29

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI I?OeIINO?

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OA?*AIEI AAEA??E AIEIAeEIE?IAE*

OAeE 539.374

A’ssCEIIEANOE*I? AOAEOE

A I?IOeANAO AENIEIOAEAeE?NIIAI EIEAEUeIIAI AeAOI?IOAAIIss

IAOA??AE?A OA AEAIAIO?A EIINO?OEOe?E

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.09 – “Aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? i?oeiino? oa ?oeioaaiiy ca oiia oaea?iiai ?
?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ?inoeoooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noaiaiia Aaiiaae?e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAIO

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoa??a Aaeaioei Aieiaeeie?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAIO

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?oooeia Aieiaeeie? Aai?a?eiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy IAIO

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaeno?aiei Aiaoie?e Eueaiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a IAIO

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie
(i.Oa?e?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 “ a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 9
aiaeei? 30 oaeeei

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.241.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie a i?ei?uaii? eiioa?aioe-caeo ?inoeoooo ca
aae?anith:

252014, Ee?a-14, aoe.Oei??yc?anueea, 2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe O.O.A?a?iye

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?iioeueni? iaaaioaaeaiiy oaea?iiai, aeaooiaiai,
oaieiaiai, aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai oa?aeoa?o iaaoaathoue ana a?eueoiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy a no/ani?e oaoi?oe?. Iaae?ei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue ?o
aeei?enoaiiy i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? oa aeaioiaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?
eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a caeaaeaoue a?ae iiaiioe oyaeaiue uiaei
iiaaae?iee iaoa??aeo ca ??cieo oiia ?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy,
ei?aeoiino? oa aaeaeaaoiino? iiaeaeae aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy,
ye? canoiniaothoueny aeey ?ic?aooie?a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ioe?iee
i?oeiino? ? ?ano?no aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e.

Ia?aiao?e ?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey aaaaoueio noa? canoinoaaiiy
iiai? oaoi?ee ciaoiaeyoueny a ??cieo ae?aiaciiao oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
oaeiai oeio aieeao niaeo?o (oaeaee?noue iaaaioaaeaiiy 1 … 10000 i/n,
o?eaae?noue – 1 … 10-9 n, oene – aei 100 AIa, oaiia?aoo?a – aei Oie),
aea aeey aaaaoueio ?iciianthaeaeaieo ia i?aeoeoe? i?ioean?a aeniea
oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoa??aeo (1 … 106 n-1) ? caaaeueiei
oa?aeoa?iei oaeoi?ii. I?e/iio yeui ae?aiacii 1 … 103 n-1 aeinoaoiuei
aeia?a aea/aiee, oi aeey iieno iiaaae?iee iaoa??aeo a iaeano? 103 … 106
n-1 aeineoue iaei ?ioi?iaoe??, yea, aei oiai ae, iineoue a ?yae?
aeiaaee?a noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?. Ae?oaith oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth
oaeeo i?ioean?a ? eieaeuei?noue ?ioaineaiiai ianoaoe?iia?iiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo, iaeanoue yeiai cae/aeii iaaieiii
ia?ai?uo?oueny a?aeiinii a?aieoeue o?ea. Naia oe? aeaa oaeoi?e ?
aecia/aeueieie aeey oaeeo caaea/, ye i?iieeaiiy aieea a ia?aoeiaeo,
oaeaeea iioe?aiiy o??uei; oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane cai?aniaoaaiiy,
caa?thaaiiy aeaooii, ia?iaee iaoae?a ??caiiyi oa oeneii.

Ioe?iea ?ie? a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a, coiiaeaieo aenieith oaeaee?noth
aeaoi?iaoe??, a?aeiineoueny aei iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo ? neeaaeieo
i?iaeai oai??? aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
iaoai?ee aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea. Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an yaey?
niaith ?ic?iaea iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a, ye? canoiniaoaathoueny
aeey ?ic?aooie?a ?o aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy, a ae??oaiiy iecee
caaea/, ca’ycaieo c ?ioaineaiei ianoaoe?iia?iei eieaeueiei ieanoe/iei
oa/aiiyi a i?ioeanao i?iieeaiiy, ??caiiy, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii,
cai?aniaoaaiiy, ia? nooo?aa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Ei?aeoia a?aooaaiiy aieeao oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ae?ae aaaeeeaa aeey
iaae?eiiai aecia/aiiy iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ? ?ic?aooie?a ia
i?oei?noue eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, caaacia/oth/e i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao, i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? oa cieaeaiiy iaoa??aei?ieino? i?ae /an aeaioiaeaiiy, ui ia?
aaaeeeaa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiiaeai? aaeeeeie
iaoa??aeueieie oa /aniaeie aeo?aoaie ? ia caaaeaee aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
iaea?aeaoe iaiao?aeio eioi?iaoe?th uiaei i?ioean?a, ye? aeieeathoue o
aca?iiae?th/eo o?eao. Aeey ?o iaae?eii? ioe?iee iaiao?aeiee eiiieaeniee
i?aeo?ae, yeee ii?aeio? ii?yae c aenia?eiaioaeueiei /enaeueia oa
?iaeaia?ia iiaeaethaaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue
noai?aiiy no/anieo cania?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee aeaoi?ioaaiiy a oiiaao aenieeo oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? oa
iiaoaeiaa aaeaeaaoieo aecia/aeueieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi
iae?i?eieo ?aieia?/ieo (a’yceeo) aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeany a?aeiia?aeii aei oai “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a ? ?? a?aooaaiiy i?e ?ic?aooieao aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e”, “O?aooaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?iiai ?iioeueniiai
oa?iiiaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a ?ic?aooieao ia i?oei?noue oa
aeiaaia?/i?noue eiino?oeoe?e”, “O?aooaaiiy aieeao niaoeeo?/ieo i?ioean?a
iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a i?e aeeiai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? a ?ic?aooieao
aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e”, ui aeeiioaaeeny a 1991-1998
?ieao a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca?aeii c Iinoaiiaaie
a?aeae?eaiiy iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae o ca’yceo c i?iaaaeaiiyi
aea?aeathaeaeaoieo ? ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o c i?ia?aeieie i?aai?caoe?yie
aoiiii? aia?aaoeee, aa?ieini?/ii?, noaeiiaoae?aii? oa iaoeiiaoae?aii?
aaeocae.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ioe?iea a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a oa ?o a?aooaaiiy o
?ic?aooieao i?ioean?a aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey
?yaeo i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ aeaioiaeaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?? eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a, o yeeo iaaieiii ia?ai?uo?oueny iaeanoue ?ioaineaiiai
eieaeueiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oa ae??oai? ianooii?
iniiai? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee ? i?ia?aiieo cania?a /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
eaac?noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo aaaaoiaei??ieo iae?i?eieo caaea/
aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
aenieioaeaee?nii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, aeaea?aea
?ioaineaiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy, ui ia?ai?uo?oueny a /an?, iiiaeeiieo
eiioaeoieo aca?iiae?e, iiyae ? ?ooo o??uei, ca’yciino? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ?
oaieiaeo i?ioean?a.

2. Aiae?c ??cieo iaoiaeee aei?iaoaaiue iaoa??ae?a i?e aeeiai?/iiio
iaaaioaaeaii? c iaoith ooi/iaiiy iaae ?o canoinoaaiiy ? ?ic?iaee
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue, ye? caaacia/aoue
aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ca ?o aeiiiiiaith oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a o
ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?e 103…106 n-1.

Aiae?c, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a aeey ?o
aeei?enoaiiy o ?ic?aooieao.

3. Aea/aiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ? niaoeeo?ee aenieioaeaee?niiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a o i?ioeanao i?iieeaiiy, ??caiiy,
cai?aniaoaaiiy, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii oa ?ioeo, a yeeo iaaieiii
ia?ai?uo?oueny iaeanoue ?ioaineaiiai eieaeueiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy.
?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei a?aooaaiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a i?e
ioe?ioe? ianoaoe?iia?iiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui:

— ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie ? ia ?o iniia? i?ia?aii? caniae /enaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy aaaaoiaei??ieo iae?i?eieo eaac?noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo
caaea/ i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy ?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a,
iaaieiiiai ia?ai?uaiiy iaeano? ?ioaineaiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy,
iiiaeeiieo eiioaeoieo aca?iiae?e, ca’ycaiino? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ? oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a;

— aeey /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a ?ioaineaiiai ianoaoe?iia?iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy
i?e?iaeii? iae?i?eii? a’yceino? iaoa??aeo (cai?noue ooo/ii?) o yeino?
?aaoey??caoi?a ??oaiiy a iaeanoyo neeueieo a?aae??io?a ? iioeiaeueii? (c
oi/ee ci?o i?i?i?caoe?? ai?ieneiaoe?eii? a’yceino?) i?inoi?iai-/aniai?
aeene?aoecaoe?? aeeiai?/ieo caaea/ i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino?, ui cia/ii
i?aeaeueei aoaeoeai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue aea/aiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo
aoaeo?a ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ??oaiue;

— anaa?/iee aiae?c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo iaoiaeee aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue
aeicaieea ooi/ieoe iaae? ?o canoinoaaiiy ? c o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai aiae?co
ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aeinoia??ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?iaoe?? 103…106 n-1;

— ?icaeiooi ?ai?oa ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii oyaeaiiy uiaei ?ioaineaiiai
iae?i?eiiai oa?aeoa?o iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?iaoe?? 103…106 n-1 — nooo?aiai (aei 10 ?ac?a) i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith ? iae?i?eiiai iaiiiioiiiiai oa?aeoa?o ci?ie
a’yceino? iaoa??ae?a ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo,
iaea?aeaieo i?e ??cieo aeaeao aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue, ocaaaeueiaiiy
iiaeo ? a?aeiieo ?acoeueoao?a aeey iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a (iaoaee,
oaa?ae? nieaae, aenieiii?eno? y/a?no? iaoa??aee). Iieacaii, ui
iaea?aeaia i?e aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiiyo iaiiiioiiia ci?ia oa?aeoa?enoee
i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? iia’ycaia c aca?iiaieeaii oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? oa aaeeaaaoe/iiai ?ic?a??aaiiy iaoa??aeo;

— ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ie?
a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a o i?ioeanao aenieioaeaee?niiai eieaeueiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e aea/aii oe?ieee eean
i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaeo caaea/ no/anii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? (i?iieeaiiy,
ia?iaea iaoae?a ??caiiyi ? oeneii, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii, iioe?aiiy
oaeaeeeo o??uei), aeey yeeo nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia? aieea oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe??, iniaeeai a ae?aiacii? ?? ci?ie 103 … 106 n-1. Aeey oaeiai
eeano caaea/ cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia noaia i?iyao aoaeo?a oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ca ?aooiie aca?iiaieeao ci?ie i?oei?nieo oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a, aeaeo iai?oaeaiiai noaio, aeieeiaiiy oaieiaiai
?ic?a??aaiiy ? aeiaeaoeiaiai oeneo. Ia i?aenoaa? oe??? noaie
i?iaiae?ciaaii:

· ci?io iaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo (e?eoeee, a’yceee, ciiao
e?eoeee) i?e c?inoaii? oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy aai ?ooo o??ueie;

· ci?io iaoai?ci?a no?oaeeiooai?aiiy, ye? aecia/athoue ye?noue
ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi? oa no?ee?noue ?ino?oiaioa, i?e c?inoaii? oaeaeeino?
??caiiy;

· cia/ia eieaeueia cieaeaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa e?i?eia c?inoaiiy iii?o
i?iieeaiith a iaaiiio ae?aiacii? oaeaeeino? ?ooo oaea?ieea;

