IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OE?A?INUeEI? A?OAIA?AO?? OA AeAEA?AEICIAANOAA

?i. I. N. A?OOAANUeEIAI

OAeE — 930.9.943.7.086.

Aeaeaaai Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/

CAEA?IAOOss A NEEAAe? *AOINEIAA**EIE:

I?AEEIIOAN?EI? A?AeIINEIE O 1919-1929 ??.

07.00.02.— Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

EE?A 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Nioaiue Iaaei Noaiaiiae/, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? Iaoeei Anaaieiae ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N.
A?ooaanueeiai;

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oeaioa Ieaen?e Aaneeueiae/,
ni?a?ia?oiee Caea?iaonueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y : Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a iiai? ? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? oa ?noi??ia?ao??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 17 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i » 14-00 » aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.228.01 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
a ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N.
A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i. Ee?a-1, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai
IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 17″ o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
________________________Aa?aa ?. A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Ia iniia? Nai-AEa?iainueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o a?ae 10 aa?aniy 1919 ?ieo
Caea?iaooy oa?eoei aei neeaaeo *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee, o?yae yei?
acya ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy iaaeaoe i?e?aeiaiiio e?ath, ianaeaiiio o
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? oe?a?ioeyie, noaoon aaoiiii??.

O iiainoai?ai?e *N? cae?enithaaeeny aeiei??ii? ye?ni? ia?aoai?aiiy.
Ii?yae c aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeie, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie a?aeaoaaeeny
cia/i? ci?ie a noai? ?ae?a?e oa i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei. Aeia?a
?icoi?th/e i?noea ? ?ieue ?ae?a?? o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
e?a?ie, ?? o?yae oa ia?oee i?aceaeaio O. A. Iana?ee i?eae?eyee
cia/io oaaao i?iaeaiai i?aeeiioan?eieo noinoie?a oa ae?yeueiino?
eiioan?e.

I?ney aeeth/aiiy Caea?iaooy aei neeaaeo *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee
ii/aany iiaee aoai o eiai ?icaeoeo. Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a oeueiai
i?ioeano, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo, aoea
aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa. Aiia ioiieea oith /e ?ioith i??ith an?
noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Iniaeeai iii?oiith aoea aaiethoe?y a aaeocyo
iie?oeee, ina?oe, eoeueoo?e, naiaiaee a??iniia?aeaiiy.

O ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii aeacaieo i?ioean?a ia Caea?iaoo? oaea a ia?o? ?iee
eiai ia?aaoaaiiy o neeaae? *N? ii/aee noai?thaaoenue ??ci? iie?oe/i?
ia?o??, a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??, o ?o /ene? e ?ae?a?ei?.
Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa ni?eyea ?icaeoeo ?ae?a?eiiai ?ooo,
ia?aaeon?i aeoeaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaiith i?aaineaa’y. Oea noia?a/eei
?ioa?anai ianaiia?aae aeooiaainoaa a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai a??iniia?aeaiiy.
A ?acoeueoao? ?ae?a?ei? a?aeiineie a *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?,
iniaeeai o I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on?, o 20-o ?ieao cia/ii oneeaaeieeeny ?
iaa?oue caaino?eeeny.

I?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie, i?aaineaaiee ?oo, aaiethoe?y ?ioeo eiioan?e a
oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? /aoineiaaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa, ui ??cei
a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae aei?noieeo iiia?o?/ieo oai?nueeeo ii?yaee?a,
noaiiaeyoue cia/iee ?ioa?an ye aeey ?noi?e/ii? iaoee, oae ? aeey
i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy iaaooiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo. Ia iniia?
aeeaieiai ? aaaaoia?aiiiai aiae?co aeacaieo i?iaeai iiaeia c?iaeoe
ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaee uiaei i?e/ei ? iane?aee?a ?ae?a?eii? ai?ioueae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeuaaeacaii? oaie ia iniia? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, /anoeia
c yeeo aia?oa aaaaeaia o iaoeiaee ia?a, neoaeeoue aeeaoiio aea/aiith
?noi??? ?ae?a?e ia Caea?iaoo? oa neeaaeieo ? noia?a/eeaeo
i?aeeiioan?eieo noinoie?a. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeaa i?noea a?aeaiaeeoueny
noaiiaeaiith, ii noo?, iiaiio a?ae?iaeaeaiith ae?enii i?aaaouee?anueei?
a??e — a??e i?aaineaaii? ia caie? ea?iaonuee?e. Aaeaea ie?ai?
aeine?aeieee oa oi?aonuee? eea?eeaeuei? ae?y/? ne?aeii ca
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeei eaiiieeii I. ?eueieoeueeei ? a e?ioe? XX noie?ooy
i?iaeiaaeothoue iaia??oioiaaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui «i?aae?ae?anueeith»
a??ith ia Caea?iaoo? aoea oi?aonueea.

Aiae?c i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aeia?aceoe
noaiiaeua a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae ia Caea?iaoo? o ia?oiio
aeanyoee?oo? ?nioaaiiy *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee. A?i cana?ae/o?, ui
iniiaiei nai?i caaaeaiiyi aeacaia oea?eaa aaaaeaea iaoa??aeueia
caaacia/aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ianoae ? iioe?aiiy aieeao, aeoeaii aenooiath/e
i?e oeueiio i?ioe iiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aaineaa’y.

Ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ?iaeoueny ni?iaa aena?oeeoe
ae?yeuei?noue ?oaeaenueei?, ?eii-eaoieeoeueei?, ?aoi?iaonueei? oea?eia,
a oaeiae iieacaoe ?icaeoie iniiaieo naeo. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa
?ice?eoe aino?ioo i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei ia Caea?iaoo? o 20-o ?ieao.
?ae?a?ei? eiioan?? — aaaeeea? neeaaeia? /anoeie noni?eueiiai aeeooy
ianaeaiiy Caea?iaooy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo. A?aeiineie i?ae ieie
?iaeee iaaiee aieea ia aioo??oith iie?oeeo aea?aeaae.

A oiiaao iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie ie ia?ii iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaii
ioe?ithaaoe iai?ino? i?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie 20-o ?ie?a, o?iee yeeo
iathoue aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa, i?ciaaaeueia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeey
aoae?aieoeoaa aeaiie?aoe/ii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iaoeiaei ? noni?eueiei cia/aiiyi
i?aeeiioan?eieo aca?iei, a?aenooi?noth niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaii? oaie, a oaeiae aaaaeaiiyi aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao
cia/ii? e?eueeino? iiaeo a?o?aieo aeaea?ae.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei o
20-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy ia Caea?iaoo? a ia??iae eiai ia?aaoaaiiy o
neeaae? *aoineiaa//eie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue 1919-1929 ??., oiaoi ia?oa
aeanyoee?ooy ia?aaoaaiiy Caea?iaooy o neeaae? *aoineiaaoeueei?
?anioae?ee. O oeae ia??iae a?aeaoeeny cia/i? ye?ni? ci?ie o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?ath — ia?ao?ae a?ae oai?nueeiai
iiia?o?/iiai ?aaeeio aei aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?eainueei? oi?ie
i?aae?iiy. Oi?ioaaeeny i?aaia? ii?ie iieiaei? aea?aeaae. I?ioiaeea
i?ioean iiey?ecaoe?? noni?euenoaa o ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c eiai iaaiith
aeaiie?aoecaoe??th. A?ae?iaeaeoaaeeny ? noai?thaaeeny iia?
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe??. Ia?anoaee aooe aea?aeaaieie
a?aei-eaoieeoeueea, ?aoi?iaonueea ? ?eii-eaoieeoeueea oea?eae.

Iiaa a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, yea noaei iiaeeeaei ia iniia? caeii?a
*aoineiaa//eie, ia?aaeeaaea i?aaineaaia oea?eaa. Ana oea ii?iaeaeoaaei
noia?a/eea? ? neeaaei? i?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie, eio?? /anii iaaoaaee
oa?aeoa?o aino?i? ai?ioueae, ui a ?yae? i?noeue noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue
e?iaii?ieeooyi. O?eaaea i?aeeiioan?eia ai?ioueaa caaa?oeeany ocaeiiaiiyi
o?yaeii *aoineiaa//eie i?aaa i?aaineaaii? eiioan?? ia ?nioaaiiy, ca ui
a??oth/? aaee aaaeeo ? o?eaaeo ai?ioueao. E?iaoeue 20-o ?ie?a
ciaiaioaaany oaeiae i?eieiaiiyi aei?noieinoae o i?aeeiioan?ei?e
ai?iouea?. A?aeiineie i?ae ieie iinooiiai ia?aoiaeeee aei oeea?e?ciaaieo
oi?i aca?iei ia iniia? ae?th/eo o oie /an i?aaiaeo ii?i.

Oa?i?i «Caea?iaooy», «I?aeea?iaonueea ?onue» aaeeaa?oueny o iaaeao
no/anii? Caea?iaonueei? iaeano? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, uia c no/anii? oi/ee ci?o aeine?aeeoe
i?iaeaio i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei ia Caea?iaoo? o 1919-1929 ?ieao o
neeaae? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee. O oeueiio ieai? cina?aaeaeaii oaaao
ia oaeeo eiie?aoieo caaaeaiiyo:

aiae?c? oi?ioaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo ii?i uiaei i?noey ?ae?a?? o
noni?euenoa? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee oa ?o ?aae?caoe?? a oiiaao
Caea?iaooy;

aea/aii? i?ioeano aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa oa eiai aieeao ia
naiaiaeo nia?no?, na?aeii?noue ianaeaiiy;

aiae?c? aaiethoe?? ?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e ia Caea?iaoo? a oiiaao
*aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee;

aecia/aii? i?noey ? ?ie? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo i?aaineaa’y;

aeyaeaii? a?aei?iiinoae o noaiiaeu? i?aaineaaiiai ? a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai
ee??o oa a??oth/eo iaio eiioan?e;

aiae?c? oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae ie?aieie eiioan?yie, cie?aia,
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeith oa i?aaineaaiith;

aea/aii? aioo??eiioan?eieo noia?a/iinoae, ?o i?e/ei ? i?iya?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? noaee i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio oa
ia’?eoeaiino?, a oaeiae oae? iaoiaee ye ?noi?e/iee, eia?/iee,
ii??aiyeueii-aiae?oe/iee oa i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee. A iniiao aiae?co
iieeaaeaii e?eoe/ia aea/aiiy, ii??aiyiiy ? neioac ?ioi?iaoe??
ia?oiaeaea?ae oa ia?ao?anio ia?aa??eo aeaieo.

Canoiniaoth/e oaeee iaoeiaee ?ino?oiaioa??e, aeine?aeiee iaiaaaany
ia’?eoeaii ?ice?eoe i?aeeiioan?ei? aca?ieie a o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao
1919-1929 ??., i?e/eie ?o oneeaaeiaiue ? iane?aeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui o i?e aia?oa a
?noi??ia?ao?? Oe?a?ie c?iaeaia ni?iaa aeine?aeeoe i?iaeaie
i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei ianaiia?aae a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? ? i?aaineaaii?
oa aioo??eiioan?ei? noia?a/iino? ia Caea?iaoo? o 1919-1929 ??.

Aeyaeaiiy ? aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee ia?a cia/ii? e?eueeino? iiaeo a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a aea? iiaeeea?noue aeeaiei oa ia’?eoeaii, c iiceoe?e
no/aniino?, i?iaiae?coaaoe a?aeiineie i?ae ??cieie eiioan?yie oa i?ioean
ci?i ?ae?a?eii? no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy e?ath o 20-o ?ieao.

Iniaenoei aianeii aeena?oaioa ? aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai, eio?eo ?ai?oa
cian?i ia oi?eaeeny aeine?aeieee. Cie?aia, a i?aoe? aia?oa
i?inoaaeothoueny i?aeeiioan?ei? oa aioo??eiioan?ei? noinoiee, o oiio
/ene? a ?oaeaenuee?e a?iiaae?, na?aae naeoaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia o aaaaoueio
aniaeoao aeiiiaith? iaoeia? ciaiiy c ?noi??? Caea?iaooy 1919-1929 ??.,
neoaeeoue a?aeiiaeaiith a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? aea/aiiy
oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eii? oaiaoeee a eiioaeno? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy.
A iniiaia — aeaia ?iaioa aia?oa aaciina?aaeiuei oi?ea?oueny iaaecae/aeii
neeaaeii? ? noia?a/eeai? i?iaeaie aca?iia?aeiinei ??cieo eiioan?e.
Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee i?aoe? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii?
oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, *ao?? ?
Neiaa//eie, o oiio /ene? ae?yeueiino? ??cieo eiioan?e, o
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia, i?e aeeeaaeaii? a?o/eciyii?
?noi??? o aocao ? na?aaei?o niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, a
oaeiae e?a?ciaanoaa oa ?noi??? ?ae?a??.

Aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? iaeaniith
aea?aeaaiith aaei?i?no?aoe??th oa ?aaeaie aeaiooao?a i?e ?ica’ycaii?
i?aeeiioan?eieo i?iaeai, ui caeeoathoueny a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? Caea?iaooy ? Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie «Caea?iaooy o neeaae? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee:
i?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie o 1919-1929 ??.» i?iaiaeeeiny ca?aeii c
ieaiaie iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? a?aeae?eo aea/aiiy oa ioae?eaoe??
ca?oa?aeieo aeaea?ae c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y oaie cae?eniaia oeyoii iaaiai?aiiy oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei
caoenoo a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?ith iiai? ? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? oa ?noi??ia?ao?? OaeAeO.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o iaoeiaeo
noaooyo, a oaeiae /a?ac aeeeaae i?ia?aeieo iieiaeaiue i?aoe? ia
eiioa?aioe?yo: «Oaeai?iaenueea oi?y: aeoiee, iioe?aiiy, iane?aeee
no/anii? ?ae?a?? a Caea?iaoo?» (Oaeai?iae, 3-4 ea?oiy 1996 ?. ),
«Caea?iaooy — caiey neia’yinueea, c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a — i?aaineaaia» (
i.Oaeai?iae, 20 ea?oiy 1996 ?ieo), eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 70-??//th
aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a, caneoaeaiiai i?aoe?aieea ina?oe
Oe?a?ie A?ai/aea ?aaia Ieoaeeiae/a (i. Oaeai?iae, 7 aeiaoiy 1997
?.) oa i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «Ca i?aeeiioan?eio
ceaaiaeo» (i. Oaeai?iae, 9 aa?aniy 1996 ?.), oea?eiaieo a?o?a?no?a
Oai?ueie (i. I??aaeueaaca, 26-27 na?iiy 1997 ?.), Anaoe?a?inuee?e
i?aeia?iaei?e o?enoeyinuee?e anaiaea? «Caiia?aeue iiao aeath aai:
etha?oue iaeei iaeiiai» (?iai 13, 14), i. Ee?a, 17-18 ethoiai 1998 ?.,
II I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaoueiai Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee
oa oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa 1918 ?.» (i. Ee?a, 22-24 o?aaiy 1998 ?.),
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 75-e ??/ieoe? a?ae aeiy canioaaiiy
Oe?a?inueeiai Aenieiai Iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. Ae?aaiiaiiaa a I?ac?
(i. I?aaa, 3 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo).

No?oeoo?a oa iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

?iaioa iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei i?eioeeiii o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya oaenoo iaoeiai? ?iaioe noaiiaeoue
noi??iie, a nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a?
iiceoe?e.

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aecia/ai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, aeacaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae» iiaeaii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Aiae?c iioae?eiaaii?
e?oa?aoo?e iieaco?, ui aeacaia oaia ua ia aoea i?aaeiaoii ie?aiiai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ii?yae c oeei iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ?noi??y
? ae?yeuei?noue iaea?eueoeo eiioan?e aei iaaii? i??e aena?oethaaeeny ua
a ia??iae ?nioaaiiy ia?oi? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee, oiaoi o
20-30-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy. A/ai?, a?aeii? iie?oe/i?, eoeueoo?i? oa
?ae?a?ei? ae?y/? Caea?iaooy, a oaeiae i?aaenoaaieee /anueeeo i?aai?a
aeaaee ? aeo?iae?noe a ie?aieo i?aoeyo oa ca??ieeao noaoae ii?yae ?c
??ciia?/iei aiae?cii oiai/aniiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?ath
?icaeyaeaee ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aei-eaoieeoeueei?, i?aaineaaii? oa
?oaeaenueei? ?ae?a?e. Oe? ieoaiiy aoee o iie? ci?o ? ia?oiai i?aceaeaioa
*N? O. A. Iana?eea. Oiio eiai iiaeyaee ye ethaeeie, yea aecia/aea ia
o?eueee iie?oeeo e?a?ie, aea ? a ieai? noaaeaiiy aei ?ae?a?? oa
i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei, noaiiaeyoue cia/iee ?ioa?an. Oe? iiaeyaee
ciaeoee iaaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy a eiai /eneaiieo i?aoeyo. Oae, cie?aia, a
iaei?e ?c i?aoeue O. A. Iana?ee cacia/aa, ui aaeeea caaaeaiiy iaoiai
/ano iieyaa? naia o oiio, uia ie noai?eee ?ae?a?th ? ?ae?a?eii
i?aai?coaaee noni?euenoai oae, uia oea a?aeiia?aeaei aeiiaai e?eoe/iiai
?icoio (aeae?eaii iaie — I. Ae.). Aeey oe??? ?iaioe aaaeeeai ia oa, uia
i?eie?eoe iaoeo c oea?eiaiei a??iniia?aeaiiyi, a aaaeeeai oa, uia ie
noai?eee iiaee ci?no ?ae?a?eiiai ? aeooiaiiai aeeooy. O ca’yceo c oeei
a?i aenooiaa ca iiaea?i?caoe?th ? «ino/aniaiiy» oea?eae o aea?aeaa?.

Oeyoe iiaea?i?caoe?? ?ae?a?? Iana?ee aaa/aa o a?eueo aeeaie?e
ii?aeueiino?, i?ae oa, eio?a ?icaeaaeany aei oiai /ano. A?i
aeneiaethaaany ca ?ae?a?th, eio?a oai?aoe/ii caaeiaieueiyea ae iaoeo ?
i?aeoe/ii a?aeiia?aeaea aeuei i?aaiaiiyi iiaiai /ano aei nioe?aeueieo
oa iie?oe/ieo ae?enii aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aoi?i.

Iaeiei c ia?oeo ie?ai? aniaeoe i?ioeano iiiaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y oa eiai
aca?iei c a?aei-eaoieeeaie o ia??iae aei 1925 ?ieo aena?oeea o nai?e
i?aoe? «I?aaineaaiee ?oo o I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on?»
C. A. Aoe?iac?.

Ni?iaa aiae?co ?icaeoeo i?aaineaaiiai ?ooo ia Caea?iaoo? o ia?o?e
iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a i?noeoueny o noaooyo eieeoiueiai
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai nayuaieea I. Iaeaaoa, yeee ia?aeoia o 1921 ?ioe? o
i?aaineaa’y, oa ?iiea Aeaen?y (Aeaooa?aaa).

Aeaye? ieoaiiy a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? a??e ? noaaeaiiy aeuiai
?ia?o?aeueiiai aeooiaainoaa aei a?aeiiaeaiiy ? iioe?aiiy i?aaineaa’y
?icaeyaeathoueny o noaooyo TH. Aaaeaeaae, A. Aieioeia, I.
?eueieoeueeiai. Caaaeai? aeua noaoo? iinyoue, a iniiaiiio
ioae?oeenoe/iee, i?iiaaaiaeenonueeee oa?aeoa?.

Ii?yae c ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i ?icnaeaiiy ?a?a?a oa ?o ainiiaea?nueea aeeooy
ia Caea?iaoo?, ei?ioei iiaeaii ? caaaeueiee iaeyae aioo??eiioan?eiiai
iiae?eo ?oaeaenueei? iaueie e?ath a iaeiieiaiieo ioae?eaoe?yo «?a?a? ia
I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on?» Aai??oii A?iae? oa Oa?iii Eoaaeii.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiyoue ?a?aenueeiai ia?iaeo ? eiai a??iino?
?oaeaenuee?e ?ae?a?? a e?a? i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioani?ii A. Noeii.

sse cana?ae/o? aiae?c iacaaieo ioae?eaoe?e, aeey /aoineiaaoeueei?
?noi??ia?ao?? 20-30-o ?ie?a aeanoeaei aoei i?aaiaiiy aena?oethaaoe
iie?oeeo aea?aeaae oa ?? i?aceaeaioa uiaei eiioan?e aeeeth/ii o
iiceoeaiiio ieai?.

O iiai?iiee ia??iae iaea?eueo aaaiiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?noi??? oea?eae oa
/anoeiai ? i?aeeiioan?eieo noinoie?a o eieeoi?e *aoineiaaoeuee?e
?anioae?oe? ? i?aoey neiaaoeueeiai ?noi?eea O. Aaoa/ea. ?? aaoi? ia
iniia? /enaeueieo a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a aiae?co? caaaeai? ieoaiiy.
Aeine?aeiee oe?eeii i?aaeeueii aeae?eea ie?ai? iniaeeaino? ?ae?a?eiiai
aeeooy ia Caea?iaoo? o ia??iae 20-o ?ie?a. Aei /ano? aaoi?a a?i ia
iionoeany aei caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? a ia??iae ?nioaaiiy oioae?oa?iiai
?aaeeio iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee i?noey ? ?ie? oea?eae o noni?eueiiio aeeoo?.

Ii?yae c oeei o aeayeeo noaooyo, ye? iaaiith i??ith oi?eaeeny
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie iathoue i?noea ia?ae?o/aiiy o oa?aeoa?enoeoe?
?ae?a?eiiai ?ooo ia Caea?iaoo?. Oae, iai?eeeaae, TH??e Ai?aeaaa o
aeaeai?e o NOA a?ioo?? «A?ae Oai?nueei? ?one aei Ea?iaonueei? Oe?a?ie»
aieine?aii noaa?aeaeo?, ui i?e/eiith iioe?aiiy i?aaineaa’y ia Caea?iaoo?
aoea o?eueee i?iiaaaiaeenonueea ae?yeuei?noue ?in?enueeeo
a?eiaaa?ae?enueeeo ai?a?aio?a oa aaeeoeueeeo iineaio?e?a.

Ia oii? i?aaineaa’y a *aoineiaa//ei? o?aaiaioe noaio oe??? eiioan?? ia
Caea?iaoo? o ia?o? aeanyoee?ooy OO noie?ooy iiaeaii o i?aoe? ???iiiiaoa
Ee?eea (Iini?oeea).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy /anueeeo ? neiaaoeueeeo aaoi??a a?aeia?aaeathoue
neeaaeia? ?noi??? ?ae?a?e, a?aeiioaiiy aea?aeaae aei ??cieo eiioan?e oa
/anoeiai i?aeeiioan?ei? noinoiee. Ii?yae c oeei ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a
ieo ? iaaia noa’?eoeai?noue ? iaeiia?/i?noue o aena?oeaii? aeacaieo
ieoaiue.

?c ca?oa?aeieo ioae?eaoe?e, a neeo aeei?enoaiiy iaeaea iaaeinooiieo aeey
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a a?o?aieo aeaea?ae Aaoeeaio cia/iee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeoue iiiia?ao?y Aoaian?y Iaea?a»Ia?ene ?noi??? oea?eae Caea?iaooy»
. Aaoi? noenei oa?aeoa?eco? ?icaeoie oea?eae o e?a? c iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a
aei 1949 ?ieo, a iniiaiiio oi?aonueei?. Iaeiae o ieoaiiy i?aeeiioan?eieo
a?aeiinei ?icaeyaeathoueny aeoaea o?aaiaioa?ii, iaeiiaiei ? o?eueee c
iiceoe?e iaoa?ieiino? aei i?aaineaa’y.

Ie?ai? ieoaiiy oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e iiai?ii?e ?noi??ia?ao??. Ooo ia?o ca ana ne?ae caaaeaoe
i?aoeth Ae. Aoeiae/a, ui aeeoea c ae?oeo a 1974 ?ioe?. Aacia?a/ii, ia ??
ci?no aieeioee oiai/ani? ?aeaieia?/i? aeiiae. ? oi/a aaoi?ii c?a?aii oa
ocaaaeueiaii aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, iaeiae ioe?iee ? aeniiaee
c?iaeai? iei c iiceoe?? iie?oeee aoa?cio. Aiane?aeie oeueiai aiie ?
oaiaeaioe?eieie ? noa’?eoeaieie.

?noi??th oa ae?yeuei?noue oi?aonueei? oea?eae ia Caea?iaoo? i?ioyaii
o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo aena?oeaii o i?aoeyo I. Aieaeeaea?a. Ia?aaaaeia
/anoeia ?icaeyiooeo iei ieoaiue oi?ea?oueny aca?iei aea?aeaae ? oea?eae.
Aeine?aeiee caa?oa? oaaao ia aee?eooy a iniiaiiio ?aaeoe?eii? ?ie?
oi?aonueei? oea?eae a ?noi??? e?ath. Eiai i?aoe? i?iiecai? ?aeaieia??th
aoa?cio.

O iaei?e c inoaii?o nai?o i?aoeue «Oaeai?iaenueea oi?y: i?e/eie ?
iane?aeee», iioae?eiaai?e o 1997 ?ioe?, aeine?aeiee iaiaaa?oueny c iiaeo
iiceoe?e aiae?coaaoe ie?ai? aniaeoe na?onueei? ae?yeueiino?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, ?? ?ieue a eoeueoo?iiio oa ii?aeueiiio
aeeoo? ianaeaiiy e?ath. Iaeiae o aeiaei?e ?c aeacaieo eiai i?aoeue ia
i?iaiae?ciaaii i?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie, i?e/eie ?o aeieeiaiiy,
iane?aeee oa oeyoe ae??oaiiy.

C iiceoe?e no/aniino? ?icaeyiooa ?ae?a?eia na?aeii?noue ? ii?aeue ia
Caea?iaoo? a iiiia?ao?? ?. ?. Ieaiae/a «?ae?a?y ? oea?eae a iaoiio
e?a?».

Aeaui c iiaeo iiceoe?e aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy ?ae?a?? ? oea?eae ia
Caea?iaoo? a 20-o? ?iee o eaiaee-

aeaonuee?e aeena?oaoe?? oa iioae?eiaai?e ia ?? iniia? iiiia?ao??
«Aea?aeaaii-oea?eiai? a?aeiineie ia Caea?iaoo? oa No?aei?e Neiaa//ei? a
20 — na?aaeei? 30-o ?ie?a OO no.», a oaeiae o noaooyo I. Iae?i/aea.
I?ioa i?iaeai i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei a?i iaeaea ia oi?ea?oueny. Ia
iiaeia iiaiaeeoenue ? c iaiaa?oioiaaiei oaa?aeaeaiiyi I. Iae?i/aea i?i
oa, ui «i?ioeane aeaiie?aoecaoe?? iaeaea ia oi?eioeenue ?ae?a?eiiai
ieoaiiy Neiaa//eie oa Caea?iaooy, aea caa??aaeeny neeuei? iiceoe??
oea?eae» ? o. ae.

Iaaeie?eii aeacaii? ?iaioe I. Iae?i/aea ? aeiiouaiiy iecee iaoi/iinoae,
iniaeeai o iineeaiiyo ia aeieoiaioe Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Caea?iaonueei?
iaeano?. Oaeeo, iai?eeeaae, ye: oiiae 4 «Iaaeaeoiai Oaeainueei? aeoie,
i. Oaeai?iae» iiaea?oueny i?ae iacaith «I?aceae?y E?aeiaiai oi?aae?iiy
I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?» . Aei nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/aii
iiene 21, 28 oa 31 iacaaiiai oiiaeo. ?aaeueii ae O-4 ia? o?eueee 19
iien?a ? o. i. Aaoi? aeiionea? noia?a/eea?noue o nai?o oaa?aeaeaiiyo.

