Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Ia?oiiaoeue TH??e Iao?iae/

OAeE 576.315.42

Caeiiii??iino? aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ca i?iiaiaaiai
o?aaeaiiy uo??a

03.00.01-?aae?ia?ieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a eaai?aoi??? o?ceei-o?i?/ii? a?ieia?? eaoaae?e a?io?i??
a?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee- aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Oeoaecaae/ Ai?en
Ieaenaiae?iae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?io?i?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe- aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Ae?oaeeia Ieeiea
Ieaenaiae?iae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo a?io?ceee
?inoeoooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoieia??, iieieia?? ? ?aae?ia?ieia?? ?i.
?.?. Eaaaoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Aeieo?aiei Ieeiea Iao?iae/, caa?aeoth/ee
eaai?aoi???th a?io?i?? ?inoeoooo aeia?a??ie ? oieneeieia??

?i. E.?. Iaaeaaaey IIC Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa- Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee oeaio? ?aae?aoe?eii?
iaaeeoeeie AII Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?aae?aoe?eii? a?io?i??, i. Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “22“ /a?aiy 1999?. i 12 aiae ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26. 001. 24 Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252127, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo
Aeooeiaa 2, ei?ion 12 ( a?ioae ), aoae. 215

Iiooiaa aae?ana: 252033. Ee?a-33, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64, niaoe?aaea
Ae 26.001.24, a?ieia?/iee oaeoeueoao

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa-?neoaoo:
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “18” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, i?ioani? I.A.
A?aeii

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Ae?y /eneaiieo aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a,
aeeth/ath/e ?ii?coth/o ?aae?aoe?th ia i?aai?ci, aeeeeea? ?yae
?ioiiaeao?oeeoieo oa aooi?ioiieo noai?a. Iniiaieie i?iyaaie
?ioiiaeao?oeeoo ? ci?ia e?euee?niiai ? noaiiioeyoe?eiiai neeaaeo
?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei, cieaeaiiy i?ie?oa?aoeaii? aeoeaiino?
e?ioioeeo?a, ?o i?a?aoe?eieo aeanoeainoae. Oeaio?aeueia i?noea o
ooieoe?iioaaii? ?ioiii? nenoaie iaeaaeeoue e?ioioeeoai, yeei oa?aeoa?ia
aeniea ?aae?i/ooeea?noue ( ss?eeei, 1988 ; Aeieo?aiei, 1997 ).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? ia ?ioiio nenoaio, aea/aiiy
oeiiaeo ci?i ? iniaeeainoae no?oeoo?ieo, iaoaaie?/ieo oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue a e?ioioeeoao i?iaeiaaeo? aooe iaei??th ?c
iniiaieo i?iaeai no/anii? ?aae?ia?ieia??. Ca?aeii no/anieo oyaeaiue,
caaeaaeue e?ioi?aeieo ee?oei i?e i?iiaiaaiio o?aaeaii? iia’ycaia c
aaciina?aaei?i iioeiaeaeaiiyi iaia?ai ? no?oeoo?ii? oe?e?niino?
o?iiaoeio ( Aieyineee, 1994; Ao?eaeiaa, 1992 ). A?aeiii, ui o?iiaoei a
e?ioi?aeieo ? aaiiiiaoe/ieo oeaieiao ii?ii?iaieo oaa?ei ?icuaieth?oueny
ia e?aoi? ioeeainiiai o?aaiaioe, ui ooai?ththoue ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?aiao
oa?aeoa?io ea?oeio “ae?aaeie” ( Brown, 1993 ). Iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy
iaoai?ci?a i?aeio-eeainiiii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio iieacaee, ui oeae
i?ioean ?i?oe?th?oueny aiaeiaaiieie ioeeaacaie ? ia? i?noea o aaaaoueio
aeiaaeeao i?ia?aiiaaii? ee?oeiii? caaeaae? ( ss?eeei, 1996; Oeoaecaae/
1997 ).

Aiae?c i?iaeaie caaeaae? e?ioioeeo?a iieaco?, ui o i?ciaii? iieaeoey?ieo
iniia i?ioeano aeaa?aaeaoe?? AeIE, iaoai?ci?a eiai ?aaoeyoe??
aeinyaiooee iaaiee i?ia?an ( Oiaineee, 1996; Oainii, 1997 ).
Aeeneon?eieie caeeoathoueny ieoaiiy ?i?oe?aoe?? oa ?aaoeyoe?? ioneiaeo
iaoai?ci?a o?aaiaioaoe?? o?iiaoeio e?ioioeeo?a i?ney ae?? ia oaa?ei
iecueeeo aeic ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??, iaia? ae/a?iii? ea?oeie noaio
eiiiainaoi?ieo, caoenii-a?aeiiaieo ? iaoieia?/ieo ?aaeoe?e o
a?aeie?ath/eo ee?oeiao.

Ia aeeeeea? noii?ao, ui eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaeoey?ieo
iaoai?ci?a ?icaeoeo caaeaae? ee?oei i?eaaaeooue aei iiaeeaeaiiai
?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee aaaaoueio aaaeeeaeo caoai?thaaiue ethaeeie, ui
iia’ycai? c? ci?iaie iieaciee?a ?ioiii? nenoaie ? a?aee?ethoue iia?
ia?niaeoeae aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia ?ioiiaeao?oeeoi? noaie a oiiaao ae??
?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??.

Ioaea, i?iaeaia, ye?e i?enay/aia ?iaioa, ? aeooaeueiith ? yaey? niaith
cia/iee oai?aoe/iee ? i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? /anoeiith oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
a?io?i??, ui aeeiio?oueny ia caiiaeaiiy Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae
1995 aei 2000 ?., ?

2

aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197 U 003173 “A?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo
i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy i?ney ae?? ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo ? ?aaoeyoe?? aeaa?aaeaoe?? no?oeoo?e o?iiaoeio,
aeeiai?ee ianiaoeeo?/ieo no?ani?ieo ?aaeoe?e a oeiioeeoao oaa?ei, ui
caciaee ii?ii?iaiiy, oa aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aieeao ia oe? i?ioeane
?aae?iiiaeoeyoi?a-i?eioeiai?aeo.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy: 1.
Aeine?aeeoe aieea ??cieo aeic ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? ia aeaa?aaeaoe?th
o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a uo??a. Aeyaeoe oiiae i?iyao oeeoiaaiaoe/iiai
aoaeoo, oiaoi, aeico ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? oa iaeiaioee /an
noaa?eueiiai oi?ioaaiiy aeene?aoieo cii o?iiaoeio ca oeiii “ae?aaeie”.
2. Aeine?aeeoe iaoai?ci aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oa noai ?aia?aoe?eii?
nenoaie AeIE oeiioeeo?a uo??a i?e iaeii?aciaiio ?aioaai?anueeiio
ii?ii?iaii? oa ae?? o?ii?/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iecueei? ?ioaineaiino?.
3. Aeine?aeeoe i?ioaie?oe/io aeoeai?noue oeiioeeo?a i?e aieea?
?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??. 4. Aeine?aeeoe aieea oioaeueiiai iaeii?aciaiai
?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia noai i?ioean?a ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy
e?i?ae?a ( IIE ) a oeiioeeoao. 5. Aea/eoe iiaeeo?eoth/o ae?th
i?eioeiai?aeo ia aeaa?aaeaoe?th AeIE oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui
aeaa?aaeaoe?y o?iiaoeio a oeiioeeoao uo??a c oi?ioaaiiyi aeene?aoieo
AeIE-o?aaiaio?a ca oeiii “ae?aaeie” ?icii/eia?oueny /a?ac 3 aiaeeie
i?ney iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai ii?ii?iaiiy a aeic? 1 A?. O?eaaea
o?ii?/ia ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? ii?ii?iaiiy c caaaeueiei ?aae?aoe?eiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi 25 nA? aeeeeea? iiae?aio ea?oeio aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio.
Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ooai?aiiy iaeiiieoeiaeo oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a
AeIE, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a o?iiaoei? oeiioeeo?a i?ney ae?? ia uo??a
?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? a aeic? 1 A?, ?o ca”ycie c ?iaioith ?aia?aoe?eii?
nenoaie ee?oeie.