— aeey i?ioean?a i?iieeaiiy ioe?iaii aieea iae?i?eii? a’yceino?
iaoa??aeo ia ii?? i?iieeaiith ia i?aenoaa? /enaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ?
aiae?oe/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey a’ycei? neeaaeiai? iii?o i?iieeaiith
i?e ??cieo caeiiao ci?ie iii?o iaoa??aeo aeaoi?ioaaiith a?ae oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aeey ??cieo oi?i aieiaii? /anoeie oaea?ieea; ooi/iaii ia
i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo oyaeaiiy
uiaei oa?aeoa?o ?ooo iaoa??aeo ia?aoeiaee a?ey oaea?ieea, cie?aia
anoaiiaeaii iiaeeea?noue ?ooo iaoa??aeo iacono??/ oaea?ieeo ?
aeoi?iiiae?aiee oa?aeoa? ?ooo aiane?aeie a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a;

— aia?oa oeyoii /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy cao?eniaaii oaeeaooai?aiiy ia
eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi? aca?iiae?th/eo i?ae eooii ieanoei i?ae /an ?o
caa?thaaiiy aeaooii ? anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue eiai ia?aiao??a a?ae
a’yceino? iaoa??aeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia
noaia aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a c o?aooaaiiyi
a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a, iia? ?acoeueoaoe uiaei iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a
i?e aeeiai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii? ? eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a o i?ioeanao
i?iieeaiiy, cai?aniaoaaiiy, ??caiiy, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii iiaeeaeee
oyaeaiiy uiaei i?ioean?a aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ui
aeicaieeoue a?eueo iaae?eii ? aoaeoeaii i?iaiaeeoe iioei?caoe?th
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a aeaioiaeaiiy oa ?ic?aooiee eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a i?e ?iioeueniiio iaaaioaaeaii?.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ? i?ia?aii? caniae /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aaaaoiaei??ieo iae?i?eieo eaac?noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo caaea/
i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino? aoee ? iiaeooue aooe a iiaeaeueoiio
aeei?enoai? aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/ aa?ieini?/ii? oa a?enueeiai? oaoi?ee,
aoiiii? aia?aaoeee oa ?ioeo aaeocae no/anii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??.

Aeinoia??i?noue iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aecia/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi anaa?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaeee ? i?ia?aiieo
cania?a /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, ??oaiiyi cia/iiai ianyao iiaeaeueieo
oa oanoiaeo caaea/, ocaiaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a, aeeiiaieo
??cieie iaoiaeaie, ?acoeueoao?a ?iaeaia?iiai (aiae?oe/iiai) oa
/enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy c aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa /enaeueieie aeaieie
?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii iniiai? ?aea?
?icaeoeo iaoiaeee /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, aecia/aeueieo ??aiyiue
noaio iaoa??aeo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo noai i?aeoe/ieo caaea/; iaea?aeaii
iniiai? ?ic?aooieia? ?acoeueoaoe, i?iaiae?ciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii
/enaeuei? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeaia?i? iiaeae?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?ioean?a.

A iaoa??aeao, ye? iioae?eiaaii ?acii c iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii
i?ioani?ii A.A.Noaiaiiaei, ye iinoaiiaieeii i?iaeai aeena?oaoe??, c
ani??aioaie oa ni?a?ia?oieeaie, ye? i?eeiaee o/anoue o aeeiiaii?
ni?eueieo ainiaeiaia??ieo oa aea?aeathaeaeaoieo ?ia?o, aaoi?ii aoea
?ic?iaeaia oai?aoe/ia /anoeia ?ia?o, i?iaiae?ciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii
iaea?aeai? /enaeuei? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ?
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia IV Ananithciiio neiiic?oi? ii ?iioeueniiio oeneo
(Iaiaeae??ai, 1983?.), VI Ananithciiio c’?cae? c oai?aoe/ii? ?
i?eeeaaeii? iaoai?ee (Oaoeaio, 1986?.), I, II ? III ?anioae?eainueeeo
nai?ia?ao «Aeeiaie/aneay i?i/iinoue e o?aueiinoieeinoue eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia» (Ee?a, 1987, 1989, 1991??.), Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe??
«I?ia?anneaiua i?ioeannu ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia aeaaeaieai» (Aiiaeue,
1989?.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «High rate fabrication materials»
(THaineaa?y, Ethaeyia, 1989?.), ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Nia?aiaiiua
iaoa?eaeu a iaoeiino?iaiee» (Ia?iue, 1990?.), ?anioae?eainueeiio
nai?ia?? «I?i/iinoue e oi?iieciaiaiea yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee i?e
aicaeaenoaee aeeiaie/aneeo oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo iieae» (Ee?a, 1990?.),
VIII I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Equations of state» (n. Yeuea?on,
1992?.), nai?ia?ao IAOO (Iineaa, 1990, 1991??.), nai?ia?? ii
a?iiaaae?noeoe? (Ee?a, 1994?.), III I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaiu
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey i?e ecaioiaeaiee e yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey AYN»
(N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 1994?.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Y?icey e ei??icey
iaoa?eaeia yaea?iie yia?aaoeee» (Ee?a, 1995?.), XII I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology» — SMIRT-95
(A?acee?y, Ii?oi-Ae?a?i, 1995?.), Fourth Ukrainian-Russian-Chinese
Symposium on Space Science and Technology (Ee?a, 1996?.), I?aeia?iaeiiio
nai?ia?? “Materials Instability under Mechanical Loading” (N.-Iaoa?ao?a,
1996?.), oe?a?inueei-aia?eeainueeiio nai?ia?? c aenieioaeaee?nii?
aca?iiae?? (Ee?a, 1996?.), ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
i?oeiino? IAIO, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “EI?”,
?inoeoooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAIO oa ?ioeo eiioa?aioe?yo ?
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 44 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, oaiaoe/ieo ca??eao, i?aoeyo eiioa?aioe?e,
a oaeiae a?aeia?aaeaii o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ca?oao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, naie
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a. Ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 287 noi??iie, a oiio /ene?
89 ?enoie?a, 5 oaaeeoeue oa nienie e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 399
iaeiaioaaiue.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo, aeieoi?o
oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o Aaiiaae?th Aieiaeeie?iae/o Noaiaiiao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iienaii noai i?iaeaie, iaa?oioiaaii ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? caaea/? ?iaioe, a oaeiae a?aeia?aaeaii iaoeiao
iiaecio, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe,
iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Noenei aeeeaaeaii ci?no aeena?oaoe?? ca
?icae?eaie.

O ia?oo /anoeio ?iaioe aoiaeyoue ?icae?ee 1 — 3. O ia?oiio ?icae?e?
i?iaiae?ciaaii ?ieue a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a o i?ioeanao aeeiai?/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeey ?yaeo i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaeo caaea/ no/anii?
oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? (i?iieeaiiy, ia?iaea iaoae?a ??caiiyi ? oeneii,
caa?thaaiiy aeaooii, ianoaoe?iia?ia iaaaioaaeaiiy o??uei). Iieacaii, ui
aeey oeeo caaea/ oa?aeoa?ieie iciaeaie ? oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe??, ui
ci?ith?oueny a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? (aei 106 n-1), ? iaaieiia ia?ai?uaiiy
iaeano? ?ioaineaiiai eieaeueiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy iaoa??aeo.

?icaeyiooi noai aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao a’yceino? iaoa??aeo ia ia?aiao?e
oeeo caaea/ ? aecia/aii, ui ?acoeueoaoe a?eueoino? c ieo iathoue
noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?. Cie?aia, aeey i?ioean?a i?iieeaiiy
A.A.Aaaoiiiaei, ?.Aao?ith, A.N.Eiceiaei iieacaii aieea a’yceeo aoaeo?a,
a a ?iaioao Aeae.Aeaia, O.O.Aae??aa, *.Aiaea?naia ? Aeae.Oieea?a
a?aei?/aii, ui oaeee aieea ianooo?aee, oi/a iiae?aiee aeniiaie inoaii?o
aaoi??a coiiaeaiee oei, ui a ?ic?aooiee aoei caeeaaeaii iaeee aieea
oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ii?? iaoa??aeo.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? io?eiaieo aeaieo oa aeniiae?a o?aaa
canoiniaoaaoe eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae, yeee ii?aeio? ii?yae c
aenia?eiaioaeueiei /enaeueia oa ?iaeaia?ia iiaeaethaaiiy. Aeey inoaii?o
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? canoinoaaiiy no/anieo cania?a iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, ye? iiaeooue a?aoiaoaaoe niaoeeo?eo aeaoi?ioaaiiy a
oiiaao aenieeo oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe??, oa aaeaeaaoieo aecia/aeueieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi iae?i?eieo ?aieia?/ieo (a’yceeo)
aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a.

A?aei?/aii, ui aoaeoeai? /enaeuei? iaoiaee, ?ic?iaeai? a ?iaioao
A.I.Aiooeiaa, ?.Aao?e, O.O.Aae??aa, N.E.Aiaeoiiaa, A.A.Ai??euenueeiai,
A.?.Aoe?aeiaa, Aeae.Aeaeiiniia, A.N.E?aa/oea, A.?.Ei?i??aa,
A.I.Eoeoaeaeaiiaa, A.?.Naaee??ia, A.?.Naa?theiaa, ?.Naaeaea?ea,
I.O?ee?ina, A.I.Oii?ia, I.I.Oie?ia oa ?ioeo aaoi??a, aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue iiaeaethaaoe oe?ieee niaeo? aeeiai?/ieo i?oaeiiieanoe/ieo
caaea/. ?acii c oei caa?iaii oaaao ia oa, ui aeei?enoaiiy ooo/ii?
a’yceino? a a?eueoino? a?aeiieo ?ic?aooieiaeo i?ia?ai aeey noaa?e?caoe??
??oaiue oo?oaeith? aea/aiiy aieeao ?aaeueii? a’yceino? iaoa??aeo ia
i?ioeane aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a. Ei?aeoia
o?aooaaiiy neeaaeii? iae?i?eii? ?aieia?/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a
(a’yceeo aoaeo?a) i?e ?ic?aooieao ?o ?ioaineaiiai aenieioaeaee?niiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy oaeiae aeeeeea? cia/i? o?oaeiiu?. Iai?eeeaae, oae? a?aeii?
i?ia?aii? eiiieaene, ye CTH ? AUTODYN, aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano ia iaee
oaeeo iiaeeeainoae.

Aieea oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia i?ioeane aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e aea/aany a ?iaioao iaoeiaeo oe?e ?.A.Aan?ia,
TH.N.Ai?iaeiaa, I.A.Caie?inueeiai, A.A.?euethoeia, A.?.Eaiaey,
Aeae.Eaiiaaeea, ?.Ee?ooiia, A.N.E?aa/oea, A.I.Eoeoaeaeaiiaa,
A.N.Eainueeiai, TH.E?iaeoieueia, E.Iaeaa?ia, I.Iae??na,
TH.?.Iaua?yeiaa, O.I?eieana, I.Iaaeeie, A.N.Iena?aiea, O.I.Ieaoiai?,
O.A.?aoiaooe?ia, A.A.Noaiaiiaa, A.I.O?oiaa, I.Oieaina?, I.I.Oie?ia,
A.Oieueoea?a oa ?i. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye ? iiaeae? aeeiai?/ii?
iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a, iiaoaeiaai? ia ?o iniia?, ia?aaaaeii
a?aeiinyoueny aei ae?aiaciio oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? aei 104 n-1. O
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?iaioao N.Aiaeia?a, I.Aaeiaia, A.Aieaeni?oa,
Aeae.Aeaeiiana, Aeae.Coeana i?aee?anethaaeany aaaeeea?noue aea/aiiy ?
o?aooaaiiy a ?ic?aooieao iiaaae?iee iaoa??aeo i?e oaeaeeinoyo aeua 104 …
105 n-1, ui a?aeinue aei oaaae i?e oi?ioethaaii? caaea/ aeaii? ?iaioe.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co i?ioean?a ianoaoe?iia?iiai ? ?iioeueniiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaio noaio
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a iaeano? ?ioaineaiiai
eieaeueiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy, ui iaaieiii ia?ai?uo?oueny. I?iya
a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a i?e c?inoaii? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aca?iiaieeao ci?ie i?oei?nieo oa
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a, aeaeo iai?oaeaiiai noaio,
aeieeiaiiy oaieiaiai ?ic?a??aaiiy ? aeiaeaoeiaiai oeneo.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a, aeai?eoi?a ? i?ia?ai
/enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy caaea/ aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a a i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?? aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e no/anii? oaoi?ee.

