EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 324 (4Oe)

NOAAI?E*OE IA?EIA ?AAI?AIA

CAEIIIAeAANOAI I?I AEAI?E

IA?IAeIEO AeAIOOAO?A OE?A?IE:

I?IAEAIE OAI??? ? I?AEOEEE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie oa ia eaoaae?? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Aeui? oeiee i?aaa i?e
?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie

IIAI??EEI A?eoi? Oaaei?iae/ —

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa i?noeaaiai

naiia?yaeoaaiiy ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa

?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie

Oiaeeea TH??e Ieeieaeiae/ —

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Ooee?ia Iaoae?y Aai?a??aia —

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?

aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?aaa
Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.001.04 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe a Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, i.Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea,
64).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 15 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe N.A. AIA?IAIEE

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaei??th ?c oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? iinooioae?oa?ieo e?a?i a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy ? ia?ao?ae aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy. A Oe?a?i?
oaea iniaeea?noue aecia/a? ia?aa?a on?o iie?oe/ieo ?
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a. O i?aaiaiio a?aeiioaii? oea ae?noa?
ae?aaeaiiy ianaiia?aae o iiooeao iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy ?inoeooo?a aaciina?aaeiueiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey ia ??ai?
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.

Iiaa Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, anoaiiaethth/e eiinoeoooe?eiee noaoon Oe?a?ie
ye noaa?aiii? ? iacaeaaeii?, aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii? ? i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae, aecia/a?, ui iin??i noaa?ai?oaoo ? ?aeeiei aeaea?aeii aeaaee
a Oe?a?i? ? ia?iae. Eiinoeoooe?eiee iaoai?ci cae?eniaiiy ia?iaeii aeaaee
ia?aaeaa/a?, ui aeaaea ?aae?co?oueny ye aaciina?aaeiuei, oae ? /a?ac
i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Caeaaeii a?ae oi?ie aieaaeyaeaiiy ia?iaeo ?ic??ciythoue ?inoeoooe
i?aaenoaaieoeueei? ? aaciina?aaeiuei? aeaiie?ao??. sse o i?aeoeoe?, oae
? a oai??? aea?aeaaiiai i?aaa ? aoae?aieoeoaa eieeoiueiai N?N?
aaaaeaeiny, ui i?ia?aeiith ? i?aaenoaaieoeueea oi?ia aeaiie?ao??, yea
ia?aaeon?i iia’ycoaaeany c ae?yeuei?noth nenoaie ?aae ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a.

No/ania ae eiinoeoooe?eia ioi?ieaiiy ia?iaeiaeaaeaey na?ae/eoue i?i
iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a noni?eueiiio aeeoo? i?ney i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? e aea?aeaaiiai noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie. A?aeaoaa?oueny
i?ioean aeiei??iieo ci?i o i??i?eoaoao ?aae?caoe?? ia?iaeiaeaaeaey ia
ei?enoue aaciina?aaeiueiai cae?eniaiiy ia?iaeii Oe?a?ie iaeaaeii? eiio
aeaaee. A e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo oea ia? ni?eyoe ?aaeueiiio caeo/aiith
a?iiaaeyi aei oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie ni?aaaie, noai?aiith oiia aeey
iiaeieaiiy a?ae/oaeaiino? a?iiaaeyi a?ae aeaaee, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio.

C i?eeiyooyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie i??i?eoaoia ?ieue o ?aaoethaaii?
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo iaaea?oueny aeania aaciina?aaeiueiio
aieaaeyaeaiith a?iiaaeyi, iaeaeuei i?iyaii ? iaei??th c iniiaieo
eiinoeoooe?eieo oi?i yeiai aenooiathoue aeai?e.

Ia?aoai?aiiy ia?iaeiaeaaeaey c oi?iaeueiiai ao?eaooo aea?aeaae ia
?aaeueiee iie?oe/iee noni?eueii-i?aaiaee ?inoeooo, yeei anoaiiaeth?oueny
i?aai ia?iaeo ia a?eueia aieaaeyaeaiiy ? caaacia/o?oueny eaa?oeii?noue,
noaa?euei?noue, iinooiia?noue ? ianooii?noue eiai aeaaee, iaaecae/aeii
aeooae?coaaei i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeai?/iai i?aaa ? aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ye i?aaiai? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Iei? oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai inoaoi/ii ua ia aecia/eeiny c oeiii
aeai?/i? nenoaie ? iiee ui ia ia? noaa?eueiiai aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa.
Ca oeeo oiia ia?oi/a?aiaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy o aaeoc?
ia?eaiaionueeiai aeai?/iai i?aaa, ine?eueee, ia iaoo aeoieo, ?noi?e/ii
neeaeiny oae, ui Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”
aenooia? iiaeaeueiei caeiiiaeaa/ei aeoii o noa?? aeai?/iai i?aaa
Oe?a?ie.

Aeania, eiaeiee ?c caeii?a i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie 1989,
1993 oa 1997 ?ie?a ia a?aeiia?aeiiio aoai? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? aenooiea aecia/aeueiei caeiiiaeaa/ei aeoii o i?aaiaiio
?aaoethaaii? i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ia?iaeiaeaaeaey. E??i oiai Oe?a?ia ia?
iaea?eueoee aeina?ae i?iaaaeaiiy naia ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a. Iaeiae
aei oeueiai /ano aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy oa canoinoaaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i
aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie ia aoa ocaaaeueiaiee ia iaeaaeiiio
??ai? e ia noaa ia’?eoii a?oioiaiiai iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co.

Ioaea, iei? ? iaaaeueia iio?aaa, ii-ia?oa, o noai?aii? oe?e?nii?,
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? oai??? ?inoeoooo aeai?/iai i?aaa acaaae? oa
?inoeoooo ia?eaiaionueeiai aeai?/iai i?aaa cie?aia; ii-ae?oaa, o
oi?ioethaaii? oai?aoe/ieo canaae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? ia?aaeon?i caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie; ii-o?ao?, o aecia/aii? iniiaieo /eiiee?a eiai
?icaeoeo; ii-/aoaa?oa, o aecia/aii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo aeae?a ?
??ai?a aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa c iaoith iai?aoethaaiiy aeeaieeo
oai?aoe/ieo canaae aeey a?aeiia?aeii? oi?o?eaoe??, nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?
eiaeeo?eaoe?? oeueiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie a iaeaooiueiio; ii-i’yoa, o
ae?iaeaii? iai?yi?a ? oeyo?a aaeineiiaeaiiy oeueiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c
iaoith iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy eiai iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo.

