23)

aea Q = ?.t, Eei-2 — ieoiia u?euei?noue ca?yaeo, i?ieaeaiiai e??cue
iaeeieoeth ieiueie iiaa?oi?, E — iieaciee ?c oi?ioee (21), U —
aeaeo?e/ia iai?oaa.

4) — i??a ae??aithaaiiy i?ioeeth iiaa?oi? (Q*):

Q* =
Q/q0picscalex11701000900000388010000030012000000000005000000090200000000
0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000
050000000b0200000000050000000c026004400c0e00000026060f001200ffffffff0000
08000000c0ffa1ff000c01040b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000f0000800
0000fa0200001000000000000000040000002d0100000500000014021d022d0305000000
13021d023c070500000014021d026c0a0500000013021d02e30b10000000fb02c0fe0000
00000000bc02000000020002001053796d626f6c0055040000002d01010009000000320a
80023d00010000003d00be0010000000fb0200ff000000000000bc020000000200020010
53796d626f6c0000040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a800296020100
0000d700480009000000320a8b01400501000000d700480009000000320aaa0325040100
0000d700480009000000320aaa03460601000000d700480009000000320a8002d5090100
0000d700480010000000fb02c0fe000000000000bc02010000020002001053796d626f6c
0000040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320a80027a01010000006300b400
09000000320a8002b908010000006300b40012000000fb0200ff00000000000090010000
00cc00020020417269616c2043797200e77c040000002d01020004000000f00101000900
0000320a8b010604010000005700e80009000000320a8b01c205010000004b00a8000900
0000320aaa033803010000005500b80009000000320aaa03b504010000005600a8000900
0000320a11044305010000006800900009000000320aaa03d60601000000740048000900
0000320a8002b107010000003d00980009000000320a8b010f0b01000000690038000900
0000320aaa03850a010000005600a80009000000320a1104130b01000000680090000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000080000000000bc020000
00000102022253797374656d0006040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000
0000000000000000 (24)

aea q0 — aeaeo?e/iee ca?yae aeey ciyooy iaoaeo ia iaeeieoeth oiaueie
iiaa?oi? (q0 = vh/), = M/(zF) — aeaeo?io?i?/iee aea?aaeaio; Vh —
oaeaee?noue ?ic/eiaiiy I?ia?th.

Iieacaii, ui iiaee ?iioeueniee iaoiae AOI cia/ii i?aeaeuo? ?iai/ee
?ano?n ?ic/eio (h1) oa cieaeo? ieoii? aia?aiaeo?aoe (W). A?i iniaeeai
aoaeoeaiee i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy AOI aioo??oi?o (cae?eoeo) no?iie ae?ia?a
neeaaeii? eiio?ao?aoe??, — o a?aenooiino? iioe/iiai oa iaaeyaeiaiai
eiio?ieth noaio iiaa?oi? caaacia/o?oueny aeinoaoiuei no?eeee ?aaeei
iie??oaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, ii caiiaeaiith IAeAOA ?i.Ae..?o?aiiaa
(i.Naieo — Iaoa?ao?a, 1994 ?.), aoea iaeaaiaeaeaia iaaei?ia?aeia
aaeeei/anoioia i?enei?thaaeueia no?oeoo?a i?enei?thaa/a aeaiaioa?ieo
/anoeiie (ca /anoioith oa ??aiii??iinoth ?iciiae?eo A-iiey aeey eiaeii?
/a?oiee).

A E N I I A E E

1. Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaia noaia aeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoe?e oa e?iaoe/ia
iiaeaeue noaio iiaa?oi? i?ia?th, ui aiiaeii iiey?eco?oueny o o?i?/i?e
nenoai? IF-SO3-H2O a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??. Aecia/aii oa?aeoa?i?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae e?iaoe/ieie ia?aiao?aie aeaeo?iaeieo noaae?e
ianiia?aianaiiy oa oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie, ui aieeaathoue ia
iiey?ecaoe?th aeaeo?iaea. Iieacaii a?aeiia?aei?noue oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eieeaaiue no?oio ye ii ?o oi?i?, oae ? ii caeaaeiino?
ia??iaeo eieeaaiue a?ae aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo.