Aea/ai? oa?aeoa?i? caeiiii??iino? i?io?eaiiy ?aaeoe?e IIE ? anoaiiaeaii,
ui a ii?ii?iaieo oeiioeeoao ?aaeoe?? IIE iathoue oaciao caeaaei?noue, ui
a?aeiia?aea? iniiaiei oa?i?iai aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio.

Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioaie?oe/io aeoeai?noue oeiioeeo?a uo??a, ui caciaee
aieeao ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? oa iiaeeo?eoth/i? ae?? i?eioeiai?aeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe uiaei
caeiiii??iinoae iaoai?cio aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo
oaa?ei iathoue, ia?o ca ana, ooiaeaiaioaeueia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee
aeicaieythoue nooo?ai iaa?oiooaaoe ?icaeoie i?ney?aae?aoe?eieo ii?ooaiue
a e?ioi?aeieo ee?oeiao ia iieaeoey?iiio ??ai? ? eaaeaoue a iniia?
?ic?iaee cania?a oe?eani?yiiaaii? ?o ei?aeoe??. Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa?
ianiaoeeo?/ieo ?aaeoe?e oa ci?ie i?ioa?iacieo

3

aeoeaiinoae oa?iaio?a, ui aeiiiaiththoue a?aeii? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e
aeaiue i?eioeeie ? aoaie caaeaae? e?ioi?aeieo ee?oei i?ney ae??
?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeooue aooe iieeaaeai? a iniiao i?e
?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo oeyo?a noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo cania?a,
caeaoieo iiaeeo?eoaaoe ae?th ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? ia i?aai?ci ?
nenoaie i?aai?a. Oae, i?eioeiai?ae noeioeth? ?iciaae AeIE, ? oei naiei,
i?enei?th? aiiioic a e?ioi?aeieo ee?oeiao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?
iniaenoi a?ae?a?aa oa e?eoe/ii i?iaiae?coaaa aanue ianya a?o/eciyii? oa
ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e noiniaii oaie i?iaaaeaiiai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ? cai?iiiioaaa eiai aieiaio iaoo. Aeena?oaioii
a?ae?a?ai? oa iiaeeo?eiaai? iaoiaee ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue,
?ioa?i?aoiaaii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue naiino?eii, a oaeiae ni?eueii c ni?a?ia?oieeaie
eaai?aoi??? o?ceei-o?i?/ii? a?ieia??. A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai?
?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e, a oiio ae /ene? iaienai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, aeiey iniaenoi? o/ano? o i?aeaioiaoe? eieaeoeaieo
ioae?eaoe?e -90 %.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia 3-io neiiic?oi?, i?enay/aiiio
iai’yo? aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe A.A. Ieoaeeianueei? «Ae?aaiinoeea oa
i?io?eaeoeea iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a ?aae?aoe??» ( Ee?a, 1997 ), VII
Oe?a?inueeiio a?io?i?/iiio c’?cae? ( Ee?a, 1997 ), ??? c’?cae? ii
?aae?aoe?eiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ( Iineaa, 1997 ), ??? c”?cae?
Oe?a?inueeiai a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa ( Oa?e?a, 1998 ),
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeuee?e eiioa?aioe?? EO, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii o 7
ioae?eaoe?yo ( 3 noaoo?, 4 oace aeiiia?aeae ).

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e ( 3 ?icae?ee ), iaoiae?a, ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy ( 2 ?icae?ee ), caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a,
nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ( 160 aeaea?ae ). Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia
ia 124 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno.

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia a?eeo iae?i?eieo uo?ao-naioeyo ianith
130-170 a. Canoiniaoaaee oae? aenia?eiaioaeuei? iiaeae? ii?ii?iaiiy: 1.
Iaeii?aciaa oioaeueia ii?ii?iaiiy oaa?ei a ??cieo aeicao ( 1,29 o 10-2
Ee o ea-1, 2,58 o 10-2 Ee o ea-1, 5,16 o 10-2 Ee o ea-1, 10,32 o 10-2 Ee
o ea-1, 15,48 o 10-2 Ee o ea-1, 20,64 o 10-2 Ee o ea-1 ) i?iaiaeeee ia
?aioaai?anuee?e onoaiiaoe? ?OI-17 ca oiia: o?eueo?e 0,5 ii Nu oa

1 ii Al; iai?oaa 200 eA, neea no?oio 5 iA; oe??ii-oieonia a?aenoaiue 50
ni;

4

iiooaei?noue aeice a iia?o??-8,3 o 10-4 A o ea-1. 2. O?ii?/ia
eiia?iiaaia ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? ii?ii?iaiiy uo??a i?iaiaeeee i?e
iino?eiiio, ia i?ioyc? 6 i?nyoe?a, ia?aaoaaii? uo??a ia
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e aac? i. *i?iiaeeue. Aioo??oi? ?aae?aoe?eia
iaaaioaaeaiiy noai?thaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith ?aoe?iio i?noeaaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. Caaaeueia ?aae?aoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy ca oiia o?ii?/iiai
aeine?aeo neeaaeaei 25 nA?, aac o?aooaaiiy u?eueii?ii?coth/i? eiiiiiaioe
a?ae o?aino?aiiaeo aeaiaio?a.

A aeine?aeao caaacia/oaaee noeioeyoe?th a?ineioaco
i?eioeiai?aeaaeai?i-aeeioeeaioeaeo ( IAAe ) iaeii?aciaei
aioo??oiuei/a?aaiei aaaaeaiiyi ?ioaeoiei oaa?eiai 20 ia i?eioeiai?aeo ia
100 a iane o?ea.

Oeion eiio?ieueieo oa ii?ii?iaieo oaa?ei ia?aoe?aee /a?ac 4 oa?e
iaeeiiiai? n?oee o na?aaeiaeu? Oaiena, aeae? io?eioaaee noniaic?th
oeiioeeo?a ( Oiaineee, 1986 ). O?aaiaioaoe?th AeIE, oa?aeoa?io aeey
aiiioico, aeyaeyee ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?ioi?aco a 1,2 % aaa?iciiio aae?,
aeaa?aaeaoe?th AeIE aecia/aee iaoiaeii Nieia”yia, ( 1993 ). Aeey
aeyaeaiiy iaeii — oa aeaiieoeiaeo iioeiaeaeaiue AeIE ( I?, Ae? ) a
noniaic?? oeiioeeo?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae Aeieo?aiea, ( 1997 ).
Aecia/aee iicaieaiiaee neioac AeIE ( Nieoeianeee, 1992 ). I?iaiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeo?aeueii? i?ioaie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino? yaea?iiai iao?eeno
( Iaeaoiaa, 1990 ) oa aeoeaiino? eaoainei A-iiae?aieo i?ioa?iac
( *i?ia, 1996 ). Aeine?aeaeoaaee noai ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (
Noaeueiay, Aa?eoaeee, 1977 ). Aecia/aiiy Na2+, Ig2+-caeaaeiiai oa
Ig2+-caeaaeiiai iaeiie/aiiy iie?-aeacieneioeeaioeae?a ( IAeI ) o
oeiioeeoao ii?ii?iaieo uo??a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii Oiainueeiai, ( 1988
). Aecia/aiiy a?eea i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeii Lowry, ( 1951 ). Noaoenoe/io
ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a cae?enithaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?ai Microsoft
Excel.

