?INOEOOO OeOE?IAEO AO?ssE?A

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

IAEUeIEE AIAe??E AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 633.854.78:631.559:633.854.527

AIEEA ssEINO? IAN?IIss NIIssOIEEA IA EIAI I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe A
OIIAAO I?AI?*II- NO?AeIIAI E?NINOAIO OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 06.01.09 — ?ineeiieoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?ineeiieoeoaa Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

AEAOIA Ieaen?e Aiaoiae/,

Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?ineeiieoeoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?IAIO?AOO Aaeoa?ae ?oaeieueoiae/,

?inoeooo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

NE?EIEUeIA Ieaenaiae? Ethaeaeaiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?ineeiieoeoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo ie?eieo eoeueoo?
OAAI,

eaai?aoi??y oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy,

i. Caii??aeaey

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 26.360.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a OAAI ca aae?anith: 252650, ANI, Ee?a-650, aoe.
Ee?i?/ia, 25, ae?oaee ei?ion.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “23” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eieii??oeue I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Ia i?ioyc? aaaaoueio ?ie?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? niiyoieeo
iaoiiaethaaeinue ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iiaeo ni?o?a ? a?a?eae?a oa ?ic?iaeith
a?eueo aeineiiaeeo oaoiieia?e ae?iuoaaiiy. ?acii c oei, a iaaeinoaoi?e
i??? aeei?enoiaoaaany oaeee iiooaeiee aaae?eue i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino?, ye ye?noue iin?aiiai iaoa??aeo. O?eueee iath/e a
?icii?yaeaeaii? ye?nia ian?iiy, iiaeia io?eiaoe aenieiye?ni? noiaee, ye?
a?aecia/athoueny nai?/ani?noth oa ae?oaei?noth i?i?inoaiiy, aenieith
aeeoo?caeaoi?noth, ui a naith /a?ao ? caii?oeith iaea?aeaiiy aenieiai
a?iaeath.

E??i oeueiai, a inoaii? ?iee a onueiio na?o? c?inoa? aeei?enoaiiy
ian?iiy a?a?eae?a. Cia/ii ciaioeoe aa?o?noue i?ioeano io?eiaiiy
a?a?eaeiiai ian?iiy, c?iaeoe eiai a?eueo oaoiieia?/iei, aeicaiey?
aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoioeeae?a — o?i?/ieo ?a/iaei, ye? noa?ee?cothoue ieeie
oa ia cieaeothoue ae?ii/o oa?oeeuei?noue. A ca‘yceo c oeei ? aeooaeueiei
aecia/aiiy aieeao aaiaoioeeae?a (ao?aeo) ia nooi?iue aeyaeaiiy
noa?eeueiino? ? o?iaeaei?noue niiyoieeo.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

Caaaeaiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? c(ynoaaiiy aeayeeo ia?aiao??a, ui
aecia/athoue ye?noue iin?aiiai iaoa??aeo niiyoieeo ? aieeaathoue ia
a?iaeaei?noue oe??? eoeueoo?e a oiiaao Noinueei? iaeano?. C oe??th
iaoith aea/aeenue oae? ieoaiiy:

a) aecia/aiiy aieeao ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii? ia iieueiao noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei niiyoieeo;

a) aecia/aiiy aieeao eooieiiino? ian?iiy ia iieueiao noiae?noue ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei niiyoieeo;

a) aecia/aiiy aieeao no?ie?a cae?aiiy ian?iiy ia iieueiao noiae?noue ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei a ianooiiiio ?ioe?;

a) aecia/aiiy aieeao ii?oieia?/ieo iciae iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei ia
a?iaeaei? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy yea noi?ioaaeinue ia ieo;

ae) aecia/aiiy aieeao aaiaoioeeae?a (ao?aeo) ia noa?eeuei?noue ?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

A oiiaao I?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? o?iaeaeiino? niiyoieeo a?ae ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii?,
eooieiiino? ian?iiy, ii?oieia?/ieo iciae oa no?ie?a cae?aiiy ian?iiy
iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei. Aia?oa aea/aii aieea ia?ia?oeo ao?aeii ia
noa?eeuei?noue ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue niiyoieeo. Io?eiaiee oaeei /eiii
aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae i?aaenoaaey? niaith ?ioa?an aeey aaoa?icenii?
naeaeoe??.

Ca‘ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a 1994-1997 ?.?. a iaaeao ieaiiai? iaoeiai? oaie ia
eaoaae?? ?ineeiieoeoaa Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ? aea?aeaaii? ?aaano?aoe?? 0196U012442 a?ae 11.06.96.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoa??aee, aeniiaee oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeeth/ai? a ca?oe c
aeaii? oaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e
neeaaeaii? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae?iuoaaiiy niiyoieeo a
ainiiaea?noaao Noinueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ii noai?aiith aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo aeey
naeaeoe?? niiyoieeo.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia
eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aa?iiii?a oa i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e ?
i?iaaaeaii? eaai?aoi?ii-i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue o Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? a
1997-1998 ??. a ENI “Aoaeei?aeueea” ?iiainueeiai ?aeiio,
Iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeiiio ainiiaea?noa? NoiAeAO Noinueeiai ?aeiio
Noinueei? iaeano? ia ieiu? 145 aa. Iaea?aeaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo neeaa
85 oen. 360 a?i.

Aeaeea?aoe?y iniaenoiai aianeo.

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii aea/aii oa nenoaiaoeciaaii a?o/eciyio oa
na?oiao e?oa?aoo?o. Aeeiiai? eaai?aoi?i? oa iieueia? aeine?aee, c iaoith
a?eueo aeineiiaeiai aea/aiiy aeaieo ieoaiue i?iaaaeai? oaeiae
i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ian-niaeo?iiao?e/i? aei??thaaiiy.
Aaoi?ii c?iaeaii aiae?c oa aeniiaee c io?eiaieo aeaieo.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo a 1995-98 ?ieao, a oaeiae ia
iaeani?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??» (Noie,
1995).

Ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 5 iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 128 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
i?noeoue 29 oaaeeoeue, 32 ?enoiee. Oaenoiaa /anoeia neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 215 iaeiaioaaiue, a oiio /ene? 42 ?iicaiieo aaoi?e.
Aeiiii?aeiee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaiee a 13 ?enoieao ? 7 oaaeeoeyo
aeiaeaoeo.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

?ICAe?E 1 E?OA?AOO?IEE IEAssAe

A i‘yoe i?ae?icae?eao ?icaeyiooi noai i?iaeaie aieeao yeino? ian?iiy ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ca e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaea?aeaie a?o/eciyieo oa caei?aeiiieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oaeiae aea/aii
oa nenoaiaoeciaaii na?oiao e?oa?aoo?o, uiaei ae?? ao?aeo ia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa noa?eeuei?noue ?ineei.