2. Aeyaeai? aieiai? caeiiii??iino? ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy I?ia?th
a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??. Onoaiiaeaii, ui no?ee?noue noaio
noaoe?iia?iiai aai ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy i?ia?th caeaaeeoue a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae eiieo?oth/eo noaae?e ianiia?aianaiiy.
Ciaeaeaii, ui ci?ie o neeaae? ?ic/eio, a oaeiae, niin?a iiey?ecaoe??
aeaeo?iaea (iioaioe?inoaoe/iee, ?iioeueniee aai iioaioe?iaeeiai?/iee)
aieeaathoue ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeeo oaeaeeinoae ? ia iaoai?ci
ianiia?aianaiiy, acaaae?.

3 Aia?oa onoaiiaeaii, ui iiaeeeaa iiia?aaeiy ioe?iea cae?aiino?
aeaeo?iaea aei ia?aoiaeo eiai o noai ianoaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe?? ca
aeiiiiiaith ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co e?ieo iioaioe?inoaoe/ieo oa
iioaioe?iaeeiai?/ieo AAO aeaeo?iaea I?ia?e — ?ic/ei, a oaeiae, ca
aaee/eiaie aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?ic/eio ? neeaaeo o?i?/ii? nenoaie
IF-H2SO4-H2O

4. Aecia/aia iiae?ai?noue aeaeo?iaeieo i?ioean?a ye i?ae /an
?iioeuenii? iiey?ecaoe?? iiaa?oi? i?ia?th, oae ? a oiiaao
iioaioe?inoaoe/iiai ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy iiaa?oi?.

5. ?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ea?oaaiith noaiii aeaeo?iaea
o iioaioe?inoaoe/iiio oa ?iioeueniiio ?aaeeiao iiey?ecaoe??, ui ia
aeiaaa? o?i?/iiai aiae?co neeaaeo ?ic/eio ii eiiiiiaioai, aeeth/ii c
iinooiiaith iioei?caoe??th ?aaeei?a aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy
iiaa?oi? iaoaeo, naia: 1 aoai — aeyaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?ic/eio; 2
aoai — a?aeiiaethaaiiy iie??oth/eo cae?aiinoae ?ic/eio (yeui oea
iaiao?aeia); 3 aoai — noaa?e?caoe?y ?aaeeio eieeaaiue iiey?ecoth/iai
no?oio.

6. ?ic?iaeaii iia? caniae ioe?ithaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iie??oaaiiy
iiaa?oi? i?ia?th oa ?ioeo iaoae?a,- aoaeoeai?noue c?inoa? iaeii/anii ?c
c?inoaiiyi oaeeo iieaciee?a, ye: a) — eiaa?eoi?/iiai iieacieea
aoaeoeaiino? (E, aiae.-1 ); a) — ?iai/iai ?ano?no ?ic/eio (h1,
iei.i-2ea-1), ui ? a?aie/ia aaee/eia ciyooy i?ia?th ii oiauei? c
iaeeieoe? ieiueie iiaa?oi? o 1 ea ?ic/eio; a) — aia?aaoe/iiai iieacieea
aoaeoeaiino? (W, eAoaiae.i-2), aecia/ath/iai aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?ae
/an iie??oaaiiy 1 i2 ieiueie iiaa?oi?, iio??aii? aeey ciaioaiiy
oi?noeino? ?? o 2,718 ?ac?a; a) — aaee/eie i??e caeaaeaeoaaiiy i?io?eth
iiaa?oi? (Q*), yea iieacoth? a?aeiioaiiy caaaeueiiai ca?yaeo,
i?ieaeaiiai e??cue aeaeo?iae, aei aeaeo?e/iiai ca?yaeo, iio??aiiai aeey
ciyooy iaoaea ia iaeeieoeth oiaueie iiaa?oi?.