O 1995 ?ioe? aoei iioae?eiaaii «Ia?ene ?noi??? Caea?iaooy», oii ??
(1918-1945). Iaeiae ? o aeacai?e ocaaaeueithth/?e i?aoe? ?? aaoi?e
/iionue o?aaeeoe?eii ia?eoee i?iaeaie noinoie?a i?ae eiioan?yie. Ii?yae
c oeei o ia?enao ? nieneia? iia??oiino? ia c?acie: «i?ioe oeueiai
caeiio (caeii ? 49 a?ae 1868 ?ieo c aeiiiaiaiiyie 1895 ?ieo uiaei
ii?yaeeo ci?ie a??iniia?aeaiue — I. Ae.) aenooieee i?aaenoaaieee
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae ia Caea?iaoo?, ye? aaaaeaee eiai aaeueiii caa?oo
i?aaineaaiiai ?ooo» ? o. i.

C iiaeo iiceoe?e, aena?oeai? ieoaiiy, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei aeayeeo
aniaeo?a oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, o noaooyo A. ?. Ooaeaie/a oa N.
A?aeiyinueeiai.

Ia aeoea?caoe?th aioo??oea?eiaii? ae?yeueiino? oi?ao?a o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a, ui iia’ycoaaeiny c i?ecia/aiiyi ?ieneiiii Iao?a
Aaaay, oe?eeii iaa?oioiaaii aeaco? Ieaen?e Aeiaio o iiiia?ao?? «Oi?y ia
Oe?a?i?. A?e OO.»

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao noiniaii iaoi? oaie aoiinioe?aeueiee ia?en ?noi???
?a?aenoaa ia Caea?iaoo?, c?iaeaiee oaeai?iaenueeei ?noi?eeii I. I.
Iaea?ith.

Aeena?oaioii aac ?aeaieia?/ieo ooaii?a ieioeiai ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, o yeiio aaaeeeaa i?noea
caeiaea eiai ?ae?a?ei?noue oa aieea aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa ia
?icaeoie aeooiaii? oa iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy
i?aeeiioan?eieo aca?iei.

I?i aeaea?aea aea/aiiy oa i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ? oneeaaeiaiiy a?aeiinei
i?ae i?aaineaaiith oa a?aei-eaoieeoeueeith eiioan?yie eaeaoueny a
ie?aieo iaoeo ioae?eaoe?yo.

O aeena?oaoe?? /e ia aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c?iaeaii ni?iao
aena?oeeoe i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y ia Caea?iaoo? o 1919-1929
?ieao oa a?iiaaenueea ? ?ae?a?eia aeeooy ?oaeaenueei? iaueie e?ath a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, a oaeiae aca?ieie i?ae ??cieie eiioan?yie.

?c c?iaeaiiai iaeyaeo iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aeieeaa? iio?aaa eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oea?eiaii? ? iie?oe/ii? ?noi???, a aieiaia —
i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei o Caea?iaoo? ia ii/aoeo OO no. Oea aeiaaa?
e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy canoa??eeo oai?aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a, a?eueo
aeineiiaeiai ii?aoethaaiiy iioae?eiaaieo ? aaee/aciiai ianeao
iaiioae?eiaaieo a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee a iniiaiiio aeieoiaioe
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?. Cie?aia, O. ?-1 —
Caea?iaonueeee iaeii Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie, O-2 — I?aceae?y e?aeiaiai
oi?aae?iiy I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? a Oaeai?iae?, O-4 — Iaaeaeoiai
Oaeainueei? aeoie, O-21 — E?aeiaa oi?aae?iiy I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?, O-29
— I?aceae?y Oeea?eueiiai oi?aae?iiy I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? a Oaeai?iae?,
O-30 — Oaeai?iaenueeee e?aeiaee noae, O-31— Oaeai?iaenueea e?aeiaa
i?eo?aoo?a, O-63 — Oeea?eueia oi?aae?iiy I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? a
Oaeai?iae?, O-151 — I?aae?iiy Ioea/?anueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? ?ia?o??
oa ?yae ?ioeo.

I?ea?iaeuei? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe neoaeaoue iniiaith aeey aea/aiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo eiioan?e, ?o aaiethoe?? a oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa c aoiaeaeaiiyi e?ath aei neeaaeo *aoineiaa//eie. Aiie
?ice?eaathoue i?ioean a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y, eiai i?ioeai?noai c
oi?aonoaii, aieea i?aai?a aeaaee ia i?aeeiioan?ei? aca?ieie.

Aia?oa aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a aeieoiaioe O-30, «Oaeai?iaenueeee
e?aeiaee noae», eiio?neaoe, ye? ?ai?oa aoee ia oa?iiiio caa??aaii?, a
oaeiae iaaio /anoeio aeieoiaio?a O-12 «Oaeai?iaenueea aeoiia
oi?aae?iiy», cie?aia ia?aieneo Oeea?eueii? oi?aae I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?
c ie?oaeieie o?yaeaie i?i niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?yeuei?noth oea?eia.

Oaeiae aia?oa acyoi ia iae?e ? aeei?enoaii a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a oa i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? aeaii? iaoeiai? ?iaioe O. ?-2593 — A?o?aia eieaeoe?y
aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? Caea?iaooy, c?a?aieo I. I.
Aaiaeanii (eieeoi?i nayuaieeii), iniaenoee oiiae ?eii-eaoieeoeueeiai
nayuaieea-oaieiaa E. Eiaoa?a.

Aeiiiaiaiiyi oeeo i?ea?iaeueieo aeieoiaio?a ? ni?aae iioi/ieo a?o?a?a
Ioea/?anueei-Oaeai?iaenueei? i?aaineaaii? ?ia?o?? oa iiianoe?y n. ?ca
Oononueeiai ?aeiio.

I?e aiae?c? i?aeeiioan?eieo aca?iei oa iniiaieo i?iaeai aioo??oiueiai
aeeooy oea?eia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaiaoeci Ioea/?anueei? ?ia?o??,
ianoe?nuee? iineaiiy aeaaeee oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy eiinenoi??e.

Oe?iiee iaoa??ae i?noeoueny a aeiiia?aei?e caienoe? aeoea?noa
i?aaineaaiiai ?ooo ia Caea?iaoo? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ?aoiaia
Iaooay (Aaea?iaa). Aiia aoea iaienaia o 1926 ?ioe? c i?eaiaeo
ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ? ciouaiiy iaae i?aaineaaieie oa o ca’yceo c
iaiao?aei?noth ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie th?enaeeeoe?? ia ?i’y Neiiaeo
Na?anueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae.

O Aea?aeaaiiio Oeaio?aeueiiio a?o?a? *ao?? (i. I?aaa) aeyaeaii ?
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaiao?aei? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie aeieoiaioe oiiaeo
I?aceae?? ?aaee I?i?no??a (Prezidium ministerske rady — PMR)(1918-1930
??.), ui oi?eathoueny i?iaeai aoiaeaeaiiy Caea?iaooy aei neeaaeo
*aoineiaa//eie, ci?ie noaoono ??cieo eiioan?e ? aca?iei i?ae ieie.
Aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th o oiiae? I?aceae?? ?aaee I?i?no??a i?noyoue ni?aae
c ?iaaioa?ieie iiia?aie ? 473 — Eieii?caoe?y I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?
(1920-1935), E-91, ? 504 — Ieoaiiy aeao?oeeoo i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a
aeaaee ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1920-1923 ??.) E-99, ? 533 — Aaoiiiiiee
aee?aeoi??oi ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1919-1924 ??.), E-106, ? 602 —
Iia?aeiieaiiy i?i ae?yeuei?noue ?co?o?a ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1921
?.), E-132, ? 615 — Iniiaa caeiio i?i a??iaeciaiiy ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e
?on? (1921 ?.), E-137, ? 626 — Ni?aae i?i i?aaineaaiee ?oo ia
I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1920-1923 ??., 1924-1926 ??., 1926-1939 ??.,
1928-1940 ??.), E-141-144, ? 823 — Aaei?i?no?aoeaia i?e?aeiaiiy
I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? aei *N? (1919-1923 ??.), E-217, ? 864 — Ni?aae
o?yaeo aoaa?iaoi?a I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? oa aoaa?i?aeueii? ?aaee
(1920-1938 ??.), E-225, ? 906 — Ieoaiiy aaoiiiiii? I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?
(1923-1938 ??.), E-231, ? 1199 — Caeii i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th eiaeeie ?
?ieiaeie o Neiaa//ei? oa I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1920-1933 ??.), E-364, ?
1479 — Aeiianaiiy i?i aioeaea?aeaai? aeneiae nayuaiee?a o
i?aeiiianoe?nuee?e oea?ea? ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1924-1925 ??.),
E-514, Ni?aae ?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae a *N? (1921-1922 ??.), ?
1731 — Ni?aae i?i ae?yeuei?noue ?aoi?iaonueei? oea?eae ia Neiaa//ei? oa
I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1921-1937 ??.), E-572, ? 1864 — Oii?yaeeoaaiiy
oo?eiaiiy aeooiaainoaa ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? (1921-1925 ??.), E-588
oa ?i.

Aeine?aeieeii oaeiae aeei?enoaii aeieoiaioe a?o?ao Ia?iaeiiai iocath o
I?ac?. Ooo caa??aa?oueny i?ea?iaeueiee oiiae «Niaaeueia O?aio?oea
Noa?aai», ui i?noeoue /eiaei oe?iieo aeieoiaio?a, ye? aein? ia aea/aeeny
iaoeiaoeyie. O oeeo aeieoiaioao eaeaoueny i?i ae?yeuei?noue
aeooiaainoaa, oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae eiioan?yie oa ?o aieea ia
a??oth/eo. Aeieoiaioe aia?oa aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a i?ney ?o
oii?yaeeoaaiiy a e?ioe? 1997 ?ieo.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iathoue caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Iaoe?iiaeueieo cai??a oa
?icii?yaeaeaiiy o?yaeo *aoineiaa//eie uiaei ae?yeueiino? ??cieo eiioan?e
oa aca?iei i?ae ieie.

Iaaia cia/aiiy o i?aeaioiaoe? aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaei aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ca??iee?a aeieoiaio?a «Oeyoii AEiaoiy». O ieo i?noyoueny
ie?ai? aeai? i?i iie?oe/ia oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua ia
Caea?iaoo? o ia?oa aeanyoee?ooy ia?aaoaaiiy e?ath a neeaae?
*aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee.

Aaaeeeaa ?ioi?iaoe?y aeey aiae?co ae?yeueiino? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei?
oea?eae o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ? o ca??ieeao «Oa?iia noa? yaiei» oa
«Aeieoiaioe ?iciia?aeathoue».

Ii?yae c oeei ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeacai? ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a aoee
iioae?eiaai? a 60-o? — ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a. Oiio i?e ?o i?aeai??
oeeaaea/? ea?oaaeeny ia?enenonueei-eai?inueeith iaoiaeieia??th.
Caoaaaeeii, ui, ii-ia?oa, aeia?? aeieoiaio?a o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae
cae?enithaaany iaeiinoi?iiiuei oaiaeaioe?eii, o?eueee c iaei??th iaoith
— ?ica?i/aiiy ?aaeoe?eii? ?ie? oi?aonueei? oea?eae. Ii-ae?oaa, a neeo
aeacaieo i?aeoiae?a o ca??ieeao ia ciaoiaeeii aeieoiaio?a i?i aca?ieie
i?ae eiioan?yie. Oea oa?aeoa?i? iaaeie?ee, ye? aeieeaaee a ia??iae
oioae?oa?ecio c eiai iie?oeee aoa?cio, ui, ia iao iiaeyae, noia?a/aoue
i?eioeeio iaoeiaino?.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aea/aiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie ? iaoa??aee ia?aieno
ianaeaiiy o 1921 ?ioe?, ye? a iioae?eiaaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo iaeaea ia
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, a oaeiae noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee ao?aeoacii?
*aoineiaa//eie. Ia?aeii? iaoa??aee ia?aieno ianaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiai?
noaoenoe/i? aeai? ?ice?eaathoue ?ae?a?ei?noue ianaeaiiy o Caea?iaoo?.

Aaoi?ii oaeiae aeei?enoaii ie?ai? aeena?oaoe?? oa aaoi?aoa?aoe: Iae?i/ae
I. I. Aea?aeaaa oa oea?eaa a *aoineiaa//ei? (1918-1938 ??.):
Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe:
07.00.03. — Oaeai?iae, 1993. — 159 n.; Iaeneieoaiaoe Aaneeee, nayuaiiee.
Enoi?ey i?aaineaaiie oea?eae a Caea?iaoneie ?one. Aeenna?oaoeey ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aiaineiaey. — Na?aeaa Iinaae:
O?ieoea-Na?aeaaa Eaa?a, 1994. — 231 n.; E?ooae ?. I. Caea?iaooy a
neeaae? *aoineiaa//eie: iniaeeaino? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo
(1919-1929). Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe: 07.00.02. OaeAeO. — Oaeai?iae, 1997. — 24
n.

Aaaaoee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iaoa??ae aeena?oaioii aeei?enoaii ?c /eneaiii?
ia??iaeeee, yeo aeioneaee iie?oe/i? ia?o??, a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? oa
?ae?a?ei? eiioan??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie ia
Caea?iaoo? o 1919-1929 ??.» (ia?aa?ao ia?oee) — ?icaeyaea?thoueny
aeeth/aiiy e?ath aei neeaaeo *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee oa eiai iniiai?
oiiae. Aeacai? ieoaiiy aeineoue oe?iei a?aeia?aaeaii a ?noi?e/i?e
e?oa?aoo??.