?ICAe?E 2 IAOIAeEEA ? OIIAE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia ?iaioe i?iaiaeeeanue a 1994-1997 ?ieao ia aac?
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? eiai o/aiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao ? a oiiaao iieueiaiai aeine?aeo.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee c ni?oii niiyoieeo AI??IE-8883 iie?ioaiee.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee ca
ianooiieie noaiaie:

1.Aieea ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii? ia noiae?noue oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue:

a) aen?a ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? iaioa i?ae 43 %;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? a?ae 43 % aei 48 %;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? a?eueo i?ae 48 %.

2.Aieea eooieiiino? ia noiae?noue oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue:

a) aen?a ian?iiy c eooieii?noth iaioa i?ae 25 %;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c eooieii?noth a?ae 25 % aei 30 %;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c eooieii?noth a?eueo i?ae 30 %.

3.Aieea ??cieo no?ie?a cae?aiiy ian?iiy ia noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue o iieie?ii?:

a) aen?a ian?iiy c?a?aiiai /a?ac 20 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c?a?aiiai /a?ac 30 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c?a?aiiai /a?ac 35 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy;

a) aen?a ian?iiy c?a?aiiai /a?ac 40 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy.

4.Aieea ii?oieia?/ieo iciae iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue o
iieie?ii?:

a) aen?a ian?iiy, a?ae?a?aiiai c ?ineei c aenioith noaaea aei 170,
a?ae 170 aei 210 ni oa a?eueo, i?ae 210 ni;

a) aen?a ian?iiy, a?ae?a?aiiai c ?ineei c ae?aiao?ii noaaea aei 1.8
ni, a?ae 1.8 aei 2.4 ni oa a?eueo, i?ae 2.4 ni;

a) aen?a ian?iiy, a?ae?a?aiiai c ?ineei c ae?aiao?ii eioeea aei 18
ni, a?ae 18 aei 22 ni oa a?eueoa, i?ae 22 ni;

a) aen?a ian?iiy, a?ae?a?aiiai c ?ineeie c ieiuath eenoeiai? iiaa?oi?
aei 0.4 i2, a?ae 0.4 aei 0.5 i2, iiiaae 0.6 i2.

5.Aieea a?ieia?/ii-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ia noa?eeuei?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue. Ia?ia?oie aiaeiei ?ic/eiii ao?aeo (2-oei?aoeeoinoiiiaa
eeneioa) a ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo:

a) aiaea (eiio?ieue);

a) 0.01% ?ic/ei ao?aeo;

a) 0.03% ?ic/ei ao?aeo;

a) 0.05% ?ic/ei ao?aeo;

ae) 0.1% ?ic/ei ao?aeo;

ae) 0.2% ?ic/ei ao?aeo.

?ici??e iae?eiaeo ae?eyiie a iieueiaeo aeine?aeao-50 i2, o ae?iaie/eo-
2 aa. Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeeenue a 4-o ?aciaiio iiaoi?aii?. Aa??aioe o
iiaoi?aiiyo ?ici?uoaaeenue ?aiaeii?ciaaiei iaoiaeii. I?e i?iaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiue aa?ioaoi?ea aoea caaaeueiii?eeiyoith aeey aeaii? ciie.

Iae?e, aei??thaaiiy, noiooi? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee o a?aeiia?aeiino?
c “Iaoiaeeeith iieueiaeo aeine?ae?a” (Aeiniaoia A.A., 1985) oa ca?aeii
“Iaoiaeeea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ni?oieniuoaiey naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?”.

A?oio aeine?aeii? ae?eyiee — /i?iicai oeiiaee iaeiaoioniee
neaaiaeeoaoaaiee na?aaeiueinoaeeienoee ia eano. Oiaueia aoioniaiai
ai?eciioo 65-75 ni. I?iee oa? oeueiai a?oioo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeeie
aa?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie: ai?no aoiono 5.1 %, ?I nieueiai? aeoyaeee
6.4, noia iiaeeiooeo iniia 36.2 ia-aea. ia 100 a a?oioo, a?ae?ie?oe/ia
eeneioi?noue 1.9 ia-aea. ia 100 a a?oioo, ai?no caaaeueiiai acioo 0.197
%, ?ooiieo oi?i oinoi?o ? eae?th ca *???eiaei a?aeiia?aeii 12.6 ? 8.2 ia
ia 100 a a?oioo.

Ee?iao a ?aeii? ?icoaooaaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
NoiAeAO iii??ii-eiioeiaioaeueiee. Iiaiaei? oiiae ca e?euee?noth oaiea,
aieiae oa ?iciiae?eo ?o ia i?ioyc? aaaaoaoe?? a?ae??ciyeeny ca ?iee
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, aea a iniiaiiio caaacia/oaaee ii?iaeueiee
??no ? ?icaeoie ?ineei niiyoieeo.

Aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aecia/aee a oe?iao, ye? ?nioaaee ia ??e
cae?i/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue (aa?anaiue 1998 ?ieo).

Iaoaiaoe/iee ?ic?aooiie ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeaie
aeenia?n?eiiai, ei?aeyoe?eiiai oa ?aa?aneaiiai aiae?c?a ia AII ?AI
?N/AO ca i?ia?aiaie, neeaaeaieie ia eaoaae?? e?aa?iaoeee oa ?ioi?iaoeee
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae ia iniia?
iaeaoo noaoenoe/ieo i?ia?ai «STATGRAPHICS», «STATISTICA».

?ICAe?E 3 AIEEA ssEINO? IAN?IIss IA NOIAE?NOUe OA I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe
NIIssOIEEO

3.1. Aieea ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii? niiyoieeo ia noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue

A ia?oee ia??iae ?inoo ia?inoie ?nio? ca ?aooiie caian?a iaoa?einueeiai
ian?iiy. Ioaea, a?ae oiai, iane?eueee oeae caian aoaea a?ieia?/ii
iiaiioe?iiei, caeaaeeoue oa?aeoa?, ni?yiiaai?noue ? ?ioaineai?noue
a?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a ia o?eueee a oeae ia??iae, aea ? ia i?ioyc? an???
aaaaoaoe?? ?ineeie.

C iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy aieeao ai?noo ie?? ia i?ioean i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy
ie aecia/eee neeo ?inoo, eaai?aoi?io oa iieueiao noiae?noue. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui: aia?a?y i?i?inoaiiy oa eaai?aoi?ia
noiae?noue c?inoathoue i?e i?aeaeuaii? ie?eiino? ian?iiy (aeea. oaae.
1).

Oaaeeoey 1 Iin?ai? yeino? ian?iiy niiyoieeo a caeaaeiino?

a?ae ai?noo ie?? (a na?aaeiueiio ca 1995-1997 ??.)