7. Iaaaaeai? i?eeeaaee i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy i?ia?th a oiiaao
eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??: 1) — ?ic?iaeaii iiaee ?ic/ei aeey
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th ia iniia? n??/aii? oa
oethi?iaiaeiaai? eeneio, a?aei?iiiai a?ae a?aeiieo oei, ui aei iueiai
aaiaeyoueny aeiaeaoee oaeeo ?a/iaei, ye aoeaoii, ioeoaaee aia?ae?eae,
ianeyiee aeueaeaaeae. ?ic/ei oa?aeoe?eco?oueny i?aeaeuaiei a?eueo, i?ae
aaea?/?, ?ano?nii i?aoeacaeaoiino?, ? a iueiio a?eueo no?ee? ca /anii
eieeaaiiy aaee/eie iiey?ecoth/iai no?oio (A.N. ? 1528820 a?ae 30.09.87.
Ioae. 15.12.89); 2) — ?ic?iaeaii iiaee niin?a eiio?ieth oa ei?eaoaaiiy
iie??oaaeueii? cae?aiino? ?ic/eio, yeee aeeth/a? aaaaeaiiy aeiaeaoe?a
i?aai?/ieo aai iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei o ?ic/ei c n??/aiith oa
oethi?iaiaeiaaith eeneioaie. Niin?a a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae a?aeiieo oei,
ui aeiaeaoie oeeo ?a/iaei eaea aei oeo i??, aeiee ia cyaeoueny ca?a
cia/aiue “i?eiaeo no?oi?a” ia aieueoaiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao
aeaeo?iaea, io?eiaieo aeey aoaeiiiiai oa ei?eaiaaiiai ?ic/ei?a, i?e
oeueiio, eiaeia oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaeiia iaoe iaeanoue ianoaoe?iia?iiai
ianeaoaaiiy (aea ? aaoieieeaaiiy iiey?ecoth/iai no?oio) (Iao. Oe?a?ie
aei C. ? 95125293 a?ae 14.12.95. ??o. a?ae 20.02.98); 3) — ?ic?iaeaii
iiaee niin?a aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th oa eiai nieaa?a o
?ic/eiao n??/aii? ? oethi?iaiaeiaai? eeneio, a?aei?iiee a?ae a?aeiieo
oei, ui aeaeo?io?i?/io /a?oieo oaeei /eiii i?aeeeth/athoue aei aeaea?aea
aeaeo?e/iiai iinoa/aiiy ciai?oiiai aeaeo?e/iiai eaioethao, uia i?ae ieie
aeiee cai?ioi?e caycie ii no?oio oa aeieeee aacia?a?ai? eieeaaiiy
iai?oae ? no?oio c aiie?ooaeith 1000-1500 A.i2 (Iao. Oe?a?ie aei C. ?
96072805 a?ae 12.07.96. ??o. a?ae 10.06.1998); 4) -?ic?iaeaii iiaee
niin?a aiiaeiiai iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th, ui aeeth/a? io?eiaiiy
aieueoaiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ia?th o iie??oth/iio ?ic/?i?, a oaeiae,
iaaeaiiy ia aeaeo?iae ?iioeuen?a aeaeo?e/ii? iai?oae. Cae?enith?oueny
ea?oaaiiy neaaaei?noth ?iioeuen?a oaeei /eiii, uia iioaioe?ae
iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?iaea a?aeiia?aeaa ia?ao?aei?e iaeano? i?ae
noaoe?iia?iith oa ianoaoe?iia?iith eiai ianeaaoe??th (Iao. Oe?a?ie aei
C. ? 95052277 a?ae 10.05. ??o. a?ae 06.07.1998); 5) — cae?eniaii
aeaeo?io?i?/ia iie??oaaiiy a ?iioeueniiio ?aaeei? aioo??oi?o no?iie
oanoeeii??eiai? iaaeaaeeei/anoioii? iaaei?ia?aeii? no?oeoo?e aeaeo?iiieo
i?enei?thaa/?a (?c i?ia?th oeio IA?-00) c iaoith ?? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ca
/anoioith oa ??aiii??iiio ?iciiae?eo i?enei?thth/iai A-iiey acaeiaae
no?oeoo?e.

