2

3

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

OA?III?EUeNUeEA AeA?AEAAIA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss

?i. aeaae. ?. ss. AI?AA*AANUeEIAI

IA?OEITHE AIEIAeEIE? OAAeI?IAE*

OAeE 611.41-018.2
+ 611.13/14]-089

Caeiiii??iino? aoaeiae niieo/iioeaieiieo ooai??a naeac?iee ethaeeie oa
?? noaeei a o??o?a?/iiio aniaeo?

14.03.01 – ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue-1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i.
?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai (OAeIA) IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaaeiithe ss?ineaa ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??
OAeIA IIC Oe?a?ie;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaa/oe Ieoaeei A?eai?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oieoaeueii? o??o?a??
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aieioei Ieeiea Aiaoie?eiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??
Caii??cueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo IIC Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 21 ” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 58.601.01 i?e
Oa?iii?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss.
Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie.

Aae?ana: 282001, i. Oa?iii?eue, Iaeaeai Aie?, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie,

282001, i. Oa?iii?eue, aoe. ?onueea, 12.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 19 ” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
E?o I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano i?e o?aaiaoe/ieo
ooeiaeaeaiiyo naeac?iee nieaiaeoii?y aaaaeaeanue iia?aoe??th aeai?o.
Iiae?aia iia?aoeaia oaeoeea ii a?aeiioaiith aei iioeiaeaeaiiy naeac?iee
iiynithaaeanue oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaiith aeoieith, ui i?aai ia aeeiio?
aaaeeeai? ooieoe?? (Eocei I.I., 1985; Eou I.E. oa ?i., 1986). O?eueee
ii??aiyii iaaeaaii a e?oa?aoo?? c’yaeeenue iia?aeiieaiiy i?i oa, ui
nieaiaeoii?y i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo iaoieia?/ieo ci?i a i?aai?ci?
(A?eiaa I.A. e ae?., 1986; Noaiaiia Y.A. e ae?., 1994; Hiroaka E. al.,
1995).

Aaeeea ieoiia aaaa o?aaiaoe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue naeac?iee, caaaeueia
oaiaeaioe?y na?aae o??o?a?a /ano?oa i?iaiaeeoe nieaiaeoii?th,
noia?a/eea?noue aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e i?i iinonieaiaeoii?/iee a?iinieai?ci,
aeacothoue ia aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie ia no/aniiio aoai?
(ssi?uioeaa E.I. e ae?., 1989; THaeei I.ss. e ae?., 1990; Iieyaa TH.A. e
ae?., 1991; Havlichek K., 1992; Inokuchi S. et al., 1992; Scarabelli C.,
Campagnutta E. et al., 1993; Kohn J.S. et al., 1994).

Ieoaiiy o??o?a?/ii? oaeoeee i?e o?aaiao naeac?iee a aeaiee /an ia
ae??oaia. A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy aeoeaii ?ic?iaey?oueny
i?aaiicaa??aath/a iai?aaeaiiy a o??o?a?? ooeiaeaeaiue naeac?iee
(Oeuau?iy I.A. e ae?., 1987; A?eai?ueaa A.A. e ae?., 1988; Neoaiei A.I.,
THoeei A.N., 1990; Sulaimanov A.S. et al., 1992; Morrel D.Y. et al.,
1995).

Aeey oni?oiiai aeeiiaiiy i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia
naeac?ioe? iaiao?aei? ciaiiy ?? oiiia?ao??, aoaeiae a?oa??aeueiiai ?
aaiiciiai ?onea i?aaio, a oaeiae ?icoaooaaiiy “iaeinoaeeiieo”
i?ii?aee?a, ye? ?icae?eythoue i?aai ia /anoee oa naaiaioe ? ?o
niieo/iioeaieiiee ea?ean (Ni?ieei A.I., 1989; Iieyieei I.ss., 1971;
Oaaeiithe ss. E., 1995; Qui M et al, 1995). I?iaaaeaiiy ?acaeoe?e a
iaaeao iaeinoaeeiieo i?ii?aee?a oa ciaiiy ?icoaooaaiiy eieaaaiiaeo
aieieii a eainoe? naeac?iee ni?ey? i?i?iaeuei?e e?iaiao?ao?, i?oeiino?
oaa ? caa??aa? aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue naeac?iee, yea caeeoeeanue.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy noaeei,
niieo/iioeaieiieo ooai??a naeac?iee ethaeeie a aeieueiaiio,
naaiaioa?iiio ? /anoi/eiaiio aniaeoao coiiaeaia iio?aaaie i?aeoe/ii?
iaaeeoeeie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ia eaoaae?? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??, ? o?aaiaioii iaoeiaeo
?ic?iaie, ye? aeeiioaaeenue ca?aeii c ieaiii IAe? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ii
oai?: “Aoaeiaa i?aai?a a aeieueiaiio ? naaiaioa?iiio aniaeo?.”

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/eoe aca?iica’ycie niieo/iioeaieiii?
no?iie naeac?iee ethaeeie c ?? noaeeiaie a aniaeo? /anoi/eiai? aoaeiae
i?aaio aeey iie?auaiiy o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy o?aai oa caoai?thaaiue
i?aaio oeyoii i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

1. Aiae?c no?oeoo?e eainoee, caaaeueieo noaeeiieo i?oaiaeo iaieiiie,
o?aaaeoe oa ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii a /anoi/eia?e aoaeia? i?aaio.

2. I?inoaaeeoe caeiiii??iino? ?icaaeoaeaiiy aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
e?iaiiinieo noaeei naeac?iee a aniaeo? aeieueiai? ? naaiaioa?ii? aoaeiae
i?aaio.

3. Aecia/eoe aca?iia?aeiioaiiy aioo??oiueii?aaiieo noaeei naeac?iee ?c
niieo/iioeaieiieie ooai?aie i?aaio a eiai /anoi/eia?e aoaeia?.

4. C’ynoaaoe oiiia?aoi–aiaoii?/i? iniaeeaino? naeac?iee, ?? iicai?aaii?
e?iaiiini? noaeeie c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee e?iaioa/ a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? i?e iia?aoe?yo ia naeac?ioe?.

5. Aeaoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? o??o?aai i?e aeeiiaii?
i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoe?e ia naeac?ioe?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa i?aeaaaeaii
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeieueiai? oa naaiaioa?ii? aoaeiae naeac?iee ethaeeie aeey
i?aeoeee i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia i?aai?. ?ic?iaeaii
i?eioeei ? eeaneo?eaoe?th aca?iica’yceo noaeei naeac?iee ?c
niieo/iioeaieiiei inoiaii i?aaio. Aia?oa iieacaii ??ciiaeaeiino?
iieiaeaiiy, oi?ie naeac?iee, ?? ai??o, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?ieeaino? i?aaio ? oei?a aoaeiae o?ea. Aia?oa iienaia
aoaeiaa niieo/iioeaieiiiai inoiao naeac?iee ethaeeie, yea neeaaea?oueny
c i?oaiaeo iaieiiie noaeei, o?aaaeoe (niieo/iioeaieiieo oyae?a) oa
?aoeeoe?iiaiai ea?eano, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei ca’ycai? c eainoeith i?aaio
? o ooieoe?iiaeueii–ii?oieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? ooai?ththoue ?aeeio
nenoaio. Aia?oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii o?aaaeoee (niieo/iioeaieii? oyae?) ?
i?oae noaeei, ye? ??ciyoueny ii aoaeia? oa ooieoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Eiiieaenia aea/aiiy
niieo/iioeaieiieo oa noaeeiieo ooai??a naeac?iee ethaeeie c iiceoe?e
nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe?? aeicaieeei a?eueo iiaii iaa?oiooaaoe aeieueiao oa
naaiaioa?io aoaeiao naeac?iee, c?icoi?oe i?e/eie oi?ioaaiiy,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa a?eia? ci?ie i?aaio.