Noeoii?noue cacia/aieo /eiiee?a e coiiaeea aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ieoaiiy, iaaiith i??ith iia’ycai? c
iiiyooyi aeai?/iai i?aaa, aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa ? a oe?eiio c
i?iaeaiaie aeai??a, ae?noaee aena?oeaiiy o iaoeia?e ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a aaeoc? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, o?einio??,
iie?oieia??, a aieiaiei /eiii ( o iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai (aea?aeaaiiai)
i?aaa. Aiaeii/an i?ioyaii aeineoue o?eaaeiai /ano (ca oiia ?aaeyinueei?
aeai?/i? nenoaie) ?inoeoooo aeai?/iai i?aaa oa aeai?/iio caeiiiaeaanoao
ye o i?aeoeoe? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, oae ? a iaooe? aea?aeaaiiai
i?aaa ia iaaeaaaeiny iaeaaeiiai cia/aiiy. C iaeiiai aieo, noa?a aeai?/eo
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei acaaae? ia iaea th?eaee/ii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??, c
ae?oaiai — iaa?oue ca oiia ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaiiaeeeai aoei
aanoe iiao i?i aeania nenoaio aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iieaciai, ui
iaa?oue oi?iaeueii nenoaie aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa ye nenoaie iaaieo
caeii?a iaei??? aaeoc?, ui ia’?aeiai? niaoe?aeueiei i?aaeiaoii
?aaoethaaiiy, ia aoei. I??i?eoaoiei aeaea?aeii ii?i aeai?/iai i?aaa
aenooiaee Eiinoeoooe?? N?N? ? Eiinoeoooe?? O?N? c ?o aeineoue oe?ieei
?aaeaiaiooaaiiyi i?eioeei?a aeai?/iai i?aaa, aeai?/i? i?aainoa’?eoiino?
a?iiaaeyi, ?ioeo canaae cae?eniaiiy aeai??a. Ii?yae c oeei
caeiiiaeaaaoeue, ieiath/e ??aaiue caeii?a, oaeoe/ii caiaeea i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a aei i?aecaeiiieo aeo?a: ?ino?oeoe?e (20-30-? ?iee)
oa iieiaeaiue (30-70-? ?iee). I?ia?aeieie a/aieie o aaeoc? aeai?/iai
i?aaa ua o 60-? ?iee ii?oooaaeeny i?iaeaie iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a oiio aaaeeeaiio iie?oe/iiio cia/aiith, yea aiie
a?ae?a?athoue o cae?eniaii? ia?iaeiaeaaeaey. Uii?aaaea, i?ney i?eeiyooy
Eiinoeoooe?? N?N? 1977 ?ieo ? Eiinoeoooe?? O?N? 1978 ?ieo i?aaiaa
?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a aei i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee O?N? cae?enithaaeiny
ia iniia? caeii?a O?N?. I?ioa aiai?eoe i?i ?nioaaiiy oe?e?nii? nenoaie
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa iiaeia eeoa oiiaii, caaaeath/e ia?aaeon?i ia
iaiaaeai?noue i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e aeai??a.

Aeiiaaeaaia ? iaoea iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oaeiae ia
iaea /?oeiai ?icoi?iiy uiaei ianyao ? iaae i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeai?/iai i?aaa ? caeiiiaeaanoaa. I?eiaeii? iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e
oaiaeaioe?? o eiai oeoia/aii?. Ii-ia?oa, o??caia, aocueea oeoia/aiiy
oeueiai iiiyooy. Oey oaiaeaioe?y aoea oa?aeoa?ia aeey ia??iaeo
noaiiaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai aeai?/iai i?aaa e a?oiooaaeany ia iieiaeaiiyo
Eiinoeoooe?? ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? 1918 ?ieo. C /anii ia i?ioeaaao
iiae?aiei iiaeyaeai noi?ioaaeanue ?ioa oaiaeaioe?y, iia’ycaia c
?icoe?aiei oeoia/aiiyi aeai?/iai i?aaa. Aaoi?e oaeiai i?aeoiaeo
aeeth/aee aei i?aaeiaoa i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeai?/iai i?aaa ii?yae c
aeai?/eie i?aaia?aeiineiaie i?aaia? a?aeiineie ?ioeo aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo
?inoeooo?a i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaiie?ao??, cie?aia, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
aeaiooao?a ia?aae aeai?oeyie, eiio?ieth ca aeaiooaonueeith ae?yeuei?noth
oiui. Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui ?aaeyinuee? iaoeiaoe? na?aeiii ?icoe?thaaee
iaae? aeai?/iai i?aaa ye aeciaiiai o na?o? aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?inoeoooo, ia
a?aeie?aiethth/e niaoe?aeueii ?ioeo naiino?eieo oi?i ?aae?caoe??
aaciina?aaeiueiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, ine?eueee, ii-ia?oa, any oai??y
ia?iaeiaeaaeaey caiaeeeany aei i?aaenoaaieoeueei? i?e?iaee i?aai?a
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, a ii-ae?oaa, oea ia iaei aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy i? aeey
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, i? aeey i?aaiai? iaoee /a?ac oi?iaeueiee oa?aeoa?
naiiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey.

Inoaii?i /anii o iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? aeai?e
?inoeooae?cothoueny ye iie?oe/ia noni?eueii-i?aaiaa yaeua ? iinooiiai
ooaa?aeaeo?oueny o?aoy oaiaeaioe?y ?icoi?iiy aeai?/iai i?aaa ?
caeiiiaeaanoaa — ye ?aaoeyoi?a aeeeth/ii aeai?/eo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei,
ye nenoaie th?eaee/ieo ii?i, ui ?aaoeththoue i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

A Oe?a?i? i?iaeaie aaciina?aaeiueiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, ? cie?aia ??ci?
aniaeoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a, aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ?.I.Aooeii,
O.A.Ao?/aeii, A.Ae.Aaae?iei, ?.E.Aeaaeaeiaei, I.?.Eictha?ith,
A.A.Eii?e/eeiaei, I.?.Ei?i??ieii, A.I.Eaiiii, E.O.E?eaaiei,
I.?.Iaeeoeii, I.O.Ia?oeiaieii, A.A.Iaaeaaae/oeii, A.O.Iaeauaieii,
I.I.Ie?iiaieii, A.I.Io?aoeiei, I.A.Io?aoeiei, I.?.Ieaeiee, I.I.I?c?oii,
A.O.Iiai??eeii, I.I.?aa?iiae/ai, N.A.?yaiaei, A.I.Nae?aaiiaei,
A.O.N??aieii, A.I.Oa?aiiaei, A.ss.Oaoe??i, A.I.Oiaeeeith,
?.A.Oeoiiiaith, I.O.O??oeueeei, A.A.Oea?oeiaei, I.A.Oea?eii, I.O.*aeei,
A.I.Oaiiaaeii, TH.N.Oaioo/aieii, I.A.Ooee?iith, E.I.THcueeiaei,
I.?.THueeii, A.Ae.ssai?nueeei oa ?ioeie.

??ciiiai?oi? ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei? aeaiie?ao?? o
?aaeyinueeo aeiao ?icaeyaeaeeny o i?aoeyo A.A.Aa?aaaoaaa, A.I.Aacoaeiaa,
I.A.A?o?oea, E.Ae.Ai?aiae?ia, I.?.Aeaieniaa, A.A.Aei?ia?ia,
Ae.E.Ceaoiiieuenueeiai, A.O.Eaaeoaaa, A.?.E?ia, A.O.Eioiea,
N.N.E?aa/oea, A.N.Eoae?iiaa, E.Ae.Eaa?ia, I.I.Eo/eia, A.A.Iaeeaeiaa,
I.I.Ia?/aiea, A.I.I?oeia, ?.A.Naoa?iaa, A.I.Noai?iaa, TH.A.Noaei?oeeia,
?.I.O?aei?ia, I.A.Oaieiai?, N.A.O?i?oeueeiai, ?.?.Oa?aa?a, I.A.Oao??a,
E.O.Oa?aiaoa oa ?ioeo a/aieo.