NIENIE IIOAEEIAAIEO IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe

II OAI AeENA?OAOe?

1. Naiaeoeia Ae.A., Onoeiaiei A.I., Yeaeaeueaa?a I.E. Aiiaeiia
iiaaaeaiea ieiaey a ianneaiie iaeanoe iioaioeeaeia a niane na?iie e
ieaaeeiaie eeneio // Yeaeo?ioeiey.- 1988. — O. 24. Aui. 4.- N.433 —
436.

2.Yeaeaeueaa?a I.E., Onoeiaiei A.I., Naiaeoeia Ae.A. Oneiaey
aicieeiiaaiey yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo eieaaaiee a iaeanoe ia?aoiaea ieiaey io
aeoeaiiai e ianneaiiio ninoiyieth // Yeaeo?ioeiey. — 1990. — O. 26. Aui.
3. — — N.272 — 277.

3. Yeaeaeueaa?a I.E., Naiaeoeia Ae.A., Onoeiaiei A.I. Aiiaeiia
eieaaaoaeueiia ?anoai?aiea ieiaey a aiaeiii ?anoai?a ieaaeeiaie eeneiou.
// AEo?iae i?eeeaaeiie oeiee. — 1991. — ? 3. — N.665 — 667.

4. Nieieia A.A., I?eia A.E., Ianeaiieeia I.E., Ni?ieei A.E., Oaaei?aiei
A.I., Onoeiaiei A.I. Iano?ieea naa?oi?iaiaeyuae A*-no?oeoo?u iaoiaeii
yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai iiee?iaaiey ioaeaeueiuo y/aae // O?oaeu EOAY. — I.:
Aoiiecaeao. — 1995. — N.3-7

5. O?oeaaa I.Ae., Onoeiaiei A.I., Oaaei?aiei A.I. Aeaenoaea aeiaaaie
ea?aaieaeiiai ?yaea ia i?ioeann aiiaeiiai ?anoai?aiey ieiaey // Oe?.
oeie/. aeo?i. — 1996. — O.62, ? 5-6. — N.109 — 113

6. Oaaei?aiei A.I., Onoeiaiei A.I., O?oeaaa I.Ae. Oaoiieiaey oeie/aneie
e yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ia?aaioee iaoaeeia // Eioi?i. eenoie ? 6 — 96. —
Neioa?iiieue: E?uineee ?anioaeeeaineee OeIOYE. — 1996. — N.1-3.

7. Oaaei?aiei A.I., Onoeiaiei A.I., O?oeaaa I.Ae., Nieieia A.A.,
Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Aeooaeueiua iao/iua e oaoiieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey a
iaeanoe oeie/aneie e yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ia?aaioee naa?oi?iaiaeyueo
onei?ythueo no?oeoo? // O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai
ainoieaa?neoaoa. O.2 (41). Iaoaiaoeea. Oeceea. Oeiey. Aeieiaey.
Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a. — Neioa?iiieue.: NAO. — 1996. — N.187-192.

8. Onoeiaiei A.I., O?oeaaa I.Ae., Oaaei?aiei A.I. Iainiiaaiea aeeyiey
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa ia yeaeo?ioeie/aneoth ia?aaioeo naa?oi?iaiaeyueo
no?oeoo? ec ieiaey // O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai ainoieaa?neoaoa
? 7 (46): Aeieiaey. Iaoaiaoeea. Ineoieiaey. Oece/aneay eoeueoo?a.
Oeceea. Oeiey. — Neioa?iiieue.: NAO, 1998. — N.179-185