Ai?no ie?? a ian?ii?, % Aia?a?y i?i?inoaiiy, % Eaai?aoi?ia
noiae?noue, % Neea ?inoo, % Iieueiaa

noiae?noue, %

iaio, i?ae 43 86.2 89.8 78.2 76.0

a?ae 43 aei 48 89.0 91.9 80.0 78.8

a?eueo, i?ae 48 92.6 94.4 81.5 80.2

I??0,05 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.0

Iaeaeuo aia?a?th caaacia/eei ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? iiiaae 48% — aiia
neeaea 92.6 %, ui ia 6.2 % aeua, i?ae i?e i?i?iuoaaii? iecueeiie?eiiai
(aei 43 %) ian?iiy. ??cieoey i?ae oeeie aa??aioaie nooo?aa, I??0.05
neeaea 2.5. Aa??aio c aen?aii ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? a?ae 43 % aei 48 %
caeiaa i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy, aia?a?y i?i?inoaiiy aoea ia ??ai? 89 %.

?acoeueoaoe aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co iieacaee, ui ca iieacieeii
eaai?aoi?ii? noiaeino? niinoa??aaeenue ?noioi? a?aei?iiino?. Oea iiaeia
iiynieoe oei, ui ie?y ? aeaea?aeii iiaeeaieo niieoe ia ia?oeo aoaiao
aeeooy iieiaeiai ia?inoea, a e?euee?noue ?? iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia
i?i?inoaiiy ian?iiy i?e iiaiiio caaacia/aii? ?ioeie oaeoi?aie aeeooy.

A?eueo ia?aeiieeai oeth caeaaei?noue oa?aeoa?ecothoue ei?aeyoe?ei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Aeyaeaia iiceoeaia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae
ai?noii ie?? oa eaai?aoi?iith noiae?noth (R=0.40). E??i oeueiai, c
iaoith aecia/aiiy oi?ioee ei?aeyoe?eii? caeaaeiino? aoa i?iaaaeaiee
?aa?aneaiee aiae?c oa iiaoaeiaaia e?i?y ?aa?an??. Oey caeaaei?noue
iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi ?aa?an?? — y=73.6+0.40x.

Neea ?inoo oa iieueiaa noiae?noue aiaeia?/ii, ye ? iiia?aaei? iieacieee
iin?aieo yeinoae, c?inoathoue i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo ie?? (aeea. oaae.1)

Iieueiaa noiae?noue a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae eaai?aoi?ii?, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenieei eiao?oe??ioii ei?aeyoe?? R=0.83. Iaea?eueoo
iieueiao noiae?noue (80.2%) caaacia/ea aen?a ian?iiy c ai?noii ie??
iiiaae 48 %, ui ?noioii aeua a ii??aiyii? c n?aaith iecueeiie?eiei
ian?iiyi (aei 43 %). N?aaa ian?iiyi c ai?noii ie?? a?ae 43 % aei 48%
caaacia/eea iaea?aeaiiy aeecueei 79 ia?inoe?a ?c 100 aen?yieo ian?iei

?acoeueoaoe ii?oiiao??/ieo aei??thaaiue iieacaee, ui, ia caaaeath/e ia
aeei?enoaiiy ie?? ye caianii? ?a/iaeie ia ia?oeo aoaiao ?icaeoeo aei
ii/aoeo aeaniiai aaoio?ioiiai ?nioaaiiy, ?noioii? ??cieoe? i?ae
aa??aioaie ia niinoa??aaeinue. Oae? iieacieee, ye aenioa ?ineei oa
ae?aiao? noaaea, aoee ia ??ai? 195-196 ni oa 2.6-2.7 ni a?aeiia?aeii.
E?euee?noue ian?iei c eioeea eieeaaeanue a?ae 1198 aei 1239 oooe.

Iniiaiei iieacieeii i?iaeoeoeaiino? niiyoieeo ? aeo?ae ian?iiy ? ie?? c
iaeeieoe? ieiu?. I?e n?aa? ian?iiyi c ie?ei?noth a?ae 43 % aei 48 %
aoei iaea?aeaii iaeaeuo o?iaeaei?noue — 38.3 oe/aa. Iaeiae, a?aoiaoth/e,
ui iciaea ie?eiino? oniaaeeiao?oueny o aa??aio?, aea aoei aen?yii
ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? a?eueo, i?ae 48 %, ie?ei?noue iieie?iiy aoea
aeaui aeua ? neeaea 48.7 %. I?e a?iaeaeiino? 38.0 oe/aa ca?? ie?? c 1 aa
a oeueiio aa??aio? aoa iaea?eueoei ? neeaa 18.5 oe/aa, ui ?noioii aeua a
ii??aiyii? c n?aaith iecueeiie?eiei ian?iiyi, aea aoei iaea?aeaii
iaeiaioa ie?? 16.3 oe/aa, I??0.05 neeaea 1.2. O aa??aio? i?e aen?a?
ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? a?ae 43% aei 48 %, ca?? ie?? neeaa 17.8 oe/aa
(aeea. oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2 Aieea ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii? niiyoieeo ia a?iaeaei?noue oa
ca?? ie?? a ianooiiiio ?ioe? (na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.)

Ai?no ie??

a ian?ii?, % Ie?ei?noue

iieie?iiy, % A?iaeaei?noue

iieie?iiy, oe/aa Ca?? ie??,

oe/aa

iaio, i?ae 43 44.3 36.8 16.3

a?ae 43 aei 48 46.5 38.3 17.8

a?eueo, i?ae 48 48.7 38.0 18.5

I??0.05 2.6 1.2

Ioaea, a oiiaao I?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai E?ninoaio aeei?enoaiiy ian?iiy c
a?eueoei ai?noii ie?? ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith iin?aieo yeinoae ian?iiy. Oea,
a naith /a?ao aea? iiaeeea?noue aeiiiieoe iin?aiee iaoa??ae oa
iaea?aeaoe nai?/anii ae?oaei? noiaee, ui ? caii?oeith aeia?iai a?iaeath.
E??i oeueiai, n?aaa ian?iiyi c ai?noii ie?? iiiaae 48 %, caaaeyee
aenie?e a?iaeaeiino? oa aenie?e ie?eiino? iieie?iiy, i?aeaeuo? ca?? ie??
c 1 aa iin?aii? ieiu?.

3.2. Aieea eooieiiino? ian?iiy niiyoieeo ia noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue

Cae?enieaoe ei?aeyoe?iee aiae?c aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo, ie anoaiiaeee
aca?iica‘ycie i?ae eooieii?noth oa aeayeeie iieacieeaie yeino? ian?iiy
niiyoieeo. Anoaiiaeaia o?nia iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae
eooieii?noth oa ai?noii ie??, eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? R=-0.63. Oeei
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oie a?aeiiee oaeo, ui iecueeieooieii? ni?oe ?
aenieiie?eieie.

