I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss EAAEI? I?IIENEIAINO? OE?A?IE

A?EIOeUeEA EA?ENA AI?EN?AIA

OAeE 687. [858. 562: 675. 6. 06]

CAAACIA*AIIss AENIEI? ssEINO? OAAEIEO AE?IA?A C

IAOO?AEUeIIAI OOO?A IA INIIA? NENOAIIIAI I?AeOIAeO

OA I?EIOeEI?A IIOEI?CAOe??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.19.04 — oaoiieia?y oaaeieo ae?ia?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
(AeAEIO) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe aeioeaio NE?EIEA AAEAIOEIA EINOssIOEI?AIA,
Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe i?ioani? I?EIANUeEEE A?II?NEAA A?EAIO?EIAE*,
Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe aeioeaio AIAe???IEI AAEAIOEIA IEEIEA?AIA,
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?a?aaeueii — aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa :

Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee) I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 16 a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10 — e aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.102.03 o Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai??
eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, 252011, Ee?a — 11, aoe. Iaie?iae/a —
Aeai/aiea, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 12 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee /ae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

ae.o.i.i?ioani?
Eino?eoeueeee A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iinoaaea ia?aae
i?aei?e?inoaaie ooo?iai? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie caaea/o caaacia/aiiy
aeniei? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e i?i?iaeueieo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?aoao eioo?a
oa i?aoe?. Na?oiaee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue i?i i?aeaeuaiiy i?anoeaeo
yeino?. ??aaiue yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeiai ia o?eueee caaeiaieueiyoe
aeeoo?a? iio?aae noni?euenoaa, aea e aooe /eiieeii ??aiy eoeueoo?e
oeueiai noni?euenoaa, na?aeeii eiai oai?/eo ni?iiiaeiinoae, a oaeiae, o
ae??oaeueiiio nooiai?, ni?eyoe ?icaeoeo iaoeiai — oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano.

Ae??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? iaiiaeeeai aac ?ic?iaee aoaeoeaii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy ye?noth oaaeieo ae?ia?a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a (AIO), yea
iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaeao ioe?iee yeino?
i?iaeoeoe??, ciaii? caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy yeino? oa a?aeiia?aeiiio
iaoaiaoe/iiio caaacia/aii? AII. Iiae?aia caaea/a, i?ioa, ye ? an? ?io?,
ni?yiiaai? ia ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeueii? i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy ye?noth
oaaeii? i?iaeoeoe?? c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a, o neeo aaaaoi/eiieeiaino?
aeey naiai ae??oaiiy iio?aao? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo.

Ia aeaiee /an caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia ioe?ieo oa caaacia/aiiy aeniei?
yeino? ooo?iaeo ae?ia?a, o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iinyoue noa’?eoeaiee,
aacnenoaiiee oa?aeoa? ? ia aeathoue ciiae cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ye?noue i?e
iaiaaeaieo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?aoao eioo?a oa i?aoe?. E??i oiai, neeaaeia,
o?oaeii?noea caaea/a i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy AIO o cia/i?e i???
ae??oo?oueny ia ai??i?iiio ??ai? ciaiue, aac aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ii?
oaoi?ee, ui iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia yeino? aioiaiai ae?iao,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaioe?iiiai
ooo?iaiai iai?aoaa?eeaoo oa oiia?eueith? i?ia?an o aaeoc?. Neooaoe?y
oneeaaeith?oueny ua e oei, ui /a?ac niaae ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa ??ceiai
nei?i/aiiy ianya?a o?iainoaaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?ic?iaeo oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e, ieoaiith i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? AIO ia i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaeii? oaaae.

A?aei?/ai? iaaeie?ee iiaeooue aooe onoiai? eeoa ca oiiae nooo?ai?
ia?aaoaeiae an??? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy ye?noth AIO, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia
i?aei?e?inoaao nenoai yeino? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie noaiaea?o?a
AeNOO ISO na??? 9000, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue, ie??i anueiai ?ioiai,
noai?aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy (NAI?),
?ic?iaeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino?
i?iaeoeoe?? c canoinoaaiiyi no/anii? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

Oaeei /eiii, eiiieaenia caaea/a caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? AIO i?e
iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao eioo?a oa i?aoe?, ui aaco?oueny ia iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaeao ?? ?ica’ycaiiy, ? iaaeoi aeooaeueiith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie oa i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo
aeeiiaii o iaaeao iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiioaaieo o Aea?aeaai?e
aeaaeai?? eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie (iai?yiie — “Iia?
iaoeiaii?nonuee? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa iaoa??ae?a, ae?ia?a oe?ieiai
aaeeoeo oa niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy”), oa caaaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaiiai o
Aea?aeaai?e i?ia?ai? ?icaeoeo eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae
aei 2000 ?ieo.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a
caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? ae?ia?a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a ia noaae??
?oiueiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy i?e iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao
iaoa??aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue. sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aii iaeueoa ae?ii/?
c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a ioo???, ui neeaaeathoue cia/io /anoeio a
caaaeueiiio ia’?i? aeioneo i?iaeoeoe?? c aei?iaioe?iieo aeae?a ooo?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe o i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiue ae??ooaaeeny ianooii? iniiai? aca?iiiia’ycai? caaea/?:

?ic?iaea ocaaaeueiaii? ???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie iaeeie/ieo ?
a?oiiaeo aeanoeainoae AIO;

iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iaoaiaoe/ii? oi?ie iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea
yeino? AIO (iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? AIO aeey ioe?iee eiiieaenii? yeino? oa
iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo /e a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a yeino?) oa oi?iae?caoe?y
iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? AIO;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoio oa iaoaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie ia?iaee
?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy ia IAII;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoio oa iaoaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie iioei?caoe??
iaeeie/ieo aai a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a yeino? AIO ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai
aia?aoo e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy i?e iaiaaeaiiyo ia aa?o?noue oa
o?oaeiaeo?aoe;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoio oa iaoaiaoe/ii? i?ia?aie aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy AIO ia
iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo aeeiai?/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy;

aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy
ae?ii/iai iaeueoa c? oeo?ie ioo??? ca e?eoa???i i?i?iaeueii? aa?oino?
i?e iaiaaeaiiyo ia o?oaeii?nonuee?noue aeaioiaeaiiy.

Iaoiaee oa caniae aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aacoaaeenue ia
nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae?, i?eioeeiao iioei?caoe?? oa iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo
eaae?iao???. O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoaiaoe/iee
aia?ao oai??? eiia??iino? oa iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee, oai??y iao?eoeue,
iaoaiaoe/iee aia?ao e?i?eiiai oa aeeiai?/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. An?
?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeeny ia IAII c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ii? nenoaie
MatLab 4.0 o na?aaeiaeu? Windows 95.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aei iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, eio?? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno
?, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iathoue iaoeiao iiaecio , iaeaaeaoue:

ocaaaeueiaia no?oeoo?ia ???a?o?/ia noaia aeanoeainoae AIO, ui
aeinoaoiuei iiaii a?aoiao? aeanoeaino? ye ooo?iaiai iai?aoaa?eeaoo, oae
? ae?iaa o oe?eiio;

iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iaoaiaoe/ii? oi?ie iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea
yeino? AIO (iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? AIO aeey ioe?iee eiiieaenii? yeino? oa
iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo /e a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a yeino?) oa oi?iae?caoe?y
iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino?;

iaoiaeeea ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, ui caaacia/o?
i?aeaeuaiiy a??ia?aeiino? ioe?iie cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino?
iieaciee?a yeino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a ca ?aooiie aaoiiaoe/iiai aeeo/aiiy c?
neeaaeo a?oie oeo aenia?o?a, /ey eiiiaoaioi?noue aeeeeea? noii?a aai
aeoiea yeeo a?aei?iia a?ae aeoiee a?eueoino?;

iaoiaeeea iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo aai a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a, ui caaacia/o?
iiaeeea?noue iaenei?caoe?? eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino? AIO i?e
iaiaaeaiiyo ia iaoa??aeuei? oa o?oaeia? ?ano?ne;

iaoiaeeea aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeaioiaeaiiy AIO, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue i?i?i?c?oe?? iaoa??aeueieo
aeo?ao i?e caaeai?e o?oaeii?noeino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?ia noaia aeanoeainoae AIO ? oi?aa?naeueiith ? iiaea
aooe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee iiiaieeaoo?e aeanoeainoae oa iieaciee?a
yeino? ooo?iaiai iaeyao aoaeue-yeiai i?ecia/aiiy, aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e
aecia/aii? /eneiaeo cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino?
AIO, oeyo?a, niinia?a ? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy yeino? i?e iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao ??ciiai aeaeo
?ano?n?a;