C o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeiino? aea/aiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a ia iniia?
aiae?co iniaeeainoae aeuacaaaeaieo caaea/ ? i?aeoiae?a, ui
canoiniaothoueny aei ?o ??oaiiy, cai?iiiiiaai? i?ea?iaeuei? aeai?eoie.
Ia iniia? iaoiaeo ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ? i?ia?aiiee
eiiieaen aeey /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy eaac?noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo
aaaaoiaei??ieo iae?i?eieo caaea/ aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a
c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee aenieioaeaee?nii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaiiy
?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ia?ai?uaiiy a /an? iaeano? ?ioaineaiiai
ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy, iiiaeeiieo eiioaeoieo aca?iiae?e, ca’yciino?
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ? oaieiaeo i?ioean?a. Aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
iioe?aiiy ? aca?iiae?? ieineeo oaeeue a iaoa??ae? oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaeany i?ea?iaeueia /enaeueia iaoiaeeea, caniiaaia ia iaoiae?
oa?aeoa?enoee.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo e?iaoeee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
? caeeoeiaeo iie?a iai?oaeaiue ? aeaoi?iaoe?e ia iniia? ?aeeiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ??oaiiy eaac?noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo eiioaeoieo caaea/
i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino?.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia ieoaiiyi caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeii? oi/iino? ??oaiue, iia’ycaieo c ei?aeoiith noaiaoecaoe??th
aaiiao?e/ii? oi?ie ia’?eo?a, oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy, iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a,
i?i?i?caoe??th aieeao i?inoi?iai-/aniai? noaie aeene?aoecaoe??
eiioeioaeueii? caaea/? (cie?aia aieeao ai?ieneiaoe?eii? oa ooo/ii?
a’yceino?), ui iaea?eueo nooo?ai aeey aeeiai?/ieo caaea/.

Aeey /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a ?ioaineaiiai ianoaoe?iia?iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy i?e?iaeii? iae?i?eii?
a’yceino? iaoa??aeo (cai?noue ooo/ii?) ye ?aaoey?ecaoi?a ??oaiiy a
iaeanoyo neeueieo a?aae??io?a ? iioeiaeueii? c oi/ee ci?o i?i?i?caoe??
ai?ieneiaoe?eii? a’yceino? i?inoi?iai-/aniai? aeene?aoecaoe??
aeeiai?/ieo caaea/ i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino?, ui cia/ii i?aeaeueei
aoaeoeai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue aea/aiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a ca
?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ??oaiue.

Aoaeoeai?noue ? iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe i?ia?aiiiai eiiieaeno
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ??oaiiyi cia/iiai ianyao iiaeaeueieo ? oanoiaeo
aeeiai?/ieo oa eaac?noaoe/ieo caaea/, c?noaaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a, aeeiiaieo ??cieie iaoiaeaie, a oaeiae ?acoeueoao?a
/enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy c aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? /enaeueieie aeaieie
?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoiaeeee aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue
??cieo aeae?a oa ae?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o i?iaaaeaiiy aeey
io?eiaiiy aeinoia??ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?iaoe?? 103…106 n-1, ocaaaeueiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i
aeeiai?/io iiaaae?ieo iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a o aeacaiiio ae?aiacii?
oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe??.

?icaeyiooi caaaeueiee noai ? i?iaeaie aea/aiiy aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee
iaoa??ae?a, i?iaaaeaii c?noaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae iaoiaeee, ye? iaea?eueo
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aenieioaeaee?nieo aei?iaoaaiue (?en. 1),
iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue ooi/iaiiy iaae ?o canoinoaaiiy aeey iaea?aeaiiy
iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe??
103…106 n-1. Aeaye? c a?aeiieo iaoiaeee (iai?eeeaae, iaoiae
?ic??ciiai noa?aeiy Aiie?iniia) ia aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe iaae?ei?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? c iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith i?e oaeaeeinoyo
aeaoi?iaoe?? aeua ca 104 n-1 i?e oeo ia?aiao?ao aei?iaoaaiue, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny, ?io? (cie?aia, iaoiae Oaeei?a) aeiaaathoue
?aoaeueiiai aeai?o oaeeo ia?aiao??a.

?ic?iaeaii ?ic?aooieia? noaie /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeeiai?/ieo
aei?iaoaaiue, aecia/aii ?o iaea?eueo cia/ou? ia?aiao?e aeey aa??aoe?e
i?e iiaeaethaaii?. Oeyoii ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a c ?aeeieo
iiceoe?e ioe?iaii oi/i?noue aeaieo i?i iiaaae?ieo iaoa??ae?a, ui
io?eiai? i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo ia ?icoyaaiiy, noeneaiiy, noene c? cnoaii,
iaeiia?nia aeaoi?ioaaiiy a ieineeo oaeeyo.

Aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ia aenieioaeaee?nia ?icoyaaiiy aeineoue neeaaei?
a iaoiaee/iiio ieai? aeey ?aae?caoe?? ? ia?iaee io?eiaii? ?ioi?iaoe??,
iniaeeai i?e aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo aeaoi?iaoe?? (aeua ca 103 n-1), aea
aeoaea iaiao?aei? a ca’yceo c iaiaaeai?noth aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
i?e oeueiio aeae? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

?nioth/? a?aie/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, cai?iiiiiaai? A.A.Noaiaiiaei,
aecia/athoue aeiionoeio oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? aai iaeeaaeathoue
aeineoue aei?noe? iaiaaeaiiy ia ?ici??e c?acea ? aeeiaiiiao?a. Oae, i?e
ia?aiao?ao aei?iaoaaiue, ye? cae/aeii canoiniaothoueny, oaeaee?noue
aeaoi?iaoe?? ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 103 n-1. Aeey a?eueo aenieeo
oaeaeeinoae aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeiia aooe anaa?/ii
iaa?oioiaaia ?c canoinoaaiiyi /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a oeyoii
ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a ioe?iaii aieea noaiaoecaoe?? caaea/?
(eiino?oeoe??), oi?ie i?aaenoaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeoth/iai ?iioeueno, aeaeo ?
aonoeie n?oee ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a. I?e iiaeaethaaii? aei?iaoaaiue
aa??thaaeeny aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e (ae?aiao? dp ? aeiaaeeia lp c?acea,
ae?aiao? aeeiaiiiao?a dd, eoo eiioniiai ia?aoiaeo i?ae c?aceii ?
aeeiaiiiao?ii, oiaueia eiaaaeea A (?en. 1) ), oiiae
iaaaioaaeaiiy

(oaeaee?noue V0 ? ia?aiao? a ?ioaineaiino? ?? ia?inoaiiy ia ii/aoeia?e
ae?eueieoe?), o?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo (aonoeia ,
a?aieoey oaeo/ino? O, ia?aiao?e aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai (A, n) ? oaeaee?niiai
(, K) ci?oeiaiiy). A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo ia/enethaaeueieo
aenia?eiaio?a:

— aea/aii aieea iaonoaeaieo (oaeeueiaeo) i?ioean?a o c?aceo ?
aeeiaiiiao??, ui i?iyaeythoueny o aeaeyae? inoeeeyoe?e iai?oaeaiue, ia
oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a;

— aecia/aii iniaeeaino? ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ?a?no?o?oueny i?e iaeeo,
iii??ieo ? ?icaeiaieo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo;

— ioe?iaii iioeaeo io?eiaieo iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e aenieeo
oaeaeeinoyo ?icoyao a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia aei?iaoaaiue ? ae?iaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o ei?aeoiiai aeai?o.

Cie?aia, iaea?eueo? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae ?aaeueiei noaiii iaoa??aeo c?acea
? ?ioi?iaoe??th, ui ?a?no?o?oueny aeao/eeii ia aeeiaiiiao??,
aeyaeythoueny ia ii/aoeia?e ae?eueieoe? i?oaeiiieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe?? ia a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? ?noioii
ieae/a iii?iaeueii? ? oey a?aei?ii?noue c?inoa? c i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey ae?aiaciio V0=40 … 200 i/n (aei 5 ?ac?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoiaeeee ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo).

Iaea?eueo aeinoia??i? aeai? c iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith ca?aeii c i?eeiyoeie
iaoiaeeeaie aei?iaoaaiue ? ia?iaee ?o ?acoeueoao?a iaea?aeothoueny a
ae?aiacii? iii??ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e (aeua ca 0.1). Oae, aeinoia??i?
cia/aiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? iiaeia io?eioaaoe aei oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?iaoe?? 5104 n-1.

A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui aeey aaeeeeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?noioiee aieea ia oi?io
ae?aa?aie aeaoi?ioaaiiy /eieoue aae?aaaoe/ia ?ic?a??aaiiy iaoa??aeo, yea
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aiae?c? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Iniaeeai
oea noino?oueny iieaciee?a ieanoe/iino? i?e aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo
aeaoi?iaoe?e.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ooi/iaii a?aie/i?
iaiaaeaiiy ia ia?aiao?e aei?iaoaaiue ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ii/aoeia?e ae?eueieoe? aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Niin?a aei?iaoaaiue ia oaea?ia noeneaiiy iaoa??aeo oiieiai aeenea c
i?i??caie, ?ic?iaeaiee a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie,
ia’?aeio? ia?aaaae noa?aeiy Aiie?iniia ? ieineioaeeueiaeo noai.
I?iaaaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaa?oiooaaiiy oaei?
iaoiaeeee aeey io?eiaiiy aeaieo i?i ii?? aeaoi?ioaaiith i?e oaeaeeinoyo
aeaoi?iaoe?? aeua ca 105 n-1 iieacaei:

— iayai?noue iaeii??aeiiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a c?aceo aei
i?eoiaeo oaeeue ?icaaioaaeaiiy a?ae a?/ieo ? oeeueieo iiaa?oiiue;

— cao?aiiy a?ae nioaeie aeenea-c?acea, ui aeaoi?iothoueny,
?iciianthaeaeoth/enue a i?aeeeaaei?e ieeo?, noa? iaeii??aeiith ieineith
oaeeath, i?eaeaoiith aeey ?a?no?aoe??, ia a?aenoai? iaeiiai-aeaio e?ie?a
?ao?oee aeenea, oiaoi caaeiaai aei oeeueii? iiaa?oi? ieeoe, aea
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?a?no?aoe?y ?ioi?iaoe??;

— ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae iai?oaeaiiyi, io?eiaiei oeyoii ia?iaee
ca?a?no?iaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia oeeuei?e noi?ii? i?aeeeaaeii? ieeoe, ?
inueiaei oa aea?aaeaioiei iai?oaeaiiyie a c?aceo ia ia?aaeuo?
a?aeiia?aeii 10 ? 20%;

— oa?oy ia eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiyo c?acea a ae?aiacii? cae/aeieo eiai
cia/aiue (a?ae 0 aei 0.3) ca?eueoo? neaiae ia a?eueoa i?ae ia 10%.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe aeinoia??i? aeai? i?i ii??
iaoa??aeo aeaoi?ioaaiith i?e iii??ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo o ae?aiacii?
oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? 104 … 106 n-1.

Iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue iaoa??ae?a ia noeneaiiy ?c cnoaii i?e aca?iiae??
ieanoei i?ae eooii, cai?iiiiiaaia Ee?ooiiii c ni?aaaoi?aie (NOA), iaaoea
iioe?aiiy aeey aei?iaoaaiue iaoa??ae?a o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?iaoe?? 104 … 107 n-1. Oeyoii /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?iaaaeaia
ioe?iea aieeao oa?oy ia eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiyo c?acea ia caeaaei?noue
iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith a?ae oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??, io?eiaii? a
?acoeueoao? oaeeo aei?iaoaaiue.