9. Onoeiaiei A.I., O?oeaaa I.Ae., Oaaei?aiei A.I., Oaae?ei A.I.
?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey oeie/aneie e
yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ia?aaioee naa?oi?iaiaeyueo onei?ythueo no?oeoo? ec
ieiaey // 8-y Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay E?uineay eiioa?aioeey “NA*-oaoieea e
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee” (E?uIeEi98). Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee.
Naaanoiiieueneee ainoae.oaoie/aneee oi-o. E?ui, Oe?aeia: 14-17 naio.1998
a., O.2. — Naaanoiiieue: I?aaei?eyoea “Aaaa?” , 1998. — n.583-585

10. A.N. 1528820 NNN?, IEE 5 N 25F 3/26. Yeaeo?ieeo aeey aiiaeiiai
iiee?iaaiey ieiaey / Ae.A.Naiaeoeia, A.I.Onoeiaiei (Oe?aeia) — Cayae.
30.09.1987; Iioae.15.08.1989

11. Iaoaio aei C. ? 95125293 IIE 6 N25F 7/02. Niin?a eiio?ieth oa
ei?eaoaaiiy iie??oaaeueii? caeaoiino? aeaeo?ie?oo aeey aeaeo?io?i?/iiai
iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th / Oaaei?aiei I.I., O?oeueiaa I.Ae., Onoeiaiei A.I.
(Oe?a?ia) — Cayaa 14.12.1995; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie
20.02.1998

12. Iaoaio aei C. ? 96072805 IIE 6 N25F 3/26. Niin?a aeaeo?io?i?/iiai
iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th oa eiai nieaa?a / Oaaei?aiei I.I., Aeieoi?aae/ A.I.,
Onoeiaiei A.I. (Oe?a?ia) — Cayaa 12.07.96; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo
Oe?a?ie 10.06.1998

13. Iaoaio aei C. ? 95052277 IIE 6 N25F 3/26. Niin?a aiiaeiiai
iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th / Onoeiaiei A.I., Oaaei?aiei I.I. (Oe?a?ia)- Cayaa
10.05.95; ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie 06.07.1998

14. Naiaeoeia Ae.A., Onoeiaiei A.I. Enneaaeiaaiea yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai
?anoai?aiey ieiaey a ianoaoeeiia?iuo oneiaeyo // ?ano?ninaa?aaathuay
oaoiieiaey a yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoaao: Oac. aeiee. ?ani.
eiioa?.17-19 iiya?y 1987 (Oa?ueeia). *.2. — Oa?ueeia: OIE. — 1987. — N.
45 — 46.

15. Naiaeoeia Ae.A., Onoeiaiei A.I., Yeaeaeueaa?a I.E. ?ieue ieaaeeiaie
eeneiou a i?ioeannao ianneaaoeee-aeoeaaoeee ieiaey // 1O Ananithc.
neiiic. ii oeiee iai?aaie/aneeo ooi?eaeia: Oac. aeiee. 3 — 6 ethey 1990
(*a?aiiaaoe). *.2. — I. : EIIO AI NNN?. — 1990. — N. 289.

16. Onoeiaiei A.I., Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Noaoeeiia?iua e ianoaoeeiia?iua
ninoiyiey aiiaeii-iiey?eciaaiiuo iaoaeeia a ?anoai?ao // 1-e Oe?.
aeaeo?io?i?/iee c’?cae: Oace aeiiia?aeae 15-17 o?aaiy 1995 ?. (Ee?a;
Ioua-Aiaeeoey) — Ee?a: ICIO ?i. A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1995.
— noi?.214.