aeai?eoie oa i?ia?aie ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy,
iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo /e a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a yeino? AIO, aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy AIO
aeicaieythoue iiai?noth aaoiiaoecoaaoe ?ica’ycaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo caaea/
? iiaeooue neeanoe iniiao iaoaiaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo
nenoai i?iaeooaaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao ooo?iai? i?iieneiaino?, aac yeiai
? iaiiaeeeaei aeiei??iia nei?i/aiiy oa?i?i?a i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeaioiaeaiiy
aenieiye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? a oiiaao aei?noei? eiieo?aioe?? oa iaiaaeaieo
iaoa??aeueieo oa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?nao.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe i?ieoee anaa?/io ia?aa??eo o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao
ni?eueiiai Oe?a?inueei — A?aaio?inueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa “?inoie — ?aei
Eaeueaeaia”, ACO “A?a”, Oa?e?anueeiai II “Oe?a?inueea ooo?i”, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny a?aeiia?aeieie aeoaie. Cie?aia, aeei?enoaiiy
iaoiaeeee aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeaioiaeaiiy AIO, ?ic?iaeaii? aaoi?ii, aeicaieeei i?aei?e?inoao “?inoie
— ?aei Eaeueaeaia” cieceoe nia?aa?o?noue aeaioiaeaiiy iaeueoa ae?ii/iai
c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a ioo??? ia 9 % i?e i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe? ia 7 %.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny oa
io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia iaoeiai — oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo o
Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie (1991…1998 ?.?.),
oaoi?/i?e ?aae? Oa?e?anueeiai AAO “Oe?a?inueea ooo?i” (ethoee, 1997 ?.),
1 — e iaoeiai — i?aeoe/i?? eiioa?aioe?? “No/ania eiio?ieueii —
aei?iaoaaeueia oaoi?ea i?iieneiaeo ae?ia?a oa ?oiy na?oeo?eaoe?y” (i.
Ioea/aai, 12 — 16 o?aaiy, 1997 ?.), 1 -e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“No/ani? oaoiieia?? ?ano?ni-aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy” ( Ia?oai?o, 12 — 16
aeiaoiy, 1997 ?.), 6 -io I?aeia?iaeiiio Oi?oi? “Aei? yeino? o Ee?a?”
(eenoiiaae, 1997 ?.), ?icoe?aiiio iaaeeaoaae?aeueiiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e
oaoiieia?? oa eiino?othaaiiy oaaeieo ae?ia?a (o?aaaiue, 1998 ?.), 3
— e I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai — i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? oa aia?aicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy
ethaeeie” (i. Eaiyiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, 2 — 6 /a?aiy, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 10 ae?oeiaaieo noaoae,
2 noaoo? ui aeaiiioaaeeny, 4 oace aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’youeio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 250 noi??ieao (c aeiaeaoeii), i?noeoue
37 ?ethno?aoe?e, 28 oaaeeoeue. Ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae iae?/o? 144
iaeiaioaaiiy. Aeiaeaoie aeeth/a? 63 noi??iee.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aecia/aii iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe oa i?aeoe/io
cia/ei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa aeniiae?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeaioiaeaiiy oaaeieo ae?ia?a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a, ?icaeyiooi
ocaaaeueiaio no?oeoo?io noaio AIO ye neeaaeii? nenoaie, aecia/aii noai
ieoaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee oa caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeaiiai ani?oeiaioo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiiaieeaoo?e
aeanoeainoae oa a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a, ui aeicaieythoue anaa?/ii oa
ia’?eoeaii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiiieaenio ye?noue AIO, ae??ooaaoe caaea/?,
iia’ycai? ?c aecia/aiiyi oeyo?a, niinia?a ? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy yeino? i?e iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao ??ciiai
aeaeo ?ano?n?a, ia aeaiee /an iaia?. Oey ianoaaeia nooo?ai oneeaaeith?
?aae?caoe?th i?eioeeio nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? AIO, yeee i?eionea? a?aooaaiiy an?o /eiiee?a, aecia/ath/eo
ye?noue aeaiiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ioe?iee iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? iieacaa,
ui aiie aeicaieythoue aeinoaoiuei ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe /enaeuei? cia/aiiy
oe?eiai ?yaeo iieaciee?a yeino? AIO. Aeiyoie neeaaeathoue iieacieee, ui
ia i?aeaeathoueny no?ia?e e?euee?ni?e ioe?ioe? (iai?eeeaae, c?o/i?noue
ei?enooaaiiy ie?aieie aeaiaioaieo AIO, nooi?iue aeineiiaeino?
eiiiiceoe??, ciai?oi?e aeaeyae oa ?i.), aeey aecia/aiiy yeeo iio??aii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aenia?oia iieooaaiiy oao?aoe?a.

Iieacaii, ui aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaea/, iia’ycaieo c ioe?ieith
??aiy yeino?, ne?ae iaaeaaaoe ia?aaaao, oae caaiiio, eiiieaeniiio
iaoiaeo. Iae/ano?oa ye eiiieaeni? iieaciee? yeino? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe na?aaeiueiaeaaaeai? a?eoiaoe/i?, aaiiao?e/i?, aa?iii?ei?
oa ooieoe?th aaaeaiino?. Ie??i ia?a?aoiaaieo, ye eiiieaeniee iieaciee
yeino? oaeiae iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe “a?aenoaiue” i?ae aaeoi?aie yeino?,
ye? yaeythoue niaith oii?yaeeiaaio iine?aeiai?noue cia/aiue iieaciee?a
yeino? c?acea, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, oa aoaeiiiiai c?acea AIO.
E?euee?niith i??ith oaei? a?aenoai? iiaea aooe, iai?eeeaae, ii?ia
Aaeueaea?a. ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai
iieacieea yeino? (iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?) oaaeieo ae?ia?a, o oiio /ene? ?
AIO, oneeaaeith? ?oi? aeei?enoiaoaaiiy aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?aeoe/ieo
caaea/, iia’ycaieo c ioe?ieith yeino? oa ?? i?aeaeuaiiyi. Ia aeaiee /an
iaia? /?oei? a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy i?i oa, ye?e c oi?i noa’?eoeaiiai
iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino? ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao ? /e
iiaeia acaaae? aiai?eoe i?i “e?au?” oa “a??o?” oi?ie. Iiae?aia
noaiiaeua coiiaeaia oei, ui i?e ni?iaao c?noaaeaiiy ??cieo ooieoeeiiae?a
aeine?aeieee ia iaaiai?ththoue aeiiae aei oeae ioe?iie iieaciee?a
yeino?.

Aeyaeaii, ui iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, ui oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny o eaae?e i?iieneiaino? aeey aecia/aiiy /enaeueieo
cia/aiue aeayeeo iieaciee?a yeino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a, a oaeiae aeey
ioe?iee eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? an?o iieaciee?a yeino?, ia? ?yae
nooo?aeo iaaeie?e?a. Eiao?oe??io eiiei?aeaoe??, ui neeaaea? iniiao oe???
iaoiaeeee, ? aeinoaoiuei “i’yeith” e?eoe/iith noaoenoeeith, ui aeicaiey?
eeoa i?eeiyoe aai a?aeoeeeoe a?iioaco i?i a?aenooi?noue aoaeue yeiai
noaoenoe/iiai ca’yceo i?ae ?aiaee?iaeaie. A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoaoeaii?
?aiaee?iaee a, ioaea, e aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a
iieooaaiiy, i?e oeueiio ia aa?aioo?oueny.

sse iieacaa aiae?c, ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo eiiieaeniiai iieacieea
yeino? ia aeaiee /an aeei?enoiaothoueny, ye i?aaeei, aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
iaei?ino?oi? caaea/? ii??aiyiiy yeino? c?acea ,ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, oa
aoaeiio. Ii ?acoeueoaoao c?noaaeaiiy ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i
a?aeiia?aei?noue c?acea iaiao?aeiiio ??aith yeino?. Iiaa i?i oeyoe
aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai ??aiy yeino? i?e iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao o?iain?a oa
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a i?e oeueiio ia eaea. Iai?eeeaae, ieoaiiy i?i
iioei?caoe?th iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? AIO (ye, c?aooith, ? ?ioeo
aeae?a oaaeii? i?iaeoeoe??) o i?yi?e ei?aeoi?e iinoaiiaoe? ia aeaiee /an
ia ?icaeyaeaeiny. Oiio ??oaiiy i?i iie?ioaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? aeanoeaino?
oaaeiiai ae?iao o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a i?eeiathoueny aa?enoe/ii. A
oiiaao ?eieo, iaiaaeaieo aeo?ao o?iain?a oa ?ano?n?a o?eueee iaoeiaee
i?aeo?ae aei ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? eiie?aoiiai oaaeiiai
ae?iao aa?aioo? iiceoeaiee ?acoeueoao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii iaoa??aee, iia’ycai? c iaa?oiooaaiiyi
aeai?o iaoaiaoe/ii? oi?ie iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino?,
oi?iae?caoe??th iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a oa
?ic?iaeith ocaaaeueiaii? ???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie iaeeie/ieo ?
a?oiiaeo aeanoeainoae AIO.