No/ani? ca?oa?aei? a/ai? oaeiae i?eae?eythoue cia/io oaaao i?aaiaei
i?iaeaiai i?aai?caoe?? aeai??a ye iaei??? ?c iniiaieo oi?i
aaciina?aaeiueiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey. Oea ae?noaei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoeyo
N.A.Aaae’yia, TH.I.Aaaeai??aa, A.?.Aaneeue?aa, I.A.Aeoiyeiaa,
I.I.Aieeiai?, I.A.?aai/aiea, A.?.Eiaea?a, ?.?.Eiethoeia, A.A.Eiia?iai?,
I.I.Eooao?ia, A.?.Eenaiea, TH.A.Iiaeeiaa, I.?.Iinoieeiaa, A.ss.Neeae,
A.I.No?aooia oa ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeany ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeae?eo
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie oa eaoaae?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa Oe?a?ie Aeui? oeiee i?aaa c oai “Eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae
oi?i aaciina?aaeiuei? aeaiie?ao?? a Oe?a?i?” oa “Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie
?aae?caoe?? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie”.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o cae?eniaii? eiiieaenii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeai oai???
i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?aeoeee aeai??a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie
oa ae?iaeaii? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iinoaiiaeo ? ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue.

1. Aecia/eoe i?noea aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a iaooe?.

2. Aeoiaey/e c iieiaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaaieo o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??, aeaoe
aeania aecia/aiiy iiiyooy aeai??a, iieacaoe ?o ?ieue o nenoai?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a noni?euenoaa, ae?iaeoe iaoeia? eeaneo?eaoe??
aeae?a aeai??a, a oaeiae noaae?e aeai?/iai i?ioeano.

3. I?inoaaeeoe aoaie ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie, aecia/eoe iniiai? oaeoi?e noaiiaeaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.

4. Aeoiaey/e ?c no/aniiai noaio aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie, aeaoe
iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa aecia/eoe
i?noea Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie” a oe?e
nenoai?.

5. I?iaiae?coaaoe no?oeoo?o Caeiio “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie” oa ?ic?iaeoe a?aeiia?aeio eiioeaioe?th.

6. Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?icaeyae
i?iaeai ?aae?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie oa aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yi?a eiai ?icaeoeo ? aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aaia? a?aeiineie o noa?? ?aae?caoe??
aaciina?aaeiueiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ieoaiiy oai??? ? i?aeoeee noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeena?oaoe??. Iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie
aeena?oaoe?? ? i?eioeeie, iaoiaee ? caniae, ye? caaacia/othoue
aeinoia??i?noue ciaiiy oa ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo ia?aae aeine?aeieeii
caaaeaiue ? oe?eae. Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c eiiieaeniiai ?icoi?iiy iniiaieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? canoiniao?, ii-ia?oa, caaaeueiiiaoeia? —
nenoaiiee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee,
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee, oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee, a oaeiae iaoiaee
aaaaoioaeoi?iino?, iiaeaethaaiiy, i?iaiicoaaiiy; ii-ae?oaa, ?yae
caaaeueiio?einionueeeo iaoiae?a, cie?aia ae?aeaeoe/iee, iaoa??ae?noe/iee
oa ?aeaae?noe/iee, i?eioeei ?noi?ecio; ii-o?ao?, niaoe?aeuei? —
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/iee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee, i?aaiaiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
iie?oieia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee iaoiae oa ?io?.

Oai?aoe/io aaco aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iaoeia?
i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo o aaeoc? aeai?/iai i?aaa. I?e
i?aeaioiaoe? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae iieiaeaiiy oai???
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa, eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie, ii??aiyeueiiai
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ?noi??? i?aaiaeo o/aiue, i?aeia?iaeiiai
ioae?/iiai i?aaa, e?ei?iaeueiiai, oeea?eueiiai, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa. Aaoi?ii a?aoiaai? iia? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee,
noi?ioeueiaai? iie?oieia??th, o?einio??th, nioe?ieia??th oa ?ioeie
noni?euenoaiciaa/eie iaoeaie.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, Caeii
Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”, ?io? niaoe?aeuei?
aeai?/? caeiie Oe?a?ie, eiinoeoooe?ei? oa ?io? caeiie Oe?a?ie,
i?aecaeiii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aeoe oa caeiiiaeaanoai ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i i?i
aeai?e. O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee
a?o?aiiai oiiaeo Oeaio?aeueii? aeai?/i? eii?n??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? ia?oei a
Oe?a?i? iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, a yeiio eiiieaenii, oe?e?nii
?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie aeai?/iai i?aaa ?
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie acaaae? e caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie cie?aia.

Iiaeie ? iaea?eueo nooo?aeie ?acoeueoaoaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee:

aieiaiei i??i?eoaoii no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? eiioeaioe?? aeai??a ?
a?aeiia?aeii aeai?/iai i?aaa ? caeiiiaeaanoaa ia? aooe ?icoi?iiy oiai,
ui aeai?e — oea iie?oe/iee noni?eueii-i?aaiaee ?inoeooo, noooth yeiai ?
aeya ?aaeueii? aie? ia?iaeo, ui aea? i?aenoaae oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeai?e ye
aeae onoaiia/i? aeaaee ia?iaeo;

aeai?e — oea ia?aaeaa/aia Eiinoeoooe??th oa caeiiaie Oe?a?ie oi?ia
i?yiiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, yea ? aaciina?aaei?i aieaaeyaeaiiyi ia?iaeo
oeyoii oa?iiiai aieinoaaiiy uiaei oi?ioaaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai ye?niiai ?
e?euee?niiai neeaaeo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy;

ca oi?iith cae?eniaiiy aeai?e ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye onoaiia/ee
th?eaee/iee i?ioean, yeee ia? ?yae noaae?e;

i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie ia? aaaaoioaeoi?iee oa?aeoa?, aea aieiaiei ?
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iee /eiiee, yeee aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/a? oa?aeoa? ?
ci?no aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa;

eeaneo?eaoe?y aeai??a, ui i?iaiaeyoueny a Oe?a?i?, iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny ca oa?eoi??aeueiith iciaeith; ca noa’?eoaie aeai?/iai
i?ioeano; ca /anii i?iaaaeaiiy; ca e?euee?niith iciaeith (/eneii
aeai?oe?a); ca i?aaiaeie iane?aeeaie; ca ii?yaeeii aecia/aiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeai??a;

aeai?/a caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie ia? eiiieaeniee oa nenoaiiee oa?aeoa?,
Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie” aenooia?
iiaeaeueiei ii?iaoeaiei aeoii o oe?e nenoai?;

caeiiiaeaanoai i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth nenoaie ooieoe?e. Ca noa?aie aieeao ia
noni?euei? a?aeiineie iiaeia ?ic??ciyoe iie?oe/io ye i??i?eoaoio oa
nioe?aeueio e ?aeaieia?/io ooieoe??. Ca niiniaaie aieeao aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe ?aaoeyoeaio,
onoaiia/o, ioi?iiio, ?ioi?iaoe?eio oa i?iaiinoe/io ooieoe??. Aieiaia
i?noea a oe?e eeaneo?eaoe?? iin?aeathoue ?aaoeyoeaia e onoaiia/a
ooieoe??;

aaoi?nueea eiioeaioe?y no?oeoo?e Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”;

i??i?eoaoieie iai?yiaie aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie aenooiathoue, ii-ia?oa, i?iaeaie
oi?iaeueii-i?aaiai? i?aai?caoe?? icia/aiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa:
no?oeoo?ecaoe?y, nenoaiaoecaoe?y, noai?aiiy i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e;
ii-ae?oaa, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeai?/iai i?ioeano;
ii-o?ao?, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaoai?ci?a noaeiaiai
caoenoo aeai?/eo i?aa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie oa inea?aeaiiy ii?ooaiue
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeathoue iiooiao ? a?aeiia?aeio aaco aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue
caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai ?aae?caoe?? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie oa
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie..

Iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee iiai?
?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”,
?ioeo niaoe?aeueieo aeai?/eo caeii?a, a a ia?niaeoea? — i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
Aeai?/iai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

Aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoeny o
i?aaioai?/?e, ina?oi?e oa aeoiai?e ae?yeueiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee ?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe??, iaiaeii?aciai iaaiai?thaaeeny
ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa oa i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa A/ai?e ?aae? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/iee aei?iaie aeena?oaioa aoei acyoi ca iniiao iaa/aeueiiai
niaoe?aeueiiai eo?no “Aeai?/a i?aai Oe?a?ie”, cai?iaaaeaeaiiai ye
iaa/aeueia aeenoeeie?ia o Aeu?e oeie? i?aaa i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, aeei?enoiao?oueny a ?io?e
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio?.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? i?ae /an
?iaioe aeena?oaioa ea??aieeii ?iai/i? a?oie ii ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i Oeaio?aeueio aeai?/o eii?n?th” oa i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
Iiynithaaeueii? caienee aei oeueiai i?iaeoo. I?iaeo aiooaaany i?ioyaii
ea?oiy-/a?aiy 1997 ?. a ?inoeooo? caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny oaeiae o
?iaio? Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? ?aaee i?e Oeaio?aeuei?e aeai?/?e eii?n??,
/eaiii yei? ? aeena?oaio.

Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe??,
iaiaeii?aciai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aaoi?ii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeiiia?aeae ?
aenooi?a ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa anaoe?a?inueeeo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, e?oaeeo noieao, nai?ia?ao oiui. Cie?aia, aeena?oaio a?aea
o/anoue oa aenooiaea ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?aeaieia?y
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (i.Ee?a, 22-23
eenoiiaaea 1994 ?.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiioeaioe?y
?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie aei 2005 ?.” (i.Ee?a, 22-24 o?aaiy 1996
?.); ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oai?aoe/i? oa
i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie, aeina?ae,
ia?niaeoeae” (i.Ee?a, 25 /a?aiy 1997 ?.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?aai ? eoeueoo?a” (i.Ee?a, 15-16 o?aaiy 1997 ?.);
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa ?aoi?ia a Oe?a?ie”
(i.Ee?a, 16-17 eenoiiaaea 1997 ?.); ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ao?eaiiy a aeeooy iieiaeaiue
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie” (i.Ee?a, 29 aa?aniy 1998 ?.); iaoe?iiaeuei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?aai: no/aniee noai ?
iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy” (i.ss?ai/a, 18-21 /a?aiy 1998 ?.); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia. Aeai?e-98: Aeina?ae. I?iaeaie.
Ia?niaeoeae” (i.Ee?a, 18-20 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?icaeyae aeai?/eo nii??a noaeaie
Oe?a?ie” (i.Ee?a, 18-19 aa?aciy 1999 ?.).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. C iaeyaeo ia iinoaaeaio iaoo, caaaeaiiy, a
oaeiae oa?aeoa?, ianya ? ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aecia/eea no?oeoo?o
i?aoe?. ?oeiien aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. Ia?oee ?icae?e
iiae?eaii ia o?e, ae?oaee — ia /ioe?e i?ae?icae?ee.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 180 noi??iie, e?euee?noue aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae — 280.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiae?cothoueny
noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? oaie, ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,
ieaiiaeie oaiaie, aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia’?eo
oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/i? e iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae
aeena?oaoe??. Aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa
aeeeaaeathoueny aeai? uiaei ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “I?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie” i?noeoue o?e i?ae?icae?ee.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Iiiyooy aeai??a, aeai?/iai i?aaa oa aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa” a eiioeaiooaeueiiio ieai? ?icaeyaeathoueny ia?aaeon?i
caaaeueiioai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iiiyooy aeai??a, ui
oa?aeoa?ia aeey no/aniiai aoaio ?icaeoeo iaoee eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa.
Aeine?aeaeoth/e iiiyooy aeai??a c iiceoe?e eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, aaoi?
caa?oa?oueny oaeiae aei aiae?co ?ie? aeai??a o i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaee aeai??a, ui
i?iaiaeyoueny a Oe?a?i?. Aiae?cothoueny noaae?? aeai?/iai i?ioeano.

Ie?aiith a?oiith i?iaeai aenooiathoue ieoaiiy, ui aecia/athoue no/aniee
ci?no aeai?/iai i?aaa oa aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi? iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui nueiaiaei? ?nio? aino?ee aeao?oeeo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia ??ai? iiiia?ao?/ieo oa aeena?oaoe?eieo i?aoeue
th?eaee/iiai, iie?oe/iiai ? nioe?ieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ui noinothoueny
i?iaeai i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeai??a a Oe?a?i?. Iaeiae iaaia oaaaa
oi?ioaaiith iiiyooy aeai??a, ?o ci?noo a niaoe?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo?? ana oaee i?eae?eyeany. A aeena?oaoe?? eiinoaoo?oueny, ui a
iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa, ye o a?o/eciyi?e, oae ? a ca?oa?aei?e,
?niothoue ??ci? oi/ee ci?o c i?eaiaeo ?icoi?iiy noo? e, aeania,
aecia/aiiy aeai??a. Aiae?c iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a na?ae/eoue, ui a?aeiinii
iiaia iiiyooy aeai??a iiaea noi?ioaaoeny ca oiiae eiiieaeniiai aiae?co
aeai??a ca ci?noii, ca oa?aeoa?ii ?o noni?eueieo ooieoe?e, c iaeiiai
aieo, e aaeaeaaoieo ci?noia? oi?i ?o cae?eniaiiy — c ?ioiai.

Caeiaoaa/ aaaaea?, ui eeth/iaei iiiaioii uiaei aecia/aiiy ci?noo
no/anii? oai??? ?inoeoooo aeai??a o iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiinoeoooe?eiiio
i?aa? aenooia? noaooy 5 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, yeith aecia/a?oueny, ui
“Oe?a?ia ? ?anioae?eith. Iin??i noaa?ai?oaoo ? ?aeeiei aeaea?aeii aeaaee
a Oe?a?i? ? ia?iae. Ia?iae cae?enith? aeaaeo ye aaciina?aaeiuei, oae ?
/a?ac i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy”. C
iaeyaeo ia iieiaeaiiy oe??? noaoo? aaoi? aaaaea?, ui aeai?e ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye iie?oe/io ooieoe?th naiiai noni?euenoaa ii cae?eniaiith
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, i?aeaea?oueny noii?ao
caaaeueiii?eeiyoa iaoeiaa eiioeaioe?y aeai??a ye aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai
?inoeoooo. C ia?aoiaeii iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa, o oiio /ene? e
Oe?a?ie, aei iie?oe/ii? aeaiie?ao?? a?aee?eeanue iiaeeea?noue aeey
a/aieo-eiinoeoooe?iiae?no?a ?icaeyaeaoe aeai?e ye iie?oe/iee
noni?eueii-i?aaiaee ?inoeooo.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e noni?euei? ooieoe?? aeai??a, aaoi? ?ic??ciy? na?aae ieo
oae?: ooieoe?y cae?eniaiiy i?aaa ia?iaeiiai noaa?ai?oaoo ?
eaa?oei?caoe?? aeaaee; cae?eniaiiy i?aaa iaoe?iiaeueiiai noaa?ai?oaoo;
caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino?, iinooiiaino? e ianooiiino? aeaaee; noai?aiiy
oi?iaeueii? iniiae aeey aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
oa i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eio ooieoe?th.
I?e oeueiio cacia/a?oueny, ui iie?oieiae ?ic??ciythoue e ?io? ooieoe??
aeai??a.