?ACOEUeOAOE OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

I?e ae?? aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a ia ee?oeio aeieea? aaiiiia oa
aiiainoacia ianoaa?euei?noue ( Eoiao, 1995 ). Iayai?noue
aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? iiaeooue caaacia/eoe aaiiii? ?
iaoaaie?/i? ia?aaoaeiae, ia? ia o?eueee aaiethoe?eia, a e
aaciina?aaeiuei aaeaioeaia cia/aiiy ( Nieiaueyi, 1990 ). Oaeee noai
i?aai?cio aeioe?eueii cia?aceoe noaiith: no?an -aaeaioaoe?y -aeaeeaaiiy
aai nia?oue.

I?e aeno?aiaeuei?e ae?? no?aoaa?y i?aai?cio iai?aaeaia ia oa, ui
ee?oeie, ye? a?i ia iiaea a?aeiiaeoe ? eiio?iethaaoe, i?aeeyaathoue
caaeaae? oeyoii aeeth/aiiy i?ia?aie aiiioico.

Iniiaiei ? caaaeueiia?aeiiei a?io?i?/iei ia?ea?ii aiiioico a naieo
??cieo ee?oeiao ? i?ae ae??th ??cieo noeioe?a ? oii?yaeeiaaia
i?aeioeeainiiia aeaa?aaeaoe?y

5

o?iiaoeio. Oeae i?ioean ? ia?oith iacai?ioiith iiae??th, ui aecia/a?
aeieth ee?oeie. Iaeiei ?c eiai i?iya?a ? iaeiie/aiiy ?ic/eiieo
aeacieneioeeaii?ioa?ae?a ( AeII ).

?. O?aaiaioaoe?y AeIE oeiioeeo?a ca oiia i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy

Caeiiii??iino? aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a.
A?aeiii, ui iniiaieie iane?aeeaie ae?? ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? ia ee?oeie
?aae?i/ooeeaeo i?aai?a ? ?iciaae o?iiaoeio ? iaeiie/aiiy
iie?aeacieneioeeaioeae?a. Iaeiae a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iaiaeue aeaieo
i?i oa?aeoa? oa caeiiii??iino? aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio ? iniaeeaino?
ii/aoeiaeo iaoai?ci?a oeeo i?ioean?a. ?niothoue oaeiae noia?a/eea? aeai?
i?i aeiciao caeaaei?noue, ?icaeoie oeeo iiae?e a /an?, ?ioaineai?noue
?iciaaeo a oiiaao ae?? ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? ??cii? ?ioaineaiino?.

Oiio ia ia?oiio aoai? ?iaioe ie aeine?aeaeoaaee oa?aeoa? oa iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a i?e
ae?? ??cieo aeic ?aae?aoe??, a oaeiae ii??aithaaee ae?th iaeii?aciaiai
?aioaai?anueeiai ii?ii?iaiiy ia uo??a c iane?aeeii ae?? o?ii?/iiai
?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy iecueei? ?ioaineaiino?.

I?e aeei?enoaii? aeaeo?ioi?aco a aaa?iciiio aae? ia aaea?oueny
niinoa??aaoe

/?oei? ea?oeie o?aaiaioaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a /a?ac 3 aiae i?ney
ae?? ia oaa?ei aei?ii?ithaaiiy a aeic? 0.5 A?, aea a?aei?/a?oueny eiai
aeaa?aaeaoe?y. *a?ac 1oa 2 aiae i?ney ae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy a aeic? 1 A?
aoei aeyaeaii iineeaiiy aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio, aea a?aenooi? /?oei
noi?iiaai? aeene?aoi? iaeano? AeIE. sse aeaeii c ?en. 1, iiyaa iaai?o
AeIE-o?aaiaio?a a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac 3 aiae i?ney ae?? ia uo??a
?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? a aeic? 1 A?. Ioeeainiii? o?aaiaioe oi?iothoue
aeene?aoi? iaeano? ca oeiii «ae?aaeie» a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o ?ici??o. I?e
oeueiio ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?ai? a aaa?iciiio aae? aeyaeythoueny ae?aci?
nioae, ui, ye i?aaeei, a?aeiia?aeathoue o?aaiaioai AeIE aeiaaeeiith 200,
600 oa 800 ia? ioeeaioeae?a ( Iaoeoaanueea, 1997 ).

I?e ii?ii?iaii? a aeic? 2 oa 4 A? niinoa??aa?oueny iaeiie/aiiy
aeene?aoieo AeIE-o?aaiaio?a. E?euee?noue o?aaiaio?a ia ca?eueoo?oueny c
i?aeaeuaiiyi aeice. Ca?eueoaiiy aeice aei 8 A? i?eaiaeeoue aei
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo AeIE a oa?i?iaeueieo ciiao aeaeo?ioi?aa?aie.
Ia?aeaeueii a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo o?aaiaio?a AeIE, ui iathoue
a?eueoo iieaeoey?io iano.

I?e aea/aii? no?oeoo?iiai noaio o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a o?ii?/ii
ii?ii?iaieo uo??a anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny eiai o?aaiaioaoe?y.
E?euee?noue

7

o?aaiaio?a AeIE cia/ii c?inoa? oa ?iciiae?eai? aiie ??aiii??i?oa ca
niaeo?ii iieaeoey?ieo ian ( ?en. 2 ).

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?y o?ii?/iiai
?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a aeic? 25 nA?, ye ? iaeii?aciaiai
?aioaai?anueeiai ii?ii?iaiiy, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a
o?aaiaioaoe?? AeIE a oeiioeeoao c iiae?aiei oa?aeoa?ii.

Ae?oaei ?c i?aeoiae?a aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaiy aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio a
ee?oeiao aoei aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoiaeo iecueei-iieaeoey?ieo o?aaiaio?a
AeIE – IAeI. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi aeice aei?ii?ithaaiiy
niinoa??aa?oueny aeinoia??ia ca?eueoaiiy iaeiie/aiiy IAeI ( ?en. 3 ).

A ?acoeueoao? iaeiie/aiiy IAeI, ye? iathoue ??cio iieaeoey?io iano,
a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy aeene?aoieo iaeanoae ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?aiao.
Oaeo ?o iiyae aea? ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aeoeaaoe?th a ee?oei?
i?ioean?a, ye? aaea ia i?aeeyaathoue eiio?ieth c aieo ?aia?aoe?eii?
nenoaie. Io?eiai? iaie aeai? oa ?acoeueoaoe e?oa?aoo?e ( Nieaeaoaieia,
1989 ) aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a ii?ii?iaieo e?ioioeeoao
aeaa?aaeaoe?y AeIE ? ?aiiueith iiae??th ? ia?aaeo? caaeaae? oeeo ee?oei.

Ooai?aiiy ?ic?ea?a AeIE oa ?o ?aia?aoe?y. Aeey aiae?co o?aaiaioaoe??
AeIE oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a ie aea/aee aeeiai?eo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i
o?iiaoeio. Oe?e?ni?noue iie?ia?ii? AeIE i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy ii?ooo?oueny
aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy iaeii-ieoeiaeo oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a. sse aeaeii
c ?en. 4, i?ioean ?icuaieaiiy no?oeoo?e AeIE ia? oaciaee oa?aeoa?. Oae,
aaea /a?ac 15 oa i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino?
iaeiiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a, ui ia aeae?