Iieacaii, ui c oi/ee ci?o aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a ioe?iee yeino?
aeiaeai c noa’?eoeaieo iieaciee?a ia ia? ia?aaaae. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui
?iaioa c i?inoith iaoaiaoe/iith iiaeaeeth aeicaiey? aeinoaoiuei i?inoi
io?eioaaoe aaaeeea? aeey i?aeoeee ?acoeueoaoe, aeey ioe?iee yeino? AIO
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oi?io iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino?
Qy o aeaeyae? na?aaeiueiaeaaaeaiiai a?eoiaoe/iiai:

, (1)

; n — /enei iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a, ui aecia/athoue ye?noue oaaeiiai
ae?iao.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeey io?eiaiiy a??ia?aeieo oa
aeinoaoiuei i?inoi ?ioa?i?aoo?ieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaeeie/i? iieacieee
yeino?, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1), iiaeii? iaoe iaeiaeiao
oeaeo ioe?iie. Aeei?enoaiiy iaei?ino?oeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue
aeaeyaeo aio/ai, yeui ca?eueoaiiy /eneiaiai cia/aiiy aaniethoiiai
iaeeie/iiai iieacieea ai i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy yeino? ae?iao, oa
ai/aio o i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo (ooo: ai — aaniethoia cia/aiiy i-ai
iieacieea yeino? aaciaiai c?acea) iiaea i?ecaanoe aai aei iiieeeiaeo
aeniiae?a, aai aei io?eiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ,ui oyaeei ?ioa?i?aoothoueny.
Iieacaii, ui noi?ioeueiaai?e aeua aeiic? a?aeiia?aea? ooieoe?iiaeueia
ia?aoai?aiiy aeaeo “aaniethoia cia/aiiy iaeeie/iiai iieacieea yeino? —
aacia?a?aia aaeueia oeaea”. Aeene?aoia caeaaei?noue “aae?a” a?ae
cia/aiue ao?aeiiai iaeeie/iiai iieacieea iiaea aooe iaea?aeaia oeyoii
aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy. Aeey ia?aoai?aiiy aeene?aoii? caeaaeiino? o
aacia?a?aio i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe ai?ieneiaoe?th eoa?/ieie
nieaeiaie. O caaeaiiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie aaniethoiiai cia/aiiy
iaeeie/iiai iieacieea yeino? ai canoinoaaiiy nieaei — ai?ieneiaoe??
aa?aioo? iiiioiii?noue ooieoe??, ui ai?ieneio?oueny, ?, a oie aea /an,
caaacia/o? i?i?iecaoe?th iioeaee ai?ieneiaoe??.

I?e eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? yeino? AIO /enei iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a, ui
aoiaeyoue aei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1), iiaea aeinyaaoe aeae?eueeio
aeanyoe?a. Oey ianoaaeia nooo?ai oneeaaeith? caaea/o ciaoiaeaeaiiy
/eneiaeo cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino?.
A neeo ??ciiiai?oiino? i?e?iaee aeanoeainoae AIO, iaaeoi oyaeei ciaeoe
oao?aoey, ui ni?ii?any ae aeinoaoiuei a??ia?aeii ioe?ieoe nooi?iue
aieeao eiaeiiai c iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a AIO ia eiiieaenio ye?noue
inoaiiueiai. Oiio eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? yeino? iiaeiia ia?aaeoaaoe
?ic?iaea aeaoaeueii? ???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie aeanoeainoae AIO.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii aa??aio ???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie
aeanoeainoae AIO, ui neeaaea?oueny c 91 aeanoeaino? ??ciiai nooiaiy
eiiieaeniino?. Oey noaia ? oi?aa?naeueiith ? iiaea aooe iniiaith aeey
?ic?iaee iiiaieeaoo?e iieaciee?a yeino? ooo?iaeo ae?ia?a aoaeue-yeiai
i?ecia/aiiy, aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey aeiai?o a?oi ?enia?o?a-oao?aoe?a oa
aecia/aiiy oeyo?a, niinia?a oa caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy yeino? i?e iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao ??ciiiai?oiiai aeaeo
?ano?n?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aca?iica’yceo aeanoeainoae, ui aoiaeyoue aei
???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie, c oaoiieia?/ieie /eiieeaie, ye?
oi?iothoue ye?noue ae?iao, anoaiiaeaii, ui caaea/a i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
AIO neeaaea?oueoy c aeaio aca?iiiia’ycaieo caaea/, a naia:

i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? AIO ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy;

iie?ioaiiy aeanoeainoae ao?aeiiai ooo?iaiai iai?aoaa?eeaoo, ui neeaaea?
iaeao i?iaeoiaaiiai ae?iao, a oea iiaeeeai eeoa o oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee
?iaioa oao?aoe?a c ae/eiee oa icaeiaethaaiiy ooo?a aoaea caniiaaia ia
aeiiaao, ui i?aae’yaeythoueny oao?aoeyie oaaeiiai ae?iaieoeoaa aei
ao?aeii? ne?iaeie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii, ?ic?iaeaio aaoi?ii, iaoiaeeeo
ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, a?aei?iio a?ae
o?aaeeoe?eii?. A oiiaao iaeii??aeiino? a?oie aenia?o?a ca eiiiaoaioe??th
oa a?aenooiino? i?ioeeaaeieo oi/ie ci?o ii noo? ?icaeyaeoaaiiai ieoaiiy
ne?aeo? i/?eoaaoe, ui o aaia?aeuei?e noeoiiino? ?aiaee?iaie iao?eoey
?aia?a aoaea iaoe iaeeie/iee ?aia (o iaoaiaoe/iiio ?icoi?ii?). Oey
ianoaaeia aeicaiey? caanoe caaea/o ioe?iee nooiaiy iiaiaeaeaiino? aeoiie
aenia?o?a aei caaea/? ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co, iia’ycaii? c ioe?ieith
ianoia?a/eeaino? ia?aa??y?ii? (i?iaiico?ii?) ?aa?an?eii? iiaeae?,
iayaiei ao?aeiei aeaiei. ?aa?an?eia iiaeaeue, ui i?iaiico?oueny, aeey
?icaeyaeoaaiiai aeiaaeeo aoaea iaoe aeaeyae

R = L + (, (2)

aea R — iao?eoey ?aia?a, neeaaeaia ii ?acoeueoaoao iieooaaiiy
aenia?o?a; L — iao?eoey iaeeie/iiai ?aiao; ( — iao?eoey caeeoeiaeo
aeiaaeeiaeo eiiiiiaio (iao?eoey ?aa?an?eieo caeeoe?a).

An? iao?eoe? o ni?aa?aeiioaii? (2) iathoue iaeiaeiao aei??i?noue N ( n
(ooo: N — e?euee?noue aenia?o?a, n — e?euee?noue iieaciee?a ,ui
aiae?cothoueny). Iieacaii, ui i?iaiico?ia iao?eoey L aecia/a?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

(3)

aea: G1, g1 — aeani? aaeoi?e iao?eoeue R(RO oa RT(R (“o”- ciae
o?ainiiioaaiiy), ui a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeneiaeueiiio aeaniiio cia/aiith
oeeo iao?eoeue (1=s12.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui yeui caaeaoe aaee/eio aeenia?n?? Di o aaia?aeuei?e
noeoiiino? ?aiaee?iaie ii noiaioeyi iao?eoe? (, yea /enaeueii
oa?aeoa?eco? a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a
aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino?, oi aeey ioe?iee i?aaiiiaeiino? i?eeiyooy
a?iioace H0 i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue ao?aeieo aeaieo i?eeiyoi? ?aa?an?eii?
iiaeae?, iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ianooiio e?eoe/io noaoenoeeo aaiia —
eaaae?ao

, (4)

aea tr (A) — ne?ae (noia ae?aaiiaeueieo aeaiaio?a) iao?eoe? A.