Aeai?e ? oi?iith aaciina?aaeiueiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, ui cae?enith?oueny
ca oiia aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa ? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae eeoa a
ii?yaeeo, ia?aaeaa/aiiio Eiinoeoooe??th e ?ioeie caeiiaie. Uiaei oi?ie
cae?eniaiiy aeai??a, oi iniiaiei aenooia? ?icoi?iiy aeai??a ye
th?eaee/iiai i?ioeano. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, eiai ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe
ye a?aaoeueiaaio caeiiii niaoeeo?/io ae?yeuei?noue oiiaiiaaaeaieo
i?aai?a ? a?iiaaeyi aea?aeaae, ni?yiiaaio ia oi?ioaaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai
ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai neeaaeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Oey ae?yeuei?noue aii?yaeeiaaia /a?ac
nenoaio niiioeaeueieo ianoaaei (ye iaaieo th?eaee/ieo ianoaaei, ui
iio?aaothoue a?aeiia?aeieo th?eaee/ieo ae?e) ? th?eaee/ieo oaeo?a (ye
th?eaee/ieo ae?e, ui caaacia/othoue ii/aoie a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioeaaeo?),
ye? cae??ieththoueny a iaoa??aeueieo ? i?ioeanoaeueieo ii?iao aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Aaoi? ae??ciy? oae? noaae?? i?ioeano aeai??a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie: ia?oa — i?iaieioaiiy aai i?ecia/aiiy aeai??a; ae?oaa —
caoaa?aeaeaiiy aai ooai?aiiy aeai?/eo oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue:
aeai?/eo ie?oa?a, aeai?/eo ae?eueieoeue; o?aoy — ooai?aiiy aeai?/eo
eii?n?e; /aoaa?oa — neeaaeaiiy niene?a aeai?oe?a; i’yoa — aenoaaiiy ?
?a?no?aoe?y eaiaeeaeao?a o ia?iaei? aeaiooaoe Oe?a?ie; oinoa —
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaeaeai?ii? aa?oaoe??; nueiia — aieinoaaiiy; ainueia
noaae?y — i?aeaeooy i?aenoie?a aeai??a ? ?a?no?aoe?y ia?aieo ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie. Noaae?? aeai?/iai i?ioeano ia ? noaeeie. Ia ?o
ci?no, e?euee?noue, i?aaia? oi?ie, oa?i?ie aieeaathoue aaaaoi oaeoi??a.
Iaeaieiai?oei c ieo ? oa?aeoa? aeai?/i? nenoaie ye niiniao aecia/aiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeai??a, a?ae /iai caeaaeaoue ii?yaeie ?iciiae?eo
aeaiooaonueeeo iaiaeao?a ? nai iaoai?ci aieinoaaiiy.

Aaoi? eeaneo?eo? aeaee aeai??a, ui i?iaiaeyoueny a Oe?a?i?, ca
a?aeiia?aeieie e?eoa??yie: ii-ia?oa, ca oa?eoi??aeueiith iciaeith aeai?e
iiae?eythoueny ia caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa i?noeaa?; ii-ae?oaa, ca
noa’?eoaie ne?ae ?ic??ciyoe aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie; aeai?e
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, aeai?e aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Aaoiiiiii?
?anioae?ee E?ei; aeai?e aeaiooao?a n?euenueeeo, naeeuieo, i?nueeeo,
?aeiiieo o i?noao, ?aeiiieo, iaeanieo ?aae, aeai?e n?euenueeeo, naeeuieo
? i?nueeeo aie?a; ii-o?ao?, ca /anii i?iaaaeaiiy aeai?e iiae?eythoueny
ia /a?aia?, iica/a?aia?, iiaoi?i?, aeai?e cai?noue aeaiooao?a, aie?a
(n?euenueeeo, naeeuieo, i?nueeeo), ye? aeaoee; aeai?e, ui i?iaiaeyoueny
a ?ac? ooai?aiiy iiai? aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueii? iaeeieoe? aai
aeai?ii? iinaaee; ii-/aoaa?oa, c iaeyaeo ia i?aaia? iane?aeee aeai?e
iiae?eythoueny ia ae?eni? e iaae?eni?; ii-i’yoa, ca ii?yaeeii aecia/aiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeai??a ?ic??ciythoue aeai?e iaaei?eoa?i?, i?iii?oe?ei? oa
ci?oai?.

Aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?y aeai??a ye
noni?eueii-i?aaiaiai yaeua cae?enith?oueny oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy
ia’?eoeaiiai aeai?/iai i?aaa oa aaeaeaaoii? oeueiio ?inoeoooia? nenoaie
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. Aaoi? oa?aeoa?eco? ?inoeooo aeai?/iai
i?aaa ye eiiieaeniee ?inoeooo eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. Oeae aeniiaie
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oei, ui ?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei, ye? neeaaeathoue
i?aaeiao aeai?/iai i?aaa, aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee ??ciei ca aaeocaaith
iaeaaei?noth ii?iai. Oeoia/aiiy aeai??a ye th?eaee/iiai i?ioeano
iio?aao? iiae?eo ii?i aeai?/iai i?aaa ia iaoa??aeuei?, ui aecia/athoue
i?aaa, iaia’ycee, i?eioeeie, aa?aio?? oiui, ? i?ioeanoaeuei?, ui
anoaiiaeththoue ii?yaeie cae?eniaiiy i?aa, i?eioeei?a oa iaia’yce?a, ui
anoaiiaeai? o iaoa??aeueieo ii?iao.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “?icaeoie ?inoeoooo aeai??a aei
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aeaaee a Oe?a?i?” aiae?co?oueny ?icaeoie
?inoeoooo aeai??a aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeai?i?noue ye iaeia ?c
oa?aeoa?ieo oi?i naiii?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa aoea caii/aoeiaaia ua aei
aeieeiaiiy aea?aeaae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Ca oiia noai?aiiy aai
a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? aeai?e ye oi?ia ia?iaeiaeaaeaey
i?iaiaeeeeny iino?eii. I?eeeaaeii oeueiai aenooiathoue Ee?anueea
aea?aeaaa, Caii?icueea N?/, Aaoueiainueea aea?aeaaa, Oe?a?inueea
Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy ?inoeoooo aeai?iino? caeiathoue
aeai?e aei Onoaiia/eo Cai??a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.
Eiinoeoooe?y OI? ?acii ?c Caeiiii i?i aeai?e aei Oe?a?inueeeo Onoaiia/eo
Cai??a i?noeee ?yae aeaiie?aoe/ieo ii?i, yeeie ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui aeai?e
iaee cae?enithaaoeny ia iniia? caaaeueiiai, ??aiiai, i?yiiai aeai?/iai
i?aaa ? oa?iiiai aieinoaaiiy c aeio?eiaiiyi i?eioeeio i?iii?oe?eiiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa. Aeai?e i?iaiaeeeeny ii aeai?/eo ie?oaao, noai?thaaeany
nenoaia aeai?/eo eii?n?e ia iniia? “eiae?oe?eiiai” /eainoaa c
iaia’yceiaei i?aaenoaaieoeoaii i?aaiee?a. Anoaiiaethaaeany aeineoue
oe?iea ?aaeaiaioaoe?y aeai?/eo i?ioeaaeo?. ?nioaaea oaeiae nenoaia
noaeiaiai caoenoo aeai?/eo i?aa a?iiaaeyi.