A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? c aeei?enoaiiyi oe???
iaoiaeeee, iiaeooue aeyaeoeny iaei?aeoieie ca iaaieo oiia. Cie?aia,
??aaiue iii?o cnoao, aecia/aiee ii ca?a?no?iaaiiio neaiaeo ia
ci?ith?oueny ?c c?inoaiiyi oaeaeeino? oaea?o i?e iaaeinoaoi?e aaee/ei?
eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy, iacaaaeath/e ia caeeaaeaio a ?ic?aooiee iiaeaeue c
neeueiith /ooeea?noth iii?o aei oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??. O ca’yceo c
oeei iaiao?aeii e aeae? i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey ooi/iaiiy iaae
canoiniaiino? oe??? iaoiaeeee ? iiaeeeai? iioeaee ?acoeueoao?a
aei?iaoaaiue iaoa??ae?a ia noeneaiiy ?c cnoaii.

I?ae /an aiae?co canoiniaiino? iaoiaeo Oaeei?a anoaiiaeaii, ui o?eueee
?noioia ciaioaiiy (a?aeiinii caaaeueiii?eeiyoi?) aeiaaeeie
noa?aeiy-c?acea aeicaiey? /?oei aeyaeoe i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o, iaoiiaeaia
aieeaii oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??. ?iaeoa aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy ?
oa?i?/ia ciai?oeiaiiy aoaeththoue aoaeo oaeaee?niiai ci?oeiaiiy.

Oeyoii /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy iieacaii, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeo
Oaeei?a ?noioiee aieea ia oi/i?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino?
a?ae oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy /eiyoue iaoiaeeee ia?iaee ia?aeiii?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy ona?aaeiaiiai iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith ca oi/i?noth aeua
a?eueoino? a?aeiieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue ? iiae?aia aei oi?ioe
Aeaeiina-Aeaeeeeena, aea iaaaaaoi i?ino?oa inoaii?o.

O ?icaeoie iaoiaeo Oaeei?a cai?iiiiiaaia ? iaa?oioiaaia ca aeiiiiiaith
/enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeni?an-iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiue ia noeneaiiy
noa?aeiaaeo ? e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a. I?e o?e aea i?inoio? i?iaaaeaiiy
aei?iaoaaiue ? aei??thaaiiy ?o ia?aiao??a iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aeinyaoe
aenieeo oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? (aeua 104 n-1 i?e aenio? c?acea 1ii)
i?e caa?aaeaii? iaeii??aeiino? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaoa??aeo
a i?ioean? aei?iaoaaiue. Iniiaiei iaiaaeaiiyi iaoiaeeee ? aecia/aiiy
ona?aaeiaiiai iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith o?eueee aeey iii??ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ia iaeiia?nia aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a i?e
ieineioaeeueiaiio iaaaioaaeaii? c?acea oi/a e iaaoee oe?ieiai iioe?aiiy
aiane?aeie i?inoioe i?iaaaeaiiy, ana ae oaee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith
iaiaeii??aei?noth iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ii ia’?io c?acea a
?acoeueoao? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? aca?iiae?? i?oaeieo ? a’yceiieanoe/ieo
oaeeue. O ca’yceo c oeei aeey i?aaeeueii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a iaiao?aeii aeia?a ciaoe ? a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? i?ioeano
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo i?e oaeeo aei?iaoaaiiyo. Iai?eeeaae, oeyoii
ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a anoaiiaeaii, ui caanaiiy cao?aiiy (oaee?)
nooi?i/anoi? oi?ie i?e iioe?aii? a iaoa??ae?, ui ia?aaoaa? a ieanoe/iiio
noai?, a?aeaoaa?oueny ii-??ciiio aiane?aeie a’yceeo aoaeo?a, coiiaeaieo
e?i?eiith ? eiaa?eoi?/iith caeaaei?noth iii?o a?ae oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe??.

Iieacaii, ui ?icieooy i?oaeiiai ia?aaea?nieea oaee? ?icaaioaaeaiiy,
/?oe?noue aeae?eaiiy aeaioaeeueiai? no?oeoo?e i?oaeiiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy
ia iiaiiio i?io?e? ieinei? oaee? (aenia?eiaioaeueii cao?eniaaii?
?icaiaa?aii, ssc?aii ? Ia?oiiii) iaoiiaeai? i?iyaii aoaeo?a a’yceino?
iaoa??aeo i?e aca?iiae?? i?yieo ? a?aeaeoeo a?ae oeeueieo iiaa?oiiue
ieanoei i?oaeiiieanoe/ieo oaeeue. O ca’yceo c oeei ioe?iea i?oeiino?
iaoa??aeo ia cnoa ca aiie?ooaeith i?oaeiiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy ia iiaa?oi?
c?acea aac o?aooaaiiy a’yceeo aoaeo?a iiaea aeaoe aaee/eio a?ae 5 aei 90
% ae?eniiai cia/aiiy ? i?eaanoe aei iiieeeiaeo aeniiae?a.

Aeey ?ic?aooie?a caanaiiy i?oaeiiai ia?aaea?nieea oaee? iaaaioaaeaiiy
io?eiaii aiae?oe/ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ui a?aoiao? ae?th aeaio iaoai?ci?a
aeaoi?iaoe?? oa?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ? a’yceiai aeaiiooaaiiy ?ooo
aeeneieaoe?e.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai /enaeueiiai ? ?iaeaia?iiai (aiae?oe/iiai)
iiaeaethaaiiy ieineioaeeueiaeo aenia?eiaio?a ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a’yceino? ca
caanaiiyi i?oaeiiai ia?aaea?nieea, a?aieoe? oaeo/ino? i?e
?icaaioaaeaii?, oaeaeeino? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ieanoe/ieo oaeeue,
ia?aiao??a a?aeeieueiiai ?oeioaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, anaa?/iee aiae?c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo iaoiaeee
aenieioaeaee?nieo aei?iaoaaiue aeicaieea ooi/ieoe iaae? ?o canoiniaiino?
aeey io?eiaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee a ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? 104 …
106 n-1 ? ioe?ieoe iaae?ei?noue oaeeo aeaieo.

C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai a ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeinoia??iino? ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy a?aeiieo ? iiaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i iiaaae?ieo
iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a (iaoae?a, oaa?aeeo nieaa?a, aenieiii?enoeo
y/a?noeo iaoa??ae?a — AIssI) i?e aenieioaeaee?niiio aeaoi?ioaaii? a
ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? 103 …106 n-1. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii ?ai?oa
aeneiaeaia aaoi?ii oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i cia/ia (aei 10 ?ac?a) i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy iii?o iaoa??ae?a aeaoi?ioaaiith o aeuacaaaeaiiio ae?aiacii?
oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe??.

Aiane?aeie ocaaaeueiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
oyaeaiue i?i aeeneieaoe?ei? iaoai?cie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii
iiaeaeue ? aecia/aeuei? ??aiyiiy, ui aeicaieythoue iienaoe neeaaeiee
oa?aeoa? aieeao ia ii?? aeaoi?ioaaiith oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ?? ci?ie (aei 106 n-1) i?e iaio?e e?eueeino?
ia?aiao??a o ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie ??aea, Ee?ooiia oa
?i. Cie?aia, i?e iino?eiiio ??ai? aeaoi?iaoe?? ??aiyiiy ca’yceo
aea?aaeaioieo iai?oaeaiue ? oaeaeeino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaeyaea?
oaeei /eiii:

(A, B, * H, K — eiinoaioe iaoa??aeo, (ep) – aaee/eia noaoe/iiai iii?o
aeaoi?ioaaiith i?e aeaiiio ??ai? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??).

Ia iniia? anoaiiaeaii? iae?i?eii? iaiiiioiiii? caeaaeiino? a’yceino?
iaoa??aeo a?ae oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? a ae?aiacii? ?? ci?ie 103 … 106
n-1 i?iaaaeaii c?noaaeaiiy aeaieo ??cieo aeine?aeiee?a ? iiyniaii
nooo?a? (aei aeae?eueeio ii?yaee?a) ?icoiaeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo ca eiao?oe??ioii a’yceino?.

Iieacaii, ui i?e aecia/aii? oa?aeoa?enoee ieanoe/iino? ? anoaiiaeaii? ?o
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia?ao?ae
?c c?inoaiiyi oaeaeeino? a?ae ?cioa?i?/ieo oiia aei?iaoaaiue aei
aae?aaaoe/ieo ? aeieeath/a a ca’yceo c oeei ?ic?a??aaiiy iaoa??aeo
c?acea. Oiio ci?ia ieanoe/iino? iaoa??aeo i?e aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo
aeaoi?iaoe?? coiiaeaia ni?eueieie a’yceeie ? oa?i?/ieie aoaeoaie.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? eieae?caoe?? aeaoi?iaoe??, iia’ycai? c
aeyaii a’yceeo ? oa?i?/ieo aoaeo?a i?e aeeiai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?. Ia
iniia? niaoe?aeueii i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a c?iaeaia ioe?iea
ieanoe/iino? iiaeaeueiiai iaoa??aeo (aethi?i??aiai nieaao) a oiiaao
eieae?caoe?? aeaoi?iaoe??. I?iaaaeaii ia/enethaaeuei? aenia?eiaioe ii
aea/aiith aieeao a’yceino? iaoa??aeo ia eieae?caoe?th.

Aea/aia e?iaoeea eieaeueiiai iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaoa??aeo
a?ey a?no?y o??ueie i?e aeeiai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?. Ia iniia? noaie
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo, cai?iiiiiaai?e a ia?oiio
?icae?e?, i?iaiae?ciaaia ci?ia iaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy (e?eoeee, a’yceee,
ciia e?eoeee) c? c?inoaiiyi oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy aai ?ooo o??ueie.

O ae?oa?e /anoei? ?iaioe ?icaeyiooi ?yae aaaeeeaeo i?aeoe/ieo caaea/
aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a aa?ieini?/ii?,
a?enueeiai? ? aoiiii? oaoi?ee i?e ?o aeaioiaeaii? ? aenieoaoaoe?? —
?iioeuenia iaaaioaaeaiiy ieanoei/aoeo ? iaieiieiaeo eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a, o?aaiaioaoe?y e?eaoeue, i?iieeaiiy aieea a ieanoeio,
cai?aniaoaaiiy, ia?iaea iaoae?a ??caiiyi ? oeneii, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii.

?o ni?eueiith ?enith ? ?ioaineaia aenieioaeaee?nia eieaeueia ieanoe/ia
oa/aiiy iaoa??aeo, a iaeiei c iaea?eueo cia/oueo ia?aiao??a —
oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe??, aeya aieeao yei? o aeaeyae? iae?i?eieo
a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a aein? aea/aiee iaaeinoaoiuei.

Aiae?c i?ioean?a i?iaiaeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo o ia?o?e
/anoei? ?iaioe iaoiaeee /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? iiaeaeae
aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a. Aeey aeacaieo caaea/ ?ic?iaeaii
aoaeoeai? noaie iiaeaethaaiiy c iaoith aea/aiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo ?
iia’ycaieo c ieie oaiia?aoo?ieo aoaeo?a aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?ioaineaiiai aenieioaeaee?niiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaieiieiaeo ? ieanoei/aoeo eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a, ui canoiniaothoueny a eini?/i?e, a?enueeia?e ? aoiii?e
oaoi?oe?. ?icaeyiooi ?iioeuenia oi?oeaaa ? aieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy
oeee?iae?e/ieo ? eii?/ieo iaieiiie ?c oa aac i?e?aeiaii? iane;
?iioeuenia iaaaioaaeaiiy oiiei? ieanoeiee; o?aaiaioaoe?y e?eaoeue i?e
oaea?iiio iaaaioaaeaii?; cai?aniaoaaiiy oaieiiai?iieo o?oaie aeaooiaei ?
a?ae?aae?/iei niiniaaie.