I?e oi?ioaaii? a?iaeath aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ii?oieia?/i?
iieacieee ?ineei. Oiio c iaoith aecia/aiiy aieeao ??aiy eooieiiino? ia
aaaaoaoeaio noa?o i?iaaee niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeayeeie c ieo.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie io?eiaieo aeaieo anoaiiaeaii, ui eooieii?noue
aeo?aeiiai iin?aiiai iaoa??aeo ?noioii ia aieeaa? ia aaaaoaoeaio noa?o
?ineei, ui noi?ioaaeeny c iueiai. Aenioa ?ineei o an?o aa??aioao aoea ia
iaeiiio ??ai? ? neeaea 194.4-195.0 ni.

Ae?aiao? noaaea oa eioeea oaeiae ?noioii ia ?ic??ciyany i?ae aa??aioaie
? neeaaeaa a?aeiia?aeii 2.7, 2.6, 2.7 oa 18.9, 19.8, 19.6 ni.

Oae? iieacieee aaia?aoeaii? noa?e, ye e?euee?noue oa iana ian?iiy c
eioeea, oaeiae ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyeenue.

O?iaeae ian?iiy oa ie?? o aa??aioao aeaui ci?ithaaany. A oaae. 3
iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? o?e??/iiai
aea/aiiy aieeao ??aiy eooieiiino? ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue niiyoieeo.

Oaaeeoey 3 Aieea eooieiiino? ian?iiy ia

i?iaeoeoeai?noue niiyoieeo (na?aaei? ca 1995-1997 ??.).

Eooieii?noue

ian?iiy, % Eooieii?noue

iieie?iiy, % Ie?ei?noue

iieie?iiy, % O?iaeaei?noue,

oe/aa Ca?? ie??,

oe/aa

iaio, i?ae 25 22.5 47.9 35.5 17.0

a?ae 25 aei 30 24.4 46.5 35.4 16.5

a?eueo, i?ae 30 27.5 45.3 35.7 16.2

I??0,05

2.6 1.5

Ca?? ie?? caeaaeeoue a?ae o?iaeaeiino? oa ie?eiino? ian?iiy. Aeoiaey/e c
oeueiai, aeaui a?eueoa ie?? c iaeiiai aaeoa?a (17.0 oe/aa) aoei
iaea?aeaii i?e aeei?enoaii? iecueeieooieiiiai ian?iiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iieacieee yeino? ian?iiy, a naia eooieii?noue oa ai?no
ie??, a aeaye?e i??? aieeaathoue ia iin?ai? yeino? oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue
?ineei niiyoieeo; aeei?enoaiiy iecueeieooieiiiai oa aenieiie?eiiai
ian?iiy i?aeaeuo? iin?ai? yeino? oa ca?? ie?? c 1 aa.

?ICAe?E 4 AIEEA NO?IE?A CAE?AIIss IAN?IIss IA NOIAE?NOUe OA
I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe NIIssOIEEO A NE?AeOTH*IIO IIEIE?II?

?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a iieacaee (aeea. ?en. 1), ui aieia?noue ?
eooieii?noue ian?iiy iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii ciaioothoueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
ia??iaeo i?ney oea?o?iiy a?ae 20 aei 40 aei?a. I?yiii?iii?oe?eio
caeaaei?noue a?ae no?ie?a cae?aiiy ia? ai?no ie??. Iaeaeuei oeae
iieaciee aoa i?e cae?aii? ian?iiy /a?ac 35-40 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai
oea?o?iiy ? noaiiaea 47.8 %.

I?e ca?eueoaii? no?ie?a cae?aiiy iana 1000 oooe ian?iei c?inoaea. Oaea
oaiaeaioe?y caa??aaeanue o an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo. Iaea?eueoei oeae
iieaciee aoa cao?eniaaiee ia 40-e aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy ? neeaa
65.2 a, ui ?noioii aeua a ii??aiyii? c ian?iiyi, c?a?aiei ia 20-e aeaiue
(51.3 a). Iana 1000 oooe ian?iei, c?a?aieo ia 30-35-e aeaiue, ?noioii ia
a?ae??ciyeanue a?ae c?a?aieo ia 40-e aeaiue ? neeaea 61.0 oa 63.4 a

O?iaeaei?noue ian?iiy, ye ? ai?no ie?? a iueiio, c?inoaea ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi oa?i?io cae?aiiy i?ney oea?o?iiy (aeea. ?en. 2).

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?ae?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeai? C.Ae. I?nth?e
(1970), O.A. Oaiaoeii? oa I.O ?iaiaeaai? (1972), Iiii??aiea A.I. (1996).
Ioaea, iaea?eueoee a?iaeae ian?iiy ? aeo?ae ie?? aoei iaea?aeaii, eiee
niiyoiee cae?aee o oac? iiao??iiy e?a?a eioeea i?e aieiaino? ian?iiy
aeecueei 16%, ui ni?aiaaeaei c 35-40 aeiai i?ney oea?o?iiy.

Ca aeaieie ?.O. ?iaiaeaaiai? (1971), A.E. Oo?niai? (1990), caeaoi?noue
aei i?i?inoaiiy c(yaey?oueny o ian?iiy niiyoieeo aaea ia 7-13 aeaiue,
i?ioa aenieo noiae?noue niiyoieeo caaacia/o? ian?iiy ia iieiaeoa
22-25-aeaiiiai a?eo.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?ae?a na?ae/aoue, ui eiiaeeoe?eio noiae?noue
iiaea caaacia/eoe ian?iiy, c?a?aia ia ?ai?oa, i?ae /a?ac 30-35 aei?a
i?ney oea?o?iiy (aeea. oaae. 4). Iaea?eueoa eaai?aoi?ia noiae?noue 95.0
% o ian?iiy, c?a?aiiai /a?ac 35-40 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy.
Iaeiaioei oeae iieaciee aoa o ian?iiy, c?a?aiiai /a?ac 20 aei?a i?ney
ianiaiai oea?o?iiy, ui noaoenoe/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo aa??aio?a.

Aia?a?y i?i?inoaiiy, ye iieaciee, ia?aeaeueiee eaai?aoi?i?e noiaeino?,
i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? oa?i?io cae?aiiy i?ney oea?o?iiy. Oae,
iaeneiaeueio aia?a?th i?i?inoaiiy 91.0 % iaei ian?iiy, c?a?aia ia 40-e
aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy.