O aaaaoueio i?aoeyo, iaienaieo o ia??iae ?nioaaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco,
oey ?noi?e/ia iiae?y ioe?ithaaeany iaaaoeaii. Iiynithaaeany oaea oaca
i?aaiaiiyi ianaeaiiy e?ath oa?eoe aei neeaaeo Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae o
oiae?oi?o ?aaeueieo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao aaaeaiiy a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy
Caea?iaooy cae?enieoe aoei iaiiaeeeai.

I?e?aeiaiiy Caea?iaooy aei *N? aoei cae?eniaii aac o/ano? oe?ieeo
ia?iaeieo ian e?ath ? ia a?aeaeaaei ?noi?e/ieo ii?eaaiue ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? caea?iaonueeeo ?onei?a-oe?a?ioe?a. Ioaea, i?e?aeiaiiy noaei
?acoeueoaoii ca?ao ?yaeo i?aeia?iaeieo ianoaaei, aea aoei iaea?eueo
iioeiaeueiei aa??aioii ae??oaiiy aeie? Caea?iaooy o oiae?oi?o ?noi?e/ieo
oiiaao.

O ia?aa?ao? ae?oaiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua
ianaeaiiy e?ath. Aeiiii?/ia a?aenoae?noue, iaea?aeaia a niaaeueio a?ae
oai?nueeiai ?aaeeio, o aaaeeeo oiiaao aeieaeany a 1919-1929 ??.

Oaea a ia?oiio aeanyoee?oo? naiai iaioaaiiy ia Caea?iaoo? /anueeee oa
?iicaiiee eai?oae iiai?noth caaieiae?ee a?eueo?noth iniiaieo i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa. I?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a o e?a? ia aoei nii?oaeaeaii aeiaeiiai
aaeeeiai i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa.

?acii c oei iie?oe/ia no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa oa aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie
*aoineiaa//eie ia iiaee ia neoaeeoe iiooiaoii aeey iaaiiai iinooiiaiai
?icaeoeo e?ath. Anoia?a/ e?eciaei yaeuai 1921-1923 ?ie?a aeiaoaia ?
ia?iaia aaeoc? i?iieneiaino? ii/aee ia?iuoaaoe ianyae aeioneo
i?iaeoeoe??.

I?ia?aeiith aaeoccth ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa e?ath a 20-o? ?iee aoei
n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. Aea eiai ??aaiue ?icaeoeo caeeoaany iecueeei.
Caiaeueia ?aoi?ia, ui i?iaiaeeeany o 20-o ?ieao, ia aoea i?
iine?aeiaiith, i? cae?i/aiith. Aiia neoaeeea ?ici?aiith neaaeeo oa
a?aeieo ainiiaea?noa, iiaeeaethaaea nioe?aeueio ia??ai?noue. Aea iaea
aiia ? iiceoeai? noi?iie: /anoeia a?aeiye?a iaea?aeaea iaaaeee?
caiaeuei? iaae?ee.

Aaccaiaeey ? iaeicaiaeey, ui iaioaaee ia Caea?iaoo?, aieiae ? coaiae?iiy
aeeeeeaee iaaaeiaieaiiy ? aenooie o?oaeyueo, aaee aei ianiai?
ai?a?aoe??, oneeaaeithaaee i?aeeiioan?ei? noinoiee.

Oi/ iia?eueii, aea iinooiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua e?ath
aeaui iie?iooaaeiny o ii??aiyii? c oai?nueeei ia??iaeii.

O ia?aa?ao? o?aoueiio ?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no aeaiie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa oa ?? ?ieue o ?icaeoeo aeooiaii? ? iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?
ianaeaiiy Caea?iaooy.

*aoineiaa//eia aoea ao?aeoaciith oi?oa?iith
i?aceaeaionueei-ia?eaiaionueeith ?anioae?eith, iaea?eueo aeaiie?aoe/iith
na?aae iiainoai?aieo aea?aeaa. Eiinoeoooe?eia a?aiioa *N? 1920 ?.
iaaeaaaea I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? i?aai naiioi?aae?iiy ? i?iaieiooaaea
ia?niaeoeae ?? iaeoe?oi? aaoiiii??, a oaeiae i?aai ia aeaniee naei.

I?e iayaiino? naiaiaee neiaa ? i?aaa ia ?nioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
iie?oe/ieo, ?ae?a?eieo oa a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ia ii/aoeo 20-o
?ie?a ooai?ththoueny eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? oiaa?enoaa «I?ina?oa», ?i.
Aeooiiae/a, Nithc ?oneinueeeo th?eno?a a Oaeai?iae? oa ?io?. Aeioneaeiny
66 ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ia e?eueeio iiaao.

Aeaiie?aoeci noni?euenoaa cana?ae/oaaea nioe?aeueia iie?oeea aea?aeaae
oa ??aaiue ?ica’ycaiiy ?ae?a?eiiai ieoaiiy. Aiie aieeaaee ia ci?io
?ae?a?eii? no?oeoo?e ianaeaiiy Caea?iaooy, i?eaiaeeee aei eaaae?caoe??
?ai?oa caai?iiaieo eiioan?e. Eiinoeoooe?eia a?aiioa (1920 ?.)
i?iaieiooaaea caoeno ia?iaeieo, ?ae?a?eieo ? ?aniaeo iaioei oa ??ai?noue
a?iiaaeyi, iacaeaaeii a?ae «?ae?a??, a??e, a??iniia?aeaiiy».

Aeoeaii i?ioiaeea i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aaineaaii? oea?eae. A
aeooiaiiio aeeoo? e?ath a?aeaoeeny iii?oi? ye?ni? ci?ie. A??oth/?
caeiaoee cia/ii oe?o?, i?ae ca oai?nueeiai ?aaeeio, i?aaa. Aeoea?coaaee
naith o/anoue o a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?ath ?ae?a?ei?
i?aai?caoe?? oa i?aaenoaaieee aeooiaainoaa.

Iaee i?noea ? aioeaeaiie?aoe/i? i?iyae: canoinoaaiiy neee i?ioe
a??oth/eo, a oiio /ene? ca?ieii?, /ao?caoe?y ? o. i.

C ?icaeoeii aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa a on?o eiai oi?iao a?aeaoaaany
i?ioean c?inoaiiy iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino?, aeooiaii? ?iceooino? ?
a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino? ianaeaiiy e?ath.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «I?aeeiioan?eia ai?ioueaa o 1919-1924 ?ieao»
aena?oeaii iie?oeeo i?aaey/eo e?e *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee c ieoaiue
?ae?a?? ? oea?eae, i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aaineaa’y oa aieea
ia iueiai na?anueei? ? eiinoaioeiiiieuenueei? oea?eia, ci?ie o noaoon?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, noai ?oaeaenueei?, ?eii-eaoieeoeueei? oa
?ioeo eiioan?e. I?iaiae?ciaaii iac??aaiiy oneeaaeiaiue oa ?o i?e/eie o
a?aeiineiao i?ae a??oth/eie a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai oa i?aaineaaiiai
a??iniia?aeaiue.

O ia?aa?ao? ia?oiio aena?oeaii iioe?aiiy i?ioeano aeaiie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa ia ?ae?a?th, ianaiia?aae oeyoii iiaea?i?caoe??
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O. A. Iana?ee ? eiai i?eoeeueieee i?aaioee noai?eoe a aea?aeaa? oiiae
??aiii?aaiino? i?aaenoaaiee?a on?o eiioan?e. I?ia?aneaiei aoa oaea nai
na?onueeee oa?aeoa? aea?aeaae, a oaeiae i?aaiaiiy, oi/ ? ia ?aae?ciaaia
?c-ca iii?o aeooiaainoaa, aei a?aeie?aieaiiy oea?eae a?ae aea?aeaae ?
oeiee a?ae oea?eae. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii i?iaieioaiiai i?aaa ia naiaiaeo
nia?no? aoea iiaeeea?noue ci?ie a??iniia?aeaiiy aai noaoe
aaceiioan?eiei.

Iniiai? ieoaiiy ?ae?a?eiiai aeeooy aeaeea?oaaeeny Eiinoeoooe?eiith
a?aiioith *aoineiaa//eie. Ia?o? aea? ?? noaoo? aeaae oinoi?
i?iaieiooaaee ??ai?noue a?iiaaeyi ?anioae?ee iacaeaaeii a?ae
a??iniia?aeaiiy. Ii?iaoeai? aeoe anoaiiaethaaee ii?yaeie ocaeiiaiiy
eiioan?eii? i?eiaeaaeiino? a?iiaaeyi c ?o aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy. Ia
Caea?iaoo? aoei caa?aaeaii aano?i-oai?nueea caeiiiaeaanoai uiaei i?aaa
ci?ie eiioan?eiino?, a ia ?io?e oa?eoi??? *aoineiaa//eie aoee aaaaeai?
iia? caeiie.

A?o?ai? aeieoiaioe cana?ae/othoue, ui aea?aeaai? /eiiaieee, iniaeeai
?ai?aneaiee aia?ao, a ?yae? aeiaaee?a ia aeio?eioaaeenue eiinoeoooe?eieo
i?aa oa aeiia ?ioeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a uiaei i?aeeiioan?eieo aca?iei.
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ?c 1923 ?ieo niinoa??aaeinue aii?iiy ia i?aaineaaio
eiioan?th c aieo aoaa?i?aeueii? ?aaee. Nayuaieeai caai?iiyeiny iaa/aoe a
oeieao ?ae?a??. Ia aeciaaaeeny i?aaineaai? oea?eiai? oeiee.

Caeiiiaeaa/iai a?aaoethaaiiy aeiaaaee oea?eiai? iiaeiiino? eiaeeia ?
?ieiaeia.

Ai?ei i?iaiaey/e ?aea? Iana?eea uiaei ?ae?a?? a aeeooy, i?aaie
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee coi?ee ea?aeeiaeueii aieeaaoe ia eiioan?? oa
i?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie.

O ia?aa?ao? ae?oaiio aiae?co?oueny i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
i?aaineaa’y oa eiai ca’ycie ?c na?anueeith ? eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeith
oea?eaaie. A oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? /aoineiaaoeueeiai noni?euenoaa
?icii/aany aeoeaiee i?ioean iiiaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y. Oeaio?aie eiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noaee naea ?ca Oononueeiai oa Aaeee? Eo/ee Ioea/?anueeiai
ie?oa?a. Iaeiei ?c iaeaeoeai?oeo i?aai?caoi??a i?aaineaaiiai ?ooo aoa
Ieaen?e ?aaiiae/ Eaaaethe (a?o?iaiae?eo Aeaen?e).

I?i e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy i?aaineaaiiai ianaeaiiy na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe
ia?aieno ianaeaiiy o 1921 ?ioe? o I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on?. Ia oie /an eiai
/enaeuei?noue aei??aithaaea 60977 /ie., oiaoi 10,06 % a?ae caaaeueii?
/enaeueiino? ea?iaoi?onei?a. Aei e?ioey 20-o ?ie?a oey oeeo?a
iiaeai?eany. O 1923 ?ioe? c aeicaieo /aoineiaaoeueeiai o?yaeo a
Caea?iaoo? aoa noai?aiee ia?oee i?aaineaaiee iiianoe?. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
i?aaineaa’y i?ioiaeeei a oiiaao aaaeei? i?aeeiioan?eii? ai?ioueae
ianaiia?aae c a?aei-eaoieeoeueeith oea?eaith.

O ia??iae iiia?o?/ii? Oai?ueie i?aaineaai? oea?eiai? iaueie aoee i?ae
th?enaeeeoe??th na?anueei? oea?eae, eio?a ? iaaeae? i?aaioea caa?aaoe
oeae noaoon. C iaoith iaaeaiiy ?ooia? ca iioe?aiiy i?aaineaa’y
eaiii?/iino?, ???iiiiao I. Eaaaethe o 1920 ?ioe? caa?ioany aei Neiiaeo
na?anueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae c i?ioaiiyi i?iaeiaaeeoe ??
th?enaeeeoe?th iaae i?aaineaaieie Caea?iaooy. O oie aea /an o *ao??
ii/aea oi?ioaaoeny /aoineiaaoeueea iaoe?iiaeueia oea?eaa.

Oaeoe/ii oi?aae?iith na?anueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae i?aeeyaaea ?
i?acueea oea?eiaia a?iiaaea. I/iethaaa ?? ?ieneii Naaaao?e ( Aioii?i
A?aaaoe ), yeee aeiinea ieaie i?i oei/aniaa i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae o *aoineiaa//ei? Eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiio iao??a?oo,
a iio?i ooai?aiiy naiino?eii? oea?eae. Iiae?aio iie?oeeo a?i i?iaiaeea
? na?aae caea?iaonueeeo i?aaineaaieo. O oeueiio a?i ciaoiaeea i?aeo?eieo
c aieo /aoineiaaoeueeeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy. Aeaaea ia
i?aeo?eioaaea i?aaiaiiy caea?iaonueeeo i?aaineaaieo iaea?aeaoe ?ieneiia,
oi/a a oei/aniaiai, ?c Na?a??. Aea caaaeyee /anoei aeaeaaaoe?yi oa
iaii?aiaeoiai, ye? iai?aaeyeeny a I?aao oa aiane?aeie caa?iaiue ?
i?ioaiue aei Na?anueeiai Neiiaeo, ia Caea?iaooy o 1920 ?ioe? aoa
a?ae?yaeaeaiee iao??a?oii Na?a?? ?ieneii I?onueeee ? Ea?iaoi?onueeee
Aeineoae.