8

iiaea aecia/aoe ?icaeoie iiae?e. Oi/a a?eueo?noue ?o e?ea?aeothoueny,
aeayea /anoeia caeeoa?oueny ia?aia?iaaiith ? i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a, e?euee?noue yeeo /a?ac 120 oa.
ii/eia? ca?eueooaaoenue. E?eoe/iee ??aaiue aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a,
iiaeeeai, ? neaiaeii a ?acoeueoao? yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoeaaoe?y
nenoai aeaa?aaeaoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ( Bruant, 1984 ).

O a?aeiia?aeue ia ae?th aei?i-i?ithaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoeaaoe?y
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aia?aoe?eieo nenoai, ye? iathoue cia/iee, aea iaaiee
?aca?a. ( ?ya/aiei, 1982, Shall, 1982 ). Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui
i?eaeecii /a?ac 2 aiae e?euee?noue iaeiiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a ciaioo?oueny.
?iaeaen ?aia?aoe?? ca?eueoo?oueny ii??aiyii c ia?oei aeine?aeaeaiei
oa?i?iii. Oa a ?ioa?aae? aei 60 oa iicaieaiiaee neioac AeIE i?aeaeuaiee
noiniaii ?ioaeoieo oaa?ei ( ?en. 5 ).

C i?eaaaeaieo aeua aeaieo aeaa?aaeaoe?? ? ?aia?aoe?? iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ia ia?oiio aoai? ( 120 oa ) a ?acoeueoao? ae??
?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeiie/aiiy aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a
AeIE. A ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaeiiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a AeIE i?eaiaeeoue
aei ciaioaiiy neioaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ee?oeie.

O?ii?/ii ii?ii?iai? oaa?eie iaee ?ioee ?iciiae?e aeine?aeaeaieo
iieaciee?a. Oae, i?e aiae?c? iaeii — oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a AeIE ?o
e?euee?noue a?aeiia?aea? cae?i/aiith ia?oi? oace aeaa?aaeaoe??
aaiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo. Aea ?iaeaen ?aia?aoe?? ia?aaeuo? ii?io, ui iiaea
na?ae/eoe i?i iioaioe?eio aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ee?oei. I?eeiath/e aei oaaae
?ai?oa io?eiai? aeai? ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?ioi?aco: a?eueoo, o
ii??aiyii? c iaeii?aciaei ?aioaai?anueeei ii?ii?iaiiyi, e?euee?noue
aeene?aoieo cii aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio, ?o ??aiii??ia ?iciiae?eaiiy ca
niaeo?ii iieaeoey?ieo ian, cieeiaiiy cacia/aieo iniaeeainoae /a?ac 2-3
oeaei? i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy oaa?ei iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oe? ee?oeie
ciaoiaeyoueny o noai? aaeaioaoe??.

?acoeueoaoe ii??aiyiiy ae?? iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai oa o?ii?/iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ciaioaiiy ?iaeaeno ?aia?aoe?? ia
iia’ycaii c? ciaioaiiyi ?ano?no ee?oeie, a ? iane?aeeii ae?? i?ia?aie
aaeaioaoe?? a?eueo neeaaeii? ca ???a?o??th a?ieia?/ii? nenoaie.

9

Iaoai?ci ?icaeoeo o?aaiaioaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui Na2+, Mg2+-caeaaeia
aiaeiioeeaaca cae?enith? ?ic?eae ieoie AeIE, ui ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae
ioeeainiiaie ( Cohen, 1984 ). Aiane?aeie oeueiai c’yaeythoueny ?ic?eae,
ye? ianooue 3’-II e?ioe? ( Aaeaoeeee, 1987 ), iaeiie/othoueny IAeI. Oiio
/anoeia iaoi? ?iaioe aoea iai?aaeaia ia aea/aiiy oa?iaioaoeaii?
aeaa?aaeaoe?? AeIE oa aecia/aiiy i?e?iaee ioeeaac, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
ca oeth aeaa?aaeaoe?th a oeiioeeoao ii?ii?iaieo uo??a. *a?ac 30 oa i?ney
ae?? ?aae?aoe?? a oeiioeeoao ii/eia? ca?eueooaaoenue Na2+, Mg2+-caeaaeia
iaeiie/aiiy IAeI, ui /a?ac 120 oa iaaoaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy ( i?e
oeueiio aiii ca?eueoo?oueny a i’youe ?ac?a o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai ).
?aia?aoe?ei? nenoaie aaea ia ni?aaeythoueny c iiaith oaeeath ooai?aiiy
oa?iaioaoeaieo ?ic?ea?a, ? /a?ac 180 oa niinoa??aaeanue aii?yaeeiaaia
aeaa?aaeaoe?y AeIE. Aeae? a?aeaoaa?oueny ae?i?iaoe?y ee?oei c
aeaa?aaeiaaiei o?iiaoeiii.

Iaie aoei aeine?aeaeaii ? Mg2+-caeaaeia iaeiie/aiiy IAeI, ine?eueee
Mg2+-caeaaeia ioeeaaca a?aeiia ye oa?iaio, ui oaeiae aeaa?aaeo? iaoeaio
AeIE ( Ieeiiiaa, 1982 ). sse aeaeii c ?en. 6, /a?ac 120 oa.
Mg2+-caeaaeia iaeiie/aiiy IAeI ca?eueoo?oueny o aeaa ?ace, aea o
ii??aiyii? c aeoeai?noth Na2+, Mg2+-caeaaeii? aiaeiioeeaace iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iacia/iee aeeaae oeueiai oa?iaioo o oi?ioaaiiy
aoaeoo.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia cacia/eoe, ui a oiiaao iaoiai aenia?eiaioo 120 oa
i?ney ae?? ii?ii?iaiiy iiaeia aaaaeaoe iacai?ioiei oa?i?iii i?ioeano
iioeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei. Na2+, Mg2+-caeaaeia aiaeiioeeaaca -?i?oe?th?
i?ioean oa?iaioaoeaiiai ?iciaaeo o?iiaoeio, ? ?? oa?iaioaoeaia
aeoeai?noue aecia/a? o?aaiaioaoe?th aaiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo. Neaiaeii aeey
ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino? oa?iaioo iiaea aooe ca?eueoaiiy ia?aia?iaaieo
aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a.

??. Noai IIE oeiioeeo?a i?e ae?? ?aioaai?anueeiai ii?ii?iaiiy

A oeiioeeoao i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy oaeaeei i?enei?ththoueny
a?eueii?aaeeeaeuei? ?aaeoe?? ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy, ui
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ?icuaieaiiyi neeaaeieo

10

i?aai?/ieo niieoe, aeeneieoaoe??th ?o aia?aaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo ?
ooai?aiiyi oiene/ieo i?iaeoeo?a e?iiia?aeenii? i?e?iaee ( Eoae?yoia,
1961; Na?e?c, 1990; Eoae?yoia, 1992 ). Oiio ianooiiei aoaiii iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee niiioaiiiai, oa?iaioaoeaiiai oa
iaoa?iaioaoeaiiai ieeneaiiy a oeiioeeoao ii?ii?iaieo uo??a.

Oa?iaioaoeaia nenoaia IIE aeei?enoiao? aeiii?ii a?aeiiaeaieo
aea?aaeaio?a IAAeOI, a iaoa?iaioaoeaia-anei?a?iiao eeneioo. Niiioaiia
ia?aeenia ieeneaiiy aei??thaaee i?e ?ieoaaoe?? noniaic?? ee?oei aac
aeiaeaaaiiy a?aeiiaiee?a.