17. Oaaei?aiei I.I, Onoeiaiei A.I., O?oeueiaa I.Ae.
Aieueoaiia?iiao?e/iee aeni?an-iaoiae aecia/aiiy ieaa?eiai? eeneioe o
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nenoaiao // Anaoe?a?inueea eiio. c aiae?o. o?i??:
Oace aeiiia?aeae 18-21 aa?aniy 1995 ?. (Ee?a) — Ee?a: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?.
?i. O.Oaa/aiea. — 1995. — noi?.75

18. Onoeiaiei A.I., Oaaei?aiei A.I., Iioeiecaoeey ianoaoeeiia?iuo
?aaeeiia iiee?iaaiey ieiaey // 1-e Oe?. aeaeo?io?i?/iee c’?cae: Oace
aeiiia?aeae 15-17 o?aaiy 1996 ?. (Ee?a; Ioua-Aiaeeoey) — Ee?a: ICIO ?i.
A.I.Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1995. — noi?.215.

19. O?oeaaa I.Ae., Onoeiaiei A.I. Iiaue iaoiae ia?aaioee aiiaeiuo
aieueoaiia?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee ieiaeaaiai yeaeo?iaea // Nooaeaio e
i?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Oac. 1-e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee 20-23 iay 1995
(Aeoooa). — Neioa?iiieue: NAO. — 1996. — N.17

AIIOAOess

Onoeiaiei A.I. Caeiiii??iino? ianoaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe?? i?ia?th a
oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.05 — aeaeo?io?i?y. N?ioa?iiieuenueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, N?ioa?iiieue, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny 19 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, ye? i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaoaaiiy i?ia?th a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??.
Onoaiiaeaii, ui ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oaeaeeinoae eiieo?oth/eo noaae?e
ianiia?aianaiiy aecia/athoue no?ee?noue noaoe?iia?iiai aai
ianoaoe?iia?iiai ianeaiaaiiai noaio yeaeo?iaea I?ia?e-?ic/ei.
Cai?iiiiiaaii noaia aeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoe?e ? e?iaoe/ia iiaeaeue noaio
iiaa?oi? i?ia?th, yea aiiaeii iiey?eco?oueny o o?i?/i?e nenoai?
HF-H2SO4-H2O a oiiaao eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??. ?ic?iaeai?
aieueoaiia?iiao?e/i? iaoiaee eiio?ieth oa ioe?ithaaiiy cae?aiino?
aeaeo?iaea aei ia?aoiaeo eiai o noai ianoaoe?iia?ii? ianeaaoe??.
?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ea?oaaiiy noaiii aeaeo?iaea o
iioaioe?inoaoe/iiio oa ?iioeueniiio ?aaeeiao iiey?ecaoe??. ?ic?iaeaii
iia? caniae ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy i?ia?th oa
?ioeo i?iieneiaeo iaoae?a, ye? ia iio?aaothoue o?i?/iiai aiae?co ?ic/eio
ca eiai eiiiiiaioaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaiaaii i?ae /an
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy aaaaoieii??eiai? iaaei?ia?aeii? naeoe?? ?c
i?ia?th aeey i?enei?thaa/a aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aieueoaiia?iiao?e/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea, I?ia?e,
aeaeo?iae, aeaeo?io?i?/i? eieeaaiiy, ianoaoe?iia?ia ianeaaoe?y,
iiey?ecaoe?y, iiaeaeue, eiiaaeoeaia aeiooc?y, nenoaia ??aiyiue,
?iioeuen, iie??oaaiiy, e?eoa??e.

SUMMARY

Ustimenko V. N. Governing laws of a nonstationary passivation of
Niobium in conditions of a convective diffusion.

Thesis for obtaining the candidate degree of chemical sciences on
speciality 02.00.05 — Electrochemistry, the Simferopol State University,
Simferopol, 1998.

The 19 scientific articles are defended that contain the results of
investigations of a nonstationary passivation of Niobium in conditions
of a convective diffusion. It was established that the ratioes between
the speeds of a concurance stages at a mass transfer influe to the
stability of stationary or nonstationary passivation state of an
electrode as far as Niobium-solution. The schema of some electrode
reactions and the kinetic model of a Niobium surface state was proposed
for a Niobium polarized as an anode within a chemical system
HF-H2SO4-H2O being in conditions of a convective diffusion. The
voltamperometric metods has been developed to control and to estimate
the capability of the electrode to pass itself into a nonstationary
passivation state. There are some practical recomendations to operate
the state of the electrode polarized by a potentiostatic or impulsive
regimes. The news metodes has been developed to estimate an
electropolishing effectivity for niobium and other metals, those do
without a shemical analysis of the solution’s composition by the
components. The results was approbated at the electrochemical polishing
of the niobium multicelled section structure for the accelerator of
elementary particles.