Ci?ie oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy — oi?ie, o?eaaeino? ? i?noey i?eeeaaeaiiy
?iioeueno aieeaathoue ia o?eueee e?euee?nii, aea e ye?nii ia oaeeueiao
ea?oeio, iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei iaaaaeaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? iai?oaeaiue ?
aeaoi?iaoe?e. Cie?aia, ci?ia eiio?ao?aoe?? iaieiiee (a?ae
oeee?iae?e/ii? aei eii?/ii?) ? i?noey i?eeeaaeaiiy ?iioeueno oeneo (ia
a?/i?e iiaa?oi? cai?noue oi?oey) ni?e/eiythoue cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oaeaiue a?ey oeeueii? iiaa?oi? iaieiiee, i?e/iio
aaee/eia oaeiai i?aeaeuaiiy iaiiiioiiii caeaaeeoue a?ae o?eaaeino? t*
iaaaioaaeoth/iai ?iioeueno — iaeneioi niinoa??aa?oueny i?e t* =3…5 ien
aeey iaaieo ?ici???a iaieiiee.

*enaeueiei iiaeaethaaiiyi iieacaii, ui i?e o?aaiaioaoe?? (iiiaeeiiiio
?oeioaaii?) e?eaoeue ??aaiue iaeneiaeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o?aaiaio?a, a
ioaea, ? ?o ?ici??e caeaaeaoue a?ae a’yceino? iaoa??aeo. Ia oe?e iniia?
cai?iiiiiaaii a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii nei?aaoaaoe ?iaeaia?i? iiaeae? ii
ae?iaeaiith e?eueoeaaeo aeaiaio?a i?e ?iioeueniiio iaaaioaaeaii?.

Na?aae iniiaieo i?e/ei ia?aae/aniiai aeoiaeo c eaaeo ia?iaaia?aoi??a
aiaeiioieiaeaeoaaieo ?aaeoi??a AAN a?aei?/aii ?noioiee aieea iia’ycaii?
c aeaioiaeaiiyi oaoiieia?/ii? niaaeeiaino? ia i?oei?noue ? ?ano?n aocea
c’?aeiaiiy eieaeoi?a ? oaieiiai?iieo o?oaie ia?iaaia?aoi?a. Caeeoeiaa
iai?oaeai?noue aeacaieo aoce?a i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy coiiaeaia cia/iith
e?euee?noth /eiiee?a, aieea yeeo iiaeia ioe?ieoe o?eueee c aeei?enoaiiyi
/enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a.

Anoaiiaeaoe oeyoii ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a, ui aeinoia??i?noue
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae i??e
a?aeiia?aeiino? ?ic?aooieiaeo noai, ui canoiniaothoueny, ?aaeueiei
oiiaai cai?aniaoaaiiy, a ?iaio? cia/ia oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia ei?aeoi?e
noaiaoecaoe?? neeaaeiiai oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui iiaeaeth?oueny.
Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy caaacia/eea
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ioe?iee eieaeueieo caeeoeiaeo caci??a,
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oaeaiue o aoce? ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy ?aeeiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ?ica’ycaiiy aeeiai?/ieo ? noaoe/ieo caaea/, iiaeeeaino?
a?aooaaoe ?icae?eueia aeaoi?ioaaiiy o?oaee ? eieaeoi?a i?e ?nioaaii?
caci?a ? ni?eueia aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e eiioaeoi?e aca?iiae??, ia?a?iciiae?e
eieaeueieo caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue a na?aaeeii?e ieiuei? no?iee eieaeoi?a
i?e iine?aeiaiiio cai?aniaoaaii? o?oaie; aieea ?o iaoai?/iiai
aeiaaeueoethaaiiy.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy cai?aniaoaaiiy
oaieiiai?iieo o?oaie aeaooiaei ? a?ae?aae?/iei niiniaii i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c e?iaoeee ? caeeoeiaeo iie?a iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aocea
eieaeoi?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
cai?aniaoaaiiy — ii/aoeiaiai caci?a i?ae o?oaeith ? eieaeoi?ii (0=0 …
0,6ii), oeneo a?ae?icai?aniaoaaiiy ? ?icoaooaaiiy iaaaioaaeoth/iai
?iioeueno (P=150…350 IIa, s = -4 … +1ii), i?oei?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoa??ae?a o?oaee ? eieaeoi?a (T=200 … 400 IIa, Teie/To?=0.7 … 1.2),
a oaeiae aeaia ioe?iea aieeao iaoai?/iiai aeiaaeueoethaaiiy o?oaie ?
ia?a?iciiae?eo eieaeueieo iai?oaeaiue i?e iine?aeiaiiio
a?ae?icai?aniaoaaii? ia caeeoeiao iai?oaeai?noue aocea eieaeoi?a.

Aiane?aeie aiae?co iieacaii, ui:

· caeeoeiaee caci? (?ice?eooy noeeo) niinoa??aa?oueny ca ??cieo
ii?aeiaiue ia?aiao??a cai?aniaoaaiiy, a eiai aaee/eia a iaea?eueo?e i???
caeaaeeoue a?ae ii/aoeiaiai caci?a;

· ??aaiue eieaeueieo caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e a eieaeoi?? ia ia?aaeuo?
0.5%, a a o?oaoe? ci?ith?oueny a oe?ieeo iaaeao a?ae 0.5 aei 7.5%, a
iniiaiiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii/aoeiaiai caci?a;

· iaeneiaeuei? caeeoeia? ?icoyaoth/? ie?oaei? iai?oaeaiiy ?
?ioaineai?noue iai?oaeaiue i iiaeooue aeinyaaoe cia/ieo aaee/ei (o
eieaeoi?? — aei 100 IIa, o o?oaoe? — aei 300 IIa i?e oeneo
cai?aniaoaaiiy 350 IIa), i?e/iio a o?oaoe? ?o aaee/eia iaea?eueo /ooeeaa
aei ci?ie ii/aoeiaiai caci?o, a a eieaeoi?? — aei ??aiy oeneo
cai?aniaoaaiiy;

· cieaeaiiy oeneo i?e a?ae?icai?aniaoaaii? (c 350 aei 150 IIa) ?noioii
ciaioo? caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy a eieaeoi?? ye ?icoyaoth/? ie?oaei? a?ey
oanee, oae ? noeneath/? ?aae?aeuei? ia eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi?, iaeiae ia
caiia?aa? ?ice?eooth noeeo;

· o ia?ao?aei?e cii? cai?aniaoaaiiy a o?oaoe? ? a ?aeii? oanee eieaeoi?a
niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? a?aae??ioe caeeoeiaiai
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio.

Iine?aeiaia cai?aniaoaaiiy o?oaie o eieaeoi? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iii?oiei
(aei ~20%) ia?a?iciiae?eii iai?oaeaiue i?e oeneo cai?aniaoaaiiy P/Teie
~1.5, a i?e ciaioaii? oeneo P/Teie 1 — ia?a?iciiae?e iai?oaeaiue
iaaaeeeee.

Iaoai?/ia aeiaaeueoethaaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeoe/ii iiaiiai cieeiaiiy
caci?o ? iii?oii cieaeo? a?aae??io iai?oaeaiue o o?oaoe? a iaeano? oanee
eieaeoi?a; aea iaeneiaeuei? ?icoyaoth/? iai?oaeaiiy iaei ci?iththoueny,
o?eueee iaeanoue ?o ?icoaooaaiiy ia?ai?uo?oueny aai?o ii o?oaoe?. Ia
iai?oaeaiiy a eieaeoi?? iaoai?/ia aeiaaeueoethaaiiy aieeaa? ia?noioii.

O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui iani?eyoeeaee aieea caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue ?
aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui aeieeathoue i?e cai?aniaoaaii?, iiaeia ciaioeoe oeyoii
iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a i?ioean? i?iieeaiiy aiee?a
a ieanoeie.

I?ioeane i?iieeaiiy ? i?iaeaaiiy a?ae??ciythoueny aaeeeith
??ciiiai?oi?noth ? caeaaeaoue a?ae oaeaeeino? ? iai?yio oaea?o, ?ici???a
? oi?ie i?iieeath/iai o?ea, eiino?oeoe?? ? oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy
aca?iiae?th/eo o?e, o?ce/ieo ? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a.
I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c iieacaa, ui iaeiei c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo c
i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o, aea neeaaeiei ? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei
caeeoa?oueny i?ioean i?iieeaiiy a ieanoeie e?ioeaai? oiaueie a
ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aca?iiae?? 500 … 2500 i/n. A oeueiio ae?aiacii?
ii?yae c a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieie neeaie iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ii??
iaoa??aeo aeaoi?ioaaiith, yeee, a naith /a?ao, i?e aeacaieo oiiaao
iaaaioaaeaiiy iaoiiaeaiee aaaaoueia iae?i?eieie aoaeoaie, iia’ycaieie c
aeaoi?iaoe?eiei ? oaeaee?niei ci?oeiaiiyi, oa?i?/iei ciai?oeiaiiyi,
oaciaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie, eieae?caoe??th aeaoi?iaoe??, iioeiaeaeaiiyi ?
?oeioaaiiyi iaoa??aeo. Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo ? a oie aea /an
iaaeiioe?ithaaieo /eiiee?a, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? aieea oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe??, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iae?i?eiith a’yce?noth iaoa??aeo. I?e
oeueiio aeey aeuacaaaeaieo oiia i?iieeaiiy iaea?eueo cia/ouei
aeyaey?oueny ae?aiacii ci?ie oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? 103 … 106 n-1.

O ?iaio? iiaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae na?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e o aea/aii?
i?iieeaiiy ? ?ic?iaee eiai iiaeaeae, i?iaiae?ciaaii noai i?iaeaie
ioe?iee a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a i?e i?iieeaii?, cai?iiiiiaaii
i?ea?iaeuei? i?aeoiaee aei ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai
i?aeoiaeo, ui aeeth/aa /enaeueia, aenia?eiaioaeueia ? ?iaeaia?ia
(aiae?oe/ia) iiaeaethaaiiy, cia/ii ?icoe?eei iiaeeeaino? aiae?co
i?ioeano i?iieeaiiy ? i?aeaeueei iaae?ei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?
aeniiae?a.

C aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo ?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiaeee, iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy aeey /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? iiaeaeae
aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee i?iieeaiiy
aiee?a, ui aeaoi?iothoueny ? ia aeaoi?iothoueny, a e?ioeaa? ?
iai?aiane?i/aii? ieanoeie i?e aa??thaaii? oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy ?
aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a.

C iaoith ioe?iee a’yceeo aoaeo?a i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iiaeaethaaii?
i?ioeano aca?iiae?? a oiiaao cai?ioiiai iaoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaia
iiaeeo?eaoe?y noa?aeiy c niaoe?aeueiith aieiaiith /anoeiith, ui
aeicaieeea ?a?no?oaaoe coneeey i?iieeaiiy i?e aenie?e oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoa??aeo, aea iaeiio aianeo ?ia?oe?eieo nee. ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy ?iciiae?eo aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e i?iaeaaii? ieanoei ia
iniia? aeei?enoaiiy e?i?e ?iceaoaieo aeeth/aiue ye aii?iaeaii? ?aia?ii?
n?oee.

Io?eiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i aaee/eio ? ?iciiae?e neeaaeiaeo
oaici?a aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e i?iaeaaii? noaeueieo ieanoei na?aaeiuei?
oiaueie. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueiiai ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ooi/iaii oyaeaiiy i?i oa?aeoa? ?ooo iaoa??aeo ieanoeie
i?e i?iieeaii? aieea. Cie?aia, anoaiiaeaii iiaeeea?noue ?ooo iaoa??aeo
iacono??/ oaea?ieeo, a oaeiae aeoi?iiiae?aiee ?oo iaoa??aeo aiane?aeie
aieeao eiai a’yceino? (?en. 2 ? 3). Inoaii?e aoaeo aeieea? i?e
ia?aaeuaii? aeayeiai e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a’yceino?
iaoa??aeo ? aiaeia?/iee iiya? a?aeiii? aei??aeee Ea?iaia a ??aeeiao.
?ic?aooieiaa iiaa?oiy eaaa?ie ia? i?e oeueiio oaeeaiiae?aiee aeaeyae
(?en. 5, a), ui niinoa??aaeiny oaeiae a aenia?eiaioao.