Aeie? ? naaiaioe, no?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y inoiao i?aaio,
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eiai eiiiiiaio?a c oeaieiith oa noaeeiieie ooai?aie
iathoue i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy a o??o?a?? c iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy
i?aaiicaa??aath/eo oa i?aaiiuaaey/eo iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

Iaoa??aee aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee
i?ioean, iaoeiai–aeine?aeio ?iaioo oa a o??o?a?/io i?aeoeeo eaoaae?
ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??; a?noieia??, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? c oiiia?ao?/iith
aiaoii??th, iaoieia?/ii? aiaoii?? oa o??o?a??. Ooi/iai? oa aeiiiaiai?
aeai? e?oa?aoo?e, ui noinothoueny e?eoaaiiy o?aaiiaaii? naeac?iee.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
? iaoeiai–aeine?aeio ?iaioo eaoaae? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??, iia?aoeaii?
o??o?a?? c oiiia?ao?/iith aiaoii??th, a?noieia??, o??o?a??, aaeaieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai (Ee?a), Oa?e?anueeiai, Caii??cueeiai, A?iieoeueeiai,
Iaeanueeiai, Euea?anueeiai, ?inoianueeiai iaaee/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a;
Aieeinueeiai ? Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaieo oi?aa?neoao?a; Oe?a?inueei?
iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? (Iieoaaa), Aoeiaeinueei? (*a?i?aoe?),
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?, Naieo–Iaoa?ao?cueei?, Naieiaeaoeinueei?,
Noaa?iiieuenueei? iaaee/ieo aeaaeai?e; I?inueeiai iaaee/iiai ?inoeoooo,
Iae?oiiieuenueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii cae?eniaii aiae?c aeaieo
e?oa?aoo?e, caa?? iaoa??aeo oa eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aiaoiii–a?noieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie, noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo aeaieo,
?o aiae?c, noi?iiaaii aeniiaee oa ioi?ieaii ?iaioo. O ioae?eaoe?yo,
aeeiiaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, 70% ?ic?iaie oa iaoa??aeo iaeaaeeoue
aaoi?ia?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? i?e
aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo (Ano?aoaiue, 1996; Oiinuee, E?aniiy?nuee, 1996;
Naieo–Iaoa?ao?a, 1996; I?inuee, 1996; Oa?iii?eue, 1996, Othiaiue. 1998),
ia eiia?an? aiaoii?a (Iieueua, 1996, 1997), ia i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi?
(A?iieoey, 1997) oa ?ioeo iaoeiaeo c?a?aiiyo (Iieoaaa, 1996; Oa?iii?eue,
1996; *a?i?aoe?, 1996; Ee?a, 1997; Oa?iii?eue, 1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 23 iaoeiaeo
?iaioao, c ieo 7 – o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
noaoae, 6 iaeiiin?aieo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia aea?aeaaiith
iiaith ia 199 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo e?oa?aoo?e. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee aeac?aiee i?noeoue 266 aeaea?ae, c
ieo 123 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 14 oaaeeoeyie ? 42
iaethieaie, iae?i– oa i?e?ioioia?ao?yie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia 153
i?aia?aoao naeac?iee ethaeeie o?oi?a ethaeae /ieia?/i? oa ae?ii/i? noao?
??ciiai a?eo (a?ae ieiae?a aei 79 ?ie?a). Iaoa??ae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
io?eioaaee a naeoe?eieo a?aeae?eaiiyo e?ea?aiue Oa?iii?euenueei? iaeano?
oa aeei?enoiaoaaee iocaei? oa iaa/aeuei? i?aia?aoe naeac?iie eaoaae?e
ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Oa?iii?euenueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?aeeny naeac?iee ethaeae, iiia?eeo a?ae aeiaaeeiai?
o?aaie, aai caoai?thaaiue, ia iia’ycaieo c oai?iaaie naeac?iee. I?e
anoaiiaeai? a?eiaeo a?oi ie aeei?enoaee eeaneo?eaoe?th ca A. Ieeeo?iei
(1966).

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aia?ao?a naeac?iee canoiniaoaaany eiiieaen
no/anieo iaoiae?a: oioaeueia oa ia?oe?aeueia iaeeaea noaeei naeac?iee
eiio?anoieie ?a/iaeiaie, ?aioaaiia?ao?y a?oa??e oa aai, i?aia?oaaiiy,
iae?i–, i?e?ineii?/iee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?noioiiia?ao?/iee oa
a?noieia?/iee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy c noaoenoe/iith ia?iaeith
oeeo?iaiai iaoa??aeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny aei??thaaiiyi naeac?ieiaeo noaeei,
i?ae?aooieii e?eueeino? aeieae ? naaiaio?a naeac?iee ethaeeie.
Aeiaaeeia, ae?aiao?, aaee/eia eooa i?ae e?aei?ie noiaao?aie naeac?ieiai?
a?oa??? ? a?aeiia?aei? ?ici??e ei?ai?a naeac?ieiai? aaie aecia/aeenue ia
na?aeeo i?aia?aoao. Ci?ie naaiaioa?ieo a?eie ? ei??ioe?a i?iaiaeeeenue
ii nieaii?aioaaiia?aiao c ia?aa??eith io?eiaieo aeaieo ia i?aia?aoao.
?iaeea?aeoaeueia i?ieea?noue oi?ie naeac?iee ethaeeie aea/aeanue oeyoii
ni?anoaaeaiiy i?ae niaith eiioo??a i?aaio a eiai o?iioaeuei?e i?iaeoe??,
c?iaeaieo c a?aeiia?aeieo nieaii?aioaaiia?ai. Oeeo?iaee iaoa??ae
ia?iaeaiee iaoiaeaie aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. I?e aea/aii? iaoa??aeo
ia?o ca ana caa?oaeanue oaaaa ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueio aa??aaaeuei?noue oi?ie
naeac?iee ethaeeie. Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeaiiai iieiaeaiiy an?
aeyaeai? oi?ie naeac?iee ca?oioaaee a aniaeo? ?? ?icaeoeo: nii/aoeo
aeae?eeee o?e iniiai? oi?ie i?aaio – aea? e?aei? ? iaeio ci?oaio, a
iio?i ?ici?noeee i?ae ieie 5 ia?ao?aeieo oi?i. Ca iaoeie
niinoa?aaeaiiyie iniiaieie oi?iaie naeac?iee ethaeeie aoee: aeeneiaeaeia
(8,5%), ae?iniaeaeia (14,5%) ? ci?oaia (8%) oi?ie. Aei ia?ao?aeieo ??
oi?i a?aeiineeenue: ianeiao?e/ii aeeneiaeaeia (16%), i?ai?nyoeaaa
(10,5%), o?eeooia (6%) oi?ie, iaaeueia oi?ia ?c caaino?aiei ia?aaei?i
e?ioeai (25%). Inoaiiy oi?ia niinoa??aaeanue iaea?eueo /anoi, a o?eeooia
– iae??aeoa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeno?ai?aaiieo e?iaiiinieo noaeei a i?ea?ethni?e cii?
naeac?iee ethaeeie iieacaei, ui naeac?ieiaa a?oa??y ii oa?aeoa?o naiai
iiae?eo niinoa??aaeanue: iaeiinoiaao?iaith – a 23%, aeainoiaao?iaith – a
57%, o?ueionoiaao?iaith – a 12% ? aaaaoinoiaao?iaith – a 8% aeiaaee?a.
Ia?aaaaeath/ith oi?iith aeno?ai?aaiii? oi?ie naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? aoea
?? a?oo?eaoe?eia oi?ia. Ii iaeiaioaaiith noiaao?e naeac?ieiai? a?oa???
aoee ianooii?: ia?aaei?e, ia?aaei?e i?ii?aeiee , na?aaei?e, caaei?e
i?ii?aeiee, caaei?e.

?acoeueoaoe aei???a noiaao??a naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? iieacaee, ui
aeiaaeeia e?aei?o (ia?aaeiueiai ? caaeiueiai) ia?aaeuo? aeiaaeeio
na?aaeiueiai, ia?aaeiueiai i?ii?aeiiai ? caaeiueiai i?ii?aeiiai
noiaao??a. I?e oeueiio caaei?e noiaao? ia? iaioo aaee/eio, ii??aiyii c
ia?aaei?i, ui, i/aaeaeii, iiaeia iiynieoe ?icoaooaaiiyi naeac?iee ye
i?aaio, caaei?e e?iaoeue yeiai ciaoiaeeoueny a?eueo iaae?aeueii, oiaoi
aeeae/a aei i?noey iiae?eo naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? ia noiaao?e.
Ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie ae?aiao??a noiaao??a naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? aeyaeei
ia?aaaaeaiiy eae?a?o ia?aaeiueiai ? caaeiueiai noiaao??a iaae eae?a?ii
ia?aaeiueiai i?ii?aeiiai ? caaeiueiai i?ii?aeiiai noiaao??a.

Naeac?ieiao aaio, ui cae?enith? a?aeo?e e?ia? c i?aaio, ii oa?aeoa?o
oi?ioaaiiy ?ic??ciyee: iaeiiei?aiaao, aeaiei?aiaao, o?eei?aiaao oa
aaaaoiei?aiaao. Naeac?ieiaa aaia niinoa??aaeanue: iaeiiei?aiaai? oi?ie –
a 22%, aeaiei?aiaai? – a 58%, o?eei?aiaai? – a 12% ? aaaaoiei?aiaai? – a
8% aeiaaee?a. Aiaeia?/ii a?oa???, ?ic??ciyeenue ianooii? ei?ai?
naeac?ieiai? aaie: ia?aaei?e, ia?aaei?e i?ii?aeiee, na?aaei?e, caaei?e
i?ii?aeiee ? caaei?e.