Noaoenoeea (4) ?iciiae?eaia ca caeiiii (2 (oe — eaaae?ao) c n( (N-1)
nooiaiyie naiaiaee, oiio ??oaiiy i?i i?eeiyooy a?iioace H0 i?eeia?oueny
i?e aeeiiaii? oiiae

, (5)

% — ? oi/ee (2 ?iciiae?eo c n( (N-1) nooiaiyie naiaiaee; ( —
eiia??i?noue iiieeeiaiai ??oaiiy.

I?e aeeiiaii? oiiae (5) i?iaiico?ia iao?eoey L iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia
aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? aiae?co?ieo iieaciee?a yeino?.
Aeiaeaoeiaa ia?aa??ea a??ia?aeiino? ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo i?e oeueiio
ia iio??aia. Iaaeeiiaiiy i?aai? /anoeie oiiae icia/a?, ui aai aenia?oe
iaaeinoaoiuei eiiiaoaioi?, aai iaa??ia ao?aeia a?iioaca i?i
a?aenooi?noue o aenia?o?a i?ioeeaaeieo oi/ie ci?o. Aaaaeaia e?eoe/ia
noaoenoeea aeicaiey? aeinoaoiuei i?inoi aeae?eyoe oeo aenia?o?a, aeoiea
yeeo ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aeoiee iniiaii? a?oie. I?e ia
aeeiiaii? oiiae (5) c? neeaaeo a?oie ne?ae aeeeth/eoe aenia?oa, iiia? k
yeiai a oaaeeoe? iieooaaiiy a?aeiia?aea? oiia?

dk = max {d1, d2, … , dN},

aea dk — k — e ae?aaiiaeueiee aeaiaio iao?eoe? (R(RT — L(LT).

Iieacaii, ui aeey ioe?iee i?aaiiiaeiino? i?eeiyooy a?iioace H0 i?i
a?aeiia?aei?noue ao?aeieo aeaieo i?eeiyoi? ?aa?an?eii? iiaeae? iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe e?eoe/io noaoenoeeo ? o aeaeyae? eiao?oe??ioo
eiiei?aeaoe??, aeey ?ic?aooieo e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy yeiai io?eiaii iiao
oi?io caieno

, (6)

aea: A — ioe?ii/ia ei?aeyoe?eia iao?eoey ?aiaee?iaie.

I?e oeueiio a e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoaoao ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino?
iathoue i?noea iaaaeee? iioeaee.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? ia IAII aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii
aeai?eoi oa a?aeiia?aeia eiio iaoaiaoe/ia i?ia?aia a nenoai? MatLab 4.0,
ye? aeicaieythoue aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??. I?e
oeueiio nooo?ai nei?i/o?oueny oa?i?i ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a iieooaaiiy ?,
iaeaieiai?oa, i?aeaeuo?oueny a??ia?aei?noue cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a
aaaiiino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a ca ?aooiie aaoiiaoe/iiai aeeo/aiiy c? neeaaeo
a?oie oeo aenia?o?a, /ey eiiiaoaioi?noue aeeeeea? noii?a aai aeoiea yeeo
a?aei?iia a?ae aeoiee a?eueoino?. ?ic?iaeaio iaoiaeeeo aeei?enoaii aeey
aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iaeeie/ieo oa a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a
yeino? iaeueoa c? oeo?ie ioo???. Io?eiai? /enaeuei? cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye aeey ioe?iee
eiiieaenii? yeino? iaeueoa c? oeo?ie ioo???, oae ? i?e ?ica’ycaii?
caaea/? iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? c iaoith iaenei?caoe??
cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ica’ycaiith caaea/? iioei?caoe?? cia/aiue
iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? AIO i?e aeiionoeieo aeo?aoao o?iainiaeo oa
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. Iaoaiaoe/ia oi?ioethaaiiy oe??? caaea/?, i?e
aeei?enoaii? ye oe?eueiai? ooieoe?? na?aaeiueiaeaaaeaiiai a?eoiaoe/iiai
iieacieea yeino?, i?aaenoaaeaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie

(7)

o1 ( o1min = b1; o2 ( o2min = b2; ( ( ( on ( onmin = bn,

aea Si(xi, Oi(xi — a?aeiia?aeii o?iainia? aeo?aoe oa aeo?aoe ?ano?n?a
ia ?aae?caoe?th caaeaiiai cia/aiiy i — ai iaeeie/iiai iieacieea; Si
(Ti) — aeiionoeia nia?aa?o?noue (o?oaeia? ?ano?ne) aeaioiaeaiiy ae?iao;
oimin = bi — i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeia cia/aiiy i — ai iaeeie/iiai
iieacieea (cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai iaeeie/iiai iieacieea aaciaiai c?acea
oaaeiiai ae?iao aai cia/aiiy iaeeie/iiai iieacieea, i?e yeiio
caa??aathoueny niiaeea/? aeanoeaino? ae?iao).

Inoaiiy a?oia iaiaaeaiue aeeeth/a? iiaeeea?noue eiiiainaoe??
iai?eionoeii iecueeeo cia/aiue oeo /e ?ioeo iieaciee?a yeino? iaaei??ii
aaeeeeie cia/aiiyie ae?oaeo. O ?iaio? caaea/o iaenei?oecaoe?? oe?eueiai?
ooieoe?? (7) ae??oaii iaoiaeii e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy. Ia i?aenoaa?
?acoeueoao?a ??oaiiy ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo
iieaciee?a yeino?, neeaaeaii aeie-noaio aeai?eoio iioei?caoe?? oa
eiii’thoa?io i?ia?aio ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? iioei?caoe?? ia IAII c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/ii? nenoaie MatLab 4.0 o na?aaeiaeu? Windows 95.

Iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
i?i?ethno?iaaii o ?iaio? ia i?eeeaae? iioei?caoe?? cia/aiue iieaciee?a
yeino? iaeeie/ieo aeanoeainoae, ui aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noue ae?ii/iai
iaeueoa c? oeo?ie ioo???. Ia?ae?e iaeeie/ieo aeanoeainoae oa ?oiy
oa?aeoa?enoeea iaaaaeai? a oaae. 1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeeie/ieo aeanoeainoae, ui aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noue AIO

Iiia?

aeanoe-aino?

Iaeeie/ia aeanoea?noue AIO Eiao?oe??io aaaiiino? iieacieea yeino?, ( i
A?aeiini?

aeo?aoe

o?iain?a,

Si a?ae A?aeiini? aeo?aoe /ano

(?ano?n?a),

Ti a?ae

1 ?ic?eaia iaaaioaaeaiiy 0.094 0.046 0.11

2 ?ic?eaia iiaeiaaeaiiy 0.094 0.049 0.12

3 I?oei?noue oe??yii? oeaieie i?e ?icoa?iaoaaii? 0.048 0.069 0.037

4 AEi?noe?noue 0.111 0.093 0.09

5 I?oaei?noue 0.028 0.033 0.021

6 Ae?ai??oaaeuei?noue 0.077 0.07 0.04

7 Cn?aeaiiy 0.051 0.053 0.035

8 No?ee?noue eiino?oeoe?? 0.105 0.054 0.065

9 Iacieiaeuei?noue 0.028 0.034 0.021

10 No?ee?noue aieinyiiai iie?iao oa oe??yii? oeaieie aei noe?aiiy 0.053
0.081 0.075

11 I?oei?noue ca’yceo aieino c oe??yiith oeaieiith 0.046 0.069 0.075

12 No?ee?noue aei aaaaoi?aciaiai aeaeiaiiy oa ?icoyao 0.026 0.069 0.067

13 Ia?e?noue 0.018 0.037 0.037

14 No?ee?noue aei aoiinoa?ieo aieea?a 0.035 0.039 0.056

15 No?ee?noue aei ae?? iie? 0.017 0.032 0.037

16 No?ee?noue aei o?i?/ii? /enoee 0.059 0.044 0.037

17 No?ee?noue aei caa??aaiiy 0.067 0.049 0.037

18 ?aiiioii?eaeaoi?noue 0.05 0.053 0.037

Ao?aei? cia/aiiy an?o iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? aaaaeaeeny ??aieie 3
(“caaeia?eueii”). Iiiyooy “a?aeiini? aeo?aoe o?iain?a (?ano?n?a)”
aaaaeai? aeey c?o/iino? oa iai/iino? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo i?e
?ica’ycaii? caaea/? iioei?caoe??. *anoeia ?acoeueoao?a i?aaenoaaeaia o
aeaeyae? a?ao?e?a oa ae?aa?ai ia ?en. 1… 4. Ia an?o a?ao?eao e?eaa 2
a?aeiia?aea? aeiaaeeo ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a, ui caaacia/o? ??aiii??ia
ca?eueoaiiy an?o iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a, e?eaa 1 — aeiaaeeo iioeiaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo, (Sa?ae = (S / (S1( , (Oa?ae = (O / (O1( ( ooo: (S1( ((O1()
— noia?ia aa?o?noue caoiae?a oa iaoa??ae?a (noia?i? aeo?aoe
o?oaei?ano?n?a), ui caaacia/othoue ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiiy eiaeiiai c
iieaciee?a iaeeie/ieo aeanoeainoae, ye? aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noueAIO, ia
iaeei aae). C aiae?co a?ao?e?a oa ae?aa?ai aeoiaeeoue, ui:

ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino? i?e iioeiaeueiiio
?iciiae?e? caian?a o?iain?a oa ?ano?n?a ia 15 — 50% ia?aaeuo?
a?aeiia?aeia ca?eueoaiiy i?e “??aiii??iiio” ?iciiae?e? caian?a;

nooo?aa ca?eueoaiiy ia? i?noea o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee c oeo aai ?ioeo
i?e/ei caian, iai?eeeaae, o?iain?a ia?aaeuo? caian ?ano?n?a oa iaaiaee;

ii?yaeie ?iciiae?eo caian?a i?e iioei?caoe?? nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaniethoieo cia/aiue a?aeiinieo caian?a o?iain?a oa ?ano?n?a ? ?oiueiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

Inoaii? noaa?aeaeaiiy iai/ii ?ethno?o?oueny aeaeyaeii ae?aa?ai (?en. 2
oa 4), ia yeeo i?aaenoaaeai? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a yeino? on?o iaeeie/ieo
aeanoeainoae, ui aecia/athoue iaae?ei?noue, aei (e?aee noiaiaoeue) oa
i?ney (i?aaee noiaiaoeue) iioei?caoe??. Iai?eeeaae, c ae?aa?aie ia ?en.
2a aeaeii, ui i?e (Sa?ae = 0.2 oa (Oa?ae = 0.75 iaenei?caoe?y
a?oiiaiai iieacieea yeino?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? iaae?ei?noue ooo?iaiai
iaeueoa, i?eionea? ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiue iieaciee?a yeino? ne?aeoth/eo
iaeeie/ieo aeanoeainoae: ?ic?eaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (o1iio = 5),
?ic?eaiiai iiaeiaaeaiiy (o2iio = 3.33 ), no?eeino? eiino?oeoe?? ( o8iio
= 5 ). O oie aea /an, i?e (Sa?ae = 0.75 oa (Oa?ae = 0.2 (?en. 4a)
ne?ae ca?eueooaaoe iieacieee yeino? aeanoeainoae: ae?ai??oaaeueiino? (
o6iio = 5 ), no?eeino? eiino?oeoe?? ( o8iio = 3.93 ) oa no?eeino? aei
caa??aaiiy ( o17iio = 5 ).

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui ia aeaiee /an i?e i?iaeooaaii? oa
aeaioiaeaii? ae?ia?a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a eiino?oeoe?y iaeaoo,
i?eeeaaei? iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee ia?iaee, ye i?aaeei, iae?athoueny ia
iniia? iniaenoiai aeina?aeo eiino?oeoi?a aai oaoiieiaa, aac aeaoaeueiiai
o?aooaaiiy niiaeea/eo ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo aeiia aei iaeyao, a
iane?aeie /iai ia aa?aioo?oueny aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aai iioeiaeueiiai
(ca oeie /e ?ioeie e?eoa??yie) aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ??ciiiai?ooy aa??aio?a ?aae?caoe?? a?eueoino? c
oaoiieia?/ii iaiiae?eueieo iia?aoe?e i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaaaoiaa??aioiino?
i?aai?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeaioiaeaiiy AIO. On? aa??aioe
?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny ca /aniaeie oa o?iainiaeie aeo?aoaie i?e
caaacia/aii? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaiai ??aiy yeino? ooo?iaiai ae?iao. Aea??
?aoe?iiaeueiiai (iioeiaeueiiai) aa??aioo oeyoii i?yiiai ia?aai?o aeiaaa?
i?iaaaeaiiy aaeeeiai ianyao oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a, ui ia
caaaeaee ? cae?enieiei iaa?oue i?e canoinoaaii? no/anieo AII. Iieacaii,
ui, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiiai e?eoa??th, caaea/o aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe a iaeiiio c?
ne?aeoth/eo aeaeyae?a:

i?e iaiaaeaii? ia o?oaeii?nonuee?noue aeaioiaeaiiy

aea Sij, Tij — a?aeiia?aeii o?iainia? aeo?aoe oa o?oaeii?nonuee?noue
?aae?caoe?? i — ai aa??aioo j — ? oaoiieia?/ii iaiiae?eueii? iia?aoe??;
aij =1, yeui ia?aiee i — e aa??aio j — ? iia?aoe??, oa aij =0,
yeui aeeiiaiiy j — ? iia?aoe?? ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny; O0 — aeiionoeia
o?oaeii?nonuee?noue aeaioiaeaiiy oaaeiiai ae?iao;

i?i?i?coaaoe o?oaeii?noe?noue oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy
oaaeiiai ae?iao

i?e iaiaaeaii? ia o?iainia? aeo?aoe

aea S0 — aeiionoei? o?iainia? aeo?aoe ia ?aae?caoe?th oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy oaaeiiai ae?iao.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oeeo caaea/ aeei?enoaii iaoiae aeeiai?/iiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy ?aeo?aioieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue
ne?aeoth/iai aeaeyaeo:

(8)

aea fj (Tj), Fj (Sj) — noia?ia aa?o?noue ?aae?caoe?? (noia?ia
o?oaeii?nonuee?noue) c ia?oi? ii j — o oaoiieia?/ii iaiiae?euei?
iia?aoe?? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ye ooieoe?y noia?ii? o?oaeii?noe?noue
Tj (noia?ii? aa?oino? Sj).

?ic?iaeai? o ?iaio? aeai?eoi oa eiii’thoa?ia i?ia?aia “Optimum”
caaacia/othoue iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aooieo fj (Tj), Fj (Sj) ia IAII. C
aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie “Optimum” ?ica’ycaii caaea/o iioei?caoe??
oaoiieia?/ii? iine?aeiaiino? aeaioiaeaiiy iaeueoa ae?ii/iai c
iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a ioo???, ui ieaio?oueny aei aeioneo ni?eueiei
Oe?a?inueei-A?aaio?inueeei i?aei?e?inoaii “?inoie-?aei Eaeueaeaia”.
?acoeueoaoe ??oaiiy caaea/? iioei?caoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 5 o
aeaeyae? a?ao?/ii? aeene?aoii? caeaaeiino? S(O0) aa?oino? oiai /e ?ioiai
aa??aioo oaoiieia?/ii? iine?aeiaiino? a?ae o?oaeii?nonuee?noue ??
?aae?caoe??. Ii aeai?e caeaaeiino? iiaeia ia?aoe i?eeiyoia aeey
eiie?aoiiai i?aei?e?inoaa ii?aeiaiiy aa?oino? aa??aioo (S) oa /ano (T),
ui aeo?a/a?oueny ia eiai ?aae?caoe?th. Oeae aa??aio ? aoaea iioeiaeueiei
aa??aioii i?aai?caoe?? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeey aeaiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa.

?en. 5. Caeaaei?noue aa?oino? aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
aeaioiaeaiiy

AIO a?ae aeo?ao /ano ia eiai ?aae?caoe?th

Aiae?c a?ao?/ii? caeaaeiino? iieaco?, ui anth iaeanoue ci?ie ooieoe??
iiaeia oiiaii ?iciiae?eeoe ia 5 cii. Noeneo oa?aeoa?enoeeo aa??aio?a
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo o??? /e ?ioi? ciie,
i?aaenoaaeaii o oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoey 2.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea aa??aio?a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a