Oeyoii ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iayai?noue aenieeo
oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? (aeua ca 104. .. 105 n-1) oa ?ioaineaiiai
c?inoaiiy aea?aaeaioieo iai?oaeaiue a?ey iiaa?oi? eiioaeoo aieea ?
ieanoeie aiane?aeie aieeao iae?i?eii? a’yceino? iaoa??aeo (?en. 4).

Oi?ia eaaa?ie oaeiae caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie a’yceino? iaoa??aeo (?en.
5). Oa?i?/i? aoaeoe iaiaeiicia/ii aieeaathoue ia iai?oaeai?noue a?ey
eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi? aca?iiae?th/eo o?e: oa?i?/ia ciai?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo
?? cieaeo?, a oa?iiiai?oaeaiiy i?aeaeuothoue (iai?eeeaae, a noae? i?e
?ic?a??aaii? aei 1000N oa?i 2 AIa).

Iaeano? anaa?/iiai ?icoyao iaoa??aeo, cao?eniaai? a ieanoei? a?ey
ia?aoiaeo aieiaii? /anoeie o oeee?iae?e/ia o?ei aieea, aeicaieeee aeaoe
?ioa (ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo a?iioac) o?aeooaaiiy iiya? a i?ioean?
i?iieeaiiy o??uei, ye? aenia?eiaioaeueii niinoa??aathoueny ia iiaa?oi?
eaaa?ie.

Aiane?aeie ?ic?aooie?a e?iaoeee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
aenieii?oeiiai aieea i?e i?iieeaii? anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ioaineai?noue
?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue a aieeo, ye? aeieeathoue i?e eiai aeoiae? c
ia?aoeiaee ? iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei ?oeioaaiiy, ?noioiei /eiii caeaaeaoue
a?ae o?eaaeino? ?iioeueno oeneo ia iueiai c aieo ia?aoeiaee. Oea
iia’ycaii c ?ioa?oa?aioe??th oaeeue ?icaaioaaeaiiy. O ia?aoeiae? i?e
aeoiae? aieea oaeiae aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ?icaaioaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo
?icoyaoth/? iai?oaeaiiy (?en. 6), ye? i?e iaaeinoaoi?e eiai ieanoe/iino?
iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei ooai?aiiy o??uei, ui cao?eniaaii
aenia?eiaioaeueii. ??aaiue ?ioaineaiino? oaeeue ?icaaioaaeaiiy ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, ?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue iia’ycaiee c iiia?aaeiueith
iai?oaeai?noth iaoa??aeo, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?nioth/eo ?iaeaia?ieo iiaeaeae i?iieeaiiy ?ic?iaeaia
iiaeaeue, ui a?aoiao? iae?i?eiee aieea oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??. Io?eiaii
ni?a?aeiioaiiy a’ycei? neeaaeiai? iii?o i?iieeaiith aeey ??cieo oi?i
aieiaii? /anoeie aieea (eiion, iaeeaaei, noa?a) (?en. 7) i?e ??cieo
caeiiao ci?ie iii?o iaoa??aeo aeaoi?ioaaiith a?ae oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? (Oaae. 1). C ?o aeiiiiiaith ioe?iaii aieea iae?i?eii?
a’yceino? iaoa??aeo ia ii?? i?iieeaiith, cie?aia oia?oa iieacaiee
cia/iee aianie a caaaeueiee ??aaiue coneeey i?iieeaiith eiaa?eoi?/ii?
a’yceino?, yea ae?? a ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? 101 … 103 n-1
(?en. 8). Iio??aii oaeiae a?aei?oeoe ??ciee oa?aeoa? ci?ie neeaaeiaeo
coneeey i?iieeaiiy, coiiaeaieo e?i?eiith ? eiaa?eoi?/iith a’yce?noth, ?c
c?inoaiiyi oaeaeeino? i?iieeaiiy.

Oaae. 1. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy a’ycei? neeaaeath/i? iii?o
i?iieeaiith

?en. 7. Noaiaoecaoe?y aiee?a aeey ?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a

?en. 8. Ci?ia iii?o i?iieeaiith aieea c aieiaiith /anoeiith o aeaeyae?
eiiona ?c c?inoaiiyi oaeaeeino?

I?e c?noaaeaii? aianeo noaoe/ii?, a’ycei? oa ?ia?oe?eii? neeaaeiaeo
coneeey i?iieeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaaieo oiiaao (ni?aa?aeiioaii?
ae?aiao?a aieea, oaeaeeino? i?iieeaiiy, aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a) aieea
a’ycei? neeaaeiai? iiaea aeyaeoeny aaeueie cia/iei (aei 40% aeey
i?eeeaae?a, iaaaaeaieo ia ?en. 8). Oiio i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iiano?eeino?
?aaeueii? ia?aoeiaee ia iniia? iiaeaeueieo aei?iaoaaiue iiaea i?eaanoe
aei ?? caaeuaii? ioe?iee (aei 50%) aiane?aeie a?eueo neeueiiai aeyao
aoaeo?a a’yceino? iaoa??aeo a oeeo iiaeaeueieo aenia?eiaioao.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aiae?oe/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey coneeey i?iieeaiiy
anoaiiaeaii, ui o ?ac? ia?aaaae a’yceeo nee i?e i?iieeaii? aoaeoeai?noue
aieea caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai oi?ie (eiion, iaeeaaei c ??cieie eooaie
caaino?aiiy aai noa?a). Aenia?eiaioaeueii cao?eniaaia iaiiiioiiia ci?ia
coneeey i?iieeaiiy ?c c?inoaiiyi eiai oaeaeeino? iiynith?oueny a ?aieao
cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? i?iieeaiiy, ui a?aoiao?, e??i ci?oeiaiiy
iaoa??aeo ca ?aooiie aieeao oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??, ua e aoaeoe,
iia’ycai? c oaieiaei ?ic?a??aaiiyi iaoa??aeo ? eiai iieaaoaiith
iiaeeea?noth «aeaeaaethaaoeny» c-i?ae aieea aiane?aeie ciai?oeiaiiy ?
ineaaeaiiy ?ia?oe?eiiai i?aeii?o a eieaeuei?e i?eeiioaeoi?e iaeano?.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao iaoaeiia?iaee ??caiiyi ? oeneii.
Iniiaiee aeoeaio c?iaeaiee ia aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano ??caiiy, aeey
yeiai oa?aeoa?i? aenie? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??, iniaeeai a?ey e?iiee
??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioa (??). E?iaoeea iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a
oe?e iaeano? aieeaa? ia no?oaeeiooai?aiiy, ye?noue ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi?
caaioiaee ? ?ano?n ??.

C o?aooaaiiyi i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co iniiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo,
/enaeueieo ? aiae?oe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?ee iaoa??ae?a
i?e ??caii? aeae?eaii aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie oeueiai i?ioeano,
cai?iiiiiaaii iioeiaeuei? noaie eiai /enaeueiiai ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii iiaea?i?ciaaiee i?ia?aiiee eiiieaen.

C aeei?enoaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a aea/aii iniaeeaino?
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo i?e ??caii?, cie?aia oa?aeoa?
?ioaineaii? ieanoe/ii? oa/?? a?ey e?iiee ??coey. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a oe?e
iaeano? ?aae?cothoueny aenie? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? (ii?yaeeo 105
n-1), a i?e aeeiiaii? oiiae aae?aaaoe/iino? i?ioeano a?aeaoaa?oueny
cia/ia aeaoi?iaoe?eia ?ic?a??aaiiy iaoa??aeo, aiane?aeie yeiai
aeieeathoue ?noioi? oa?i?/i? iai?oaeaiiy ? aeiaeaoeiaee oene. Ni?eueiee
aieea oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe??, oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo coiiaeththoue ci?io
aaee/ei iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith ? a?aie/ii? ieanoe/iino? iaoa??aeo, ui
aeaoi?io?oueny. ?o ciaioaiiy aai ca?eueoaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aiane?a ia?a?aoiaaieo ia?aiao??a. Aeacai? aoaeoe
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ye?nii? ci?ie oa?aeoa?o no?oaeeiooai?aiiy ?
iaiiiioiiii? iae?i?eii? caeaaeiino? iieaciee?a yeino? ia?iaeaii?
iiaa?oi? ? no?eeino? ??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioa a?ae oaeaeeino? ??caiiy.

Io?eiai? ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
caeiiii??iino? ci?ie iaoai?cio ooai?aiiy no?oaeee ?c c?inoaiiyi
oaeaeeino? ??caiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaiith
ci?iith oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino? coneeey ??caiiy — /an.

Aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i i?ioeane aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo i?e
??caii? io?eiaii i?e aea/aii? i?ioeano aeoiaeo ??coey. Ie??i oeueiai,
oaea aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeeea? naiino?eiee ?ioa?an o ca’yceo c oei, ui ia
i?aeoeoe? /anoi niinoa??aa?oueny ?oeioaaiiy ??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioa i?e
aeoiae? /a?ac ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane, ye? aeieeathoue aiane?aeie ??ceiai
ciyooy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ??caoeue. I?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe /enaeueieo
?ic?aooie?a ? aenia?eiaio?a c iiaoaiiith coieieith (o?enaoe??th)
o??ueie, ui ?icaeaa?oueny iiia?aaeo ??coey. Aecia/aii ?iciiae?e
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? ci?ia iai?yio ?ioaineaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo o
e?iiee ?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?aenoai? aei a?eueii? oi?oeaai? iiaa?oi?
caaioiaee, ui ia?iaey?oueny. C?noaaeaiiy i?ioyaeiino? ciie aeaoi?iaoe??
cnoao ia ??ciiio aeaeaeaii? ??coey a?ae oe??? iiaa?oi? aeicaieeei
iieacaoe aaaii?noue aianeo aia?a?? noeniaiiy iaoa??aeo a caaaeueiee
aaeain aia?a?? i?e ??caii?.

Aaaaoi i?ioean?a ia?iaee iaoae?a oeneii (i?anoaaiiy, iethuaiiy,
aiei/?iiy) oaeiae a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aae?aaaoe/iiai ?ic?a??aaiiy iaoa??aeo. Ia iniia? aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano i?anoaaiiy anoaiiaeaii,
ui oaiia?aoo?ii-oaeaee?ni? aoaeoe i?eaiaeyoue ia o?eueee aei iiyae
aeiaeaoeiaiai iii?o i?anoaaiith /a?ac oa?i?/i? iai?oaeaiiy, aea e o
aeiaaeeo iaoa??ae?a c oaciaeie ia?aoai?aiiyie — aei ci?ie no?oeoo?e a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iaiaeii??aeiiai ii ia?aoeio i?aeeiio oaiia?aoo?e
aiane?aeie aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ?ic?a??aaiiy, a ca’yceo c /ei iiaeeeaa
iia??oaiiy yeino? ae?ia?a. Cie?aia, oaea neooaoe?y aeieea? i?e aa?y/iio
i?anoaaii? oee?eii??aeo o?oa aeey aoiiii? aia?aaoeee.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aenieioaeaee?niiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a o i?ioean? caa?thaaiiy aeaooii.