Iniiaieie aa??aioaie a?aeoiaeaeaiiy ei?ioeeo a?oa??e oeoiea aoee:
caaei?e noiaao? naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? (42,5%), caaeiy iiethnia a?oa??y
naeac?iee (26%), aaciina?aaeiuei naeac?ieiaa a?oa??y (13,7%), ia?aaei?e
? caaei?e ?? noiaao?e (15%) ? a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao – ia?aaei?e ? caaei?e
i?ii?aei? noiaao?e a?oa??? (2,8%).

Iiethni? a?oa??? naeac?iee ia iino?ei?, /ano?oa niinoa??aaeanue iaeia
ia?aaeiy iiethnia a?oa??y (46%), ??aeoa – eeoa caaeiy iiethnia (32%) ?
ua ??aeoa – iaeaea? iiethni? a?oa??? i?aaio (22%). Ia?aaeiy iiethnia
a?oa??y naeac?iee ?icii/eiaeanue a 1/2 aeiaaee?a a?ae e?ai?
oeoieiai–naeueieeiai? a?oa???, a 1/3 – a?ae ia?aaeiueiai noiaao?a
naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? ? a 1/6 – aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae naeac?ieiai?
a?oa???. Caaeiy iiethnia a?oa??y naeac?iee a?aea na?e ii/aoie a iaei?e
iieiaei? aeiaaee?a aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae naeac?ieiai? a?oa???, a a
ae?oa?e – a?ae ?? caaeiueiai noiaao?a.

C on??? ??ciiiai?oiino? oi?i ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aa??aaaeueiino?
?icoaooaaiiy e?iaiiinieo noaeei a ae?eyioe? ai??o naeac?iee ethaeeie ie
aeae?eyee aea? iniiai? oi?ie: eiiiaeoio (37,5%), eiee noiaao?e
naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? ? ei?ai? naeac?ieiai? aaie ?icoaoiaothoueny aeeae/a
iaeei aei iaeiiai ? ?icn?yio (47,5%), eiee oe? aeaiaioe noaeeiii? i?aeee
naeac?iee a?aeaeaeai? ia cia/io a?aenoaiue iaeei a?ae iaeiiai.
Cono??/aeanue ? o?aoy oi?ia – ci?oaia, eiee ia iaei?e ae?eyioe? ai??o
naeac?iee noaeeie ?icoaoiaothoueny eiiiaeoii, a ia ?io?e – ?icn?yii.
?icoaooaaiiy ai??o naeac?iee iaiino?eia, ia??aeei aiie ci?uothoueny
aeeae/a aei ?? ieaeiueiai /e aa?oiueiai e?ath, a oaeiae a noi?iio
ia?aaeiueiai /e caaeiueiai e?ioey i?aaio.

I?inoaaeeaoe caeiiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo e?iaiiinieo noaeei a na?aaeei?
naeac?iee, iacaeaaeii a?ae oa?aeoa?o ciai?oiuei? oi?ie naeac?iee, na?aae
?? aa?oi?o oa ieaei?o aioo??oiueii?aaiieo noaeei aeyaeee a?eee iino?ei?,
ye? niinoa??aaeenue ia an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?aia?aoao a e?eueeino?
6–oe ? aeiaeaoeia? a?eee, ui cono??/aeenue a?ae 1–? aei 4–o ia ie?aieo
i?aia?aoao. ?io?ai?aaii? iiethni? a?eee – ia?aaeiy ? caaeiy – caaaeaee
aoee iino?eieie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui cia/ii ia?aaaaea? e?euee?noue
?io?ai?aaiieo a?eie naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? i?e ae?iniaeaei?e oi?i?
naeac?iee, a ii??aiyii? c ?? aeeneiaeaeiith. C’yniaaia iaie
caeaaei?noue i?ae oi?iith naeac?iee ? e?euee?noth aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
a?eie 2–ai ii?yaeeo naeac?ieiai? a?oa???, yea i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
noaoenoe/ii.

Ca oa?aeoa?ii iiae?eo ?io?ai?aaii? a?oa??aeuei? a?eee naeac?iee aoee
a?oo?eaoe?eii? oi?ie (o 49,4%), aeaui ??aeoa – oi?o?oieaeueii? (o 45%),
a iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao – o?eoo?eaoe?eii? (o 3,1%) ? aaaaoi?icae?eueii?
(o 2,5%). Aeiaeaoeia? a?eee aoee caaaeaee ei?ioo? a?ae iaeii?iaiieo
iino?eieo. sse iino?ei?, oae ? aeiaeaoeia? a?eee a?oa??e naeac?iee a
aeiaaeeio ca?eueooaaeenue a?ae 1–? aei 4–o ? 5–oe a?eie, a iio?i 
noaaaee iaioeie. Aeiaaeeia ia?aaei?o iiethnieo a?eie cia/ii
ia?aa?eueooaaea aeiaaeeio caaei?o iiethnieo. Ia?aaeiy iiethnia a?eea ca
ae?aiao?ii ia?aa?eueooaaea caaeith iiethnio. On? aeiaeaoeia? a?eee ca
eae?a?ii aoee iaio?, i?ae a?aeiia?aei? ?ici??e iaeiieiaiieo iino?eieo.
Aaee/eia ae?aiao?a 3–i?, 4–i? ? 5–i? iino?eieo a?eie a?eueoa a?ae 1–i?,
2–i? ? 6–i? a?eie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeno?ai?aaii? ei?ai? naeac?ieiai? aaie ? i?eoieaie 1–ai
ii?yaeeo ? aeieeathoue a ?acoeueoao? ceeooy aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
ei??ioe?a 2–ai ii?yaeeo, ye? cae?athoue aaiicio e?ia c ei??ioe?a 3–ai,
4–ai ? 5–ai ii?yaee?a. Na?aae aa?oi?o oa ieaei?o aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
aaiicieo noaeei ?ic??ciyee iino?ei? ei??ioe?, ui cono??/aeenue ia on?o
aeine?aeaeaieo i?aia?aoao a e?eueeino? 6–oe ? aeiaeaoeia? – a e?eueeino?
a?ae 1–ai aei 4–o, ui ? ia ie?aieo i?aia?aoao. Ia?aaei?e oa caaei?e
iiethni? ei??ioe? caaaeaee iino?ei? ? ? naieie aeenoaeueieie ae?eyieaie
ia?aaeiueiai oa caaeiueiai ei?ai?a naeac?ieiai? aaie. Ca oa?aeoa?ii
ceeooy aioo??oiueii?aaii? ei??ioe? naeac?ieiai? aaie (iino?ei?) /ano?oa
iathoue aeaiei??ioeaao oi?io (50,6%), aeaui ??aeoa – iaeiiei??ioeaao
(45%) ? a iiiaeeiieeo aeiaaeeao – o?eei??ioeaao (2,5%) ?
aaaaoiei??ioeaao (1,9%) oi?ie. Aeiaaeeia aioo??oiueii?aaiieo ei??ioe?a
naeac?ieiai? aaie ci?ithaaeanue a ?ici??ao. Aeiaeaoeia? ei??ioe? aoee
caaaeaee ei?ioo? ca iaeiieiaii? iino?ei?. Aeiaaeeia on?o iino?eieo ?
aeiaeaoeiaeo aaiicieo ei??ioe?a ca?eueooaaeanue a?ae 1–ai aei 4–ai ?
5–ai ei??ioe?a, a iio?i – ciaiooaaeanue.

Ii?oieia?/ia a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aioo??oiueii?aaiieie a?oa??aeueieie
a?eeaie ? iaeii?iaiieie aaiicieie ei??ioeyie naeac?iee aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i ?nioaaiiy a e?iaiiiniiio ?one? oeueiai i?aaio ie?aieo
no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue o oi?i? a?oa??i–aaiicieo eiiieaen?a.

I?eioeeiiaei iieiaeaiiyi i?e aea/aii? e?iaiiiniiai ?onea naeac?iee
aaaaeaee iiae?e eiai ia aeie? oa naaiaioe eeoa ii a?oa??aeueieo
noiaao?ao ? a?eeao 2–ai ii?yaeeo.