Iiia? *enei aa??aio?a A?aieoe? aeo?ao /ano A?aieoe? o?iainiaeo aeo?ao

ciie oao. i?ioean?a T0 min, aiae. T0 max, aiae. S0 max, a?i S0 min, a?i

1 116 37.22 38.92 100.7 92.06

2 64 42.01 43.14 91.72 88.23

3 55 49.91 51.02 88.19 85.57

4 28 88.69 89.44 85.3 84.47

5 56 96.21 97.32 84.43 81.81

Ia?oa ciia iiaea aooe iacaaia ciiith aeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.
Aa??aioe oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a (116 aa??aio?a), ui aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo oe??? ciie, i?eioneathoue canoinoaaiiy iaeia?niaeoeai?oeo
iaoa??ae?a, i?ia?aneaii? oaoiieia?? oa aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy
(ye i?aaeei, aei?iaiai). Aeei?enoaiiy aa??aio?a oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano,
ui iio?aieythoue aei aeaii? iaeano?, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny i?aei?e?inoaai,
ye? iathoue aeinoaoi? o?iainia? iiaeeeaino? oa aaeeeee ia’?i aeioneo
i?iaeoeoe??, ca ?aooiie /iai caaacia/o?oueny iaiao?aeia
?aioaaaeuei?noue. ?iaioa o oe?e iaeano? aeiionoeia eeoa i?e /?oe?e
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, noaa?euei?e ?iaio? iaeaaeiaiiy, ai aeo?ae c
eaaeo oa cai?ia iaeiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ?ioei iiaea nooo?ai aieeiooe ia
ia?aiao?e oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Aea?? iioeiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo
eaioethaee?a (IOE) aeaioiaeaiiy AIO o oe?e cii? iiaea aooe
?aeiiaiaeiaaii aaeeeei ooo?iaei i?aei?e?inoaai, i?eeeaaeii yeiai ?
Oa?e?anueea AAO “Oe?a?inueea ooo?i”. C oi/ee ci?o o?oaeiaeo?ao aa??aioe
?1… ?116 oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano i?aeoe/ii ??aiioe?ii? (a?aei?ii?noue
o o?oaeiaeo?aoao “e?aei?o” aa??aio?a ia ia?aaeuo? 4.5%). Oiio c oeeo
aa??aio?a aeioe?eueii a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao iaea?eueo “aeaoaaiio”
aa??aioo ? 116. Aa??aioe oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano (? 117… ? 180), ui
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo ae?oai? ciie, iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
i?aei?e?inoaai, ia yeeo aeiei??iia ?aeiino?oeoe?y oa ia?ainiauaiiy
ciaoiaeyoueny o caaa?oaeuei?e noaae??. Aa??aioe oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano
(55 aa??aio?a), ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo o?aouei? ciie, iiaeooue aooe
?aeiiaiaeiaai? i?aei?e?inoao, yea ia? a?eueo aeaoaaa, o ii??aiyii? c
ia?oith ciiith, iaeaaeiaiiy oa na?aaei?e ianya aeioneo i?iaeoeoe??.
I?eeeaaeii iiaea neoaeeoe i?aei?e?inoai “?inoie-?aei Eaeueaeaia”, ui
ae?iaey? 260 iaeeieoeue ae?ia?a ia ??e. Iieacaii, ui c aa??aio?a
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ? 117… ? 180 oa ? 181… ? 235 ia?aaaao ne?ae
a?aeaeaaaoe, a?aeiia?aeii, aa??aioai ? 180 oa ? 235. Ciia a?aeiinii
iaaeniei? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? (4-a ciia) iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
i?aei?e?inoaai, ui niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia aeioneo iaeeie/ieo aeae?a
i?iaeoeoe?? aai i?iaeoeoe?? iaeeie na??yie. Aeaia ciia (ia?aaaao ne?ae
a?aeaeaaaoe aa??aioo ? 263) iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia i?e ?ic?iaoe?
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ia oaeeo i?aei?e?inoaao ye AAO “A?A”, aoaeeieao
iiaeaeae oa ?ioeo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui niaoe?ae?cothoueny ia aeioneo
ae?ia?a c oe??e oa ooo?a. Aa??aioe, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo i’yoi?
ciie, ca aa?o?noth ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciythoueny
a?ae aa?oino? aa??aio?a oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano /aoaa?oi? ciie. O oie
aea /an aeo?aoe /ano ia ?oith ?aae?caoe?th i?eaeecii ia 9% ia?aaeuothoue
a?aeiia?aei? aeo?aoe ia ?aae?caoe?th aa??aio?a /aoaa?oi? ciie. Oiio
aa??aioe oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo i’yoi? ciie,
ne?ae aaaaeaoe iai?eeiyoieie aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Iieacaii, ui a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo, aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy AIO c iaea?aeaiiai iaai?o IOE
aecia/a?oueny o?iainiaeie iiaeeeainoyie oa ??aiai i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa ia eiie?aoiiio i?aei?e?inoa?.

AENIIAIE

?eieiaa aeiiii?ea iinoaaeea ia?aae i?aei?e?inoaaie ooo?iai?
i?iieneiaino? caaea/o caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e
i?i?iaeueieo aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?aoao eioo?a oa i?aoe?. Iiae?aia caaea/a, o
neeo aaaaoioaeoi?iino?, aeey naiai ae??oaiiy aeiaaa? nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo, ui i?eionea? anaa?/ia o?aooaaiiy an?o /eiiee?a, ye?
aecia/athoue ye?noue.

Iieacaii, ui c oi/ee ci?o a??ia?aeiino? ioe?iee yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? an?
a?aeii? noa’?eoeai? eiiieaeni? iieacieee yeino? ? ??aiioe?iieie.
Ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe oei iieacieeai, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo aeicaiey?
aeinoaoiuei i?inoi ae??ooaaoe oe?ieee eean caaea/, iia’ycaieo c
oi?aae?iiyi ye?noth i?iaeoeoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?eeeaaeii oaeiai
iieacieea iiaea aooe na?aaeiueiaeaaaeaiee a?eoiaoe/iee iieaciee, i?e
oeueiio aeey io?eiaiiy a??ia?aeieo oa aeinoaoiuei i?inoi ?ioa?i?aoo?ieo
?acoeueoao?a iaeeie/i? iieacieee yeino? iiaeii? iaoe iaeiaeiao oeaeo
ioe?iie. Oeei aeiiaai a aeinoaoiuei iiai?e i??? caaeiaieueiy?
ooieoe?iiaeueia ia?aoai?aiiy aeaeyaeo “aaniethoia cia/aiiy iaeeie/iiai
iieacieea yeino? — aacia?a?aia aaeueia oeaea”.

Aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaio ???a?o?/io no?oeoo?io noaio
aeanoeainoae AIO, ui aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe i?eioeei nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
aei caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? ooo?iaeo ae?ia?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee aa??aio
???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie aeanoeainoae AIO neeaaea?oueny c 91
aeanoeaino? ??ciiai nooiaiy eiiieaeniino?. Oey noaia ? oi?aa?naeueiith ?
iiaea aooe iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee iiiaieeaoo?e aeanoeainoae oa
iieaciee?a yeino? ooo?iaiai iaeyao aoaeue-yeiai ani?oeiaioo ?
i?ecia/aiiy, aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e aecia/aii? /eneiaeo cia/aiue
eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino? AIO, oeyo?a, niinia?a ?
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy yeino? i?e
iaiaaeaieo aeo?aoao ??ciiiai?oiiai aeaeo ?ano?n?a.

Iieacaii, ui iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, yea oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny a eaae?e i?iieneiaino? aeey ioe?iee eiao?oe??io?a
aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino? oaaeiiai ae?iao, ia? ?yae nooo?aeo
iaaeie?e?a. Eiao?oe??io eiiei?aeaoe??, ui neeaaea? iniiao oe???
iaoiaeeee, ? aeinoaoiuei “i’yeith” e?eoe/iith noaoenoeeith, ui aeicaiey?
eeoa i?eeiyoe aai a?aeoeeeoe a?iioaco i?i a?aenooi?noue aoaeue yeiai
noaoenoe/iiai ca’yceo i?ae ?aiaee?iaeaie. A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoothui?
?aiaee?iaee a, ioaea, e aeniiae?a, c?iaeaieo ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a
iieooaaiiy, i?e oeueiio ia aa?aioo?oueny.

?ic?iaeaii iiao iaoiaeeeo ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy,
iniiao yei? neeaaeathoue e?eoe/ia noaoenoeea ( 2 oa a?iioaca i?i
a?aeiia?aei?noue ao?aeieo aeaieo, caaeaieo iao?eoeath ?aia?a, i?eeiyo?e
?aa?an?ei?e iiaeae?. sse iiaeaeue i?e oeueiio i?iiiio?oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iao?eoeth iaeeie/iiai ?aiao (o iaoaiaoe/iiio ?icoi?ii?)
oa iao?eoeth ?aa?an?eieo caeeoe?a c caaeaiith aeenia?n??th aeaiaio?a, ui
e?euee?nii oa?aeoa?eco? a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo
eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino?.