Naiino?eiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo aeai?/iai i?aaa noaiiaeoue ?aaeyinueea
aeai?/a i?aai. Oieeath/e oaiaeaioe?eiiai oeoia/aiiy, aaoi? cacia/a?, ui
?aaeyinueea aeai?/a nenoaia ?icaeaaeany ?acii ?c noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie
? aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeie i?ioeanaie eieeoi?o N?N? ? O?N?. O aeena?oaoe??
iaa?oioiao?oueny ? i?iiiio?oueny cai?iaaaeeoe ianooiio ia??iaeecaoe?th
i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy aeai??a o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae: ia?oee — c 1917 ?.
aei 1936-37 ??.; ae?oaee — c 1936 ?. aei 1985 ?.; o?ao?e — c 1985 ?. aei
1990 ?.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Oaeoi?e noaiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie a oiiaao iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie”
aiae?cothoueny /eiieee, ui aecia/athoue ci?no, oa?aeoa?, nenoaio ?
no?oeoo?o no/aniiai aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie. Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui eiinoeoooe?eia oa ia?eaiaionueea
?aoi?ie, ii?aeiaiiy yeeo noaiiaeoue nooue i?ioeano o?ainoi?iaoe??
no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ianaiia?aae iia’ycai? c ?aoi?iith
aeai?/i? nenoaie. Noai?aiiy ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo aeai?/eo caeii?a ?
oaeoe/ii ea?aeeiaeueieie ci?iaie a ?icaeoeo ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoaa ?
aea?aeaae. Aaoi? aeae?ey? ?yae ianooiieo aoai?a o ?icaeoeo aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa a oiiaao iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Ia?oee ia??iae, 1991-1993
?ie?a, iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye ia??iae ae?? iinonioe?ae?noe/iiai
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ianooiiee aoai ioiieth? 1993-1996 ?iee. C
i?eeiyooyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ?icii/aany aoai ooaa?aeaeaiiy ye?nii
iiaiai oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie no/aniiai
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a oiio /ene? i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie, coiiaeai? ieceith ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o /eiiee?a, na?aae yeeo
i??i?eoaoiei aenooia? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iee.

?icae?e ae?oaee “Nenoaia oa no?oeoo?a no/aniiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i
aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie” i?noeoue /ioe?e i?ae?icae?ee.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?noea ? ?ieue caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie a nenoai? no/aniiai aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie” cacia/a?oueny, ui iniiaiei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio
noaiiaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeai?/i? aeaiie?ao?? aenooia? eiiieaeniee
?inoeooo aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Eiioeaioe?y aeai??a ye
aeaaei-onoaiia/i? noni?eueii-i?aaiai? oi?ie i?yiiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, c
iaeiiai aieo, ? ye th?eaee/iiai i?ioeano — c ?ioiai, aecia/a? nueiaiaei?
ci?no ? a?o?oaeoii?eo nenoaie aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa. I?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c aea? ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui nenoaio aeai?/iai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie neeaaeathoue /ioe?e a?oie caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a.
Iniiao oe??? nenoaie noaiiaeoue Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, ae?oao a?oio
neeaaeathoue niaoe?aeuei? aeai?/? caeiie, o?aoth — ?io?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa; /aoaa?oo —
aaeocaa? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe noi?aeieo aaeocae i?aaa.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? iniaeeaa i?noea a ?aaoethaaii? aeai??a iin?aeathoue
??oaiiy Eiinoeoooe?eiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi? a?aecia/a? iniaeeao ?ieue iiaeaeueiiai caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoo Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”, yeee o iaeaooiueiio
iiaea aooe iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy Aeai?/iai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

A ?icae?e? iiaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a.

I?ae?icae?e ae?oaee “No?oeoo?a Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”. Aaoi? cacia/a?, ui i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a iia’ycaiee c ae??oaiiyi
i?iaeai ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? no?oeoo?e Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”, ine?eueee /a?ac no?oeoo?o Caeiio ye oi?io
i?aai?caoe?? ? aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaiaiai iaoa??aeo cae??ieth?oueny ci?no
an?o i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy aeai??a
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie. sse cacia/a?oueny a aeena?oaoe??,
no?oeoo?a Caeiio aecia/a?oueny caaaeueiith oai???th caeiio, a oaeiae
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaei ci?noii ?inoeoooo aeai??a. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, c
oi/ee ci?o oai??? caeiio Caeii “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”
iiaeiai, ii-ia?oa, i?noeoe iaa?? oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/ieo aeaiaio?a;
ii-ae?oaa, aeiaaa? ooi/iaiiy iacaa /eiiiai Caeiio, a naia: Caeii Oe?a?ie
“I?i aeai?e aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie”, ine?eueee, a?aeiia?aeii aei
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, th?eaee/ii aaaiiei oaeoii, ui ia? a?aeiia?aei?
th?eaee/i? iane?aeee, ? ia?aiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai neeaaeo Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie; ii-o?ao?, Caeii iiaeiai i?noeoe, ye ? ca?ac, “Caaaeueiee
?icae?e”, iaeiae iei iiaeii? ?aaoethaaoeny canaaee an?o i?aaia?aeiinei,
ui aeieeathoue a i?ioean? i?aai?caoe?? aeai??a; ii-/aoaa?oa, eia?ea
?oa?eeaoe?? aeiaaa? aeie?aieaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ?icae?e?a Caeiio, yeeie
?aaoeththoueny ie?ai? noaae?? cae?eniaiiy aeai??a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie aai ie?ai? noa?inoeoooe; ii-i’yoa, Caeii iiaeiai i?noeoe
iiiyo?eii-eaoaai??aeueiee aia?ao; ii-oinoa, Caeii iiaeiai oaeiae
ai?uoaaoe caaa?oai? i?aaia? eiino?oeoe?? uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a.
Aaoi? aea? ?yae i?iiiceoe?e uiaei aa?iii?caoe?? no?oeoo?e Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”.

I?ae?icae?e o?ao?e “Ooieoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”. O no/anieo oiiaao aeai?/a caeiiiaeaanoai ye
eiiieaeniee ?inoeooo a?ae?a?a? ieceo naiino?eieo ooieoe?e, ye?
iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith i?aaeiaoa i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy icia/aiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aaoi? eeaneo?eo? ooieoe?? aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa:
ii-ia?oa, ca noa?aie aieeao ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie; ii-ae?oaa, ca
niiniaaie aieeao. Ca noa?aie aieeao i?iiiio?oueny ?ic??ciyoe iie?oe/io,
nioe?aeueio, ?aeaieia?/io ooieoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie, ca niiniaii aieeao ia noni?euei? a?aeiineie —
?aaoeyoeaio, onoaiia/o ? i?aaioai?/o, a oaeiae ioi?iiio, ?ioi?iaoe?eio,
i?iaiinoe/io.