I?yii i?iii?oe?eio caeaaei?noue a?ae no?ie?a cae?aiiy ia? iieueiaa
noiae?noue. A iaoiio aeine?ae? iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ii?iaeueii
?icaeiaieo noiae?a (iiiaae 80 oooe i?e aen?a? 100 ian?iei) aeaei
ian?iiy, c?a?aia /a?ac 35 oa 40 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy.
Iaeiaioo iieueiao noiae?noue 77.0 % iaei ian?iiy, c?a?aia ia 20-e
aeaiue, ui ?noioii iaioa i?ae a ?ioeo aa??aioao.

Oaaeeoey 4 Iin?ai? yeino? ian?iiy niiyoieeo a caeaaeiino?

a?ae no?ie?a cae?aiiy (a na?aaeiueiio ca 1994-1997 ??.)

Aei? i?ney

oea?o?iiy Eaai?aoi?ia noiae?noue, % Aia?a?y i?i?inoaiiy, %
Iieueiaa noiae?noue, %

20 89.0 87.0 77.0

30 93.6 90.5 79.5

35 95.0 90.7 80.5

40 95.0 91.0 80.5

I??0.05 1.5 1.2 1.1

Oaeei /eiii, o niiyoieeo ia 30-35-e aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy
aaoiiii?caoe?y ca?iaeea aeinyaa? oaeiai ??aiy, ui aeicaiey? n?i‘yieai
cae?enithaaoe ii?iaeueiee iaoaaie?ci ie?aii a?ae iaoa?einueei? ?ineeie.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui no?iee
cae?aiiy ian?iiy nooo?ai ia aieeaaee ia ii?oieia?/i? ia?aiao?e
iioiinoaa. Oae, aenioa ?ineei o an?o aa??aioao aeine?aeo aoea i?aeoe/ii
iaeiaeiaith ? noaiiaeea a ia??iae oea?o?iiy aeecueei 198 ni. Ae?aiao?
noaaea aoa ia ??ai? 2.75 ni, a ae?aiao? eioeea ci?ithaaany a?ae 18 ni (o
aa??aio? c aen?aii ian?iiy, c?a?aiiai ia 20-e aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy)
aei 20.2 ni (40-e aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy). Ae?aiao? noaaea oa eioeea
aiaeia?/ii aenio? ?ineei o an?o aa??aioao ?noioii ia a?ae??ciyany.

Iaea?eueoa iana ian?iiy c iaei??? ?ineeie aoea o aa??aioao c aen?aii
ian?iiy( c?a?aiiai ia 35-40-e aeaiue i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy — 70.5 oa
70.7 a a?aeiia?aeii. Iaeiaioei o aa??aio? c aen?aii ian?iiy, c?a?aiiai
ia 20-e aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy — 52.3 a.

I?i o?iaeaei? yeino? ian?iiy na?ae/eoue o?iaeaei?noue eiai a iioiaaiac?.
O?iaeaei? yeino?, ye ? iin?ai?, oi?iothoueny i?ae /an ?icaeoeo ian?iiy
ia iaoa?einueeeo ?ineeiao. A oaaeeoe? 5 iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai?, iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? o?e??/iiai aea/aiiy aieeao no?ie?a
cae?aiiy ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue a ia?oiio iieie?ii?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoe aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co anoaiiaeaii ?noioio ??cieoeth
i?ae aa??aioii i?e aen?a? ian?iiy c?a?aiiai ia 20-e aeaiue i?ney
ianiaiai oea?o?iiy oa ?ioeie aa??aioaie. Iaea?eueoee a?iaeae niiyoieeo
aoa iaea?aeaiee i?e aen?a? ian?iiy c?a?aiiai ia 35-e aeaiue i?ney
oea?o?iiy, aea ?noioii? ??cieoe? i?ae aa??aioaie i?e aen?ao ian?iiy
c?a?aiiai ia 30-e, 35-e oa 40-e aeaiue, ia niinoa??aaeinue (aeea. oaae.
5).

Oaaeeoey 5 O?iaeaei?noue oa ca?? ie?? a ne?aeoth/iio iieie?ii?

??ciia?eiaiai ian?iiy (1995-1997 ??.)

Aei? i?ney O?iaeaei?noue iieie?iiy Ca?? ie??

oea?o?iiy

oe/aa a?aeiioaiiy aei eiio?ieth

oe/aa a?aeiioaiiy aei eiio?ieth

20 26.2 -9.1 12.4 -4.5

30 33.4 -1.9 16.0 -9.0

35 35.3 — 16.9 —

40 35.4 — 16.9 —

I??0.05

6.0

2.8

Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? a No?aeiiio Eacaonoai? ss.E.
Iieyeiaei (1969) oa a Oaiaianuee?e iaeano? ?.O. ?iaiaeaaith (1971), aea
ian?iiy i?e cae?aii? ia 25-60 aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy iaei iaeiaeia?
o?iaeaei? yeino?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui a oiiaao Noinueei?
iaeano? o?c?ieia?/ia noeae?noue niiyoieeo ni?oo AI??IE-8883 iie?ioaiee
ianoa? ia 30-35-e aeaiue, a ainiiaea?nueea (e?iaoeue iaeeao) — ia 40-e
aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e n?aa? ian?iiyi, c?a?aiei
/a?ac 30, 35 ? 40 aei?a i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy, o?iaeae aoa
iaeiaeiaei. Ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo i?i iiaeeea?noue a?eueo ?aii?o
no?ie?a cae?aiiy ian?iiaaiai niiyoieeo, ia aeeeth/ath/e canoinoaaiiy
aeaneeaoe?? a ?ac? iaiao?aeiino?. I?e aeiaeaoeiaiio i?aenoooaaii? aei
eiiaeeoe?eii? aieiaino? oea aeicaieeoue, iniaeeai o ?iee ianiaiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oai?ia, iaea?aeoaaoe iaio a?aaeaia ian?iiy oa
caaeia?eueiee o?iaeae. Oaeiae i?e cae?aii? a oeae /an ciaioo?oueny
cani?/ai?noue iin?a?a ianooiieo eoeueoo? iaaeaeeoeath, ?ai?oa
ca?eueith?oueny iiea a?ae niiyoieeo.

?ICAe?E 5 AIEEA II?OIEIA?*IEO ICIAE IAOA?EINUeEEO
?INEEI IA I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe A IANOOIIIIO ?IOe?

Aeey ae??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? aoei a?ae?a?aii ian?iiy c aeniei?ineeo,
iecueei?ineeo, c aaeeeeie oa iaeeie eioeeaie, c oianoeie oa oiieeie
noaaeaie, neeueii oa neaai iaeenoaieo ?ineei. Oaeei /eiii a?ae?a?aia
ian?iiy ie aen?aaee a iieueiaeo oiiaao ia ae?eyieao ieiuath 10 i2 aeey
aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? a ianooiiiio ?ioe?.