A?oa??aeueiith aeieath naeac?iee ie aaaaeaee aanaei noaeeiiiai ?onea
i?aaio, a yeiio ?icaaeoaeo?oueny oie /e ?ioee noiaao? naeac?ieiai?
a?oa??? i?e etha?e oi?i? ?? iiae?eo. Oiio naeac?iea ia? no?eueee
a?oa??aeueieo aeieae, ia yeo e?euee?noue noiaao??a (aai a?eie 1–ai
ii?yaeeo) a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo ae?eeoueny naeac?ieiaa a?oa??y.
E?euee?noue a?oa??aeueieo aeieae a naeac?ioe? niinoa??aaeanue a?ae 2–o
aei 4–o. A?oo?eaoe?ei?e oi?i? naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? a?aeiia?aeaee 2–?,
o?eoo?eaoe?ei?e – 3–e, aaaaoi?icae?euei?e – 4–e a?oa??aeuei? aeie?. I?e
??cieo oi?iao iiae?eo naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? a naeac?ioe? ?ic??ciyee:
ia?aaeith, ia?aaeith i?ii?aeio, na?aaeith, caaeith i?ii?aeio ? caaeith
a?oa??aeueio aeie?. Eiaeia a?oa??aeueia aeiey i?aaio neeaaea?oueny c
naaiaio?a, oiaoi naaiaio ? /anoeiith aeie?. A?oa??aeueieie naaiaioaie
naeac?iee ie aaaaeaee iaaaeee? ae?eyiee ?? noaeeiiiai ?onea, ui
c?ioothoueny a?eeaie 2–ai ii?yaeeo, ye? a?aeoiaeyoue a?ae eiaeiiai
noiaao?a naeac?ieiai? a?oa???.

E?euee?noue a?oa??aeueieo naaiaio?a a naeac?ioe? aecia/aeanue /eneii
aioo??oiueii?aaiieo naaiaioa?ieo iino?eieo oa aeiaeaoeiaeo a?eie, ui
a?aeoiaeyoue a?ae on?o noiaao??a naeac?ieiai? a?oa???. E?euee?noue on?o
iino?eieo oa aeiaeaoeiaeo a?oa??aeueieo naaiaio?a a naeac?ioe?
eieeaaeanue a?ae 14 aei 22. Iaea?eueo /anoi iaee i?noea 14 (48%) ? 16
(29%) naaiaio?a. ??aeoa cono??/aeenue i?aaie c iayai?noth 15 (6%), 17
(5%) ? 18 (9%) naaiaio?a. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao a naeac?ioe? aoei 20 (2%)
oa 22 (1%) naaiaioe. Ia?aaei?e oa caaei?e iiethni? naaiaioe aoee
iino?eieie.

Aaiiciith aeieath naeac?iee ie iaceaaee aanaei ?? ?io?ai?aaiiiai
noaeeiiiai ?onea, c yeiai a?aeo?e e?ia? cae?enith?oueny ei?aiai
naeac?ieiai? aaie. E?euee?noue aaiicieo aeieae a ie?aii acyoiio i?aai?
a?aeiia?aeaea /eneo ei?ai?a naeac?ieiai? aaie ? eieeaaeanue a?ae 2–o aei
4–o. Aaiici? aeie? naeac?iee io?eioaaee nai? iaeiaioaaiiy ca
a?aeiia?aeieie ei?aiyie naeac?ieiai? aaie: ia?aaeiy, ia?aaeiy i?ii?aeia,
na?aaeiy, caaeiy i?ii?aeia ? caaeiy aeie? i?aaio.

Eiaeia aaiicia aeiey naeac?iee neeaaeaeanue c aaiicieo naaiaio?a.
Aiaeia?/ii a?oa??aeueiiio, aaiiciee naaiaio aoa /anoeiith aaiicii?
aeie?.

Aaiicieie naaiaioaie naeac?iee aaaaeaee iaaaeee? ae?eyiee ?? oeaieie,
aea ?iciiae?eythoueny ei??ioe? 2–ai ii?yaeeo, ye? aeeaathoueny a ei?ai?
naeac?ieiai? aaie. Caaaeueia noia aaiicieo naaiaio?a a naeac?ioe?
a?aeiia?aeaea e?eueeino? an?o ?io?ai?aaiieo naaiaioa?ieo – iino?eieo ?
aeiaeaoeiaeo ei??ioe?a, ui aeeaaeenue a ei?ai? naeac?ieiai? aaie. A
e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? aaiici? aeie? ? naaiaioe naeac?iee, ia?aaaaeii,
a?aeiia?aeaee aeieyi ? naaiaioai ?? a?oa??aeueii? nenoaie.

Eiaeia naeac?ieiaa aeiey /e naaiaio a oe?eiio neeaaeaee noaeeiiee
a?oa??i–aaiiciee eiiieaen. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?aea? aeieueiai? ?
naaiaioa?ii? aoaeiae aioo??oiueii?aaiiiai e?iaiiiniiai ?onea naeac?iee
ethaeeie neoaeaoue ?? ciai?oi? ? aioo??oi? a?aei?ii? iciaee. Ciai?oi?ie
iciaeaie, ye? na?ae/aoue i?i aeieueiao ? naaiaioa?io no?oeoo?o
naeac?iee, aoee i?aeaeieueia? ? i?aenaaiaioa?i? ai?icie, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny ia ae?ao?aaiaeuei?e ?? iiaa?oi? ? ae??cee ia aa?oiueiio ?
ieaeiueiio e?ayo i?aaio. Aei aioo??oi?o iciae e?iaiiiniiai ?onea
naeac?iee a?aeiineee iaeinoaeeii? i?aenaaiaioa?i? iiey, ?icoaooaaiiy
yeeo /?oei ni?aiaaeaei ?c ciai?oiueith naaiaioa?i?noth i?aaio.

Aioo??oiueii?aaii? a?oa??? ? aaie i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaee caaaeueio
niieo/iioeaieiio i?oaiao iaieiieo. Aeyaeaii /ioe?e iniiaieo aa??aioe
oi?ie noaeeiieo iaieiiie: iaeiinoaeeiia, aeaionoaeeiia, o?ueionoaeeiia ?
aaaaoinoaeeiia iaieiiee. Iaeiinoaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee iaee iaeio
a?oa??th aai aaio, cono??/aeenue a oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee
aioo??oiueii?aaii? naaiaioa?i? a?eee naeac?ieiai? a?oa??? ? ei??ioe?
naeac?ieiai? aaie aoee ?icoaoiaai? a oeaiei? i?aaio ie?aii.
Aeaionoaeeii? iaieiiee ioiiethaaee o aeaeyae? oooey?a a?oa??th ? aaio
aai 2–? a?oa???. O?ueionoaeeii? – iaee 2–? a?oa??? ? 1–o aaio aai 1–o
a?oa??th ? 2–? aaie, aai 3–e a?oa???. Aaaaoinoaeeii? – aeeth/aee 2–?
a?oa??? ? 2–? aaie aai eiiieaen noaeei.

Caaaeuei? noaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee ?icii/eiaeenue a ae?eyioe? ai??o
naeac?iee a?ae ?? eainoee ? eoee ia ia?eoa??th i?aaio ii oiaeo
aioo??oiueii?aaiieo naaiaioa?ieo (aa?oi?o, ieaei?o ? iiethnieo) a?oa??e
? aai. A?ae caaaeueieo noaeeiieo i?oaiaeo iaieiiie a?aeoiaeeee ia?inoee,
ui ioiiethaaee ioooiiiae?aii a?oa??aeuei? a?ei/ee aai aaiici? ei??ioe?
3–ai ii?yaeeo. Ia ia?eoa??? naeac?iee ie iaee iiaeeea?noue niinoa??aaoe
iiiaeeiiee ca’ycie noaeeiieo iaieiiie c o?aaaeoeaie i?aeeainoey?iiai
oa?o i?aaio.

Caaaeuei? noaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee neeaaeaeenue c eieaaaiiaeo,
aeanoe/ieo ? ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii c ee?oeiieie ? i‘ycaaeie aeaiaioaie,
iaee iioa?iao aoaeiao ? neeaaeaeenue, a iniiaiiio, c o?ueio oa??a c
??ciith i???ioaoe??th aieieii a eiaeiiio. Ciai?oi?e oa? ca‘ycoaaa
iaieiieo c oeaieiith i?aaio, o?aaaeoeaie ? ?aoeeoe?iiaeie aieieiaie, a
aioo??oi?e – cae?enithaaa ooieoe?th ca‘yceo c noaeeiii–ia?aiaei io/eii,
ui eoia o i?oaiaeo iaieiieao. Na?aaei?e oa? aoa iniiaiei
ooieoe?iiaeueiei oa?ii. Eiaeai oa? no?iee i?oaiai? iaieiiee iaa iaaiee
iai?yiie aieieii: o aioo??oiueiio oa?? aiie eoee oee?eoey?ii ? eini, a
na?aaeiueiio – ia?aaaaeii eini, ? a ciai?oiueiio oa?? – c
iicaeiaaeiueith i???ioaoe??th. Aeanoe/i? aieieia ooai?thaaee
ia?aaeaiiae?ai? nieao?iiy o an?o oa?ao no?iee i?oaiai? iaieiiee.