Aaaeeeaei th?eaee/iei oaeoii ii/aoeo a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y aoa
onoaiia/ee niai? o n. ?ca, ui a?aeaoany 19 na?iiy 1921 ?ieo i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii Aeineoay. O/anieee niai?o i?eeiyee noaooo ? ?aciethoe?th,
ooai?eee oei/aniaee eii?oao aeey aaaeaiiy ni?aa Ea?iaoi?onueei?
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae, eio?ee iaa aeeiioaaoe iaia’ycee eiinenoi???, a
Aeineoae noaa ?ieneiiii i?eoeeueiee?a na?anueei? a?oee i?aaineaaieo. 2
aeiaoiy 1924 ?ieo aoei ooai?aii i?aaineaaio eiinenoi??th
I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?.

Cia/ii? oeiaee i?aaineaaiiio ?ooia? iaiineea aioo??eiioan?eia ai?ioueaa
ca th?enaeeeoe?th. A ?acoeueoao? oe??? ai?ioueae o e?a? noi?ioaaeeny
aea? a?oie i?aaineaaieo. Ia?oa c ieo aeciaaaea na?anueeo, a ae?oaa —
eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeo th?enaeeeoe?th.

An? aaei?i?no?aoeai? ieoaiiy /aoineiaaoeueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae aoei
ae??oaii a iniiaiiio o 1926 ?ioe?, ia oeae /an o?yae *aoineiaa//eie oa
ea??aieoeoai na?anueei? oea?eae ocaiaeeee nai? ae??, oei naiei
aeicaieeaoe e?ioeaai ae??oeoe ieoaiiy th?enaeeeoe?? ia iniia? ?noi?e/ieo
oa eaiii?/ieo aeaieo ia ei?enoue na?anueei? oea?eae. Ioaea, i?aaineaa’y
iaea?aeaei e?au? iiaeeeaino? aeey aeaeueoiai eiai ?icaeoeo a Caea?iaoo?.
Ai?ioueaa ca aieea i?aaineaa’y eiinoaioeiiiieuenueeiai ? na?anueeiai, ui
cia/ii ineaaethaaea oeae ?oo, ii/aea iinooiiai ao?a/aoe naith aino?ioo.

O ia?aa?ao? o?aoueiio a?aeia?aaeaii iniiai? ci?ie o noaoon? oi?aonueei?
oea?eae. I?ney ?iciaaeo Aano?i-Oai?ueie a?aei-eaoieeoeuee? nayuaieee
i?iaeiaaeoaaee i?ioai?nueeo aioe/aoineiaaoeueeo iie?oeeo. A ?ieneii A.
Iaii a?aeiiaeany a?ae i?eeiyooy i?enyae ia a??i?noue *aoineiaaoeuee?e
?anioae?oe?. A ?acoeueoao? a 1924 ?ioe? eiai aoei onoiaii c iinaaee
?ieneiia Ioea/?anueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? ?ia?o??, a ia eiai i?noea
i?ecia/aii eaiiieea Iao?a Aaaay (1924-1931 ??.). C eiai ?iaiai iia’ycaia
aeooiaia oa aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?anoaa?aoe?y ?ia?o??.

Ca /an naiai a?o?ianoe?nueeiai i?aae?iiy I. Aaaae a?aea?aeaa iaeaea 2/3
i?eoiae?a ?ia?o??, a?aa o/anoue o aaeeeeo iai?oanoaoe?yo — a?aeionoao o
iaeaecia/i?oeo i?noeyo ?ia?o??. Aeiiiiaaaa iiiaoai eiaeiiai ?ieo
i?iaiaeeoe i?n?iia?nuee? iioiaee, a aaaaoueio c yeeo a?aa o/anoue ? nai.
Aeoeaii i?aeo?eioaaa /aniien «Aeaaia?niee», a oaeiae ae?oeiaaiee i?aai
?ia?o?? — «Aeooianoe?» oa eiai aeiaeaoie «Aeia?ee ianoe?».

Ia aaaeath/e ao?a/aoe nai?o iiceoe?e, oi?aoe ai?iaaaeaeoaaee
??ciiiai?oi?, o oiio /ene? ? iia? iaoiaee oa oi?ie aieeao ia ianaeaiiy.
Aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeiny ae?oeiaaia neiai. Any oey ae?yeuei?noue
neoaeeea i?ioenoiyiith i?aaineaaiiio ?ooia?.

Iieeaaeath/e cia/i? iaae?? o ni?aa? a?aeiiaeaiiy aieeao
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, ui iioeoioany, ia iiiao?a i?aeaio Aanee?ai,
?ia?o?y i?iaaea eiai ?aoi?io. ?aoi?ia iiaeiia aoea neoaeeoe iineeaiith
aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a eaoieeoeueeiio aeon?, i?aai?caoe?? eaoieeoeueeiai
?ooo, i?n?iia?noaa, i?ioeae?? i?aaineaaiiio ?ooia?, ai?iouea? i?ioe
a?eueiiaeoinoaa ? o. i. Aanee?aie caoaeoaaee aeey nai?o iio?aa a
Oaeai?iae? aeanio ae?oea?ith, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ?icai?ioeany oe?iea
aeaeaaie/a ae?yeuei?noue.

I?aaio/e caa?aaoe anaioiiethth/ee aieea ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy
e?ath, oi?aonuee? nayuaieee aeoeaii caeiaeeny iie?oeeith. A. Aieioei aoa
oaeoe/ii iaeiei ?c caniiaiee?a ? ea??aiee?a ?onueei? oe?ai?ianueei?
ia?o?? (1920-1924 ??.), a i?ci?oa — O?enoeyinueei-ia?iaeii? ia?o??.
Iie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue oi?aonoaa iniaeeai yne?aai i?iyaeyeany
iaia?aaeiaei? ? a oiae? aeai?/eo eaiiai?e.

Oaeei /eiii, noaiiaeua a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae i?ney aoiaeaeaiiy
Caea?iaooy aei neeaaeo *aoineiaa//eie cia/ii ci?ieeiny. Aiia ia?anoaea
aooe ?aeeiith i?ia?aeiith aea?aeaaiith ?ae?a??th o e?a?. Aoei a?aei?iaii
oea?eiai? iiaeiiino? — eiaeeio ? ?ieiaeio. A a?eueo?noue oi?aonueeeo
nayuaiee?a aeaee eeyoao ia a??i?noue *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?. Ci?ie
o noai? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, ni?yiiaai? ia ci?oeiaiiy aieeao ia
ianaeaiiy e?ath, aiaeii/an ni?e/eithaaee oneeaaeiaiiy noinoie?a ?c
i?aaineaaiith oea?eaith.

Ca /enaeuei?noth a??oth/eo i?ney a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oa i?aaineaaii?
oea?eia o?ao? i?noea iin?aeaea ?oaeaenueea eiioan?y. I?i ??
ae?yeuei?noue eaeaoueny a /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao?. Anueiai ?ic??ciaii a
e?a? ae?yee 24 a?iiaaee. Aaaeeeai iaaieineoe ia aeia?inon?aenueeiio
ni?aaeeoo? ?a?aenueeiai ianaeaiiy c i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioeo
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

Noai ?oaeaenueei? eiioan?? aoa aeineoue neeaaeiei. O 1922-1924 ?ieao o
oeueiio na?aaeiaeu? a?aeaoaaeany aioo??eiioan?eia ai?ioueaa, iaeia c
i?e/ei yei? iieyaaea o noia?a/eao i?ae i?oiaeienaeueiei ?
iiaea?i?nonueeei iai?yieaie oa eiioe?eoao ca e??nei ?aaeia, cie?aia, o
iaea?eueo?e ?a?aenuee?e a?iiaae? a Ioea/aa?. Aiaeia?/i? noia?a/ee iaee
i?noea ? a aeayeeo ?ioeo a?iiaaeao.

Iaaia /anoeia ianaeaiiy e?ath aoea ?eii-eaoieeoeueeiai oa
?aoi?iaonueeiai a??iniia?aeaiue. O iie?oe/iiio ieai? ae?? ? iiienee
ea??aieoeoaa oeeo oea?eia oa /anoeie ianoae iineee ?aaaioenonueeee
oa?aeoa? ? iaee ia iao? iiaa?iaiiy oa?eoi??? Caea?iaooy aei neeaaeo
Oai?ueie.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aei-eaoieeoeueei?, i?aaineaaii? oa ?oaeaenueei?
eiioan?e, o aeiiia?aeieo caieneao o?yaeo I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? ia
i?noeoueny, e??i ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aioo??eiioan?eia aeeooy
?eii-eaoieeoeueei?, ?aaiaae?nonueei?, iaoiaeenonueei?, aaioenonueei? oa
?ioeo oea?eia, oaeo?a i?aeeiioan?eii? ai?ioueae.

O 20-o ?ieao aeineoue neeuei? iiceoe?? caaithaaee o Caea?iaoo?
i?aaenoaaieee naeoe «Na?aeee Aiaa ?aiae», cie?aia a ie?aieo naeao
Ioea/?anueeiai oa ??oaanueeiai ie?oa?a. Aeacai? eiioan?? ? naeoe
ni?a?nioaaee a oiea?aioieo aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae niaith oa iaea?eueoeie
eiioan?yie.

Ia?aa?ao i’yoee i?enay/aiee aiae?co i?e/ei iac??aaiiy oneeaaeiaiue o
a?aeiineiao i?ae a??oth/eie a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai oa i?aaineaaiiai
a??iniia?aeaiue. Cia/ii oe?oa, i?ae ca oai?nueeiai ?aaeeio naiaiaea
nia?no?, ?aaeuei?o? iiaeeeaino? ci?ie eiioan?eiino? ii?iaeeee
aeoea?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? on?o eiioan?e ? naeo oa ianiaee ia?ao?ae
i?inoiai ia?iaeo ?c oi?aonueei? o i?aaineaaio a??o. Ciaioaiiy
/enaeueiino? ianoae aeeeeeaei o?eaiao o a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai ee??o.
Aaeaea oea aaei ? aei iaiaaeaiiy ?oiueiai aieeao ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia
aeeooy e?ayi oa ??ceiai ciaioaiiy a neeo oe??? oa ?ioeo i?e/ei i?eaooe?a
nayuaiee?a oa ?ia?o?? a oe?eiio.

A?aeo?ae cia/ii? e?eueeino? ianoae a?ae oi?aonoaa oa iia’ycai? c oeei
oaeoi?e i?eaaee aei ooai?aiiy neooaoe??, yeo a aeieoiaioao Oeea?eueii?
oi?aae I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? c aanie 1921 ?ieo io?oe?eii ii/aee iaceaaoe
?ae?a?eieie aiyie i?ae a?aei-eaoieeeaie ? i?aaineaaieie, ui noaiiaeei
iaaaciaeo aeey a?iiaaenueeiai niieith.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiinei i?ae a?aei-eaoieeoeueeith oa i?aaineaaiith
eiioan?yie o cia/i?e i??? aieeaaea cian?i ia aeiaiaoe/ia i?iaeaia nieaoe
«eiaeeie» ? «?ieiaeie». Oiio caeeee i?aaineaaieo aei a?aei?ie eiaeeie ?
?ieiaeie iaaeaa ia aeaai?iaeiee a?oio. AEeoae? aaaaoueio n?e aeoeaii
i?aeo?eioaaee oae? aeiiae, ui aeeeeeaei ?icae?aooaaiiy c aieo oi?ao?a ?
iiaeeaethaaei noia?a/iino?.

?ioei ia iaio aieth/ei i?noeai i?aai?caoe?? aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
a?aei-eaoieeeaie ? i?aaineaaieie, ae??oaiiy yeiai iaieio/a aaei aei ?o
oneeaaeiaiiy, aoei ieoaiiy oea?eiaiiai iaeia o a?iiaaeao, ye? ia?aeoee o
i?aaineaa’y. Ianaeaiiy aeacaieo a?iiaae, cae/aeii, aaaaeaei oea?eiaia
iaeii ? , cie?aia, oea?eiai? aoaeiae, aeani?noth a?iiaae ? caae?aei ?o o
nai? ?oee aai aeiaaaei ?o ia?aaea/?. Ia oeueiio a?oio? a?aeaoaaeeny
c?oeiaiiy c aeanoyie, a ?iiae? c ianaeaiiyi, yea caeeoeeiny i?e oi??.

Aei iiaeeaeaiiy i?aeeiioan?eieo noia?a/ie i?eaiaeeei ciouaiiy
a?aei-eaoieee?a oa aeaiaea?i?a iaae nayuaieeaie i?aaineaaieo oea?eia o
?yae? i?noeue e?ath. O?aieyeeny aeiaaeee, eiee aiie ae?eaaee o?anoe ?c
iiaee, aaiaeeee a oea?eae aeaiaea?i?a ?c ca?i?th, no??eyee a i?ei?uaiiyo
oea?eia ? o. i.

O ca’yceo c ianoa/ath oea?eiaieo i?ei?uaiue, i?aaineaai? i?iiiioaaee
ii/a?aiaa aiaineoae?iiy a ae?th/eo oea?eaao. Iaeiae oi?aoe eaoaai?e/ii
aenooiaee i?ioe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaei? i?aeoeee. A oiiaao iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?ie ia Caea?iaoo? aaea aoea i?aeoeea ii/a?aiaiai aiaineoae?iiy
i?aaineaaieo ? a?aei-eaoieee?a. I?ioa a ie?aieo i?eoiaeao iei? aaea
i?aaineaai? ia iiaiaeaeothoueny ia ii/a?aiaa aiaineoae?iiy a oea?eiaieo
o?aiao.

I?aeeiioan?eia ai?ioueaa ia?aiineeany ? ia ae?oae. O ioea/?anuee?e
a?iiac?? i?eoiaoaaee e?euee?noue i?aaineaaieo o/i?a. O 1923-1924
iaa/aeueiiio ?ioe? ooo aoee 22 i?aaineaai? o/i?, a a ??/iiio ca?o?
aeacaii 16. Oiio i?aaineaai? aeiaaaee iaeiaeiai? naiaiaee ? i?aa ia??ai?
c ?ioeie eiioan?yie, uia i?ooi ia iani?ethaaany i?eioooaaoe neeith
i?eeiaoe oi?th.