C io?eiaieo aeaieo aeoiaeeoue, ui a iaea?eueo?e i??? ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue
?ineei aieeaa? aenioa oa ieiua eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei.
A?eueo iai/ii oeth oaiaeaioe?th iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 2.

?en. 2 Caeaaei?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino? a?ae aenioe oa ieiu? eenoiai?

iiaa?oi? iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei.

Oae, i?e aenio? 180-220 ni oa ieiu? eenoeiai? iiaa?oi? iaoa?einueeeo
?ineei 0.5 i2, ii/eiaeiny i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca ianith
ian?iiy c eioeea. I?e ca?eueoaii? ieiu? eenoiai? iiaa?oi? iiiaae 0.65 i2
niinoa??aaeinue ?icoe?aiiy iaae aa??thaaiiy aenioe iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei
a?ae 170 ni aei 230 ni — ana oea iaoiiaeei iaea?aeaiiy iiiaae 70 a
ian?iiy c iaeiiai eioeea (aeea. ?en. 2).

E??i aenioe oa ieiu? eenoiai? iiaa?oi? iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei, ie
aecia/aee a?iaeaei? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy, yea noi?ioaaeinue ia ?ineeiao
c ??ciei ae?aiao?ii noaaea oa eioeea (aeea. ?en. 3). A?ao?/ii
a?aeoai?eaoe aeai? iane ian?iiy c eioeea a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiao?o
noaaea oa eioeea iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei aeoiaeeoue, ui ? oe? iieacieee a
aeaye?e i??? aieeaathoue ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue a ianooiiiio ?ioe?. Iaioee
aieea oeeo iieaciee?a a ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaeiueith ia?ith (aenioa,
ieiua eenoiai? iiaa?oi?) ia?aeiieeai aeaeii c iieiai? aoaeiae iiaa?oi?,
yea a?aeia?aaea? aeaio caeaaei?noue.

Oae, ia ?en. 3 iieacaii, ui n?aaa ian?iiyi, yea aoei noi?iiaaii ia
?ineeiao c ae?aiao?ii eioeea a?eueoa 20 ni ? ae?aiao?ii noaaea a?eueoa
2.8 ni, caaacia/eea iaea?aeaiiy iiiaae 70 a ian?iiy c iaeiiai eioeea.

Ioaea, c aeua iaaaaeaieo aeaieo aeoiaeeoue, ui iaee?au? a?iaeaei? yeino?
iaei ian?iiy, yea aoei noi?iiaaii ia ?ineeiao c aenioith a?ae 180 ni aei
220 ni, ieiuath eenoiai? iiaa?oi? iiiaae 0.5 i2, ae?aiao?ii noaaea
a?eueoa 2.8 ni, ae?aiao?ii eioeeo a?eueoa 20 ni.

?en. 3 Caeaaei?noue i?iaeoeoeaiino? a?ae ae?aiao?o noaaea oa eioeea

iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei.

A?aeiiee oie oaeo, ui ia oi?ioaaiiy aeniei?ineeo ?ineei
aeei?enoiao?oueny a?eueoa aeia?ea, ia??iae aeinoeaaiiy o ieo aeaui
aeiaoee, aiie oaeiae caeaoi? aeeyaaoe ca iani?eyoeeaeo oiia, ui
oneeaaeith? ?o cae?aiiy. O ca‘yceo c oeei ne?ae a?aeae?aoe na?aaeiuei-
oa iecueei- ?ine? ?ineeie, ye? caeaoi? oi?ioaaoe ian?iiy c aeia?eie
a?iaeaeieie yeinoyie.

Oaeei /eiii, aeia?? ca ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie iiaea aeei?enoi-aoaaoeny
i?e aeaaaeaii? aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ni?o?a niiyoieeo. Ia i?aenoaa? iaoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoa noai?aiee aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae, yeee ia? oe?ii?noue
aeey iiaeaeueoi? naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe.

?ICAe?E 6 AIEEA AO?AEO IA ?AI?IAeOEOEAIO CAeAOI?NOUe

?INEEI NIIssOIEEO ? ?O I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe

Ia 4-5 aeaiue i?ney ia?iaee niinoa??aaeinue cieaeaiiy oo?ai?o eenoe?a oa
?o aeaoi?iaoe?y (cii?uai?noue ? cae?o/oaaiiy e?a?a). I?e ca?eueoaii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio ao?aeo oeae aoaeo aoa a?eueo ae?aaeaiee. O
aa??aioao c ia?iaeith ao?aeii a eiioeaio?aoe?yo aei 0.05 % aeaoi?iaoe?y
cieeaea /a?ac 7-10 aei?a, a i?e ia?iaoe? a eiioeaio?aoe?yo 0.1-0.2%
caeeoaeanue aei e?ioey aaaaoaoe??.

I?ney ia?iaee niiyoieeo ?ic/eiaie a eiioeaio?aoe?yo 0.1-0.2%
niinoa??aaeanue aeaoi?iaoe?y oa iaaeiiaiai?noue eioee?a aiane?aeie
iaaaoeaii? ae?? i?aia?aoo ia ?icaeoie ae?ii/iai aaiaoioeoo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui ao?ae aieeaa? ia oaiie ?inoo
?ineei niiyoieeo (aeea. oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6 Aeeiai?ea aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e a?iaeath ?ineei niiyoieeo
i?ney ia?iaee aiaeiei ?ic/eiii ao?aeo (a na?aaeiueiio ca 1995-1997 ??.)

Eiioeaio?aoe?y

?ic/eio,

% Aenioa

?ineei,

ni Ae?aiao?

eioeea,

ni Ae?aiao?

noaaea,

ni E?euee?noue ian?iiy c 1 eioeea, oo Iana ian?iiy c 1 eioeea, a

eiio?ieue 200.5 20.1 2.8 1073 70.0

0.01 197.6 19.8 2.73 1080 70.3

0.03 195.7 19.9 2.75 1069 69.7

0.05 191.1 18.9 2.75 960 60.7

0.1 185.4 18.7 2.67 750 44.8

0.2 180.1 18.2 2.7 523 29.2

I??0.05 4.7 1.9 0.25 127 3.4

I?e iaeyae? ea?oo/eo ?ineei niiyoieeo, iniaeeai a ?aieiaee /an, iiaeia
aoei niinoa??aaoe, ui o?oa/ao? ea?oee oa?oeeueieo ?ineei aeae?eyee
aaeeeo e?euee?noue ieeeo, yeiai iaeaea ia aoei o noa?eeueieo, oiio
eioeee ?c noa?eeueieie ea?oaie iaee iaio ?ioaineaia caaa?aeaiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ae i?e?ineiiii oa i?i?iuoaaiiy
anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue noa?eeueieo ?ineei aoea
aeyaeaia i?ney ia?iaee ao?aeii a eiioeaio?aoe?yo a?eueoeo, i?ae 0.05 %
(oaae. 7).