A?aoiaoth/e noi?nia ?icoaooaaiiy ?io?ai?aaiieo aeieueiaeo ? naaiaioa?ieo
a?oa??e ? aai a caaaeuei?e noaeeii?e i?oaia?e iaieiioe?, e?iaio?e a
a?oa??aeueiiio ? aaiiciiio ?oneao naeac?iee ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe a o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo. Noaeeiia i?oaiaa iaieiiea caiia?aa? niaaeaiith no?iie
aioo??oiueii?aaiieo aai, iaoiiaethth/e ?o iino?eia c?yiiy, ui ia?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey oieo e?ia? a ieo. C iaeiiai aieo, ?eoi?/i?
nei?i/aiiy no?iie a?oa??e caaacia/othoue i?eoie e?ia? aei i?aaio, a c
?ioiai – ioeuenia? oaee?, ui eaeooue ii a?oa??yo, ni?eythoue a?eueo
?ioaineaiiio aacia?a?aiiio a?aeoieo e?ia? c noi?aeii ?icoaoiaaieo
?io?ai?aaiieo aai, no?ieaie yeeo, ii noo?, ? ? u?euei? caaaeuei?
noaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee.

Eainoea naeac?iee iaiaeii??aeia, ia? aeineoue /?oeo iioa?iao aoaeiao, ?
neeaaeiei eiiieaeniei aieieienoei ooai?ii ? neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
oa??a. Aieieia eiaeiiai c ieo ia eaaeaee no?iai ia?aeaeueii, a iaee
iaaio i???ioaoe?th. Eainoea i?noeea n?oee ia?aieaoaieo caeaenoeo
eieaaaiiaeo aieieii c aeii?oeith ?aoeeoey?ieo. E?aua ae?aaeaiee
na?aaei?e oa?, yeee ? iniiaiei ooieoe?iiaeueiei oa?ii. Iaea?eueo
iiaa?oiaaee oa? eainoee ? iooeei. Eiai aieieieno? no?oeoo?e iaeoiio?.
Aeaiee oa? acaeiaae naeac?iee, ca aeeeth/aiiyi ai??o, i?oeii ca‘ycaiee c
i/a?aaeiith. A ae?eyioe? ai??o a?i ia?aoiaeeoue o aeeaieee oa? i?oaiai?
iaieiiee. O an?o aea/aieo iaie aeiaaeeao iniiaiee oa? i?aae–noaaeaiee
iiooaeieie io/eaie ? aieieiaie, ui iathoue iaaio i???ioaoe?th. Aeaiee
oa? ia?aoeiaeaea? ?icoyaiaiith eainoee i?e ci?i? ia‘?io i?aaio. O?ao?e,
iaea?eueo aeeaieee oa? eainoee naeac?iee, ia? ae?aaeaio aieieienoo
no?oeoo?o, a iueiio, e??i ??aiiai e?euee?niiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
eieaaaiiaeo ? aeanoe/ieo aieieii, i?noyoueny oaeiae ?aoeeoe?iia?
aieieia. Eiioeaio?aoe?y inoaii?o ia?inoa? c iaaeeaeaiiyi aei ia?aio?ie
i?aaio. Eainoea ae?ao?aaiaeueii? iiaa?oi? aeaui oiioa, i?ae
a?noea?aeueii?. Oiaueia ?? eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 30 aei 165 iei
(na?aaeiy aaee/eia 101,4 iei). Ia a?noea?aeuei?e iiaa?oi? – a iaaeao
a?ae 45 aei 240 iei (na?aaeiy aaee/eia 137,8 iei).

Ii?yae c caaaeueieie noaeeiieie i?oaiaeie iaieiieaie a oeaiei? naeac?iee
ethaeeie ?nio? aeia?a ?icaeiooa nenoaia o?aaaeoe. Aiie ?
niieo/iioeaieiieie oyaeaie, ui neeaaeathoueny c eieaaaiiaeo, aeanoe/ieo
? ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue a ooai?aii?
e?oiiiiaoeenoiai n?oeiiiae?aiiai ea?eano i?aaio. O?aaaeoee ca’ycothoue
i?ae niaith i?ioeeaaei? iiaa?oi? eainoee i?aaio, caaaeuei? noaeeii?
i?oaia? iaieiiee ? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith no?iie naeac?iee, ia i?noyoue
iaa?no?aeueieo e?iaiiinieo noaeei, nai?ie aieieiaie aiie aie?oathoueny a
aeeaieee oa? eainoee. A e?oiieo o?aaaeoeao aieieia caoiaeyoue a
na?aaei?e oa?.

Niieo/iioeaieii? oyae? a oeaiei? naeac?iee i?noyoueny anthaee, aea
nooi?iue ae?aaeaiino? ?o caeaaeeoue a?ae i?noey ?icoaooaaiiy. E?aua aiie
ae?aaeai? a i?aeeainoey?iiio o?aaaeoey?iiio oa??, aea a?aei?/a?oueny ?o
aaeeea neiie/aiiy. O?aaaeoee aeaii? nioae iathoue oe?ie? aianoiiice ia
o?eueee i?ae niaith, aea e ca’ycai? c o?aaaeoeaie, ui a?aeoiaeyoue a?ae
eainoee nai?? ? i?ioeeaaeii? iiaa?oiiue, a oaeiae c aaaaoi/enaeueieie
iaieiieaie noaeeiieo i?oa. Iiaeia aeoiaoe, ui o?aaaeoey?ia nioaa
neoaeeoue naiai ?iaeo aooa?ii aeey eainoee.

Nenoaia o?aaaeoe aeia?a ae?aaeaia c aieo ae?ao?aaiaeueii? iiaa?oi?
naeac?iee. C aieo a?noea?aeueii? iiaa?oi? niinoa??aaeenue iaei/enaeuei?
niieo/iioeaieii? oyae?, a a ae?eyioe? ai??o aiie iiiaeeiie?. A?ae
eainoee ae?ao?aaiaeueii? iiaa?oi? a?aeoiaeeoue a?eueoa o?aaaeoe, i?ae
a?ae aeeaieiai oa?o eainoee a?noea?aeueii? iiaa?oi? ai??o i?aaio
(ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 1:4).

Ine?eueee o?aaaeoee, ui a?aeoiaeyoue a?ae eainoee c’?aeiothoueny c
i?oaiaeie iaieiieaie noaeei, oi, aei aeayei?, i??e caoeuathoue noaeeie,
ui ciaoiaeyoueny ana?aaeei? inoaii?o, a?ae noeneaiiy i?e nei?i/aii? ?
e?iaiiaiiaiaii? i?aaio. I?e nei?i/aii? o?aaaeoe i?ae /an noeneaiiy
(nei?i/aiiy) naeac?iee, niieo/iioeaieii? oyae? i?aaiooue ?icoe?eoe
i?ina?o i?oaiai? iaieiiee, aei yei? aiie i?ee??ieththoueny, oei naiei
ni?eyth/e ca?eueoaiith i?ina?oo noaeei. Oaeei /eiii, o?aaaeoee i?ae /an
nei?i/aiiy i?aaio ae?thoue a iai?yieo, i?ioeeaaeiiio neeai, ui i?aaiooue
noeniooe caaaeuei? noaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee ?acii c noaeeiaie.

I?e e?iaiiaiiaiaii? naeac?iee nenoaia o?aaaeoe ni?ey? aeaiiioth/?e
ooieoe?? i?aaio. I?ae /an e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy ia‘?i naeac?iee
ca?eueoo?oueny, o?aaaeoee iaoyaothoueny, ?icoe?thth/e no?iee caaaeueieo
noaeeiieo i?oaiaeo iaieiiie ? noaeei, ui a ieo ciaoiaeyoueny, iniaeeai
aaiicieo, no?ieith yeeo ? aaciina?aaeiuei i?oaiaa iaieiiea.

Aei niieo/iioeaieiii? no?iie naeac?iee, ie??i o?aaaeoe ? i?oaiaeo
iaieiiie noaeei, iaeaaeaoue oaeiae ?aoeeoey?i? aieieia. Aiie ?
aeao?i?oeaieie ooai?aie, ui ?niothoue ii?yae c eieaaaiiaeie ?
aeanoe/ieie aieieiaie. ?aoeeoey?i? aieieia ciaoiaeyoueny a /a?aii?e ?
a?e?e ioeuei?. ?iciiae?e ?o ii oeaiei? i?aaio aoa ia??aiii??iee. A
oie?eoeao aiie, a iniiaiiio, ciaoiaeeeenue ii ia?eoa???. *a?aiia ioeueia
oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaia ?aoeeoe?iiaeie aieieiaie, ye? ooai?ththoue eii??ee,
ui iathoue ??ciiiai?oio oi?io ? ?ici??e.