Anoaiiaeaii aca?iica’ycie noaoenoeee ( 2 c eiao?oe??ioii eiiei?aeaoe??
oa io?eiaii iiaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioo eiiei?aeaoe??. O aeiaaeeo a?aenooiino? a ?icii?yaeaeaii?
ei?enooaa/a iiooaeieo ia/enethaaeueieo cania?a oea aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy
aeaeici?iaio eeane/io iaoiaeeeo. I?e oeueiio a e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoaoao
?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iathoue i?noea iaaaeee? iioeaee.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai
iieooaaiiy neeaaeaii aeai?eoi oa eiii’thoa?io i?ia?aio, ui aeicaieythoue
aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean oa nooo?ai nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a
iieooaaiiy aenia?o?a. I?e oeueiio i?aeaeuo?oueny a??ia?aei?noue ioe?iie
cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a ca
?aooiie aaoiiaoe/iiai aeeo/aiiy c neeaaeo a?oie oeo aenia?o?a, /ey
eiiiaoaioi?noue aeeeeea? noii?a aai aeoiea yeeo a?aei?iia a?ae aeoiee
a?eueoino?. I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie
i?i?ethno?iaaii ia i?eeeaae? AIO aeaeo “ae?ii/a iaeueoi c? oeo?ie
ioo???”. Io?eiai? i?e oeueiio ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye
aeey ioe?iee eiiieaenii? yeino? AIO aeaiiai ani?oeiaioo, oae ? i?e
?ica’ycaii? caaea/? iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? c iaoith
iaenei?caoe?? eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino? iaeueoa i?e iaiaaeaiiyo ia
o?iainia? oa o?oaeia? ?ano?ne.

C aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy ?ica’ycaii
caaea/o iioei?caoe?? yeino? AIO i?e iaiaaeaiiyo ia aeo?aoe o?iain?a oa
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo
iieaciee?a yeino? AIO oa ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aio, ui
caaacia/othoue ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? iioei?caoe?? yeino? AIO ia IAII
/aoaa?oiai ? ianooiieo iieie?iiue.

Ia i?eeeaae? iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino?, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaae?ei?noue ae?ii/iai iaeueoa c oeo?ie ioo???,
iieacaii, ui ?aoe?iiaeueiee ?iciiae?e caian?a o?iain?a oa ?ano?n?a
aeicaiey? ia 15… 50% (a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie caian?a) ca?eueoeoe
cia/aiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea o ii??aiyii? c ?iciiae?eii caian?a, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? ??aiii??ia ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiue an?o iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a.
Ia?ae?e iaeeie/ieo aeanoeainoae, iieacieee yeino? yeeo i?aeeyaathoue
ca?eueoaiith i?e iioei?caoe??, nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
a?aeiinieo caian?a o?iain?a oa ?ano?n?a. Oiio ??oaiiy i?i
aeioe?euei?noue aeo?a/aiiy eioo?a aeey ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiue oeo /e ?ioeo
iaeeie/ieo iieaciee?a yeino? iiaeiii i?eeiaoeny o?eueee c o?aooaaiiyi
eiie?aoieo oiia ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a iioei?caoe??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ??ciiiai?ooy aa??aio?a ?aae?caoe?? a?eueoino? c
oaoiieia?/ii iaiiae?eueieo iia?aoe?e i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaaaoiaa??aioiino?
i?aai?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeaioiaeaiiy AIO. On? aa??aioe
?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny ca /aniaeie oa o?iainiaeie aeo?aoaie i?e
caaacia/aii? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaiai ??aiy yeino? ooo?iaiai ae?iao. C
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo aeeiai?/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy aaoi?ii
?ica’ycaii caaea/o aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai (ca oeie /e ?ioeie e?eoa??yie)
aa??aioo i?aai?caoe?? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy AIO c
aaaaoii??iiai ianeao ao?aeieo aa??aio?a.

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi oa eiii’thoa?io i?ia?aio, ui caaacia/othoue aea??
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy AIO. Ia
caiiaeaiiy ni?eueiiai Oe?a?inueei-A?aaio?inueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa “?inoie
— ?aei Eaeueaeaia” io?eiaii iaa?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a oaoiieia?/ii?
iine?aeiaiino? aeaioiaeaiiy iaeueoa ae?ii/iai c? oeo?ie ioo??? oa
aeaeai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
aa??aio?a. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai aa??aioo aeicaieeei
i?aei?e?inoao ia 7 % i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? oa cieceoe
nia?aa?o?noue ia 9 %. Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy aei?iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy
ca?eueoo? eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ae?iaieoeoaa, iaeiae, ca ?aooiie ci?ie
eiino?oeoe?e aeaoaeae, aeae?a iaoa??ae?a oa niinia?a ia?iaee i?e
?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaii? o?iainiaeo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a iayai?noue
iiae?aiiai iaeaaeiaiiy caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue aai cieaeaiiy
nia?aa?oino? AIO i?e caa?aaeaii? eiai yeino?, aai i?aeaeuaiiy eiai
eiiieaenii? yeino?. Inoaii? icia/a? i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
AIO ye ia aioo??oiueiio oae ? ia ciai?oiueiio ?eieao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee a ne?aeoth/eo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo:

Aeeioeeay E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. ?aniieiaeaiea eiiiiceoeeiiiiai oeaio?a i?e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiii iiaeaee?iaaieee iaoiauo ecaeaeee ec oeo?ie e?ioa //
O?oaeu 44-e iao/iie e 12-e iao/ii-iaoiaee/. eiio. i?ioan.-i?aiiae.
ninoaaa einoeoooa. — E.: EOEEI, 1992. — N. 32.

AeeioeeayE.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo naienoa
ieoi/iuo niaaeeiaiee i?e noa/eaaiee oeo?ie e?ioa // O?oaeu 44-e iao/iie
e 12-e iao/ii-iaoiaee/. eiio. i?ioan.-i?aiiae. ninoaaa einoeoooa. — E.:
EOEEI, 1992. — N. 33.

A?eioeueea E.A. Aieea niinia?a c’?aeiaiiy aeaoaeae iaeyao c
iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a ia eiai niiaeea/? aeanoeaino? // Ca. iaoe. i?.
iieiaeeo a/aieo oa nooaeaio?a. *anoeia 1. — E.: AeAEIO, 1996. — N. 18.

A?eioeueea E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao i?ieeaaei/ieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iieacieee i?oeiino? ooo?yii? ne?iaeie // Ca. iaoe. i?.
iieiaeeo a/aieo oa nooaeaio?a. *anoeia 1. — E.: AeAEIO, 1996. — N. 19.

Aeeioeeay E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Auai? ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iaeaoa ecaeaeee ec
iaoo?aeueiiai iaoa; Ain. aeaae. eaae. i?ii-noe Oe?aeiu — Eeaa, 1996. —
21n.: ee. — Aeaeeia?.: 6 iaca. — ?on. — Aeai a AIOA Oe?aeiu 04.12.96,
? 2339 — Oe 96.

Aeeioeeay E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee ec iaoo?aeueiiai iaoa ; Ain. aeaae.
eaae. i?ii-noe Oe?aeiu — Eeaa, 1996. — 27n.: ee. — Aeaeeia?.: 22 iaca. —
?on. — Aeai a AIOA Oe?aeiu 04.12.96, ? 2338 — Oe 96.

Aeeioeeay E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Oi?iaeecaoeey aaeeie/iuo iieacaoaeae
ea/anoaa oaaeiuo ecaeaeee // O?oaeu 1-ie iaaeaeoia?. eiio. NO?YN -97.
Niaoe. auione aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. E?ui. Ia?oaieo, 12-16 ieoya?y 1997, aui. 2,
eieaa 3. — N. 95 — 98.

A?eioeueea E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
yeino? ae?ia?a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a // Ca. iaoe. i?. iieiaeeo a/aieo oa
nooaeaio?a. *anoeia 1. — E.: AeAEIO, 1997. — N. 6 — 7.

A?eioeueea E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ii? iine?aeiaiino?
aeaioiaeaiiy iaeyao iaoiaeii aeeiai?/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy // Ca. iaoe. i?.
iieiaeeo a/aieo oa nooaeaio?a. *anoeia 1. — E.: AeAEIO, 1997. — N. 7.

Ne?eiea A.E., A?eioeueea E.A. Eiiieaenia ioe?iea yeino? ae?ia?a c
iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a // O?oaeu 1-ie iao/ii-i?aeoe/. eiio. «Nia?aiaiiay
eiio?ieueii-eniuoaoaeueiay oaoieea i?iiuoeaiiuo ecaeaeee e eo
na?oeoeeaoeey» (NEEO — 97) Oii 1. Niaoe. aeione aeo?iaeo “Aei??thaaeueia
oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. — E.: 1997. — N.
55 — 54.