Oaaeeoey 7 E?euee?noue noa?eeueieo ?ineei niiyoieeo

i?ney ia?iaee ao?aeii (a na?aaeiueiio ca 1995-1997 ??.)

A?aenioie noa?eeueieo ?ineei

Eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/eio ao?aeo, %

eiio?ieue 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2

1.5 8.3 37.4 52.5 94.0 95.1

Io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieeee aeyaeoe iaeneiaeueio iaaeo eiioeaio?aoe??
ao?aeo (0.03-0.04%), ui caoaeo? ianya aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aieeao
i?aia?aoo ia noa?eeuei?noue ?ineei, a oaeiae iaea?aeaii aeo?aeiee
iaoa??ae, yeee iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a ianooii?e naeaeoe?ei?e ?iaio? c
niiyoieeii. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aia?aoo aei 0.1-0.2
% i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia i?ioeane ?inoo oa oi?ioaaiiy
?ineei.

?ICAe?E 7 AE?IAIE*A IA?AA??EA ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Ae?iaie/? aeine?aee c aeyaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo no?ie?a cae?aiiy
ian?iiaaiai niiyoieeo i?iaiaeeee a eieaeoeaiiio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? “Aoaeei?anueea” ?iiainueeiai
?aeiio Noinueei? iaeano?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeaieo ae?iaie/eo aeine?ae?a anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeaeueie
a?iaeaeieie yeinoyie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ian?iiy c?a?aia ia 35-40-e aeaiue
i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy. N?aaa iei caacia/eea iaea?aeaiiy aeecueei
25.0 oe/aa ian?iiy oa 12.0 oe/aa ie??.

Ae?iaie/? aeine?aee ii anoaiiaeaiith aieeao ai?noo ie?? ia noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue a iaa/aeueii-aeine?aeiiio ainiiaea?noa? NoiAeAO
Noinueeiai ?aeiio Noinueei? iaeano? i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy aeey n?aae ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? iiiaae 48 %.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? a eaai?aoi?ii-iieueiaeo aeine?aeao,
aoee i?aeoaa?aeaeai? o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao.

?ICAe?E 8 AEIIII?*IA AOAEOEAI?NOUe

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeiiii?/ieo i?ae?aooie?a aeaeii, ui a ii??aiyii? c 1-ei
aa??aioii, i?e n?aa? ian?iiyi, c?a?aiei ia 20-e aeaiue, iaea?aeaii
i?eaooie 203.6, 259.0, 259.1 a?i. ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy a?eo ian?iiy.
Oaeei /eiii, i?e ae?iuoaaii? niiyoieeo ni?oo AI??IE 8883 iie?ioaiee a
oiiaao Noinueei? iaeano? aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe 40
aeaiia ian?iiy, ui aeoiaeeoue c aenieeo a?iaeaeieo yeinoae, i?i?iaeueieo
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao oa iecee aa?iiii?/ieo ia?aaaa cae?aiiy ian?iiy a
oeae /an.

N?aaa niiyoieeo ni?oo AI??IE 8883 iie?ioaiee ian?iiyi c ai?noii ie??
iiiaae 48 % ? a?eueo aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueiith. Aeei?enoaiiy
iecueeiie?eiiai ian?iiy i?eaiaeeoue aei caeoe?a a?ae 118 a?i. 40 eii.
aei 372 a?i.10 eii.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

Iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeicaieeee c?iaeoe oae? iniiai?
aeniiaee:

N?aaa niiyoieeo ian?iiyi c a?eueoei ai?noii ie?? ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith
eiai iin?aieo yeinoae. Oea a naith /a?ao aea? iiaeeea?noue aeiiiieoe
iin?aiee iaoa??ae oa iaea?aeaoe nai?/anii ae?oaei? noiaee, ui ?
caii?oeith aenieiai a?iaeath.

Aeei?enoaiiy aeey n?aae ian?iiy c ai?noii ie?? iiiaae 48 %, caaaeyee
aenie?e o?iaeaeiino? oa aenie?e ie?eiino? iieie?iiy, i?aeaeuo? ca?? ie??
c 1 aa iin?aii? ieiu?.

Iieacieee yeino? ian?iiy, a naia eooieii?noue oa ai?no ie?? aieeaathoue
ia iin?ai? yeino? oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ineei niiyoieeo. Ioaea
aeei?enoaiiy iecueeieooieiiiai oa aenieiie?eiiai ian?iiy i?aeaeuo?
iin?ai? yeino? oa ca?? ie?? c 1 aa.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a oiiaao Noinueei? iaeano? o?c?ieia?/ia noeae?noue
niiyoieeo ni?oo AI??IE-8883 iie?ioaiee ianoa? ia 30-35 aeaiue, a
ainiiaea?nueea (e?iaoeue iaeeao) — ia 40-e aeaiue i?ney oea?o?iiy.

Iaee?aua ?icii/eiaoe cae?aiiy ia 35-40e aeaiue i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy.
Cae?aiiy a oeae /an aeicaieeoue, iniaeeai o ?iee ianiaiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oai?ia, iaea?aeoaaoe iaio a?aaeaia ian?iiy oa
caaeia?eueiee o?iaeae.

I?e cae?aii? niiyoieeo ia 35-40-e aeaiue ciaioo?oueny cani?/ai?noue
iin?a?a ianooiieo eoeueoo? iaaeaeeoeath oa ?ai?oa ca?eueith?oueny iiea.
E??i oeueiai, iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe eioeee c i?aeaeueiei ai?noii aieiae
aeey neeinoaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?oieia?/i? iciaee iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei a aeaye?e i???
aieeaathoue ia a?iaeaei? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy, yea noi?ioaaeiny ia ieo.
Ioaea, aeia?? ca oeeie iieacieeaie iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?e
aeaaaeaii? aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ni?o?a niiyoieeo.

Anoaiiaeaii iaaaoeaiee aieea ao?aeo a eiioeaio?aoe?yo iiiaae 0.1% ia
??no oa ?icaeoie ?ineei niiyoieeo.

Aeyaeaii iaeneiaeueio iaaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? ao?aeo (0.03-0.04%), ui
caoaeo? ianya aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei aieeao i?aia?aoo ia noa?eeuei?noue
?ineei, a oaeiae iaea?aeaii aeo?aeiee iaoa??ae, yeee iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee a ianooii?e naeaeoe?ei?e ?iaio? c niiyoieeii.

I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y iaea?aeaieo aeaieo aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe
a?iaeaei?noue ian?iiy niiyoieeo ? eiai ye?noue.