Aieieieno? no?oeoo?e o?aaaeoe, caaaeueieo noaeeiieo i?oaiaeo iaieiiie,
eainoee ci?ithaaeenue c a?eii. Oe? ci?ie, i?eaeecii, aiaeia?/i?. O
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo eieaaaiia? aieieia, ui ?icoaoiaai? iooei, /a?aothoueny
c oiieeie, iaeicaeaenoeie aeanoe/ieie aieieiaie. I?ae ieie ??aiii??ii
eaaeaoue o aaeee?e e?eueeino? ee?oeii? aeaiaioe, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iie?ii?o?ciii. C a?eii eieaaaiia? aieieia ? io/ee iioiauothoueny,
ca?eueoo?oueny u?euei?noue ?o “iaeoaaiiy”. Aeanoe/i? aieieia a?oa?thoue,
noathoue a?eueo caeaenoeie, ?, c`?aeioth/enue i?ae niaith, ooai?ththoue
ia?aae?. Cia/ii ciaioo?oueny e?euee?noue ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a, na?aae
yeeo ia?aaaaeathoue c??e? oi?ie. ssae?a ?o aeoyaioo? acaeiaae
eieaaaiiaeo aieieii ? io/e?a. Ii/eiath/e c iioeeiai a?eiaiai ia??iaeo,
eieaaaiia? aieieia iioiauai?, ia?oa?e?, aiiiaai?cothoueny, ii oiaeo ?o
c`yaeythoueny i?yiie?i?ei? ae?eyiee, cieaeo?oueny ooeneiio?euei?noue. Ia
aeanoe/ieo aieieiao aeieeathoue aa?eeici? caeoooy, i?noeyie aiie
ia?a?eaathoueny, ie?ai? aieieia ?icoa?iaothoueny ia oiie? aieieiioey,
iaaoaathoue ne?o/aii? ? aeea/anoi? oi?ie, a c a?eii o?aaaeoee, i?oaia?
iaieiiee iioiauothoueny.

Iieiae? ?aoeeoe?iia? aieieia oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aei?noth nai??
aoaeiae. C a?eii a?oaoathoue, aoaeyoue caeaeno?noue ? ia?a?eaathoueny.
Iioiauaiiy, ia?oa?iiy ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii, i/aaeaeii, caeaaeeoue a?ae
?o neeathaaiiy i?ae niaith. Oiano? aieieia, ui aeieeathoue, noathoue
aiiiaaiiei, ?ieiee a ieo aeaeii ie?ai? aieieiioey, c yeeo aiie
neeaaeathoueny. Ia?oa?iiy aieieii ii?ooo? ?o aio/e?noue ? a?eueo oiano?
c ieo ao?a/athoue naith caeaeno?noue, a c iath – caeaoi?noue aei
?icoyaiaiiy, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?ic?eao. A ?acoeueoao?, ao?a/a?oueny
aacia?a?ai?noue aieieii, a ia??aai? e?ioe? iathoue ??cio i???ioaoe?th.
Aaeeea e?euee?noue ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii niinoa??aa?oueny a iioeeiio ?
noa?a/iio a?eiaeo ia??iaeao. Caaaeii, aieieieno? no?oeoo?e naeac?iee
ethaeeie i?ioyaii aeeooy i?aeeyaathoue nooo?aei ci?iai, ye?
ae?aaeathoueny a iinooiiaiio ?o aeic??aaii?, iio?i noa??ii? ?
aeaaaia?aoeaieo ci?iao. Ci?ia niieo/iioeaieiieo aeaiaio?a no?iie ?
eainoee i?aaio a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo ? ?inoo i?aai?cio i?ecaiaeeoue aei
oi?ioaaiiy o aei?ineiio ia??iae? i?aaio c aaeeeith i?oaei?noth,
caeaoiiai aeo?eioaaoe cia/io iai?oao e?ia‘yiiai oieo.

Oaeei /eiii, eiiieaeniee iaoiae aea/aiiy no?iie ? noaeei naeac?iee
aeicaieea aeyaeoe no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th i’yeiai inoiao ?
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy eiai c oeaieiith ? noaeeiii–ia?aiaeie ooai?aie i?aaio,
/?oei anoaiiaeoe eiai a?aeie?aieai? noaeeii? aeie? ? naaiaioe, ui, aac
noii?ao, aeiiiiiaea o??o?aai i?e i?iaaaeaii? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia
aeaiiio i?aai?.

AENIIAEE

1. Oi?ia naeac?iee ethaeeie a i?ioean? iioiaaiaco i?aeeyaa? ??ceei
ci?iai, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o iai?yieo a?ae oe?iei? oi?ie aei a?eueo
aocueei? ? aeiaai?. Iae/ano?oa cono??/a?oueny oi?ia naeac?iee c
caaino?aiei ia?aaei?i e?ioeai – a 25%, ianeiao?e/ii aeeneiaeaeia – a
16%, ae?iniaeaeia – a 14,5%, iaaeueia oi?ia ?c caaino?aiei caaei?i
e?ioeai – a 11,5%, iai?ai?nyoeaaa – a 10,5%, aeeneiaeaeia – a 8,5%,
ci?oaia – a 8% ? o?eeooia oi?ia a 6% aeiaaee?a.

2. I?ae oi?iith naeac?iee oa oa?aeoa?ii ?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaio?a noaeeiii?
i?aeee a ae?eyioe? ai??o ?nio? o?niee aca?iica’ycie: i?e oe?ie?e oi?i?
i?aaio aiie ?icn?yi?, caeiathoue a?eueoee i?ino??, a i?e eiai aeiaa?e ?
aocueeee oi?i? i?ea?ethni? noaeeie ?icoaoiaothoueny o aeaeyae? u?eueiiai
eaioethaeea. I?e ?icn?yi?e oi?i? ?icoaooaaiiy eiiiiiaio?a noaeeiii?
i?aeee a ae?eyioe? ai??o naeac?iee, aai i?e ?o ci?uaii? a a?e e?ioey
i?aaio cono??/athoueny iiethni? noaeeie, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeaea?aeii
iaia?aaeaa/aii? i?neyiia?aoe?eii? e?iaioa/?, ui iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
i?ae /an iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ia i?aai?.

3. Aei niieo/iioeaieiii? no?iie naeac?iee ethaeeie a?aeiinyoueny
iaieiiea i?aaio (eainoea), caaaeuei? i?oaia? iaieiiee noaeei,
niieo/iioeaieii? aioo??oiueii?aaii? oyae? (o?aaaeoee) ? ?aoeeoe?iiaee
ea?ean ia?aio?ie i?aaio, ui neeaaeathoue ?aeeio nenoaio o ii?oieia?/iiio
a?aeiioaii? c noaeeiaie.

4. Eainoea naeac?iee neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio oa??a, iniiaiei c yeeo a
ii?oi–ooieoe?iiaeueiiio a?aeiioaii? ? na?aaei?e oa?, ui caiia?aa?
?icoyaiaiith naeac?iee i?e ci?i? ?? ia’?io. O ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth
naeoi?aeueii? ?acaeoe?? naeac?iee o??o?aai ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe iai?yiie
iniiaieo io/e?a na?aaeiueiai oa?o, oiio ui a?ae ieo caeaaeeoue
i?oei?noue eainoee ?, ye iane?aeie, i?oei?noue oa?a i?e ooeaaii? ?aie.
?ic??c ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe oae, uia ia ia?an?eaoe iniiai?, a?eueo iiooaei?
io/ee eainoee, a oia iaeeaaeaoe ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei oeueiai oa?o.

5. Aioo??oiueii?aaii? a?oa??? ? aaie iathoue caaaeueio niieo/iioeaieiio
i?oaiao iaieiieo, yea ii/eia?oueny a ae?eyioe? ai??o naeac?iee a?ae ??
eainoee, ioooiiiae?aii ioiieth? aeieueia? ? naaiaioa?i? noaeeie ?
neeaaea?oueny c eieaaaiiaeo, aeanoe/ieo, ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii ?
i’ycaaeo ee?oei, ooai?thth/e o?e oa?e c ??ciith i???ioaoe??th aieieii. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? noaeei aeae?eythoueny iaeiinoaeeii?,
aeaionoaeeii?, o?ueionoaeeii? ? aaaaoinoaeeii? caaaeuei? noaeeii?
i?oaia? iaieiiee. E?euee?noue noaeeiieo a?eie i?e ae?iniaeaei?e oi?i?
naeac?iee ia 13–15% a?eueoa a ii??aiyii? c aeeneiaeaeiith oi?iith.
Na?aae aa?oi?o oa ieaei?o a?eie iayai? o?noue iino?eieo ? a?ae iaei???
aei /ioe?ueio – aeiaeaoeiaeo, ye? oi?iothoue aeie? ? naaiaioe i?aaio.