Basic words: voltamperometric characteristic, niobium, electrode,
electrochemical oscillations, nonstationary passivation, polarization,
model, convective diffusion, system of equations, impulse, polishing,
estimation.

AIIIOAOeEss

Onoeiaiei A.I. Caeiiiia?iinoe ianoaoeeiia?iiai ianneae?iaaiey ieiaey a
oneiaeyo eiiaaeoeaiie aeeooocee. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.05 — yeaeo?ioeiey. Neioa?iiieueneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Neioa?iiieue, 1999.

Caueuaaony 19 iao/iuo ?aaio, eioi?ua niaea?aeao ?acoioaou enneaaeiaaiey
ianoaoeeiai?iiai ianneae?iaaiey ieiaey a oneiaeyo eiiaaeoeaiie
aeeooocee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi niioiioaiea nei?inoae eiieo?e?othueo noaaeee
ianniia?aiina ii?aaeaeyao onoie/eainoue noaoeeia?iiai eee
ianoaoeeiai?iiai ianneae?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey yeaeo?iaea ieiaee-?anoai?.
I?aaeeiaeaiu noaia yeaeo?iaeiuo ?aaeoeee e eeiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
ninoiyiey iiaa?oiinoe ieiaey, aiiaeii iiey?ecoaiiai a oeie/aneie nenoaia
HF-H2SO4-H2O a oneiaeyo eiiaaeoeaiie aeeooocee. A noaia aia?aua
io?aaeaiu iaiauaiiua o?aaiaiey iiiainoaaeeeiuo yeaeo?iaeiuo ?aaeoeee,
ecaanoiuo ec eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia, e iienaiu iniiaiua i?ioeannu ia
oaciauo a?aieoeao: ieiaee-?anoai?, ieiaee-ianneae?othuee neie, e
oiiioeie/aneea i?aa?auaiey a ianneae?othuai neia. A iiaeaee
i?aaeneaaeaiu iniiaiua iaoaiaoe/aneea o?aaiaiey ninoiyiey yeaeo?iaea
yeaeo?iaea ieiaee-?anoai? a eioaa?aeueiie oi?ia (ii oieo) e iieo/aiiua
aaoi?ii aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua o?aaiaiey aeey neo/ay eiioeaio?aoeeiiiie
iiey?ecaoeee e aeey neo/ay cae?uoey /anoe iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea
ianneae?othuae ieaieie. Iieacaii, /oi ec yoeo o?aaiaiee ninoaaeyaony
nenoaia 2-o aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee, iieiinoueth iienuaathuay
ninoiyiea yeaeo?iaea n aaioeeueiui iaoaeeii. Iieo/aiu oa?aeoa?iua
niioiioaiey iaaeaeo eeiaoe/aneeie ia?aiao?aie yeaeo?iaeiuo noaaeee
ianniia?aiina e oaoiieiae/aneeie ia?aiao?aie, aeeythueie ia
iiey?ecaoeeth yeaeo?iaea. Iieacaii niioaaonoaea niiaeaee?iaaiiuo e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo eieaaaiee oiea eae ii eo oi?ia, oae e ii caaeneiinoe
ia?eiaea eieaaaiee io yeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioeeaea.