Aiae?c a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a cana?ae/o?, ui /eiaea aeiey aeie ca
caaino?aiiy i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei iaaea? ia aea?aeaai? i?aaie
oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae aeooiaainoai. C iaoith i?ioeai?noaa aeooiaainoai,
ianaiia?aae oi?aonueea, iie?oecoaaei i?aeeiioan?eio ai?ioueao, aoyaoaaei
a ia? ??ci? iie?oe/i? neee, ooai?thaaei ia?o??. ?nioaaei e?eueea ia?o?e
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai ni?yioaaiiy. A o 1925 ?ioe? a Oono? aoea ooai?aia ?
iie?oe/ia ia?o?y i?aaineaaieo i?ae iacaith Ia?oa aaoiiiiia i?aaineaaia
ia?o?y I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?.

Caaino?aiiy i?aeeiioan?eieo oa aioo??eiioan?eieo a?aeiinei iaiineei
aaeeei? oeiaee ?aeiino? o?oaeyueo, i?aai?ciaaiino? ?o ai?ioueae ca nai?
nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i? e iie?oe/i?, aeooiai? i?aaa.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? — «Iie?ioaiiy i?aeeiioan?eieo
a?aeiinei oa ?o i?noea o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ianaeaiiy
Caea?iaooy a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a» — aena?oeaii ocaeiiaiiy
ae?yeueiino? i?aaineaaii? oa noaa?e?caoe?th noaiiaeua
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eia, iiceoe?th i?aai?a aeaaee uiaei
i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei ? ae?yeuei?noue ?oaeaenueei? oa ?ioeo
?ae?a?eieo a?iiaae.

O aaaeeeo ? iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a
i?aaineaaiee ?oo i?iaeiaaeoaaa oe?eoeny a e?a?. Oi/ ? cia/ii
iia?euei?oa, i?ae o iiia?aaei? ?iee c?inoaea e?euee?noue i?eoiae?a oa
a??oth/eo. ?acii c oei, iineethaaany oene ia i?aaineaaieo c aieo i?aai?a
aeaaee. Iie?oe?y ? aeaiaea?ia??y ca caaaeaiiyi a?oea-aoaa?iaoi?a
I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? i?iaiaeeea iino?eiee iaaeyae ca i?aaineaaiei
?ooii.

Ia /eneaii? i?ioaiiy Ea?iaoi?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae Nayuaiiee
Neiiae na?anueei? oea?eae ae??oea a?aeiiaeoe noa?ii?aaineaaio
Ioea/?anueeo aia?o?th. Neiiae cayaea, ui yeui /aoineiaaoeueeee o?yae ia
caaacia/eoue naiaiaeo aeey i?aaineaaii? a??e a Ea?iaonuee?e ?on?, oi
na?anueea oea?eaa caa?iaoueny ?c nea?aith aei E?ae Iaoe?e. Ia
ia?aaiai?ao o Aaea?aae? 10 n?/iy 1924 ?ieo i?i?no? caei?aeiiieo ni?aa
*aoineiaa//eie a?ae ?iai? o?yaeo aeciaa i?aaa na?anueei? oea?eae a
Caea?iaoo?.

A?o???aenueeee niai? Na?anueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae i?eeiya ??oaiiy, ca
caiaeith o?yaeo *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee, i?i iaaeaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue
?ieneiio Iiainaaenueei-Aa/nueeiio ??eiath (*???/o) aeey aeaeueoi?
i?aai?caoe?? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae a Ea?iaonuee?e ?on?. Iaeiei ?c
iaeneeaaei?oeo ieoaiue aeey i?aaineaa’y aoei iaoa??aeueia oo?eiaiiy
aeooiaainoaa. Ia oea aoee ni?yiiaai? iniiai? coneeey oi?aaeyth/iai
Ea?iaoi?onueeith i?aaineaaiith oea?eaith. C i?eaoooyi o Caea?iaooy a?i
iaaaeii acyany ca neeaaeaiiy iiaiai noaoooo, ine?eueee aa??aio
i?aeaioiaeaiee ?ieneiiii Aeineoa?i, o?yae *aoineiaa//eie ia
caoaa?aeaeoaaa. ??eiath aaeaeiny aeiiiaoeny oiai, ui o?yae aia?oa
?icii/aa iaaeaaaoe oi/ aeayeo i?aeo?eieo i?aaineaai?e oea?ea? —
noaaaioe?th aeey oo?eiaiiy ?ia?o?? oa nayuaiee?a.

Cai?noue ??eiay a?o???aenueeee Niai? o eenoiiaae? 1927 ?ieo iai?aaea o
I?aeea?iaonueeo ?onue ?ieneiia Na?aoeia (?aaiiae/a). C eiai i?e?caeii
?icii/aeany nenoaiaoe/ia ?iaioa ii aeaoooaaiith ?ia?o?? oa aeinyaiaiith
aioo??eiioan?eii? ceaaiaee. Aoei ooai?aii ?ia?o?aeueia oi?aae?iiy,
ii/aee nenoaiaoe/ii, oi/ ? a aeoaea iae?e e?eueeino?, iinooiaoe eiooe
a?ae aea?aeaae. ?ia?o?y iaea?aeaea i?aai ia aeeeaaeaiiy Caeiio Aiaeiai a
oeieao, aeaeaea aeaa i?ae?o/ieee c oeueiai i?aaeiaoo. ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi
oi?aaeyth/iai ea?iaoi?onueeith i?aaineaaiith ?ia?o??th ca ? 4 a?ae 22
o?aaiy 1928 ?ieo aoee i?aai?ciaai? eo?ne aeey nayuaiee?a. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue aeooiaainoaa ia’?aeiaeany i?ae na?anueeith th?enaeeeoe??th.

6 /a?aiy 1929 ?ieo noaooo Ea?iaoi?onueei? i?aaineaaii? ?ia?o??
Ioea/?anueei? aoa i?eeiyoee o?yaeii *aoineiaa//eie aei ?icaeyaeo ?
caoaa?aeaeaiiy. A 6 a?oaeiy 1929 ?ieo I?i?noa?noai oe?e oa ia?iaeii?
ina?oe caoaa?aeeei noaooo ?ia?o?? i?ae ?161.181-VI. Oeei aeoii aoei
ocaeiiaii ae?yeuei?noue ?ia?o?? i?ae na?anueeith th?enaeeeoe??th.
Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa a?aaoethaaiiy noaoono ?ia?o?? cia/ii ni?eyei
ii?iae?caoe?? oea?eiaiiai aeeooy ? ianaiia?aae i?aeeiioan?eieo
aca?iia?aeiinei.

Ia i?aenoaa? iiaea?i?ciaaieo aano?i-oai?nueeeo oa iiaeo /aoineiaaoeueeeo
caeii?a i?aeoe/ii a e?ioe? 20-o ?ie?a aoei cae?eniaii
i?aai?caoe?th i?aaineaaii? Ioea/?anueei-I?yo?anueei? ?ia?o??. Iaeiei ?c
caaa?oaeueieo ? aeoaea aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a oeueiai o?eaaeiai ? neeaaeiiai
i?ioeano noaei caoaa?aeaeaiiy noaoooo ?ia?o??. Ia?aoo? i?aaineaaia
oea?eaa o Caea?iaoo? aeiiiaeany ??aiii?aaiiai c ?ioeie oea?eaaie noaio.
Ana oea ni?eyei a?aeiiaeaiith i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo a??oth/eo o
i?aaineaa’y, yeee aoa iaeaea i?ecoieiaiee, oa oi?ioaaiith ??aiii?aaieo
noinoie?a c ?ioeie eiioan?yie ? i?aaiaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Noaa?e?caoe?y noaiiaeua a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae aiae?co?oueny a
ia?aa?ao? ae?oaiio. No??ieee ? /eneaiiee a?aeo?ae a??oth/eo c
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? eiioan?? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a iaeaea
i?eieieany. Ea??aieoeoai ?ia?o?? noaei cia/ii a a?eueo?e i???
eiio?iethaaoe noai ni?aa ? oi?aaeyoe neooaoe??th.

Oi?aonueea aeooiaainoai ia?anoaei a?aee?eoi ? ianiai i?iyaeyoe
i?ioai?nuee? iano?i?. Oea aeaui ciaioeei iaaeia??o aei iueiai ? oea?eae
i?inoiai ia?iaeo. Iaeiae ? eiyeuei?noue aei *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee
yaii ii/aea i?iyaeyoeny o?eueee c ae?oai? iieiaeie 20-o ?ie?a. Ia oea
aoea ni?yiiaaia oaeiae aio/ea iie?oeea uiaei i?aai?a aeaaee c aieo ee??o
? ia?aaeon?i ?ieneiia I. Aaaay, ui aea?aeii a?ae??ciyeany a?ae
ae?yeueiino? eiai iiia?aaeieea A. Iaiia. Caeii i?i eiia?oa a?ae 25
/a?aiy 1926 ?ieo oaeoe/ii onoioa aieiaio i?e/eio eiioe?eoo i?ae ee??ii
oa aeaaeith — iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy oi?aonueeiai aeooiaainoaa.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai ?icii/aeiny caeeaeaiiy ? ni?a?ia?oieoeoai
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae c i?aaiaie aeaaee ia Caea?iaoo?.

C i?ecia/aiiyi I. Aaaay ?ieneiiii Ioea/?anueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei?
?ia?o?? a?i neeaa i?enyao ia a??i?noue *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe?, a
oaeiae iai?n a?ceoe i?aceaeaioia? Iana?eeo oa i?ia?aeiei i?i?no?ai. Oea
a?aee?eei eiio aeaa?? aei aeaaeieo ei?eaei??a ? cia/ii ?icoe?eei
iiaeeeaino? a?aenoithaaiiy ?ioa?an?a eiioan??. A?aeo?ae Ioea/?anueei?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? ?ia?o?? a?ae i?ioenoiyiiy c /aoineiaaoeueeith
i?aaey/ith ae?oith, iniaeeai ?? i?aaenoaaieeaie a Caea?iaoo?, neoaeea
ci?oeiaiith ooo iiceoe?e Aaoeeaio a oe?eiio oa iineeaiith ?cieyoe??
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy c a?aoaie ia noiae? a?ae Ea?iao. Iaeii/anii oea
aaei aei iinooiiai? e?ea?aeaoe?? o?ii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? eiioan??.

Ci?ie a noai? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae aeia?a a?aeia?aaeai? a
ianoe?nueeiio iineaii? I. Aaaay c iaaiaee Iiaiai 1926 ?ieo. ?ieneii
aeiaaaa a?ae nayuaiee?a ia o?eueee aeia?a aeeiioaaoe nai? iaia’ycee, ye
oea aoei ?ai?oa, aea e aooe aeoiaaoaeyie iieiae?, ii?aaeieeaie aeey
aei?ineeo, aa?oiaeie a?ae iioe?aiiy aeoaeo oa aeoeaieie i?ia?aeieeaie
oea?eiaii? a?iiaaee. Iia? oiiae, ia aeoieo ?ieneiia, aeiaaaee a?ae
aeooianoe?y oe?eaaeoeny ainiiaea?nueeeie oa nioe?aeueieie i?iaeaiaie
nai?o a??oth/eo. Oea aoa iiaee i?aeo?ae o iinoaiiaoe? caaaeaiue
ea??aiiai ee??o ia?aae aeooiaainoaii. A?ae ieo aeiaaaeiny ia?iuoaaiiy
ianooaa?a aieeao ia ianoao.

A. Aieioei c aeaaineiaaiiy I. Aaaay 10 n?/iy 1928 ?ieo canioaaa ao?oie
aeooiaainoaa o?enoeyinueei-ia?iaeii? ia?o??. Eiai caaaeaiiyi aoei
iie?oe/ia aeoiaaiiy nayuaiee?a.

O eeno? ? 1002/925, aae?aniaaiiio on?i nayuaieeai, ?ieneii I. Aaaae
ienaa, ui o a?aeiia?aeue ia ianooi i?aaineaaieo, i?ney eiinoeueoaoe?e c
?ieneiiii I?yo?anueei? ?ia?o?? Ae. Iy?aae?, a?i ae??oea canioaaoe
«?ia?o?aeueio Oeaio?aeueio Eaioeaey??th iai?iie a??e ? oea?eae». Ia?aae
iiaith i?aai?caoe??th noaaeeeny caaaeaiiy ?ioi?ioaaoe oe?ie? eiea
a?iiaaenueeino? c ieoaiue oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eieo a?aeiinei oeyoii
ioae?eaoe?? noaoae o a?aei-eaoieeoeueeeo /aniienao. Oeaio?aeueia
eaioeaey??y iiaaea oe?ieo ianooiaeueio i?iiaaaiaeenonueei-aa?oaoe?eio
eaiiai?th a i?noeaa?e oa ca?oa?aei?e i?an?. Ianiai ioae?eoaaeeny
aioei?aaineaai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iaoa??aee. Iieacoaaeeny, oi/ ? iaeiia?/ii,
iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ?ae?a?eii? ai?ioueae.

Aac noii?ao, neooaoe?y o i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiineiao cia/ii ci?ieeany. ?
oi?aonoai ia iiaei iiaa?iooe nia? ao?a/aieo iiceoe?e, oiai aieeao ia
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy, yeee aiii iaei aei ?iciaaeo
Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???. A?aei-eaoieeoeueea aeooiaainoai i?oei ia
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c i?aaiaie aeaaee cia/iith i??ith ?c-ca iaoa??aeueieo
aeaiae.

O ia?aa?ao? o?aoueiio ?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ? aca?ieie
?oaeaenueei? oa ?ioeo ?ae?a?eieo a?iiaae o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a.
O e?a? ia ?nioaaei aino?iai aioaaii?cio i?ae ?oaeaenueeith oa ?ioeie
eiioan?yie, a oiio ia aoei ? i?iya?a aa?aneaiiai aioenai?oecio. I?ae
ieie ae?yee i?eioeeie oa?ieiino? oa aca?iiiiaaae ?ae?a?eieo ii/ooo?a. O
neeaaeieo oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y, iai?eeeaae, ia aoei iaeaea
aeiaeiiai aeiaaeeo oneeaaeiaiue i?ae ?oaeaenueeith oa i?aaineaaiith
eiioan?yie.