Oaae.7. Iaeiie/aiiy iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo a oeiioeeoao uo??a i?e
ii?ii?iaii? a aeic? 1 A? ( iiieue IAeA ia 2,5 o 107 ee., I ± m )

Iaeiie/aiiy IAeAEiio?ieue15 oaeeei120 oaeeei180
oaeeeiniiioaiia192±28307±35*384±41*769±101*anei?aaocaeaaeia500±43577±21*
961±67*641±48*IAAeOI-caeaaeia288±25512±38*1250±84*404±35** — ?<0,05 o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. sse aeaeii c Oaae. 7, i?e niiioaiiiio i?ioean? a?aei?/a?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo a oeiioeeoao. Oaeaee?noue IIE ca?eueoo?oueny a i?enooiino? Fe2+-anei?aaoa. I?ney ae?? iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a aeic? 1 A? a oeiioeeoao a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? i?iaeoeo?a iaoa?iaioaoeaiiai ? oa?iaio caeaaeiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a. Oey caeiiii??i?noue ia? oaciaee oa?aeoa?. A?aei?/aii noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia ca?eueoaiiy iaeiie/aiiy IAeA, ui i?eiaaea? ia 120 oa i?ney ae?? ?aae?aoe??. I?e/iio aeeaae oa?iaioaoeaiiai i?ioeano o ia?o?e oac? ( 15 oa ? 120 oa ) a?eueoee oa noaiiaeoue 178 % ? 433 % o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai, iaoa?iaioaoeaia nenoaia-115 % ? 192 % a?aeiia?aeii. O o?ao?e oa?i?i ( /a?ac 180 oa ) oaeaee?noue iaoa?iaio- ? oa?iaio caeaaeiiai IIE cieaeo?oueny. Iaie aecia/aii oaeiae i?e??no ae??iiaeo eii’thaao?a /a?ac 120 oa ? 180 oa i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy uo??a - a?aeiia?aeii o 1,9 oa 3 ?ace ( ?en. 8 ). Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue, ui a oeiioeeoao ii?ii?iaieo uo??a a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie a nenoai? a?eueii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a o iai?yieo 11 aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano e?iiia?ieneaeaoe??, ui noaoenoe/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeey ii/aoeiaeo ( ae??iiaeo eii’thaao?a ) ? e?ioeaaeo i?iaeoeo?a ( iaeiiiaiai ae?aeueaeaa?aeo ) o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Iaea?aeai? aeai? aeacothoue ia iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy iaaii? niaoeeo?/iino? i?iyao i?iiaiaaiai aoaeoo ia nenoaio IIE a?aeie?ath/eo oeiioeeo?a. Oae, i?e aiae?c? aeeiai?ee iaeiie/aiiy IAeA caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ?o oaciaa caeaaei?noue c ia?a?iciiae?eii ia aeoeai?noue IAAeOI -caeaaeii? ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a, ui ni?aiaaea? c e?euee?noth I? ? Ae? i?ae /an cae?i/aiiy ia?oi? oace aeaa?aaeaoe??. ???. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioa?iacii? aeoeaiino? oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a Aeoeaaoe?y i?ioa?iac, ui ?icuaieththoue a?eee o?iiaoeio a ee?oeiao ii?ii?iaieo oaa?ei iiina?aaeeiaaii i?eaiaeeoue aei aeaa?aaeaoe?? AeIE. A?aeiii, ui o oi?ioaaii? ?aae?ia?ieia?/ieo aoaeo?a i?eeiathoue o/anoue oa?iaioe ye? aea?eueiththoueny c noaee?oeiieo no?oeoo? a ?acoeueoao? iioeiaeaeaiiy iaia?ai, oae ? aaciina?aaeiuei yaea?i? i?ioa?iace ( Zhivotovsky, 1994 ). A ?acoeueoao? /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui aaeeea e?euee?noue a?ee?a a?ae?ie?co?oueny a i?ioean? caaeaae? e?ioi?aeieo ee?oei ( Nieiaoa, 1992 ). I?e oeueiio nii/aoeo a i?ioaie?c aeeth/athoueny yaea?i? a?eee, a ia caeeth/ieo noaae?yo a?eee oeeoiieacie. A?aeiia?aeii aei noano?ao?a ? iioeiaeueieo oiia ae?? a oeueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? uiaei aea/aiiy aeoeaiino? i?ioa?iac a oiiaao iaoiai aenia?eiaioo. sse aeaeii c ?en. 9, aeoeai?noue iaeo?aeueieo i?ioa?iac o?iiaoeio i?aeaeuo?oueny. Caaaeyee iniaeeainoyi nai?? ae??: iaiaaeaiiio i?ioaie?co oe?ieiai niaeo?a a?ee?a, ci?i? eiioi?iaoe?? o?iiaoeio aiie iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe ?aaoeyoi?io ooieoe?th. ?o i?aeaeuaia aeoeai?noue a?aei?/a?oueny anth ia?oo oaco aeaa?aaeaoe?? aaiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo. *a?ac 180 oa. i?ney ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ?oiy aeoeai?noue cieaeo?oueny. Ii ?ioiio aeoeaothoueny i?ioa?iace, ui iathoue iioeiaeueio aeoeai?noue i?e eeneiio na?aaeiaeu? ( ?en. 10 ). Eeoa iai?ee?ioe? ia?oi? oace ( 120 oa ) ii/eia? i?iyaeyoeny oaiaeaioe?y aei ?o aeoeaaoe??, a /a?ac 180 oa. aiia noaiiaeoue 150 % a?ae eiio?ieueieo aaee/ei. I?e aiae?c? oa ii??aiyii? ci?i i?ioa?iacieo aeoeaiinoae aeaeii, ui a ii/aoeiaee ( aei 120 oa ) 12 i?ney?aae?aoe?eiee ia??iae niinoa??aa?oueny aeoeaaoe?y i?ioaie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a yaea?iiai iao?eeno. ?o aeoeaaoe?y iiaea aeeeeeaoe eaneaae a?ae?ie?oe/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei iiaeeo?eaoe?? oeyoii iaiaaeaiiai ?icuaieaiiy aaaeeeaeo yaea?ieo oa?iaio?a, no?oeoo?ieo a?ee?a o?iiaoeio ? oeeoineaeaoo ( Nieiaoa, 1988 ). Aeae? o aiiioe/ieo ee?oeiao a?aeaoaa?oueny ?yae no?oeoo?ieo oa iaoaaie?/ieo ci?i, i?e yeeo aeoeaothoueny eaoainei A-iiae?ai? i?ioa?iace. Oi/a e?ciniie caeeoathoueny ?ioaeoieie, aea iiaeeeai, ui iaaia e?euee?noue oa?iaio?a ia?aaoaa? ia ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? oeeo i?aaiae. Eaoainei A-iiae?ai? i?ioa?iace iiaeooue i?eeiaoe o/anoue a aea?ai?an?? ie?aieo ae?eyiie aaiiio oeyoii i?ioaie?co a?noii?a, ?aaoeyoe?? iai?iieo i?ioean?a o ee?oei?. Aea ia iao iiaeyae, iniiaia i?ioaie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue eaoainei A-iiae?aieo i?ioa?iac iai?aaeaia ia ?icuaieaiiy oeeoineaeaoo a?aeie?ath/eo ee?oei, ui iieaaoo? ooai?aiiy aiiioe/ieo o?eaoeue. ?V. Iniaeeaino? ?aae?iiiaeeo?eoth/i? ae?? i?eioeiai?aeo ia no?oeoo?iee noai o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a A inoaii?e /an aaeeeo oaaao aeine?aeiee?a i?eaa?oa? ieoaiiy i?i o/anoue iie?- AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy o iaoai?ci? aiiioicii? caaeaae? ee?oei ( Kroemer, 1995 ). Aaaaea?oueny oaeiae, ui caaaeaiee i?ioean a?io?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?aia?aoe?? AeIE oa iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeoeaiino? aiaeiioeeaac ( Ee?eeeiaa, 1990 ). Ine?eueee noano?aoii aeey AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy neoaeeoue IAAe, aeioe?eueii aoei aea/eoe iniaeeaino? ?aae?iiiaeeo?eoth/i? ae?? i?eioeiai?aeo. A ia?o?e na??? aenia?eiaio?a ie aea/aee aieea i?eioeiai?aeo ( IAI ) i?e aaaaeaii? eiai oaa?eiai ca 15 oa 30 oa aei ii?ii?iaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ic?ea?a a AeIE. Ia ?en. 11, i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a ii aecia/aiith e?eueeino? iaeii- oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a AeIE /a?ac 3 aiae. i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy a aeic? 1 A?. sse aeaeii, e?euee?noue Ae? c?inoa? i?e aaaaeaii? IAI a?aeiia?aeii ia 14% ? 21,5%. E?euee?noue I? ciaioo?oueny o ii??aiyii? c o?iiaoeiii oeiioeeo?a, a yeeo ?i?oe?th?oueny aiiioic. Ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a e?eueeino? I? ? Ae? i?e aaaaeaii? IAI ca 15 oa 30 oa aei ii?ii?iaiiy iieaco?, ui ?aae?iiiaeeo?eoth/ee i?aia?ao ia iaeiicia/ii aieeaa? ia i?ioeane ?aia?aoe?? AeIE. Oae, eiai ae?y i?eaiaeeoue aei i?enei?aiiy a?aeiiaeaiiy 13 /anoeie I?, aea e?euee?noue Ae? c?inoa?. Oaeee ?icaeoie iiae?e iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui IAI a caaeaieo oiiaao aenia?eiaioo aeyaey? naith ae?th, ye ?ia?a?oi? AAeO–?eaiceethaaiiy ( Wright, 1996 ). Iiaeeeai, ui niaoeeo?/i? ?ia?a?oi?e AAeO-?eaiceethaaiiy i?eai?/othoue noeeueio aei iiieeie eiiiiiaioo ?aia?aoe??, aea caaaeueiia?aeiiith ?ieeth iie?-AAeO-?eaice-ethaaiiy ? ca?eueoaiiy aeinooiiino? aeaa?aaei-aaiiai aaiaoe/iiai iaoa??aeo eiiieaenai oa?iaio?a ?aia?aoe?? ( Wielckens, 1985 ). Oaeiae, a oeeo oiiaao ia aeeeth/aia iiaeeea?noue ii?ooaiiy iaoaaie?cio ioeeaioeae?a c ianooi-iei ?ia?aoaaiiyi ?aia?aoeaiiai neioaco ( Milam, 1984 ). A ae?oa?e na??? aenia?eiaio?a ie aea/aee aieea IAI ia Na2+, Ig2+-iaeiie/aiiy IAeI. I?aaenoaaeai? aeai? ( ?en. 12 ) na?ae/aoue i?i i?aeneeaiiy Na2+, Ig2+-caeaaeiiai iaeiie/aiiy IAeI /a?ac 15 oa o 2,2 ?ace ii??aiyii c aiiioicieie ee?oeiaie. Aea iniiaiee i?e aeoeaiino? a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai ca oea oa?iaioo a iao?e iiaeae? aiiioico i?eiaaea? ia ae?oao aiaeeio i?ney ae?? aei?ii?iaiiy a aeic? 1 A?. Oa iaea?eueoa i?aeneeaiiy ae?? ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? a?aeaoaaeiny i?e aaaaeaii? IAI ca 30 oa aei ae?? ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe??, oi naia oae? ia?aiao?e aeei?enoi-aoaaeeny aeae? i?e aeine?ae-aeaiiyo. sse aeaeii c ?en. 12 , aaaaeaiiy IAI cieaeoaaei Na2+, Ig2+-caeaaeia iaei-ie/aiiy IAeI a 2,2 ?ace o ii??aiyii? c aiiioicieie ee?oeiaie. Aaaaeaiiy IAI 14 /a?ac 30 oa i?ney ae?? aei?ii?iaiiy, oaeiae, cieaeo? aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo a 1,8 ?ac?a. Aaaaeaiiy i?eioeiai?aeo ca 15 oa aei ii?ii?iaiiy ca?eueoo? Na2+, Ig2+- caeaaeia iaeiie-/aiiy IAeI ii??aiyii c ii?ii?-iaieie oaa?eiaie ( aeaeai?oaoe?y /a?ac 15 oa i?ney ae?? ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? ), ui aiai?eoue i?i iaaaeeeee aianie i?eioeiai?aeo o aioo??oiueiee?oeiiee ??aaiue IAAe a oeiioeeoao, a cacia/aiee aeua ?aae?iiiaeeo?eoth/ee aoaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie iai?yiiai aieeao i?eioeiai?aeo ia nenoaio ?aia?aoe?? AeIE. AENIIAEE 1. Onoaiiaeaia aeiciaa caeaaei?noue aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ii?ii?iaieo uo??a a ?ioa?aae? 0,5-8 A?. ?iciaae o?iiaoeio c oi?ioaaiiyi ia aeaeo?ioi?aa?aiao aeene?aoieo iaeanoae AeIE-o?aaiaio?a ca oeiii “ae?aaeie” ?icii/eia?oueny /a?ac 3 aiae i?ney ae?? iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?iaiiy a aeic? 1 A?. Ca?eueoaiiy aeice ii?ii?iaiiy oa oa?i?io i?ney ae?? ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?iaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei iaeiie/aiiy aeene?aoieo AeIE - o?aaiaio?a, ui iathoue a?eueoo iieaeoey?io iano. 2. Eiia?iiaaia o?ii?/ia ii?ii?ithaaiiy c caaaeueiei ?aae?aoe?eiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi 25 nA? aeeeeea? iiae?aio aei ae?? iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ea?oeio aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio. 3. Oe?e?ni?noue iie?ia?ii? AeIE i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy ii?ooo?oueny aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy iaeiiieoeiaeo oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a. Aeaa?aaeaoe?y no?oeoo?e AeIE ia? oaciaee oa?aeoa?. Oae, a oiiaao iaoiai aenia?eiaioo 120 oa ? oa?i?iii cae?i/aiiy ia?oi? oace. Ia oeueiio aoai? aeinoia??ii ciaioo?oueny ?iaeaen ?aia?aoe?? ? o 5 ?ac?a i?aeaeuo?oueny aeoeai?noue Na2+, Ig2+-caeaaeii? aiaeiioeeaace, iane?aeee oaeeo i?ioean?a i?eaiaeyoue aei ca?eueoaiiy iaeiiieoeiaeo oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a AeIE a?aeiia?aeii ia 112% ? 70 % o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. ?iaeaen ?aia?aoe?? oeiioeeo?a o?ii?/ii ii?ii?iaieo oaa?ei ia?aaeuo? ii?io ? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oe? ee?oeie ciaoiaeyoueny o noai? aaeaioaoe??. 4. *a?ac 15, 120 oa 180 oa i?ney ae?? iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai ii?ii?iaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny ci?ia i?ioa?iacii? aeoeaiino? oeiioeeo?a uo??a. Aeoeai?noue iaeo?aeueieo i?ioa?iac o?iiaoeio i?aeaeuo?oueny /a?ac 15 oa i?ney ae?? aei?ii?iaiiy, a a e?ioe? ia?oiai aoaio aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio niaaea?. Ia caeeth/ieo noaae?yo aiiioico a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aeoeaiino? eaoainei A-iiae?aieo i?ioa?iac ia 53 %. 5. Aieea ?ii?coth/i? ?aae?aoe?? aeeeeea? aeoeaaoe?th ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a. Ci?ie iaoa?iaioaoeaii? ? oa?iaiocaeaaeieo neeaaeiaeo i?ioean?a iinyoue oaciaee oa?aeoa? ?c ia?a?iciiae?eii aeoeaiino? ia IAAeOI –caeaaeio nenoaio, ui 15 a?aeiia?aea? noaae?yi aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a uo??a. 6. Aeei?enoaiiy i?eioeiai?aeo, ye ?aae?iiiaeeo?eoth/iai i?aia?aoo, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeoeaaoe?? ?iciaaeo o?iiaoeio. Oeae i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aeoeaaoe?? Na2+, Ig2+-caeaaeii? aiaeiioeeaace a ?aii? oa?i?ie, a oaeiae ca ?aooiie iai?yiiai aieeao i?eioeiai?aeo ia nenoaio ?aia?aoe??. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Eo/a?aiei I.A., Ia?oiiaoe TH.I., ?yiieiaa E.TH., Oeoaecaae/ A.A. Yoaiu ?acaeoey eioa?oaciie aeaaee oeiioeeoia i?e eo/aaii ii?aaeaiee //Aeii. AI Oe?a?ie. –1998. -?11. –N.158-161. 2. Oeoaecaae/ A.I., Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I., Aiae??e/oe O.?., TH?e?ia A.A. Aeaa?aaeaoe?y AeIE ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei ca i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy// Oe?. a?io?i. aeo?i. –1998. -?4. –N.105-110. 3. Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I., Aiae??e/oe O.?., Oa?noi A.A., Oeoaecaae/ A.I. Aoaie aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a uo??a, ui i?aeeyaathoue caaeaae? oeyoii aiiioico// A?niee EO.-1998. –O.27. –N. 9-11. 4. Oeoaecaae/ A.I., Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I., Aiae??e/oe O.?., TH?e?ia A.A. Aeaa?aaeaoe?y AeIE ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei ca i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy. VII Oe?. a?io?i. c”?cae (aa?an. 1997 ?., Ee?a )// Oac. aeii. ( *. 3 )-Ee?a, 1997. –N.134-135. 5. Oeoaecaae/ A.I., Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I., Aiae??e/oe O.?., TH?e?ia A.A., Eo/a?aiei I.?. ?aaeeaoeeiiii eiaeooee?iaaiiue aiiioic eeaoie eiioiieiiiaoaioiuo i?aaiia. ??? nuacae ii ?aaeeaoeeiiiui enneaaeiaaieyi ( 14-17 ieoya?y, 1997. Iineaa ) //Oac. aeiee. ( Oii 1)-Ioueii, 1997. –N. 136-137. 6. Oeoaecaae/ A.I., Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I. Aiiioic ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei a oiiaao i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy // ??? neiiic?oi: Ae?aaiinoeea oa i?io?eaeoeea iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a ?aae?aoe?? (16-17 a?oaeiy 1997 ?., Ee?a ) Ee?a, 1997. -N.265-266. 7. Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I., Aiae??e/oe O.?., TH?e?ia A.A., Oeoaecaae/ A.I. Caeiiii??iino? aeaa?aaeaoe?? no?oeoo?e AeIE ca i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy. ?? c”?cae Oe?. a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa ( 29/a?aiy-3eeiiy 1998. Oa?e?a ) // Oace aeii. -Oa?e?a, 1998.-N. 231. Ia?oiiaoeue TH.I. Caeiiii??iino? aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ca i?iiaiaaiai o?aaeaiiy uo??a. –?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.01-?aae?ia?ieia?y. Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999. 16 Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith aieeao oioaeueiiai iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai oa o?ii?/iiai aei?ii?iaiiy iecueei? ?ioaineaiino? ia aeaa?aaeaoe?th o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a uo??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?aaiaioaoe?y o?iiaoeio oeiioeeo?a ca oeiii “ae?aaeie” ?icii/eia?oueny /a?ac 3 aiaeeie i?ney iaeii?aciaiai ?aioaai?anueeiai ii?ii?iaiiy a aeic? 1 A?. Ae?y eiia?iiaaiiai o?ii?/iiai ii?ii?iaiiy c caaaeueiei ?aae?aoe?eiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi 25 nA? aeeeeea? iiae?aio ea?oeio aeaa?aaeaoe?? o?iiaoeio. Aeine?aeaeaii aeeiai?eo iaeiiieoeiaeo oa aeaiieoeiaeo ?ic?ea?a, aeoeai?noue i?ioean?a ?aia?aoe??, ia?aeenia ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a, i?ioa?iacio aeoeai?noue a oeiioeeoao ii?ii?iaieo uo??a. Canoinoaaiiy i?eioeiai?aeo, ye ?aae?iiiaeeo?eoth/iai i?aia?aoo, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeoeaaoe?? i?ioean?a ?iciaaeo o?iiaoeio. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeiioeeoe, ?aioaai?anueea ii?ii?iaiiy, o?iiaoei, iaeiiieoeia? oa aeaiieoeia? ?ic?eae, i?ioa?iace, i?eioeiai?ae. Ia?oiiaoe TH.I. Caeiiiia?iinoe aeaa?aaeaoeee o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia i?e eo/aaii ii?aaeaiee e?un.-?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.01-?aaeeiaeieiaey Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth aicaeaenoaey oioaeueiiai ?aioaaiianeiai e o?iie/aneiai eceo/aiey ieceie eioaineaiinoe ia aeaa?aaeaoeeth no?oeoo?u o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia e?un. Onoaiiaeaia aeiciaay caaeneiinoue aeaa?aaeaoeee o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia iaeo/aiiuo e?un a eioa?aaea 0,5-8 A?. O?aaiaioaoeey o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia e?un ii oeio “eanaiee” ia/eiaaony /a?ac 3 /ana iinea iaeiie?aoiiai ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey a aeica 1 A?. Oaaee/aiea aeicu iaeo/aiey e a?aiaie iinea aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth eiee/anoaa aeene?aoiuo AeIE-o?aaiaioia. Aeaenoaea eiiaeie?iaaiiai o?iie/aneiai eceo/aiey a aeica 25 nA? aucuaaao iioiaeoth ea?oeio aeaa?aaeaoeee o?iiaoeia. Aeaa?aaeaoeey no?oeoo?u AeIE eiaao oaciaue oa?aeoa? e i?ienoiaeeo aneaaenoaee ia?aciaaiey iaeiiieoaauo e aeaoieoaauo ?ac?uaia. A ioaao ia iaeo/aiea a oeiioeeoao aeoeae?oaony nenoaia ?aia?aoeee, ?ano?n eioi?ie ia aani?aaeaeueiue, oioy e cia/eoaeueiue. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ?aia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi i?eaeeceoaeueii /a?ac 2 / iinea iaeo/aiey eiee/anoai iaeiiieoaauo ?ac?uaia caiaoii ainnoaiaaeeaaaony. *anoue ia?aia?e?iaaiiuo iaeiiieoaauo ?ac?uaia i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaoieoaauo ?ac?uaia, eiee/anoai eioi?uo /a?ac 120 iei iinea aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee ia/eiaao oaaee/aaaoueny. Eiaeaen ?aia?aoeee ( ia?aiao?, oa?aeoa?ecothuee ?aia?aoeeiiioth 17 aeoeaiinoue ) aic?anoaao n ia?aiai a?aiaiiiai iieacaoaey ( 15 iei ). A eioa?aaea aei 60 iei aiaieaiiaue neioac AeIE i?aauoaao naia cia/aiea ii n?aaiaieth n eiio?ieueiuie aeeaioiuie. A eiioea ia?aiai yoaia ( 120 iei ) aeaa?aaeaoeee o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia iaeo/aiiuo e?un oiaiueoaaony eiaeaen ?aia?aoeee e i?ienoiaeeo 5-e?aoiia oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe Na2+, Mg2+-caaeneiie yiaeiioeeaacu. Eiaiii yoio oa?iaio eieoeee?oao aoi?e/ioth aeaa?aaeaoeeth o?iiaoeia e aiineo iniiaiie aeeaae a aa ?acaeoea. Neaiaeii aeey oaaee/aiey aai aeoeaiinoe iiaeao neoaeeoue aic?inoathuaa eiee/anoai ia?aia?e?iaaiiuo aeaoieoaauo ?ac?uaia eee ninoiyiea, a eaeii o?iaaiue aeaa?aaeaoeee aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea a eeaoea ia iiaeao ?aaoee?iaaoueny e eiio?iee?iaaoueny ?aia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie. Iaaethaeaaony oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe Mg2+-caaeneiie yiaeiioeeaacu. Iaeiaei o?iaaiue aeoeaaoeee yoiai oa?iaioa iacia/eoaeueiue. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaaoeey naiaiaeii?aaeeeaeueiiai ieeneaiey eeieaeia, enneaaeiaaiay ii iaeiieaieth ia/aeueiuo ( aeeaiiauo eiiuthaaoia ) e eiia/iuo ( iaeiiiaiai aeeaeueaeaaeaea) i?iaeoeoia. Eciaiaiey iaoa?iaioaoeaiie e oa?iaiocaaeneiie ninoaaiuo i?ioeanna iinyo oaciaue oa?aeoa?, niaiaaeathueie ni noaaeeyie aeaa?aaeaoeee aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Ioia/aii nouanoaaiiia oaaee/aiea aeiee aeoeaiinoe IAAeO-caaeneiie nenoaiu ieeneaiey. Ia ia?aii yoaia i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea aeoeaiinoe iaeo?aeueiuo i?ioaeiac o?iiaoeia. Eo aeoeaaoeey iiaeao aucuaaoue eaneaae aeae?ieeoe/aneeo ?aaeoeee, i?eaiaeyueo e iiaeeoeeaoeee aaaeiuo yaea?iuo oa?iaioia, no?oeoo?iuo aaeeia o?iiaoeia e oeeoineaeaoa. Ia caeeth/eoaeueiuo noaaeeyo i?ienoiaeeo ?yae no?oeoo?iuo e iaoaaiee/aneeo eciaiaiee i?e eioi?uo aeoeae?othony eaoainei A-iiaeiaiua i?ioaeiacu. Iie iiaoo i?eieiaoue o/anoea a i?ioaieeca aenoiiia, ?aaoeyoeee iaiaiiuo i?ioeania a eeaoea, iaania/eaaoue aeaiiioaae oeeoineaeaoa. Yoe eciaiaiey iaeaa/atho aeinooi ?acee/iuo oa?iaioiuo nenoai e AeIE e oneeeaath aa aeaa?aaeaoeeth. Eiaeaen ?aia?aoeee aeeaioiuo, iiaeaa?aoeony aeaenoaeth o?iie/aneiai eceo/aiey, i?aauoaao ii?io. E?iia oiai, /a?ac 2-3 iaaeaee iinea iaeo/aiey en/acatho iniaaiiinoe aeaa?aaeaoeee o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia. Yoe aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iioaioeeaeueiie aeecianiiniaiinoe eeaoie e iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue eioa?oacioth aeaaeue oeiioeeoia i?e aicaeaenoaee ?aaeeaoeee ieceie eioaineaiinoe eae aaeaioeaioth ?aaeoeeth i?aaiecia. A iauai, oaeia ?acaeoea niauoee iiaeii ecia?aceoue noaiie: no?ann->aaeaioaoeey->auaeeaaiea eee nia?oue. Ia noaaeee aaeaioaoeee
aaeain eiiiainaoi?iuo, caueoii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo e iaoaei-ae/aneeo
?aaeoeee ii?aaeaeyao iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo iooae iinono?anni?iiai ?acaeoey
eeaoee. I?e yoii no?aoaaey i?aaiecea iai?aaeaia ia yeeieiaoeeth eeaoie,
eioi?ua ii ia iiaeao ainnoaiiaeoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue iooai aeeth/aiey
i?ia?aiiu aiiioica. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo

18

naeaeoeey eeaoi/iuo iiioeyoeee. Oaeay aeeiaie/iinoue eiioiiie nenoaiu
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?aaiecio aaeaioe?iaaoueny e iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
iioeiaeueiia ninoiyiea a iinoiyiii eciaiythueony aiaoieo oneiaeyo.

Eniieueciaaiea ieeioeiaieaea a oeceieiae/aneeo eiioeaio?aoeeyo, eae
?aaeeiiiaeeoeoee?othuaai i?aia?aoa, i?eaiaeeo e aeoeaaoeee aeaa?aaeaoeee
o?iiaoeia oeiioeeoia iaeo/aiiuo e?un. Aaaaeaiea ieeioeiaieaea
niinianoaiaaei oiaiueoaieth iaeiiieoaauo ?ac?uaia ii i?e yoii eiee/anoai
aeaoieoaauo ?ac?uaia aic?anoaao. I?e yoii iaaethaeaaony iiauoaiea
aeoeaiinoe Na2+, Mg2+-caaeneiie yiaeiioeeaacu a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
aeaa?aaeaoeee o?iiaoeia. Oaeie yooaeo iiaeii iaynieoue oai, /oi
ieeioeiaieae, a iaoeo oneiaeyo yenia?eiaioa, i?iyaeyao naay eae
eiaeaeoi? AAeO-?eaiceee?iaaiey. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth a?aiaie
aeaa?aaeaoeee aaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea a oeiioeeoao iaeo/aiiuo aeeaioiuo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeiioeeou, ?aioaaiianeia eceo/aiea, o?iiaoei,
iaeiiieoeaua e aeaoieoeaua ?ac?uau, i?ioaeiacu, ieeioeiaieae.

Parhomets Yu.P. Consistent patterns of degradation of chromatin
thymocites under radiation exposition of rats.- Manuscript.

Grace thesis for scientific degree Ph.D in biology with the
spesialization 03.00.01 — radiobiology. Tarasa Shevchenko Kyiv
University, Kyiv, 1999

The thesis is devoted to research of the all-out effect of X-ray and
chronic emanation of low activity on degradation of the structure of the
thymocites chromatin of rats. It was detected that fragmentation by
«lesenka» type of thymocites chromatin of rats is started in 3 hours
after one time X-ray emanation in doze of 1Gr. The influence of
combined chronic emanation in doze 25cGr. leads to the similar type
chromatin degradation. The dynamic of one chain and double chain break,
reparation processes, lipids peroxidation, proteinase activity in
thymocites of X-rayed rats. The use of nicotinamid as a radiomodeling
agent, leads to the activation of the process of degradation chromatin.

Key words: thimocytes, X-ray, chromatin, one and double break,
proteinases, nicotinamide

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 17.05.99?. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae.a?e.1,0

Iaeeaae 100. Cai.214.

i.Ee?a-5, aoe.*a?aiiia?i?enueea,57/3,e.201.

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