Iaia?oaeaii, /oi eciaiaiey a ninoaaa ?anoai?a e niinia iiey?ecaoeee
yeaeo?iaea (iioaioeeinoaoe/aneee, eiioeueniue eeai
iioaioeeiaeeiaie/aneee) aeeytho ia niioiioaiey nei?inoae eiieo?e?othueo
noaaeee ianniia?aiina e ia iaoaieci ianniia?aiina, a oeaeii. Iaia?oaeaia
oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue yeaeo?iaeiuo i?ioeannia eae i?e eiioeueniie
iiey?ecaoeee iiaa?oiinoe ieiaey, oae e i?e iioaioeeinoaoe/aneii
ianoaoeeiia?iii aa ianneae?iaaiee.

Aia?aua onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiciiaeia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ioeaiea niiniaiinoe
yeaeo?iaea e ia?aoiaeo aai a ninoiyiea ianoaoeeiia?iie ianneaaoeee — ii
n?aaieoaeueiiio aiaeeco oiaea iioaioeeinoaoe/aneeo e
iioaioeeiaeeiaie/aneeo aieueoaiia?iuo oa?aeoa?enoee yeaeo?iaea
ieiaee-?anoai?, ii aaee/eiai yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe ?anoai?a e ii ninoaao
oeie/aneie nenoaiu IF-H2SO4-H2O. ?ac?aaioaiu aieueoaiia?iiao?e/aneea
iaoiaeu eiio?iey e ioeaiee niiniaiinoe yeaeo?iaea e ia?aoiaeo aai a
ninoiyiea ianoaoeeiia?iie ianneaaoeee.

Aeaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oi?aaeaieth ninoiyieai yeaeo?iaea a
iioaioeeinoaoe/aneii e eiioeueniii ?aaeeiao aai iiey?ecaoeee n iiyoaiiie
iioeiecaoeeae ?aaeeiia yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai iiee?iaaiey iiaa?oiinoe
iaoaeea, eiaiii: 1 yoai — auyaeaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe ?anoai?a; 2 yoai —
ainnoaiiaeaiea iiee?othueo naienoa ?anoai?a (ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe); 3 yoai
— noaaeeecaoeey ?aaeeia eieaaaiee iiey?ecothuaai oiea. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua
niiniau ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai iiee?iaaiey ieiaey e
ae?oaeo iaoaeeia a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia o?aaothuea oeie/aneiai aiaeeca
?anoai?a ii eiiiiiaioai,- yooaeoeaiinoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aaee/eiai
oaeeo iieacaoaeae, eae: a) eiaa?eoie/aneiai iieacaoaey yooaeoeaiinoe (E,
/an-1); a) ?aai/aai ?ano?na ?anoai?a (h1, iei.i-2ea-1), iieacuaathuaai
i?aaeaeueioth aaee/eio nuaia ieiaey ii oieueia n aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee
iiaa?oiinoe a ?anoai?a iannie 1 ea; a) yia?aaoe/aneiai iieacaoaey
yooaeoeaiinoe (W, eAo/ani-2), ii?aaeaeythuaai ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee
i?e iiee?iaaiee 1 i2 ieiuaaee ieiaeaaiai ecaeaeey e oiaioaiee
oa?ioiaaoinoe iiaa?oiinoe a 2,718 ?ac; a) aaee/eiu ia?u naeaaeeaaiey
i?ioeey iiaa?oiinoe (Q*), iieacuaathuae ioiioaiea iauaai ca?yaea,
i?ioaaeoaai /a?ac yeaeo?iae, e yeaeo?e/aneiio ca?yaeo aeey nuaia
iaoaeea ia aaeeieoeo oieueiu iiaa?oiinoe.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ai?iae?iaaiu i?e yeaeo?ioeie/aneii iiee?iaaiee
iiiaiy/aenoie naa?oi?iaiaeyuae naeoeee ec ieiaey aeey onei?eoaey
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aieueoaiia?iiao?e/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea, ieiaee,
yeaeo?iae, yeaeo?ioeie/aneea eieaaaiey, ianoaoeeiia?iay ianneaaoeey,
iiey?ecaoeey, iiaeaeue, eiiaaeoeaiay aeeooocey, nenoaia o?aaiaiee,
eiioeuen, iiee?iaaiea, e?eoa?ee.

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