Aae aei na?aaeeie 30-o ?ie?a i?oiaeienaeueia ?a?aenueea ?ae?a?eia
a?iiaaea ia I?aeea?iaonuee?e ?on? ia iaea ?aeeii? i?aai?caoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e oa oeaio?aeueiiai ea??aiiai i?aaio. Iane?aeeii oeueiai aoea
iai?aai?ciaai?noue, /anii aia?o?y, ui aaee aei aioo??oi?o noia?a/ie ?
eiioe?eo?a o ?oaeaenueeeo a?iiaaeao. ?ioith i?e/eiith aioo??eiioan?eieo
eiioe?eo?a aoei iioe?aiiy iiaea?i?nonueeiai iai?yieo.

?eii-eaoieeoeueea oa ?aoi?iaonueea eiioan?? i?iyaeyee a oe?eiio
oiea?aioi?noue o noaaeaii? aei ?ioeo eiioan?e.

O Caea?iaoo? aeineoue aeoeaii iioe?thaaany naeoaionueeee ?oo, cie?aia
aaioeci oa noaioieoeoai. Iioe?aiiy naeoaionoaa oaeiae aaei aei ciaioaiiy
/enaeueiino? ianoae, ianaiia?aae a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? eiioan??. O ca’yceo
c oeei oi?aonueea aeooiaainoai ?icii/aei aeoeaio aioenaeoaionueeo
i?iiaaaiaeo.

O ia?aa?ao? /aoaa?oiio ?ice?eaa?oueny iiceoe?y aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
aeaaee uiaei i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 20-o ?ie?a. 9
o?aaiy 1925 ?ieo aoa iioae?eiaaiee ? anooiea o ae?th iiaee caeii ? 96
a?ae 23 ea?oiy oiai ae ?ieo i?i aca?ii? a?aeiineie i?ae a??oth/eie
??cieo a??iniia?aeaiue.

Caeii i?noea /eiaei iiaeo iieiaeaiue o ii??aiyii? c eieeoi?i
aano?i-oai?nueeei caeiiiaeaanoaii. O iueiio eoeiny i?i a?aaoethaaiiy
ii?yaeeo caieno a??iniia?aeaiiy iiaiia?iaeaeaieo, iaaeiei /iai oi/eeeny
aei?noie? noia?a/ee, iniaeeai i?ae a?aei-eaoieeeaie oa i?aaineaaieie.

Iiia?aaei? anoaiiaeaiiy a??iniia?aeaiiy, ye aeicaieyeiny ?iaeoe aei oeeo
i?? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ia?aa?aoii ia?oei caeiio ? 32/1894, yeui aaoueee
iaeaaeaee aei ??cieo eiioan?e, ui iaaeaaaei iaaio ia?aaaao
a?aei-eaoieeeai, iiaee caeii ia ia?aaeaa/aa. O ca’yceo c oeei
a?aei-eaoieeoeueea ?ia?o?y nai?i ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi aaaaeaea
caa?aaeaiiy ianoae, oiaoi, uia a?ae ieo ia a?aeiyee iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
ae?oae. Nayuaiee?a ciaia’ycoaaee i?e o?auaii? iaaaaeoaaoe aaoueeai, uia
aiie ? i?e caienao o iao?e/i? aeieoiaioe aeiaeaaeeny aianaiiy
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai a??iniia?aeaiiy.

Caeii aeaui iieaaooaaa ia?ao?ae c iaeiiai a??iniia?aeaiiy a ?ioa. C
aeinyaiaiiyi 16 ??/iiai a?eo eiaeai iaaoaaa i?aai a?eueii ? naiino?eii
ia?aoiaeeoe c iaei??? a??e a ?ioo. Ae?oyi aei 16 ?ie?a caai?iiyeiny
naiino?eii ci?ithaaoe ?ae?a?th. Oaea i?aai iaee o?eueee ?oi? aaoueee,
ii?eoie aai aeoiaaoae?. Caeii ?aaoethaaa a?ioia? oa iaoo?aeuei?
iiaeiiino? a??oth/eo, anoaiiaethaaa ii?yaeie ni?eueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
eeaaeiaeu, ui oaae aoei iaei??th c i?e/ei aino?eo i?aeeiioan?eieo
eiioe?eo?a.

Ocaeiithaaeiny oaeiae i?aai ?ae?a?eieo iaioei ia iaa/aiiy nai?? ?ae?a??
a oeieao. Iaaeaaaeiny i?aai iaa/aiiy ?ae?a?? oa o/ano? a ia?yaeao ai?iai
? nooaeaioai, aea c oiiaith, uia oea ia caaaaeaei ?nioth/iio a onoaiia?
ii?yaeeo. ?acii c oei, yeui ?ioei eiioan?yi aeicaieyeiny iaa/aoe ae?oae
a?aeiia?aeii? ?ae?a?? a oeieao, oi ca ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi oe?eueiiai
a?aeae?eo Oeea?eueii? oi?aae I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? /. 1116/27
i?aaineaai? oaeiai i?aaa aoee iicaaaeai?. Cae??iethaaeeny o
caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo i?aaa «bezvyznani», oiaoi aaceiioan?eieo
a?iiaaeyi, a oaeiae ?yae ?ioeo iieiaeaiue, ui ?ai?oa neoaeeee i?e/eiith
i?aeeiioan?eieo noia?a/ie. Oaeei /eiii o e?a?i? i?ioyaii 20-o ?ie?a
a?aeaoaaany i?ioean oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa c ieoaiue ?ae?a?eieo
a?aeiinei.

Ieoaiiyie eiioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? a *aoineiaaoeuee?e ?anioae?oe? a?aeaa
a?aeae?e eoeueo?a i?i?noa?noaa oe?e oa ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Niaoe?aeueiiai
i?i?noa?noaa /e oi?aae?iiy c ieoaiue eoeueo?a ia ?nioaaei. Ia Caea?iaoo?
ieoaiiyie ae?yeueiino? ??cieo ?ae?a?e a?aeaa ?aoa?ao (a?aeae?e — I. Ae.)
oe?eueieoeoaa Oeea?eueiiai oi?aae?iiy, a i?ney aaei?i?no?aoeaii? 1928
?ieo ?aoi?ie — Cainueeiai oi?aae?iiy I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on?. A?aeae?e
uieaa?oaeueii oa ui??/ii ia iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?? c i?noeue, ianaiia?aae
aeoiieo oi?aae?iue, aiae?coaaa noai i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei, aiinea
i?iiiceoe?? ea??aieoeoao c aeaii? i?iaeaie. Nenoaiaoe/ii i?iaiaeeeeny
ia?aaee, o oiio /ene? ae?ci?, /anoi c o/anoth a?oea-aoaa?iaoi?a I.
A?aioaeueaea oa an?o aeoiai?a. Iaaiai?thth/e neooaoe?th, o/anieee ia?aae
ae?iaeyee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?ica’ycaiith i?iaeaiieo ieoaiue. I?i noai
i?aeeiioan?eieo noinoie?a i?aaie aeaaee nenoaiaoe/ii ?ioi?ioaaea
iie?oe?y, eio?a aaea iaaeyae ca ieie.

sse cana?ae/othoue oaeoe, ianooi oi?ao?a ia i?aaineaaieo o aaeee?e i???
aoa oni?oiei caaaeyee iacaaa?oaiino? i?aai?caoe?? i?aaineaaii? ?ia?o??,
a oaeiae o caaaeueiiio ieae/iio ??aith eaae?o?eaoe?? aeooiaainoaa, eiai
iaeiia??i?e a?aeiino? ii??aiyii c oi?aonueeei aeooiaainoaii,
a?aenooiino? iaeaea aei e?ioey 20-o ?ie?a o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee c aieo
aea?aeaae, o oiio /ene? eiia?oa. A ?acoeueoao? aeaaea aaaaeaea, ui
caea?iaonueea i?aaineaa’y ia ciiaea aooe aea?aeaaioai?/ei, a oiio
o?eaaeee /an ia iini?oaea ocaeiithaaoe eiai ae?yeuei?noue.

Eiinoeoooe?eii ocaeiieaoe i?aai ia iie?eiioan?ei?noue aac aeae?eaiiy
i?ea?eaeiaaieo eiioan?e o aea?aeaa?, ea??aieoeoai *aoineiaa//eie, a ca
iei ? Caea?iaooy i?iaiaeeei iie?oeeo noai?aiiy a iniiaiiio ??aieo
iiaeeeainoae aeey ??cieo eiioan?e. Aea a oaeeo oiiaao ia?aaaaa
iaaeaaaeany oei eiioan?yi, ye? a a?eueo?e i??? i?aeiaaeaee i?ae aeiiae
iana?ee?anueei? ?aeaieia?? uiaei i?noey ?ae?a?? o aea?aeaa?.

Iaaeath/e iaaio i?aeo?eieo ??ciei a?oiai i?aaineaaieo ia Caea?iaoo?,
o?yae *aoineiaa//eie oa ea??aieoeoai a e?a? ooo/ii i?aeo?eioaaee ?iceie
i?aaineaaii? iaueie. Oea cia/ii ineaaethaaei iiceoe?? i?aaineaaieo
ia?aaeon?i o i?ioenoiyii? c a?aei-eaoieeoeueeith eiioan??th.

Ci?ia a na?aaeei? 20-o ?ie?a ?ieneiia Ioea/?anueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei?
?ia?o?? i?eaaea ? aei ci?ie a?aeiinei i?ae oi?aoaie oa aeaaeieie
no?oeoo?aie. A oea ii?iaeeei ia ia?oiio aoai? caaino?aiiy
i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei.

Oea?eae i?aaineaaieo i?eoiae?a a ie?aieo naeao noaee iiaa?oaoe
a?aei-eaoieeeai. Iie?oe/i? ?io?eae i?aaeoae?a *aoineiaa//eie oa
I?aeea?iaonueei? ?on? o?aa?/ii a?aeaeaaeeny ia aeie? i?inoeo a??oth/eo.
A iniaeeai oiae?, eiee aeaaea, i?iyaeyth/e ianeeey, canoiniaoaaea o
i?aeeiioan?eieo noia?a/eao aeaiaea?i?a ? ca?ith.

Aeena?oaoe?y caaa?oo?oueny aeniiaeaie, o yeeo i?aenoiiaaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy. Aaoi? a?aecia/a? iiceoeaia
cia/aiiy aoiaeaeaiiy Caea?iaooy aei neeaaeo *aoineiaaoeueei? aea?aeaae
aeey nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?ath.
Aaaeeeaa i?noea a oeueiio ieai? iaea aeaiie?aoecaoe?y noni?euenoaa oa ??
aieea ia ?icaeoie na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy. Aeaiie?aoeci *aoineiaaoeueei?
aea?aeaae iaaeaaaa iaeaea ??ai? iiaeeeaino? aeey ae?yeueiino? an?o
eiioan?e oa a??ia/aiue. Iaeiae a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?aaineaa’y ii?iaeeei
iaeii/anii ? aino?? i?aeeiioan?ei? noia?a/ee, ia?o ca ana i?ae
a?aei-eaoieeeaie ? i?aaineaaieie.

I?aeeiioan?eia ai?ioueaa iaaoaaea ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i. Iniiaieie c ieo
aoee aeiaiaoe/i? noia?a/ee oa c i?eaiaeo i?aaa ?nioaaiiy o e?a?
i?aaineaa’y, nooe/ee, ianeeueia caoiieaiiy o?ai?a oa oea?eiaiiai iaeia ?
o. i.

I?aeeiioan?ei? noia?a/ee iaee iaaaoeai? iane?aeee. Aiie ineaaethaaee
?aei?noue noni?euenoaa, ae?eeee eiai ia eiioe?eooth/? oa?oioaaiiy,
?oeioaaee o?aaeeoe?eio caea?iaonueeo oiea?aioi?noue, ciaiooaaee
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ia?iaeo o ai?iouea? ca nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i?,
iaoe?iiaeuei? oa eoeueoo?i? ? ?ae?a?ei? ?ioa?ane. I?eieiaiith
i?aeeiioan?eieo eiioe?eo?a o cia/i?e i??? ni?eyei ci?oeiaiiy oa
ocaeiiaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aaineaaii? eiioan??. A ?acoeueoao? aiie
ia?aeoee ia?aaaaeii a ?onei anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii ii?i.

Aaeeea caneoaa a i?aai?caoe?? oa e?ioeaaiio aeciaii? aea?aeaaiith
aeaaeith ae?yeueiino? Ioea/?anueei? i?aaineaaii? ?ia?o?? iaeaaeeoue
Na?anuee?e i?aaineaai?e oea?ea?.

Iaeii/anii ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o Caea?iaoo? noi?ioaaany ? aeo?eioaaany
ia?aaaaeii ae?oaeiee oa?aeoa? noinoie?a, e??i caaaeaieo, iaeaea i?ae
on?ia ?ioeie eiioan?yie, o oiio /ene? — ?oaeaenueeith.

Aeina?ae i?aeeiioan?eii? ai?ioueae 20-o ?ie?a iieaco?, ui i?ioenoiyiiy ?
aeiaiaoe/i? aeiiaaaiiy ii?iaeaeothoue noni?eueiee ianiie?e ? cei,
ci?iththoue nioe?aeueio nooue ? ooieoe?? aoaeue-yei? ?ae?a??, ?iaey/e ??
nioe?aeueii iaaacia/iith, ia?aaaaeii ?aaeoe?eiith. Noii? o?iee
a?aenooiino? i?aeeiioan?eii? oiea?aioiino? ? iayai?noue oaiaoecio a/aoue
iaia?aaeiaei? 2000-e?ooy ia?iaeaeaiiy O?enoa ? aeiaaathoue ?iaeoe
aeniiaee a ?ioa?anao caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae a oiiaao iiaoaeiae
aeaiie?aoe/ii? i?aaiai? iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

1. Aeaeaaai I. «Iao? ?oneie iaeaea an? eiei caie? …» ?onueea
oe?ai?ianueea (caiea?ianueea) ia?o?y ia Caea?iaoo? //Ea?iaonueeee e?ae.
— 1995.- Aa?anaiue-a?oaeaiue .- ? 9-12.- N. 68-71.