6. O?aaaeoee naeac?iee ethaeeie – niieo/iioeaieii? oyae?, ui
neeaaeathoueny c eieaaaiiaeo, aeanoe/ieo ? ?aoeeoe?iiaeo aieieii c
iaaaeeeith e?euee?noth i’ycaaeo ee?oei ? ooai?ththoue n?oeiiiae?aiee
ea?ean i?aaio, yeee ca’yco? i?ae niaith i?ioeeaaei? iiaa?oi? eainoee
i?aaio, caaaeuei? noaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee. Nenoaia o?aaaeoe aeia?a
ae?aaeaia c aieo ae?ao?aaiaeueii? iiaa?oi? naeac?iee. I?aeeainoey?ia
o?aaaeoey?ia nioaa ? aeiaeaoeiaei ooieoe?iiaeueiei oa?ii naeac?iee.

7. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi /anoi/eiai? aoaeiae naeac?iee ? ciai?oi? oa
aioo??oi? a?aei?ii? iciaee. Aei ciai?oi?o iciae iaeaaeaoue ai?icie ia
ae?ao?aaiaeuei?e iiaa?oi? naeac?iee ? ae??cee ia ?? aa?oiueiio ?
ieaeiueiio e?ayo, a oaeiae oi?ia ?icoaooaaiiy noaeei a ae?eyioe? ai??o
naeac?iee, iai?yiie aioo??oiueii?aaiieo i?aeaeieueiaeo ?
i?aenaaiaioa?ieo iaeinoaeeiieo iie?a. Aei aioo??oi?o iciae ne?ae
a?aeianoe iaeinoaeeii? i?aenaaiaioa?i? iiey ?io?ai?aaiiiai ?onea
naeac?iee. I?ae ciai?oiueith naaiaioa?i?noth i?aaio ? ?icoaooaaiiyi
iaeinoaeeiieo iie?a ?nio? iaaiee aca?iica’ycie.

8. Ii?oieia?/ia a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae aioo??oiueii?aaiieie
a?oa??aeueieie a?eeaie ? iaeiieiaiieie aaiicieie noaeeiaie naeac?iee
ethaeeie noai?th? a?oa??i–aaiici? eiiieaene, iayai?noue yeeo aeicaiey?
i?iaiaeeoe /anoeiao ?acaeoe?th naeac?iee a iaaeao aeie? aai naaiaioo.
I???ioe?aie i?e naeoi?aeuei?e ?acaeoe?? naeac?iee ne?ae aaaaeaoe oi?io
?icoaooaaiiy noaeei a ae?eyioe? ai??o i?aaio, iayai?noue ae??cie ?
caaeeaeaiue ia ?? aa?oiueiio aai ieaeiueiio e?ayo ? iai?yiie
aioo??oiueii?aaiieo i?aenaaiaioa?ieo ? i?aeaeieueiaeo noaeeiieo iie?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ia?oeithe A.O. Naeac?iea ethaeeie a naaiaioa?i?e aoaeia? // A?niee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. –1997. –?2–3. –N. 29–31.

2. Ia?oeithe A.O., Oaaeiithe ss.?. Eeaneo?eaoe?y aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
a?oa??e naeac?iee ethaeeie // Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu.
–1997. –?8. –N. 135–138.

3. Naaiaioa?iia no?iaiea naeac?iee / Oaaeiithe ss.E., Ia?ouithe A.O.,
Eo?ei A.N., Aiiii A.A. // yeieiae/aneay aio?iiieiaey / Aaeaaiaeiee.
–Ieine, 1996. –N. 282–284.

4. Oaaeiithe ss.?., Ia?oeithe A.O., Eo?ei A.N. Aiaoii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
?acaeoe?? naeac?iee // Caeiaooee ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii?
iaaeeoeeie / Ca. noaoae. –Oa?iii?eue, 1996. –*.2. –N. 357–361.

5. Ia?oeithe A.O., Oaaeiithe ss.?., Eo?ei A.N. A?noioiiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aioo??oiueii?aaiieo noaeei naeac?iee ethaeeie a aniaeo?
?? aeieueiai? ? naaiaioa?ii? aoaeiae // Caeiaooee ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaaeeoeeie / Ca. noaoae. –Oa?iii?eue, 1997. –A.2,
/.1. –N. 167–170.

6. Niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiua oyaee naeac?iee /aeiaaea / Ia?ouithe A.O.,
Oaaeiithe ss.E., Eo?ei A.N., Aeiaaaiue A.I. // Aeiiaaeeoeeineea e
aeinioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu eioaa?aoeaiie aio?iiieiaee / Ca. noaoae.
–Naieo–Iaoa?ao?a, 1996. –N. 43–44.

7. Eainoea naeac?iee /aeiaaea – eae ninoaaeythuay /anoue
niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiie no?iiu i?aaia. / Oaaeiithe ss.E., Ia?ouithe A.O.,
Aeiaaaiue A.I., Aeaieeue/oe N.A. // Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e i?eeeaaeiua
aniaeou nia?aiaiiie ii?oieiaee / Na. noaoae – Naieo–Iaoa?ao?a, 1997. –N.
126–131.

8. Ia?oeithe A.O. Oiiia?aoi–aiaoii?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeno?ai?aaiieo aai
naeac?iee ethaeeie // Iaoeia? caienee c ieoaiue iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??,
o?i?? oa no/anieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy / Ui??/iee. –Ee?a, 1997. –A.1,
/.1. –N. 326–328.

9. Martinjuk V.F. The Structure of Human Spleen’s Capsule // Actual
Aspects of Morphology / Scientific Materials. –Ternopil, 1996. –Vol. 3.
–P.769–770.

10. Ia?ouithe A.O. A?oeoaeoiieea niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiie iaiei/ee
naeac?iee /aeiaaea // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco / Iao. eiio.
–*a?i?aoe?, 1996. –N. 213–214.

11. Martinjuk V.F. Trabecules of Human Spleen // I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??,
neiao???, no?oeoo?ii? aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a
ii?oieia??. / Iao. i?aeia?. neiiic?oia. –A?iieoey, 1997. –N. 128–129.

12. Ia?oeithe A.O. Aeno?a– oa ?io?ai?aaii? noaeeie naeac?iee a
aeieueiaiio oa naaiaioa?ieo aniaeoao // Iaoeia? caienee c ieoaiue
iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??, o?i?? oa no/anieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy. Ui??/iee.
–Ee?a, 1997. –A.1, /.1. –N. 324–326.

13. Fedonjuk Y.I., Martinjuk V.F., Kurko V.S., Dowgan O.M. Kapselbau der
menshemilz // No?oeoo?iua i?aia?aciaaiey i?aaiia e oeaiae ia yoaiao
iioiaaiaca a ii?ia e i?e aicaeaenoaee aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia / Iaoa?eaeu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee. –Ano?aoaiue, 1996. –N. 117–118.

14. Oaaeiithe ss.?., Ia?oeithe A.O., Eo?ei A.N. A?o?oaeoii?ea
niieo/iioeaieiieo oyae?a (o?aaaeoe) naeac?iee ethaeeie // Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia?? / I?aei. ca. iaoe. ?ia?o. –Oa?iii?eue, 1996. –O. 3.
–N. 644–647.

15. Fedonyuk Y.I., Martinjuk V.F., Dovgan O.M. Clinical anatomy of the
human spleen // No?oeoo?iua i?aia?aciaaiey i?aaiia e oeaiae ia yoaiao
iioiaaiaca a ii?ia e i?e aicaeaenoaee aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia / Iaoa?eaeu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee. –Ano?aoaiue, 1996. –N. 118–119.

16. A?aooaaiiy iayaieo i?e?iaeieo i???ioe??a a naeac?ioe? ethaeeie i?e
?? ?acaeoe?? / Oaaeiithe ss.?., Ia?oeithe A.O., Eo?ei A.N., Aeiaaaiue
I.I. // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oai?aoe/ii? oa ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie ia
no/aniiio ??ai?. –Iieoaaa, 1996. –N. 422–423.

17. No?iaiea eainoeu naeac?iee /aeiaaea / Ia?ouithe A.O., Oaaeiithe
ss.E., Eo?ei A.N. e ae?. // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu aeiiaaeeoeeineie e
eeeie/aneie aio?iiieiaee. –Oiine, E?aniiy?ne, 1996. –N. 26–27.

18. Ia?ouithe A.O., Oaaeiithe ss.E., Eo?ei A.N. No?iaiea naeac?iee
/aeiaaea a oe?o?ae/aneii aniaeoa // No?oeoo?iua i?aia?aciaaiey i?aaiia e
oeaiae ia yoaiao iioiaaiaca a ii?ia e i?e aicaeaenoaee aio?iiiaaiiuo
oaeoi?ia / Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee. –Ano?aoaiue, 1996.
–N. 196–197.

19. No?oeoo?a a?oa??e a i?ea?ethni?e ae?eyioe? naeac?iee ethaeeie /
Eo?ei A.N., Oaaeiithe ss.?., Ia?oeithe A.O., Aa?a?inueea O.I.,

Ooiie I.Ae. // Iaoeia? caienee c ieoaiue iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??, o?i?? oa
no/anieo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy. Ui??/iee. –Ee?a, 1997. –A.1, /.1. –N.
273–275.