Iioeiaeueiee aea?? eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a caa?thaaiiy
aeaooii (cie?aia, oaeaeeino? aeaoiiaoe??, aaee/eie caci?a i?ae
ieanoeiaie) ? caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? yeino? ae?ia?a iiaeeea? ia iniia?
aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a ?ioaineaii? ieanoe/ii? oa/??, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a?ey eiioaeoii? iaae?. Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iiaeaeae
oaeeaooai?aiiy ia eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi?, yea aecia/a? i?oei?noue caa?iiai
c’?aeiaiiy, iieacaa, ui iio??ai? ia no?eueee iia? iiaeae? oeueiai yaeua,
ne?eueee c’ynoaaiiy eiai o?ce/ieo iniaeeainoae iaa?oue a ?aieao
?nioth/eo iiaeaeae.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy caa?thaaiiy aeaooii iaaeoi o?oaeii?noea ?
aea? iaiaaeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th aiane?aeie oaeaeeiieeiiino? i?ioeano ?
neeaaeiinoae aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ooai?aiiy caa?iiai
c’?aeiaiiy. Aiae?oe/i? iaoiaee aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe e?iaoeeo
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ieanoei i?e caa?thaaii? o?eueee aeey
ni?iuaieo oyaeaiue i?i aeeiai?/io iiaaae?ieo iaoa??aeo. Oiio iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Neeaaei?noue /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy caa?thaaiiy aeaooii iia’ycaia c
iaiao?aei?noth a?aoiaoaaoe ia?ai?uaiiy ?iioeueno iaaaioaaeaiiy, cia/io
aeaoi?iaoe?th iaoa??ae?a ieanoei o eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi?, aeey aiae?co
yei? ne?ae caaacia/eoe aeinoaoith ?ic??cithaaeueio caeaoi?noue
(i?eaeecii 0.01 oiaueie iniiaii? ieanoeie), a oaeiae cia/io
i?ioyaei?noue ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano? ii iaei?e c eii?aeeiao (a?aeiioaiiy
aeiaaeeie aei oiaueie a?ey 100), ui aeiaaa? aaeeei? e?eueeino?
?ic?aooieiaeo aeaiaio?a ? i?eaiaeeoue aei ao?aoe no?eeino? ? oi/iino?
??oaiiy ii i??? i?inoaaiiy iaaaioaaeoth/iai ?iioeueno acaeiaae ieanoei.
I?iaiae?ciaai? ??ci? ?ic?aooieia? noaie /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
caa?thaaiiy aeaooii. A?aei?/ai? ye?ni? a?aei?iiino? ??oaiiy i?e
iiaeaethaaii? caa?thaaiiy aeaooii iaaaioaaeaiiyi iniiaii? ieanoeie
o?eueee ?iioeuenii oeneo ii ii?iae?. Iaa?oioiaaia canoiniai?noue
cai?iiiiiaaii? ?ic?aooieiai? noaie i?ioeano, iieacaia ?? aoaeoeai?noue,
i?iaaaeaia c?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie A.N.N?aeeo, I.I.E??aaioeiaa, A.A.?ac?iiaa.

Iniiaiith iaoith aaaaoiaa??aioieo ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a aoei
aea/aiiy ?ie? a’yceino? iaoa??aeo a i?ioean? ?ioaineaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
i?e eiioaeoi?e aca?iiae??. Oia?oa oeyoii /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
cao?eniaaia oaeeaooai?aiiy ia eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi? aca?iiae?th/eo i?ae
eooii ieanoei i?e ?o caa?thaaii? aeaooii, i?iaiae?ciaaiee aieea ia eiai
ia?aiao?e eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo /eiiee?a (cie?aia, oaeaeeino?
aeaoiiaoe??, caci?a i?ae ieanoeiaie) (?en. 9) ? anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue
eiai ia?aiao??a a?ae a’yceino? iaoa??aeo (?en. 10 ).

Aea/ai? iniaeeaino? ?iciiae?eo ia?ai?uaiue, aaee/eie ? oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe??, iai?oaeaiue, ieoiii? aia?a?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy a ieanoeiao (ui
iaoa?oueny ? iniiai?e) a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a,
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a (oiaueie ieanoei ? caci?a i?ae ieie), oiia
iaaaioaaeaiiy (oaeaeeino? ia?ai?uaiiy ? oeneo ?iioeueno i?iaeoeo?a
aeaoiiaoe??). A?aei?/aii aeoi?iaee oa?aeoa? oaeaeeino? ia?ai?uaiiy ?
aenieee ??aaiue oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? (aeua ca 104 n-1 ) a iaeano?
eiioaeoo aca?iiae?th/eo ieanoei, cia/io eieae?caoe?th a i?e
ieoiii? aia?a??

?en. 9. Noaia caa?thaaiiy aeaooii (a), oa?aeoa?iee i?eeeaae
oaeeaooai?aiiy i?e /enaeueiiio iiaeaethaaii? (a), ?iciiae?e aeaoi?iaoe??
i?e oaeeaooai?aii? aeey ??cieo oiia aeaoiiaoe?? ? ii/aoeiaiai caci?o
i?ae ieanoeiaie

?en. 10. Aieea a’yceino? iaoa??aeo ia ?iciiae?e aeaoi?iaoe?? acaeiaae
eiioaeoii? iiaa?oi? ieaoei i?e caa?thaaii? aeaooii

aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?noioiee aieea a’yceino? iaoa??aeo ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy a
oe?e iaeano?. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a ia/enethaaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ?nioaaiiy «aoa?a» aeaoi?iaoe?? iiia?aaeo oi/ee eiioaeoo
ieanoei i?e ?o caa?thaaii?, ui ia?aaeaa/a?oueny a ?yae? oai?aoe/ieo
iiaeaeae oeueiai i?ioeano.

Ie?aii ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy a oi?oeaa?e iaeano? ieanoei,
ui caa?ththoueny. *enaeueiei iiaeaethaaiiyi i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
aoaeoeai?noue eiino?oeoeaieo caoiae?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ia
i?aeoeoe? (a IAI «AIEOEI»), ii cieaeaiith ?iia??iino? iioeiaeaeaiiy
(?oeioaaiiy a?aeeieii) iaoa??aeo o aeacai?e iaeano?.

AENIIAEE

A aeena?oaoe?? io?eiaii ianooii? iniiai? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe.

1. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie ? ia ?o iniia? i?ia?aii? caniae /enaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy aaaaoii??ieo iae?i?eieo eaac?noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo
caaea/ i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee
aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy ?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a,
iaaieiiiai ia?ai?uaiiy iaeano? ?ioaineaiiai ieanoe/iiai oa/aiiy,
iiiaeeiieo eiioaeoieo aca?iiae?e, ca’ycaiino? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo ? oaieiaeo
i?ioean?a.

2. Aeey /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a ?ioaineaiiai ianoaoe?iia?iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy
i?e?iaeii? iae?i?eii? a’yceino? iaoa??aea (cai?noue ooo/ii?) ye
?aaoey??caoi?a ??oaiiy a iaeanoyo neeueieo a?aae??io?a ? iioeiaeueii? (c
oi/ee ci?o i?i?i?caoe?? ai?ieneiaoe?eii? a’yceino?) i?inoi?iai-/aniai?
aeene?aoecaoe?? aeeiai?/ieo caaea/ i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino?, ui cia/ii
i?aeaeueei aoaeoeai?noue ? aeinoia??i?noue aea/aiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo
aoaeo?a ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ??oaiue.

3. Anaa?/iee aiae?c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo iaoiaeee aeeiai?/ieo
aei?iaoaaiue (?icoyaaiiy, noeneaiiy, cnoa, iaeiia?nia aeaoi?ioaaiiy a
ieineeo oaeeyo) aeicaieea ooi/ieoe iaae? ?o canoinoaaiiy ? c o?aooaaiiyi
?acoeueoao?a oeueiai aiae?co ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy
aei?iaoaaiue aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeinoia??ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a o
ae?aiacii? oaeaeeino? aeaoi?iaoe?? 103…106 n-1.

4. ?icaeiooi ?ai?oa ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii oyaeaiiy uiaei ?ioaineaiiai
iae?i?eiiai oa?aeoa?o iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a o ae?aiacii? oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? 103…106 n-1 — nooo?aiai (aei 10 ?ac?a) i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
iii?o aeaoi?ioaaiith ? iae?i?eiiai iaiiiioiiiiai oa?aeoa?o ci?ie
a’yceino? iaoa??ae?a ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo,
iaea?aeaieo i?e ??cieo aeaeao aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue, ocaaaeueiaiiy
iiaeo ? a?aeiieo ?acoeueoao?a aeey iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a (iaoaee,
oaa?ae? nieaae, aenieiii?eno? y/a?no? iaoa??aee). Iieacaii, ui
iaea?aeaia i?e aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiiyo iaiiiioiiia ci?ia oa?aeoa?enoee
i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? iia’ycaia c aca?iiaieeaii oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? oa aae?aaaoe/iiai ?ic?a??aaiiy iaoa??aeo.

5. ?ic?iaeaii aoaeoeai? ?ic?aooieia? noaie iiaeaethaaiiy aeey aea/aiiy
oaeeueiaeo ? oa?iia’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a
oiiaao ?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ieanoei/aoeo ? iaieiieiaeo
eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, o?e c o??ueiaie, i?e o?aaiaioaoe?? e?eaoeue, a
i?ioeanao i?iieeiaiiy, ??caiiy, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii, cai?aniaoaaiiy,
aa?y/iai i?anoaaiiy.

6. Ia i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ie?
a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a o i?ioeanao aenieioaeaee?niiai eieaeueiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e aea/aii oe?ieee eean
i?aeoe/ii aaaeeeaeo caaea/ no/anii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? (i?iieeaiiy,
ia?iaea iaoae?a ??caiiyi ? oeneii, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii, ianoaoe?iia?ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy o??uei), aeey yeeo nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia? aieea oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe??, iniaeeai a ae?aiacii? ?? ci?ie 103 … 106 n-1. Aeey oaeiai
eeano caaea/ cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia noaia i?iyao aoaeo?a oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ca ?aooiie aca?iiaieeao ci?ie i?oei?nieo oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a, aeaeo iai?oaeaiiai noaio, aeieeiaiiy oaieiaiai
?ic?a??aaiiy ? aeiaeaoeiaiai oeneo. Ia i?aenoaa? oe??? noaie
i?iaiae?ciaaii:

· ci?io iaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo (e?eoeee, a’yceee, ciiao
e?eoeee) i?e c?inoaii? oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy aai ?ooo o??ueie;

· ci?io iaoai?ci?a no?oaeeiooai?aiiy, ye? aecia/athoue ye?noue
ia?iaeaii? iiaa?oi? oa no?ee?noue ?ino?oiaioa, i?e c?inoaii? oaeaeeino?
??caiiy;

· cia/ia eieaeueia cieaeaiiy ? iiaeaeueoa e?i?eia c?inoaiiy iii?o
i?iieeaiith a iaaiiio ae?aiacii? oaeaeeino? ?ooo oaea?ieea.

7. Aeey i?ioean?a i?iieeaiiy ioe?iaii aieea iae?i?eii? a’yceino?
iaoa??aeo ia ii?? i?iieeaiith ia i?aenoaa? /enaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ?
aiae?oe/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeey a’ycei? neeaaeiai? iii?o i?iieeaiiy i?e
??cieo caeiiao ci?ie iii?o iaoa??aea aeaoi?ioaaiith a?ae oaeaeeino?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aeey ??cieo oi?i aieiaii? /anoeie oaea?ieea; ooi/iaii ia
i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo oyaeaiiy
uiaei oa?aeoa?a ?ooo iaoa??aeo ia?aoeiaee a?ey oaea?ieea, cie?aia
anoaiiaeai? iiaeeea?noue ?ooo iaoa??aeo iacono??/ oaea?ieeo ?
aeoi?iiiae?aiee oa?aeoa? ?ooo aiane?aeie a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a.

8. Aia?oa oeyoii /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy cao?eniaaii oaeeaooai?aiiy ia
eiioaeoi?e iiaa?oi? aca?iiae?th/eo i?ae eooii ieanoei i?e ?o caa?thaaii?
aeaooii ? anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue eiai ia?aiao??a a?ae a’yceino?
iaoa??aeo.