2. Aeaeaaai I. Ieoaiiy ?anoeoooe?? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a a oiiaao
Caea?iaooy //Nooae?? a?o?aiciaanoaa oa aeieoiaioiciaanoaa. O. 1.- Ee?a,
1996.- N. 28-29.

3. Aeaeaaai I. Na?aeee neai? aeaaieie //Ea?iaonueeee e?ae .- 1996
.- Na?iaiue-a?oaeaiue .- ? 8-12. N. 64-67.

4. Aeaeaaai I. Aeieoiaioe Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?
i?i oi?aonueeo oea?eao ia Caea?iaoo?. Caaaeueiee iaeyae
//Oaeai?iaenuee?e oi?? — 350 ?ie?a .- Oaeai?iae, 1997. — N. 139-144.

5. Aeaeaaai I. Ia?oee iiia? aeo?iaeo «I?aai» ia Caea?iaoo? //I?aai
Oe?a?ie .- 1998.- ? 4.- N. 92-95.

6. Aeaeaaai I. ?oaeaenoai oa ?io? a??oaaiiy ia Caea?iaoo? (1919-1929
??.) //Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i
Oeaio?aeueii? oa I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie: no/aniee noai, i?iaeaie,
ia?niaeoeae. Aeiiia?ae? oa iia?aeiieaiiy iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/aii? 70-??//th aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a, caneoaeaiiai
i?aoe?aieea ina?oe Oe?a?ie A?ai/aea ?aaia Ieoaeeiae/a . 7 aeiaoiy 1997
?. — Oaeai?iae, Iaoaio. — 1998.- N. 408-416.

7. Aeaeaaai I. Ii/aoie aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa oa ?? ?ieue o
?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy Caea?iaooy (1919-1929 ??.)
//Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i
Oeaio?aeueii? oa I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie: no/aniee noai, i?iaeaie,
ia?niaeoeae. Aeiiia?ae? oa iia?aeiieaiiy iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/aii? 70-??//th aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a, caneoaeaiiai
i?aoe?aieea ina?oe Oe?a?ie A?ai/aea ?aaia Ieoaeeiae/a .- 7 aeiaoiy 1997
?. — Oaeai?iae, Iaoaio. — 1998.- N. 416-429.

8. Delegan Mihajlo. A Karpatalja Megyei Allami Leveltar vallassal
kapcsolatos iratai.// Magyarorszagi Egyhazo Leveltarosok Egysuelete
konferenciaja. Nziregyhaza. 1997. Augusztus 27.- Nziregyhaza, 1998.- S.
49-54.

(Aeaeaaai Ieoaeei. Aeieoiaioe Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Caea?iaonueei?
iaeano?, ye? noinothoueny ?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e// Eiioa?aioe?y Ni?eee
Oea?eiaieo A?o?a?no?a Oai?ueie. I??aaeueaaca, 27 na?iiy 1997 ?. —
I??aaeueaaca, 1998.- N. 49-54).

9. Aeaeaaai I. A. Caea?iaonueea i?aaineaa’y o 1918-1925 ?? //Aaoueiai
Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee oa Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa 1918 ?ieo. Iaoeiaee
ca??iee, i?enay/aiee 125-??//th a?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy Aaoueiaia Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa 80-??//th i?iaieioaiiy Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae 1918
?ieo.-Ee?a, 1998.- N 188-191.

10. Aeaeaaai I. A. ?a?a? ia Caea?iaoo?: a?iiaaenueea oa ?ae?a?eia
aeeooy (1919-1929 ??.)// A?o?ae Oe?a?ie.- 1997.- ? 1-6.- N. 84-89.

11. Aeaeaaai Ieoaeei. Noaiiaeua i?aaineaaii? oea?eae ia Caea?iaoo? o
20-o? ?iee OO no //Anaoe?a?inueea i?aeia?iaeia o?enoeyinueea anaiaeay
«Caiia?aeue iiao aeath aai: etha?oue iaeei iaeiiai» (?iai, 13, 14).
Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. Ee?a, 17-18 ethoiai 1998 ?. Aeiiia?ae?,
iia?aeiieaiiy .- Ee?a, 1998.- N. 153-156.

12. Aeaeaaai Ieoaeei. A?iiaaenueea ae?yeuei?noue i?aeea?iaonueeeo
nooaeaio?a o aocao *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee //Ea?iaonueeee e?ae.-
1999.- ?1. — N.66-68.

13. Aeaeaaai I. Ii/aoie aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa oa ?? ?ieue o
?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy Caea?iaooy (1919-1929 ??.)
//Iaoeia? caienee ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. — O. 3.- Ee?a,
1999. — N. 463-476.

Aiioaoe?y

Aeaeaaai I. A. Caea?iaooy o neeaae? *aoineiaa//eie: i?aeeiioan?ei?
a?aeiineie o 1919-1929 ??. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 — anana?oiy ?noi??y. ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I. N. A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
Ee?a, 1999 ?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ??cieo eiioan?e ia
Caea?iaoo? a 1919-1929 ??. o neeaae? *aoineiaaoeueei? ?anioae?ee.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ye?ni? ci?ie a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ianaeaiiy
e?ath, ye? caaacia/oaaee naiaiaeo a??iniia?aeaiue, ni?eyee
a?ae?iaeaeaiith i?aaineaa’y. A oiae? oeueiai i?ioeano a?aeaoaaeiny
cia/ia e?euee?nia c?inoaiiy i?aaineaaii? eiioan?? ca ?aooiie a?aeoiaeo
a?ae a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? a??e. A oea, a naith /a?ao, i?eaaei aei ??ceiai
caaino?aiiy o a?aeiineiao i?ae i?aaineaaieie oa oi?aoaie. Ia iniia?
a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo aia?oa aaaaeaia o iaoeiaee
ia?a, i?iaiae?ciaaii noai i?aeeiioan?eieo a?aeiinei a oiiaao ?icaeoeo
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa. Aeine?aeieeii c?iaeaia ni?iaa anaa?/iiai
? ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co i?e/ei caaino?aiiy a?aeiinei i?ae
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeith oa i?aaineaaiith eiioan?yie, ye? o ?yae? i?noeue
aeeeaaeenue o a?aee?eoo ai?ioueao. Ana oea iaaaoeaii aieeaaei ia
aca?iia?aeiineie aeeoae?a e?ath, iiaeeaethaaei ?o ?iceie ? a?aeaie?eaei
a?ae ae??oaiiy neeaaeieo, iniaeeai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai.
I?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie, oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aeeiioan?eieo noia?a/iinoae.

Aeanyoee?oiy i?aeeiioan?eia ai?ioueaa caaa?oeeany ocaeiiaiiyi
ae?yeueiino? i?aaineaaii? eiioan??. E?iaoeue 20-o ?ie?a ciaiaio?oueny
oaeiae iinooiiaei ia?aoiaeii aei oeea?e?ciaaieo oi?i ia iniia? ?nioth/eo
o oie /an i?aaiaeo ii?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaiie?aoecaoe?y, eiioan??, i?aeeiioan?ei? a?aeiineie,
i?aaineaa??, a?aei-eaoieeoeeci, ?oaeaenoai.

Aiiioaoeey

Aeaeaaai I. A. Caea?iaouea a ninoaaa *aoineiaaeee:
iaaeeiioanneiiiua ioiioaiey a 1919-1929 aa. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02. — anaie?iay enoi?ey. Einoeooo oe?aeineie
a?oaia?aoee e enoi/ieeiaaaeaiey ei. I. N. A?o-oaaneiai IAI Oe?aeiu,
Eeaa, 1999 a.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony aeayoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo eiioannee ia
Caea?iaouea a 1919-1929 aa. a ninoaaa *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeee, eoaea
iii auei aeeth/aii ii ?aoaieth Nai-AEa?iaineiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a io 10
naioya?y 1919 aiaea. A ioee/ea io i?ioeuo, ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaiey
oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia auaoaai NNN?, iaeiinoi?iiia io?eoeaoaeueiuo
ioeaiie ninoiyiey iauanoaa aeaaony iauaeoea-iay ioeaiea yaiethoeee
aeaiie?aoee a Caea?iaouea a ninoaaa *N?. Ia iniiaaiee a?oeaiuo
aeieoiaioia, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eioi?uo aia?aua aaaaeaia a iao/iue
iai?io, i?iaiaeece?iaaii ninoiyiea iaae-eiioanneiiiuo ioiioaiee.

Ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie ianaeaiey e?ay,
iaania/eaathuea naiaiaeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiee, niinianoaiaaee aic?iaeaeaieth
i?aaineaaey, ?acaeoea eioi?iai inouanoaey-einue a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo
aioo?eeiioanneiiiie ai?ueau, iniaaiii ii aii?inai th?enaeeeoeee. A
?a-coeueoaoa cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianoau ioioea io a?aei-eaoiee/aneie
eiioannee. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eaaei e ?aceiio iaino?aieth a
ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo i?aaineaaiuie e oieaoaie. Aia?aua a aeenna?oa-oeee
naeaeaia iiiuoea ananoi?iiiaai e iauaeoeaiiai aiaeeca i?e/ei iaino?aiey
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo a?aei-eaoiee/aneie e i?aaineaaiie eiioanneyie, eioi?ua
a ?yaea iano aueeaaeenue a ioe?uooth ai?ueao.

A iiea c?aiey enneaaeiaaoaey auee aioo?e e iaaeeiioanneiiiua ioiioaiey
oaeaea eoaeaeneie, ?eii-eaoiee/aneie e ?aoi?iaoneie oea?eaae. Naeaeaia
iiiuoea ioa?aeoa?ece?iaaoue aicieeiiaaiea e aeayoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo
?aeeaeiciuo naeo.

?aeeaeiciua eiioannee eiaee aaaeiia cia/aiea a aeooiaiie aeecie
ianaeaiey Caea?iaouey a 20-ua aiaeu. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie, i?aaeaea
anaai a oneiaeyo ino?iai i?ioeaiai?noaa iaaeaeo aic?iaeaeath-ueiny
i?aaineaaeai e a?aei-eaoieeoeeciii nua?aee a iniiaiii io?eoeaoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia aeeciue ianaeaiey e?ay. Iie oaeoaeyee ?aneie iauanoaa e
ioaeaeaee io ?aoaiey neiaeiuo nioeeaeueii-aeiii-ie/aneeo i?iaeai.

Aeanyoeeaoiyy iaaeeiioanneiiiay ai?ueaa caaa?oeeanue th?eaee/aneei
?ac?aoaieai ia i?aai nouanoaiaaiey i?aaineaaiie eiioannee, ca /oi iiiaea
aa?othuea aaee oyaeaeoth e aeeeoaeueioth ai?ueao. Enoiae 20-o aiaeia
ciaiaiaoaeai e i?ae?auaieai ino?ie iaaeeiioanneiiiie ai?ueau. Yoe
ioiioaiey iinoaiaiii ia?aoee e oeeaeeeciaaiiui oi?iai ia iniiaaiee
nouanoaothueo a oi a?aiy i?aaiauo ii?i.

I?iaiaeece?iaaii i?e/eiu, oi?iu e iaoiaeu iaaeeiioanneiiiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee.

Enneaaeiaaoaeai onoaiiaeaii, /oi a Caea?iaouea a 20-a aiaeu
noi?ie?iaaeenue aeaaiui ia?acii oiea?aioiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo anaie
eiioanneyie, ca eneeth/aieai a?aei-eaoiee/aneie e i?aaineaa-iie.

Niaoeeaeueiiai eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey ia oaio iaaeeiioanneiiiuo
ioiioaiee a 1919-1929 aa. a Caea?iaouea aei neo ii? ia auei.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaiie?aoecaoeey, iaaeeiioanneiiiua ioiioaiey,
i?aaineaaea, a?aei-eaoiee-oeeci, eoaeaenoai.

Annotation

M. Delegan. Transcarpathia as a part of Czechoslovakia: Interconfession
Relations in 1919-1929. Manuscript.

Thesis for awarding the candidate of History Degree Speciality 07.00.02
— World History. The Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Original
Sources. Studying after M. Hrushevsky, Kyiv, 1999.

The activity of different confessions in Transcarpathia in 1919 — 1929
is investigated in the dissertation. It is stated that qualitative
changes in social and political life of the population of the region
quarantined freedom of religions, favored the recovery of Orthodox
religion.

In the course of this process the Orthodox confession grew larger
because of its deviation of Catholicism. In its turn it led to the rise
of tension in interconfession relations between Orthodox and
Greek-Catholics.

The state interconfession relations under the conditions of
democratization of the society of GSR is analyzed on the basis of the
archives documents, a significant part of which has been first
introduced into scientific circulation. It’s the first attempt to
investigate comprehensively the relations existing in the 20-s of the
20th century in Transcarpathia. Forms and methods of interconfession
contradictions have been analyzed. The investigator made an attempt of
an overall and objective analysis of the causes of straining relations
between Greek-Catholic and Orthodox confessions, in some places it
resulted in an open struggle. All this negatively influenced the region,
deepened the contradictions and distracted the people from solving
complicated social-economic problems. A 10-year struggle ended in
legalization of the activity of Orthodox confession. The end of the
20-es is marked lox a gradual transition to civilized forms on the basis
of the law existing at that time.

The key words: democratization, confessions, interconfession relations,
orthodoxy, greek-catholicism, Judaism.

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