O i?ae?icae?e? /aoaa?oiio “I?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie
i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie ? iai?yie eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy”
aaoi?ii ?icaeyaeathoueny oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio
i??i?eoaoieie iai?yiaie aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa aenooiathoue:
ii-ia?oa, ae??oaiiy i?iaeai oi?iaeueii-i?aaiai? i?aai?caoe??
(no?oeoo?ecaoe??, nenoaiaoecaoe??, noai?aiiy i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e);
ii-ae?oaa, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo? aeai?/iai
i?ioeano; ii-o?ao?, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaoai?cio
noaeiaiai caoenoo aeai?/eo i?aa a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie oa inea?aeaiiy
ii?ooaiue aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. Aaoi?ii aeeeaaeaii eiie?aoi?
i?iiiceoe?? ii eiaeiiio ?c cacia/aieo iai?yi?a aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.

Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/athoueny iaoeiaith iiaeciith, i?noyoue
oai?aoe/ii oa i?aeoe/ii cia/ou? ?acoeueoaoe.

Cai?iiiiiaai? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy ? iniiaith no/anii? eiioeaioe??
aeai??a ye i??i?eoaoii? oi?ie ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, yea ? aaciina?aaei?i
aieaaeyaeaiiyi ia?iaeo uiaei oi?ioaaiiy eiinoeoooe?eiiai ye?niiai ?
e?euee?niiai neeaaeo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Aeai?e ye aeae onoaiia/i? aeaaee
ia?iaeo aeeiiothoue iaeio c iie?oe/ieo ooieoe?e noni?euenoaa —
aea?aeaaioai?/o.

Aeai?i?noue ye iaeia ?c oi?i naiii?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa neeaeany ua
aei aeieeiaiiy aea?aeaae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Ca oiia noai?aiiy aai
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeania oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? aeai?e ye oi?ia
ia?iaeiaeaaeaey canoiniaoaaeeny iino?eii.

Aaaeeeaa iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy iathoue aeniiaee uiaei i?aenoaa
eeaneo?eaoe?? aeae?a aeai??a, noaae?e aeai?/iai i?ioeano.

A iniaeeao a?oio iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeniiaee, ui noinothoueny nenoaie oa
no?oeoo?e no/aniiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie. Eaeaoueny i?i aaaaoioaeoi?i?noue i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie oa aecia/aiiy
i??i?eoaoiino? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai /eiieea. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? aeniiaie
i?i nenoaiiee oa eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? icia/aiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa
iniaeeaa i?noea Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie”
a oe?e nenoai? ye iiaeaeueiiai ii?iaoeaiiai aeoo. Caaaeyee nenoaiiiio
i?aeoiaeia? aei aiae?co no?oeoo?e Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie” noi?ioeueiaaia aaoi?nueea eiioeaioe?y no?oeoo?e
oeueiai Caeiio, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy yei? iieyaathoue o oiio, ui,
ii-ia?oa, aeiaaa? ooi/iaiiy iacaa Caeiio — “I?i aeai?e aei Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie”; ii-ae?oaa, aeioe?eueii noi?ioethaaoe i?aaiaoeo aei
Caeiio, yea aecia/aoeia iniiai? caaaeaiiy ? iaoo, th?eaee/ia cia/aiiy
Caeiio; ii-o?ao?, ia?oee ?icae?e Caeiio “Caaaeuei? iieiaeaiiy”
iiaeiai aaeaeaaoii aeeiioaaoe ?ieue “caaaeueii? /anoeie” ? i?noeoe
iniiai? canaaee i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy an?o ?inoeooo?a aeai?/iai i?aaa ?
a?aeiia?aeii noaae?e aeai?/iai i?ioeano; ii-/aoaa?oa, Caeii iiaeiai
i?noeoe oa?i?iieia?/i? iiiyooy; ii-i’yoa, eiaei?e noaae?? aeai?/iai
i?ioeano aai eiaeiiio ?inoeoooo aeai?/iai i?aaa ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe
?icae?e Caeiio; ii-oinoa, iieiaeaiiy caaaeueiiai ?icae?eo Caeiio, a
oaeiae ii?ie caaaeueieo noaoae a ?ioeo ?icae?eao iiaeii? iaoe eia?/io ?
eiino?oeoeaio caaa?oai?noue o oaeno? Caeiio.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?ioeano i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeai??a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie.

Cai?iiiiiaai? o aeena?oaoe?? aeniiaee iathoue i?iaiinoe/iee oa?aeoa? ?
aecia/athoue ?icaeoie aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie a iaeaeeae/ee /an
oa ia ia?niaeoeao.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Oi?ie aaciina?aaeiuei? aeaiie?ao?? // Eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai Oe?a?ie:
I?ae?o/iee. — E.: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1999. — N. 300-355.

2. Aeai?e a Oe?a?i?. — E., 1998. — 48 n.

3. Caeiiiaeaanoai i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie // Ia?eaiaio
Oe?a?ie: aeai?e-98. ?io.-aiae. aeae. a 2 o. / Oeaio?. aeai?/. eii?n.
?aae.: I.I.?yaaoeue. — E., 1998. — N. 23-34.

4. Aeai?/? eii?n??: i?aaiaee noaoon, no?oeoo?a, neeaae ? iiaiiaaaeaiiy
// Oai naii. — N. 105-113 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.?.Ni?aaeii,
?.I.Eiycaae/ai).

5. Acaeyae ia eiiennee. *oi auei e /oi aeieaeii auoue // Niaaou
ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia. — 1989. — ? 12 (527). — N. 43-45 (o ni?aaaoi?noa?
c ?.I.Aooeii).

6. I?aai aeai?o ? aeai?/a i?aai (iioaoee aei no/aniiai ?icoi?iiy aeai??a
? aeai?/iai i?aaa) // I?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy. — 1994. — ? 4 (9). — N.
67-70.

7. Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy i?yiiai ia?iaeiaeaaeaey a Oe?a?i? //
I?aaiaa aea?aeaaa. Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — Aeione aeaa’yoee. — E.:
?i-TH?a, 1998. — N. 78-85.

8. I?iaeaie eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a a Oe?a?i? //
Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai. Ui??/iee iaoe. i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. — Aeione 2. —
E.: ?i-TH?a,1999. — N. 79-85.

9. I?aeoeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeai??a ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie 1998 ?ieo
oa i?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?eaiaionueeiai aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa //
A?niee Caii??cueeiai th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo. — Aeione 2 (4). —
Caii??aeaey, 1998. — N. 3-10 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.I.Eiycaae/ai).

10. Aa?oiaia ?aaea Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei // TH?eaee/ia
aioeeeeiiaae?y: A 6 o. / ?aaeeie.: TH.N.Oaioo/aiei (a?aei. ?aae.) oa ?i.
— E.: “Oe?. aioeeee.”, 1998. — O.1. — N. 342.