Caaaeii iiaeeeai c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeena?oaoe?y ia? eiiieaeniee
oa?aeoa?: i?noeoue ?ic?iaeo no/anieo /enaeueieo iaoiaeee iiaeaethaaiiy
neeaaeieo aaaaoii??ieo aeeiai?/ieo caaea/ a’yceiieanoe/iino?, anaa?/iee
aiae?c iaoiaeee aenieioaeaee?nieo aei?iaoaaiue iaoa??ae?a, ocaaaeueiaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a a
ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?? 103 … 106 n-1 ? ?ic?iaeo ia oe?e
iniia? aecia/aeueieo ??aiyiue, aea/aiiy ?ie? a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a
aeey ?yaeo i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ aa?aeini?/ii? ? a?enueeiai? oaoi?ee,
aoiiii? aia?aaoeee, oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a ? iiaeae? aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?
?icaeoeii iiaiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo a oai??? aeeiai?/ii?
i?oaeiia’yceiieanoe/iino?, iaiao?aei? aeey ae??oaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?
i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, iia’ycaieo c aeeiai?/iei oa ?iioeueniei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a no/anii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??.
Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ie? a’yceiieanoe/ieo aoaeo?a a
i?ioeanao aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ae??oaia aaaeeeaa
iaoeiaa i?iaeaia, ui aeicaieeoue a?eueo iaae?eii aecia/aoe
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, oei naiei
caaacia/oth/e i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oiiaao, i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ? cieaeaiiy
iaoa??aeii?noeino? i?e ?o aeaioiaeaii?, ui ia? nooo?aa
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.

Nienie iioaeieiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ye? a?aeia?aaeothoue iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??:

1. Oiaineee N.Y., Oa?/aiei A.A. E aii?ino i iiauoaiee oi/iinoe ?aoaiee
oi?oaiieanoe/aneeo caaea/ iaoiaeii eiia/iuo yeaiaioia // I?iae.
i?i/iinoe. – 1981. — N4. — N.56-60.

2. Oa?/aiei A.A. E ii?aaeaeaieth oaiia?aoo?iuo iieae aeaoaeae iaoei //
Aano. Eeaa. iieeoaoi. ei-oa. Na?. Iaoeiino?iaiea. – 1982. — Aui.19. —
N.17-22.

3. Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. I?eiaiaiea iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie noaiu
iaoiaea oa?aeoa?enoee aeey ?an/aoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey ieineie aieiu
iaa?ocee // I?iae. i?i/iinoe. – 1983. — N6. — N.42-45.

4. Oa?/aiei A.A. E iiaeaee?iaaieth i?ioeannia aunieinei?inoiiai
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iaoa?eaeia // I?iae. i?i/iinoe. — 1984. — N12. —
N.99-103.

5. Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. Naycue iai?yaeaiee e aeaoi?iaoeee a
iaoaeeao i?e aicaeaenoaee eiioeueniie iaa?ocee // I?iae.i?i/iinoe. –
1984. — N11. — N.32-37.

6. Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iaoaeeia i?e
nei?inoyo aeaoi?iaoeee auoa 104 1/n // I?iae. i?i/iinoe. – 1985. — N8.
– N.59-64.

7. Eiaaeaiei A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. I?iaea iaoi?oaie ieanoeiee iiae
aeaenoaeai ei?ioeiai eiioeuena aeaaeaiey // Naa?ooaa?aeua e ooaiieaaeea
iaoa?eaeu. — Eeaa: ENI AI ONN?. -1985. — N.77-79.

8. Oa?/aiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iaoaeeia a ieineeo aieiao
iaa?ocee e eo naycue n ia?aiao?aie ?aieiae/aneie iiaeaee //
Aeeiaie/aneay i?i/iinoue e o?aueiinoieeinoue eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia. – Eeaa: EAOEO. — 1986. — N.297-304.

9. Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. Caoooaiea oi?oaiai i?aaeaanoieea ieineie
aieiu iaa?ocee e aai naycue n ia?aiao?aie o?aaiaiey ninoiyiey //
I?iae.i?i/iinoe. — 1986. — N1. — N.55-60.

10. Anoaiei A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. Nii?ioeaeaiea iaoa?eaeia
aeaoi?ie?iaaieth i?e aunieeo nei?inoyo aeaoi?iaoeee// Oanoie Ananithciue
nuacae ii oai?aoe/aneie e i?eeeaaeiie iaoaieea: Oac.aeiee. –
Oaoeaio:Oai. –1986. — N.54.

11. ?an/ao ia/aeueiie noaaeee acaeiiaeaenoaey aieea n ayceiieanoe/iie
i?aa?aaeie /Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A., A.I.Ao?neee, A.I.Oeue/aiei //
I?iae. i?i/iinoe. – 1987. — N12. — N.53-56.

12. Eieaeueiay aeaoi?iaoeey a oiieeo noaeueiuo ieanoeiao i?e i?iaia/
Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A., A.I.Ao?neee A.I.Oeue/aiei //
I?iae.i?i/iinoe. – 1988. — N10. — N.69-73.

13. Oa?/aiei A.A. Aiaae?aiea iaaeaoi?ie?oaiiai aieea a ayceiieanoe/ioth
n?aaeo // Aeeiaie/aneay i?i/iinoue e o?aueiinoieeinoue eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia. — Eeaa: EAOEO. – 1989. — N.52-56.

14. Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A., Naoa?ia Y.A. Aunieinei?inoiay
aeaoi?iaoeey i?e aiaae?aiee iaaeaoi?ie?oaiiai aieea a caaioiaeo//
I?ia?anneaiua i?ioeannu ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia aeaaeaieai. — Ieine,1989. —
N.63-64.

15. Noaiaiia A.A., Oa?/aiei A.A. Aeeiaie/aneay ieanoe/iinoue // Iaoaieea
iaiaeii?iaeiuo n?aae. – Iiaineae?ne: IAO. — 1989. — N.285-299.

16. ?ani?ino?aiaiea aieiu ?aca?ocee e ?ani?aaeaeaiea inoaoi/iuo
aeaoi?iaoeee a o?aaiaioa eieueoea iinea ?ac?ooaiey / Noaiaiia A.A.,
Oa?/aiei A.A., Aaaooeeee A.E., Ao?neee A.I. // Aeeiaie/aneay i?i/iinoue
e o?aueiinoieeinoue eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia. — Eeaa: EAOEO. – 1989.
— N.34-40.

17. Stepanov G.V., and Kharchenko V.V. Dynamic plasticity of metals
under strain rate 104 … 106 s-1 // High rate fabrication materials,
Inter. Conf. – Liublana. — 1989. — P.263-269.

18. Oa?/aiei A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?iieeaiey aieeia a ayceiieanoe/iua
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29. The effect of mechanical characteristics of steels on the residual
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AIIOAOe??

Oa?/aiei A.A. A’yceiieanoe/i? aoaeoe a i?ioeanao aenieioaeaee?niiai
eieaeue-iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa?eae?a oa aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.09 – aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei. — ?inoeooo
i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia iniia?
iaoiaeo e?ioeaaeo aeaiaio?a ? aoaeoeai? ?ic?aooieia? noaie ??oaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ aa?ieini?/ii? ? a?enueeiai? oaoi?ee, aoiiii?
aia?aaoeee, oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi a’yceiieanoe/ieo
aoaeo?a. I?iaiae?ciaaii iaoiaeeee aeeiai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ??cieo aeae?a
(?icoyaaiiy, noeneaiiy, cnoa, iaeiia?nia aeaoi?ioaaiiy o ieineeo oaeeyo)
? ooi/iaia ?o canoiniai?noue aeey io?eiaiiy aeinoia??ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoa??ae?a a ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?iaoe?e 103 … 106 n-1. Aeey
aeacaiiai ae?aiaciio i?iaiae?ciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii o aeaeyae? iiaeae?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeeiai?/ii? iiaaae?iee iaoa??ae?a ??cieo eean?a.
C aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee iiaeaethaaiiy ? iiaeaeae iaoa??ae?a
ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo, ui ii?aeio? aenia?eiaioaeueia,
/enaeueia ? ?iaeaia?ia iiaeaethaaiiy, aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? oa
niaoeeo?ea aenieioaeaee?niiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a o i?ioeanao
i?iieeaiiy, ?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy o??uei, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii,
cai?aniaoaaiiy, ??caiiy ? iieacaia nooo?aa ?ieue a ieo a’yceiieanoe/ieo
aoaeo?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe??, a’yceiieanoe/i? aoaeoe,
iiaeaethaaiiy, iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo, aecia/aeuei? ??aiyiiy, aeeiai?/i?
aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, i?iieeaiiy, ??caiiy, caa?thaaiiy aeaooii

Oa?/aiei A.A. Ayceiieanoe/aneea yooaeou a i?ioeannao aunieinei?ino-iiai
eieaeueiiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iaoa?eaeia e yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.09 – aeeiaieea e i?i/iinoue iaoei. — Einoeooo
i?iaeai i?i/iinoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee /eneaiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey ia
iniiaa iaoiaea eiia/iuo yeaiaioia e yooaeoeaiua ?an/aoiua noaiu ?aoaiey
i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/ ay?ieinie/aneie e aiaiiie oaoieee, aoiiiie
yia?aaoeee, oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia n o/aoii ayceiieanoe/aneeo
yooaeoia. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu iaoiaeeee aeeiaie/aneeo eniuoaiee ?acee/iuo
aeaeia (?anoyaeaiea, naeaoea, naeaea, iaeiiiniia aeaoi?ie?iaaiea a
ieineeo aieiao) e ooi/iaia eo i?eiaieiinoue aeey iieo/aiey aeinoiaa?iuo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa?eaeia a aeeaiaciia nei?inoae aeaoi?iaoeee 103…106
n-1. Aeey oeacaiiiai aeeaiaciia i?iaiaeece?iaaiu e iaiauaiu a aeaea
iiaeaee yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua aeeiaie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey iaoa?eaeia
?acee/iuo eeannia. N eniieueciaaieai ?ac?aaioaiiuo iaoiaeee
iiaeaee?iaaiey e iiaeaeae iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea,
ni/aoathuaai yenia?eiaioaeueiia, /eneaiiia e eiaeaia?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea,
eco/aiu caeiiiia?iinoe e niaoeeoeea aunieinei?inoiiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey
iaoa?eaeia a i?ioeannao i?iieeaiey, eiioeueniiai iaa?oaeaiey o?auei,
naa?ee ac?uaii, cai?anniaee, ?acaiey e iieacaia nouanoaaiiay ?ieue a ieo
ayceiieanoe/aneeo yooaeoia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nei?inoue aeaoi?iaoeee, ayceiieanoe/aneea yooaeou,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, iaoiaeu ?an/aoa, ii?aaeaeythuea o?aaiaiey, aeeiaie/aneea
eniuoaiey iaoa?eaeia, i?iieeaiea, ?acaiea, naa?ea ac?uaii.

Kharchenko V.V. Viscoplastic effects in the processes of high strain
rate local deformation of materials and structural elements. –
Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of a Doctor of Technical Sciences in the
speciality 05.02.09 – dynamics and strength of machines. – Institute for
Problems of Strength of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1998.

The paper involves the development of the methods for numerical
modelling on the basis of the finite element method and effecient
calculation schemes for solving practical problems of aerospace,
military and nuclear power engineering, technological processes taking
into account viscoplastic effects. Analysis of the procedures of dynamic
tests of various types (tension, compression, shear, uniaxial
deformation in plane waves) has been performed and their applicability
for obtaining reliable characteristics of materials in the strain-rate
range 103 … 106 s-1 has been specified. Experimental data on dynamic
behaviour of materials of various classes for the above strain-rate
range has been analysed and generalized in the form of a model. Using
the modelling methods and the materials models developed and basing on a
comprehensive approach, which combines experimental, numerical and
engineering modelling, specific features of high-strain rate deformation
of materials in the processes of penetration, impulse crack loading,
explosive welding, pressing-in, and cutting has been studied and
essential role of viscoplastic effects in these processes is shown.

Key words: strain rate, viscoplastic effects, modelling, numerical
methods, constitutive equations, dynamic material testings, penetration,
machine cutting, explosive welding.

?II?oe IAI Oe?a?ie. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 18.XI.98. Caiiae. ?393. Oe?aae
100 i?ei.

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