20. No?oeoo?a aeaaaeeuiuo iaiei/ae naeac?iee /aeiaaea / Oaaeiithe ss.E.,
Ia?ouithe A.O., Aiiii A.A., Aeiaaaiue A.I. // I?eioeeie i?iii?oe??,
neiao???, no?oeoo?ii? aa?iii?? oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a
ii?oieia??. / Iao. i?aeia?. neiiic?oio. –A?iieoey, 1997. –N. 200–201.

21. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou no?iaiey eainoeu naeac?iee /aeiaaea / Ia?ouithe
A.O., Oaaeiithe ss.E., Aieioei A.Ae., Aa?aeineay O.I. // Caeiiiia?iinoe
ii?oiaaiaca e ?aaoeyoeee oeaiaauo i?ioeannia a ii?iaeueiuo,
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo e iaoieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo / Na. noaoae. –Othiaiue,
1998. – N. 85–86.

22. Anatomical landmarks of human spleen in its partial resection /
Fedonyuk Y.I., Martinjuk V.F., Dovgan O.M., Kurko V.S. // The 17th
Congress of the Polish Anatomical Society With International
Participation. / Abstracts. –Gdansk, Poland, 1996. –S. 89.

23. Varieties of Shape and Location of The Hilus of The Human Spleen /
Fedonyuk Y., Kurko V., Martinjuk V., Baran L., Fedonyuk L., Kurko A. //
XIVth International Symposium on Morphological Scienses / Abstracts.
–Beijing, China, 1997. –P. 520.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ia?oeithe A.O. Caeiiii??iino? aoaeiae niieo/iioeaieiieo ooai??a
naeac?iee ethaeeie oa ?? noaeei a o??o?a?/iiio aniaeo?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 – ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. – Oa?iii?euenueea
aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie,
Oa?iii?eue, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith caeiiii??iinoae aoaeiae
niieo/iioeaieiieo ooai??a naeac?iee ethaeeie oa ?? noaeei a o??o?a?/iiio
aniaeo?. I?iaaaeaii aiaoii?/ia, iae?ii?e?ineii?/ia i?aia?oaaiiy,
eiio?anoia ?aioaaiia?ao?y, ?aioaaiia?noioiiia?ao?/ia, a?noioiiia?ao?/ia,
a?noieia?/ia, a?noio?i?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy naeac?iee ethaeeie.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ia naeac?iee a i?ioean? iioiaaiaco i?aeeyaa? ??ciei
ci?iai, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o iai?yieo a?ae oe?iei? oi?ie aei a?eueo
aocueei? ? aeiaai?. Io?eiai? iia? aeai? i?i aeieueiao, naaiaioa?io,
/anoi/eiao aoaeiao naeac?iee, aeai? i?i niieo/iioeaieiio no?iio i?aaia,
aeeth/ath/e eainoeo, caaaeuei? i?oaia? iaieiiee noaeei, niieo/iioeaieii?
aioo??oiueii?aaii? oyae? (o?aaaeoee), ?aoeeoe?iiaee ea?ean ia?aio?ie, ui
neeaaeathoue ?aeeio nenoaio o ii?oieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? c noaeeiaie.
Aeyaeaii o?niee aca?iica’ycie i?ae oi?iith naeac?iee oa oa?aeoa?ii
?icoaooaaiiy aeaiaio?a noaeeiii? i?aeee a ae?eyioe? ai??o. Anoaiiaeaii
aca?iica’ycie i?ae ciai?oiueith naaiaioa?iith aoaeiaith i?aaio ?
iai?yieii aioo??oiueii?aaiieo i?aeaeieueiaeo ? i?aenaaiaioa?ieo
iaeinoaeeiieo iie?a. Io?eiai? aeai? iiaeooue aooe iniiaith aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoe?e ia naeac?ioe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: naeac?iea, eainoea, niieo/iioeaieii? oyae?, caaaeuei?
noaeeii? i?oaia? iaieiiee, i?aeaeieueia?, i?aenaaiaioa?i? iaeinoaeeii?
iiey, niieo/iioeaieii? ooai?e, noaeeie, naaiaioe, aeie?, o??o?a?y
naeac?iee.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ia?ouithe A.O. Caeiiiia?iinoe no?iaiey niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiuo
ia?aciaaiee naeacaiee /aeiaaea e aa ninoaeia a oe?o?ae/aneii aniaeoa. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 – ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. –
Oa?iiiieueneay ainoaea?noaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey ei. E.ss.
Ai?aa/aaneiai IIC Oe?aeiu, Oa?iiiieue, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth caeiiiia?iinoae no?iaiey
niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiuo ia?aciaaiee naeacaiee /aeiaaea e aa ninoaeia a
oe?o?ae/aneii aniaeoa. I?iaaaeaii aiaoiie/aneia, iae?iiee?ineiie/aneia
i?aia?e?iaaiea, eiio?anoiay ?aioaaiia?aoey,
?aioaaiiaenoioiiia?aoe/aneia, aenoioiiia?aoe/aneia, aenoieiae/aneia,
aenoioeie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea naeacaiee /aeiaaea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
oi?ia naeacaiee a i?ioeanna iioiaaiaca iiaeeaaeeo ?acee/iui eciaiaieyi,
eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a iai?aaeaiee io oe?ieie oi?iu e aieueaa oceie e
aeeeiiie. Iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua i aeieaaii, naaiaioa?iii, aeieue/aoii
no?iaiee naeacaiee, aeaiiua i niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiie no?iia i?aaia,
aeeth/ay eainoeo, iaueo aeaaaeeuiuo iaiei/eao ninoaeia,
niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiuo aioo?ei?aaiiuo oyaeao (o?aaaeoeao), ?aoeeoeeiiaii
ea?eana ia?aioeiu, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho aaeeioth nenoaio a
ii?oieiae/aneii ioiioaiee n ninoaeaie. Auyaeaia oaniay acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo oi?iie naeacaiee e oa?aeoa?ii ?aniieiaeaiey yeaiaioia
ninoaeenoie iiaeee a iaeanoe ai?io. Onoaiiaeaia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
aiaoiei naaiaioa?iui no?iaieai i?aaia e iai?aaeaieai aioo?ei?aaiiuo
iaaeaeieaauo e iaaenaaiaioa?iuo iaeininoaeenouo iieae. Iieo/aiiua
aeaiiua iiaoo auoue iniiaie aeey i?iaaaeaiey i?aaiinio?aiythueo
iia?aoeee ia naeacaiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naeacaiea, eainoea, niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiua oyaee, iauea
ninoaeenoua aeaaaeeuiua iaiei/ee, iaaeaeieaaua, iaaenaaiaioa?iua
iaeininoaeenoua iiey, niaaeeieoaeueiioeaiiua ia?aciaaiey, ninoaeu,
naaiaiou, aeiee, oe?o?aey naeacaiee.

ANNOTATION

Martynyuk V. F. Regularities of structure of conjunctive tissue
formations and vessels of spleen in surgery aspect. – Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of Candidate of Medicine in speciality 14.03.01. –
Normal Anatomy. – I. Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil state medical Academy
Ministry of Health care of Ukraine, Ternopil, 1998.

The test deals with research of regularities of structure of
conjunctive tissue formations of human spleen and its vessels in surgery
aspect. Anatomic, macro– and microscopic preparing of spleen was
performed as well as contrast X–raying, X–ray–histotopographic,
histotopographic, histological, histochemical analysis. It is stated
that the shape of the spleen undergoes different changes in the process
of ontogenesis. These changes go from wide form to narrow and long. New
data are received about lobule, segmental and fractional structure of
the spleen, conjunctive tissue stroma of the organ, including capsule,
general vaginal vascular membranes, conjunctive tissue trabecula,
reticuline frame of parenchyma which constitute unifield system,
morphologically relevant with vessels. Close connection is revealed
between the shape of the spleen and place of vascular stalk in the gate
area. Connection is staled between outer segmental structure of the
organ and direction of intraorgan interlobule and intersegmental minor
vascular fields. These data may be the basis for organ–preserving
operations on the spleen.

Key words: spleen, capsule, conjunctive tissue trabecula, general
vaginal vascular membranes, interlobule, intersegmental minor vascular
fields, conjunctive tissue formations, vessels, segments, lobules,
spleen surgery.

Aeneiaeth?ii ue?o iiaeyeo iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo aeieoi?o iaaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?o Eo?eo A?oae?th Na?a?eiae/o, i?ioani?o eaoaae?e
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? Oa?iii?euenueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? ?i. ?.ss. Ai?aa/aanueeiai ca oe?ii? ? ci?noiai? ii?aaee uiaei
aeeiiaiiy aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

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