11. Aeai?e aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei // Oai
naii. — N. 356-357.

12. Aeai?e I?aceaeaioa aea?aeaae // Oai naii. — N. 358-359.

13. Aeai?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie // Oai naii. — N. 359-360.

14. Aeai?/a eaiiai?y // Oai naii. — N. 361-362.

15. Aeai?/a i?aai // Oai naii. — N. 362-363 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.O.Iiai??eeii).

16. Aeai?/? aeieoiaioe // Oai naii. — N. 367-369.

Noaai?e/oe I.?. Caeiiiaeaanoai i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie:
i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.02. — eiinoeoooe?eia i?aai. — Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie
aeai??a ye iaei??? c iniiaieo oi?i aaciina?aaeiuei? aeaiie?ao??.

A ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy aeai??a. Aeine?aeaeothoueny ooieoe??
?inoeoooo aeai??a ye iie?oe/iiai aeaaeionoaiia/iai noni?eueii-i?aaiaiai
yaeua a nenoai? eiinoeoooe?eiiai eaaeo Oe?a?ie. I?iiiio?oueny aaoi?nueea
eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a aeai??a ca oa?eoi??aeueiith iciaeith, ca
noa’?eoaie, ca /anii i?iaaaeaiiy, ca o/anoth aeai?oe?a, ca i?aaiaeie
iane?aeeaie, ca ii?yaeeii aecia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeai??a.
?icaeyaeathoueny noaae?? aeai?/iai i?ioeano.

Aiae?co?oueny i?ioean ?icaeoeo ?inoeoooo aeai??a aei i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo
i?aai?a a Oe?a?i?. Aecia/athoueny oaeoi?e noaiiaeaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co nenoaie aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie oa no?oeoo?e Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aeai?e ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
Oe?a?ie”.

Aeoiaey/e ?c noaio no/aniiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeai??a ia?iaeieo
aeaiooao?a Oe?a?ie, ?icaeyaeathoueny oeyoe ? oi?ie aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeai?/iai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeai?e, aaciina?aaeiy aeaiie?ao?y, i?yia
ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, aeai?/a i?aai, aeai?/a caeiiiaeaanoai, aeai?/ee
i?ioean, ia?iaeiee aeaiooao Oe?a?ie.

Noaaiee/oe I.E. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i auai?ao ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia
Oe?aeiu: i?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.02 — eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai. — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. — Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu
auai?ia eae iaeiie ec iniiaiuo oi?i ?aaeecaoeee i?yiiai ia?iaeiaeanoey a
Oe?aeia ia i?eia?a auai?ia ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia Oe?aeiu.

Aeaaony ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey auai?ia e iainiiauaaaony
einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey a eiinoeoooeeiiiii i?aaa Oe?aeiu. Auai?u
?anniao?eaathony eae i?aaeoniio?aiiay Eiinoeoooeeae e caeiiaie Oe?aeiu
oi?ia i?yiiai ia?iaeiaeanoey, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aieaecuyaeaiea
ia?iaea iooai oaeiiai aieiniaaiey ii oi?ie?iaaieth eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
ea/anoaaiiiai e eiee/anoaaiiiai ninoaaa i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Enneaaeothony ooieoeee auai?ia eae iieeoe/aneiai iauanoaaiii-i?aaiaiai
yaeaiey a nenoaia eiinoeoooeeiiiiai no?iy Oe?aeiu. Auaeaeythony
neaaeothuea ooieoeee auai?ia: ?aaeecaoeee i?aaa ia?iaeiiai e
iaoeeiiaeueiiai noaa?aieoaoa, iaania/aiey noaaeeueiinoe e
i?aainoaaiiinoe aeanoe, ioai?a iieeoe/aneeo eaae?ia, niaoeeaeueii
nioeeieiae/aneeie ooieoeeyie aunooiatho ooieoeee a?oeeoeyoeee eioa?ania
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee e ?anioeeaeecaoeee
ee/iinoe, eioi?iaoeaiay ooieoeey.

I?aaeeaaaaony aaoi?neay eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia auai?ia, inouanoaeyaiuo a
Oe?aeia, a caaeneiinoe io oa??eoi?eaeueiinoe, noauaeoia, a?aiaie
i?iaaaeaiey, o/anoey ecae?aoaeae, i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee, ii?yaeea
ii?aaeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia auai?ia.

?anniao?eaathony oaeaea i?iaeaiu ecae?aoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. A /anoiinoe,
auaeaeythony noaaeee: i?iaicaeaoaiey eee iacia/aiey auai?ia;
ooaa?aeaeaiey eee oi?ie?iaaiey ecae?aoaeueiuo aaeeieoe; oi?ie?iaaiey
ecae?aoaeueiuo i?aaiia; ninoaaeaiey nieneia ecae?aoaeae; auaeaeaeaiey e
?aaeno?aoeee eaiaeeaeaoia ia auai?iua aeieaeiinoe; i?iaaaeaiey
i?aaeauai?iie aaeoaoeee; aieiniaaiey; iiaen/aoa aieinia e ii?aaeaeaiey
?acoeueoaoia auai?ia.

Aiaeece?oaony i?ioeann ?acaeoey einoeoooa auai?ia a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua
i?aaiu a Oe?aeia. Ii?aaeaeythony oaeoi?u noaiiaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i auai?ao ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia Oe?aeiu, i?ei?eoaoiui
n?aaee eioi?uo yaeyaony aioo?eiieeoe/aneee oaeoi?.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aiaeeco nenoaiu ecae?aoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu. Ii?aaeaeyaony ?ieue Caeiia Oe?aeiu “I
auai?ao ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia Oe?aeiu” eae iiaeaeueiiai caeiia a yoie
nenoaia.

Enneaaeothony oaeaea i?iaeaiu aa?iiiecaoeee no?oeoo?u Caeiia Oe?aeiu “I
auai?ao ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia Oe?aeiu”. Aaoi?ii ?ac?aaioaia nianoaaiiay
eiioeaioeey no?oeoo?u ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia.

Aiaeece?othony ooieoeee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i auai?ao ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia Oe?aeiu. Iaia/aiu iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey aeaenoaothuaai
ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, n?aaee eioi?uo i?ei?eoaoiuie
aunooiatho, ai-ia?auo, iai?aaeaiey, naycaiiua n oi?iaeueii-i?aaiaie
i?aaiecaoeeae caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa; ai-aoi?uo, n niaa?oainoaiaaieai
i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeaaeo? ecae?aoaeueiiai i?ioeanna;
a-o?aoueeo, n niaa?oainoaiaaieai iaoaieciia noaeaaiie caueou
ecae?aoaeueiuo i?aa e iaaeaeiaaiee ia?ooaiee ecae?aoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: auai?u, i?yiia ia?iaeiaeanoea, ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai,
ecae?aoaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ecae?aoaeueiue i?ioeann, ia?iaeiue
aeaiooao Oe?aeiu.

Stavniychuk M.I. Legislation of the elections of Ukraine People’s
Deputies: problems of theory and practice. — Manuscript.

Thesis for obtaining a scientific degree of the Candidate of Sciences
(Law) on the speciality 12.00.02 — Constitutional Law. Kyiv Taras
Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1999.

Thesis is devoted to the theoretical and practical problems of the
Ukrainian elections a one of the fundamental forms of the direct
democracy. The questions of the improvement of electoral legislation are
based on the exiting legal regulation of the elections of Ukraine
People’s Deputies, are considered.

Key words: elections, direct democracy, direct people power, rights to
vote, election law, election procedure, Ukraine People’s Deputies.

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