Ne?eiea A.E., Aeeioeeay E.A. Iaoiaeeea ioai?a niaoeeaeenoia i?e
yenia?oiii ii?ina // O?oaeu 1-ie iaaeaeoia?. eiio. «Nia?aiaiiua
oaoiieiaee ?ano?ni — yia?ainaa?aaeaiey» (NO?YN -97). — Niaoe. auione
aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioeanao”. E?ui. Ia?oaieo, 12-16 ieoya?y 1997, aui. 2, eieaa 3. — N. 14
— 16.

Aeeioeeay E.A. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea ea/anoaa oaaeiuo ecaeaeee // O?oaeu
1-ie iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee ?ano?ni —
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey” (NO?YN -97) . Niaoe. auione aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia
oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. — E?ui. Ia?oaieo,
12-16 ieoya?y 1997, aui. 2, eieaa 3. — N. 87 — 90.

Ne?eiea A.E., Aeeioeeay E.A. Iioeiecaoeey ea/anoaa oaaeiuo ecaeaeee i?e
ia?aie/aiee ia yia?aicao?aou // O?oaeu 1-ie iaaeaeoia?. eiio.
“Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee ?ano?ni — yia?ainaa?aaeaiey” (NO?YN -97). Niaoe.
auione aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. — E?ui. Ia?oaieo, 12-16 ieoya?y 1997, aui. 2,
eieaa 3. — N. 91 — 94.

Ne?eiea A.E., Aeeioeeay E.A. Iioeiecaoeey aaeeie/iuo iieacaoaeae
ea/anoaa, oa?aeoa?ecothueo yenieoaoaoeeiiiia naienoai aeaineiai iaeueoi
ec oeo?ie ioo?ee // O?oaeu 3-e iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Nia?aiaiiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua e yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee aeeciaiaania/aiey
/aeiaaea” (NEYO -98). (Eaiaiaoe — Iiaeieueneee, 2 — 6 ethiy 1998a.).
Eieaa 6. Niaoe. auione aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia
oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. — E.: 1998. — N. 70 — 73.

Ne?eiea A.E., Aeeioeeay E.A. Auai? ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aa?eaioa
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey aeaineiai iaeueoi ec oeo?ie
ioo?ee // O?oaeu 3-e iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Nia?aiaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua e
yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee aeeciaiaania/aiey /aeiaaea” (NEYO -98).
(Eaiaiaoe — Iiaeieueneee, 2 — 6 ethiy 1998a.). Eieaa 6. Niaoe. auione
aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioeanao”. — E.: 1998. — N. 74 — 77.

Aeeioeeay E.A., Ne?eiea A.E. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee a oaaeiii
i?iecaiaenoaa // O?oaeu 4-e iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Nia?aiaiiua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua e yia?ainaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee aeeciaiaania/aiey
/aeiaaea” (NEYO -98). (Naaanoiiieue, naioya?ue 1998a.). aui.4. Eieaa 3.
Niaoe. auione aeo?iaea “Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea a
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao”. — E.: 1998. — N. 38 — 41.

AIIOAOe?ss

A?eioeueea E. A. Caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a c
iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo oa i?eioeei?a
iioei?caoe??. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.19. 04 — oaoiieia?y oaaeieo ae?ia?a. — Aea?aeaaia
aeaaeai?y eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a
caaacia/aiiy aeniei? yeino? oaaeieo ae?ia?a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a (AIO)
ia noaae?yo ?oiueiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa aeaioiaeaiiy i?e iaiaaeaieo
aeo?aoao iaoa??aeueieo oa o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a. O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii
ocaaaeueiaio ???a?o?/io no?oeoo?io noaio iaeeie/ieo oa a?oiiaeo
aeanoeainoae AIO. I?iaaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iaoaiaoe/ii? oi?ie
iiaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino? AIO ? oi?iae?caoe?y iaeeie/ieo
iieaciee?a yeino?. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee:

ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aenia?oiiai iieooaaiiy, ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy
a??ia?aeiino? ioe?iie cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a aaaiiino? iieaciee?a yeino?
oaaeieo ae?ia?a ca ?aooiie aaoiiaoe/iiai aeeo/aiiy c? neeaaeo a?oie oeo
aenia?o?a, /ey eiiiaoaioi?noue aeeeeea? noii?a aai aeoiea yeeo a?aei?iia
a?ae aeoiee a?eueoino?;

iioei?caoe?? iaeeie/ieo aai a?oiiaeo iieaciee?a, ui caaacia/o?
iiaeeea?noue iaenei?caoe?? eiiieaeniiai iieacieea yeino? AIO i?e
iaiaaeaiiyo ia iaoa??aeuei? oa o?oaeia? ?ano?ne;

aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aa??aioo oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy
AIO, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue i?i?i?caoe?? iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao i?e
caaeai?e o?oaeii?nonueeino?.

Aenieo aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee iaa?oioiaaii oai?aoe/ii oa
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i?aeoe/ii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae??a c iaoo?aeueiiai ooo?a, oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean,
iieaciee yeino?, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, iioei?caoe?y, aenia?oia iieooaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeeioeeay E.A. Iaania/aiea aunieiai ea/anoaa oaaeiuo ecaeaeee ec
iaoo?aeueiiai iaoa ia iniiaa nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e i?eioeeiia
iioeiecaoeee.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.19.04 — oaoiieiaey oaaeiuo ecaeaeee. —
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo iaoiaeia
iaania/aiey aunieiai ea/anoaa oaaeiuo ecaeaeee ec iaoo?aeueiiai iaoa
(EII) ia noaaeee eo i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ecaioiaeaiey i?e ia?aie/aiiuo
cao?aoao iaoa?eaeueiuo e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioaia
iaiauaiiay ea?a?oe/aneay no?oeoo?iay noaia aaeeie/iuo e a?oiiiauo
naienoa EII. I?iaaaeaiu iainiiaaiea auai?a iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?iu
i?aaenoaaeaiey eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey ea/anoaa EII e oi?iaeecaoeey
aaeeie/iuo iieacaoaeae ea/anoaa. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee:

ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia yenia?oiiai ii?ina, iaania/eaathuay iiauoaiea
aeinoiaa?iinoe ioeaiie cia/aiee eiyooeoeeaioia aaniiinoe iieacaoaeae
ea/anoaa oaaeiuo ecaeaeee ca n/ao aaoiiaoe/aneiai eneeth/aiey ec ninoaaa
a?oiiu oao yenia?oia, /uey eiiiaoaioeey aucuaaao niiiaiea eee iiaiea
eioi?uo ioee/ii io iiaiey aieueoeinoaa;

iioeiecaoeee aaeeie/iuo eee a?oiiiauo iieacaoaeae, iaania/eaathuay
aiciiaeiinoue iaeneiecaoeee eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey ea/anoaa EII i?e
ia?aie/aieyo ia iaoa?eaeueiua e o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu;

auai?a ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aa?eaioa oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey
EII, iaania/eaathuay aiciiaeiinoue ieieiecaoeee iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao i?e
caaeaiiie o?oaeiaieinoe.

Aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iaoiaeee iainiiaaia oai?aoe/anee e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/anee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ecaeaeea ec iaoo?aeueiiai iaoa, oaoiieiae/aneee
i?ioeann, iieacaoaeue ea/anoaa, nenoaiiue iiaeoiae, iioeiecaoeey,
yenia?oiue ii?in.

THE SUMMARY

Bilotckaj L.B. Suppopt of high quality of sewing products from natural
fur on the basis of the system approach and principles of optimization.-
the Manuscript.

The dissertation for the scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science on a speciality 05.19.04 — technology of sewing
products. — State academy of a light industry of Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to development of the scientifically
established methods of support of high quality of sewing products from
natural fur (PNF) at a stage of their designing and manufacturing with
the limited expenses material and labor resources. In work the
generalized hierarchical block diagram of individual and group
properties of PNF is developed. The validation of a choice of the
mathematical form of representation of complex quality index of PNF and
formalization of individual quality index is carried out. The procedures
are developed:

processings of results of questioning of expert guaranteeing reliability
of given estimations of meanings of weight factors of quality indiced of
PNF and simplifying a task of selection of the experts involved in
questioning;

optimization of individual or group parameters ensuring opportunity of
maximization of a complex quality index of PNF with restrictions on
material and labor resources;

choice of rational variant of technological process of manufacturing of
PNF, ensuring opportunity of minimization of material inputs with the
given labour-intensity.

The high efficiency of the offered techniques is grounded theoretically
and confirmed practically.

Key words: a product from natural fur, technological process, quality
index, system approach, optimization, questioning of experts.

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