?AEIIAIAeAOe?? AE?IAIEOeOAO

Aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey n?aae iecueeieooieiia oa aenieiie?eia
ian?iiy.

?icii/eiaoe cae?aiiy ian?iiaaiai niiyoieeo ni?oo AI??IE 8883 iie?ioaiee
ia 35-40-e aeaiue i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy.

I?e aeeiiaii? naeaeoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaiaeeoe aeia?? ca ii?oieia?/ieie
iciaeaie iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei.

Aeei?enoiaoaaoe ao?ae a eiioeaio?aoe?? 0.03-0.04 % aeey iaea?aeaiiy
/ieia?/i? noa?eeueiino? niiyoieeo a aaoa?iceni?e naeaeoe??.

NIENIE IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

Iaeueiee A.A., Aeoae/aiei C.ss., Aeouaiei E.O. I?iaeoeoeai?noue ni?o?a ?
a?a?eae?a niiyoieea a caeaaeiino? a?ae aonoioe noiyiiy ?ineei
//Iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. — Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??, NNA?. — Noie, 1995. — N. 138-139.

Iaeueiee A.A. Aoaeoeai?noue a?aeai?o o niiyoieea ii e?euee?niei
iieacieeai //Iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. — Iaoa??aee iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??, NNA?. — Noie, 1995. — N. 141.

Iaeueiee A.A. Aieea ao?aeo ia oi?ioaaiiy ian?iiy oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue
niiyoieeo //A?niee Noinueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo.
Noie, — 1997. — Aeione 1. — N. 38-40.

Iaeueiee A.A. Aieea ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii? niiyoieeo ia noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue //A?niee Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Noie, — 1998. — Aeione 2. — N. 36-38.

Iaeueiee A.A. Aieea no?ie?a cae?aiiy ian?iiy niiyoieeo ia noiae?noue oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noue a ne?aeoth/iio iieie?ii? //A?niee Noinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Noie, — 1998. — Aeione 2. — N.
38-41.

Iaeueiee A.A. Aieea yeino? ian?iiy niiyoieeo eiai ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue a
oiiaao I?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai E?ninoaio Oe?a?ie.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
06.01.09-?ineeiieoeoai. — ?inoeooo oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a OAAI, Ee?a, 1998.

Caoeua?oueny ?oeiien aeena?oaoe??, yeee i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe
eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? o?iaeaeiino? niiyoieea a?ae
ai?noo ie?? a ian?ii?, eooieiiino? ian?iiy, ii?oieia?/ieo iciae oa
no?ie?a cae?aiiy ian?iiy iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei a oiiaao Noinueei?
iaeano?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy iecueeieooieiiiai oa aenieiie?eiiai ian?iiy.
Aecia/aii, ui ian?iiy ni?oo AI??IE-8883 iie?ioaiee, c?a?aia ia 35-40-e
aeaiue i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy ia? iaee?au? a?iaeaei? yeino?.
Aecia/aii, ui ian?iiy ni?oo AI??IE-8883 iie?ioaiee, c?a?aia ia 35-40-e
aeaiue i?ney ianiaiai oea?o?iiy ia? iaee?au? a?iaeaei? yeino?.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?oieia?/i? iciaee iaoa?einueeeo ?ineei a aeaye?e i???
aieeaathoue ia a?iaeaei? aeanoeaino? ian?iiy, yea noi?ioaaeiny ia ieo.
Aeyaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ao?aeo a eiioeaio?aoe?? 0.03-0.04 %
aeey iaea?aeaiiy /ieia?/i? noa?eeueiino? niiyoieeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: niiyoiee, ye?noue ian?iiy, o?iaeaei?noue, ca?? ie??,
ai?no ie??, eooieii?noue, ??ciia?eiaa ian?iiy, ii?oieia?/i? iciaee,
ao?ae, noa?eeuei?noue.

Iaeueiee A.A. Aeeyiea ea/anoaa naiyi iiaenieia/ieea ia aai
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue a oneiaeyo Naaa?i-ainoiea Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.09 —
?anoaieaaiaenoai. Einoeooo naoa?iie naaeeu OAAI, Eeaa, 1998.

Caueuaaony ?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo ?acoeueoaou
eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey caaeneiinoe o?iaeaeiinoe iiaenieia/ieea io
niaea?aeaiey ianea a naiaiao, eocaeenoinoe naiyi, ii?oieiae/aneeo
i?eciaeia e n?ieia oai?ee iaoa?eineeo ?anoaiee a oneiaeyo Noineie
iaeanoe.

Ec ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaiea ieceieocaeenouo e aunieiianee/iuo naiyi.
Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi naiaia ni?oa AIEEIE-8883 oeo/oaiiue, nia?aiiua ia
35-40-e aeaiue iinea ianniaiai oeaaoaiey eiatho iaeeo/oua o?iaeaeiua
naienoaa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii?oieiae/aneea i?eciaee iaoa?eineeo
?anoaiee a iaeioi?ie noaiaie aeeytho ia o?iaeaeiua naienoaa naiyi,
eioi?ua ia ieo noi?ie?iaaeenue. Auyaeaii aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
yo?aea a eiioeaio?aoeee 0.03-0.04 % aeey eiaeooee?iaaiey ioaeneie
noa?eeueiinoe o iiaenieia/ieea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaenieia/iee, ea/anoai naiyi, o?iaeaeiinoue, nai?
ianea, niaea?aeaiea ianea, eocaeenoinoue, ?aciiaic?anoiua naiaia,
ii?oieiae/aneea i?eciaee, yo?ae, noa?eeueiinoue.

Melnyk A.V. The inflence of the quality of seeds on sunflower
productivity in conditions of noth-eastern Forest-Steppe Zone of
Ukraine. — A manusctipt.

The thesis is submited for a Candidate‘s degree in agricultural sciences
in speciality 06.01.09 — Plant Cultivation. Institute of Sugar Beet
UAAS, Kiyv, 1998.

The manusctipt of the thesis containing the results of a complex study
of dependence of sunflower yields on oil contents in seeds, seed
husking, morphological parameters and terms of harvesting parental
plants in condition of Sumy region is presented.

The results of the investigation proved that the parameters of seed
quality, namely husking and oil contents affect the agrotechnical
propertis and productivity of sunflower plants. The most effective is
the use of seeds with low husking and high oil contents that increase
agrotechnical properties and oil output per hectare. It is determined
that the seeds gathered on the 35-40-th day after flowering prossess,
the best harvesting qualities for sunflower variety “VNIIMK-8883
improved”. It is demonstrated that morphological qualitics of parental
plants, to some degree, influence the harvesting parameters of seeds
produced by them the possibility of using ethrel of 0.03-0.04 %
concentration for inducing male sterility of sunflower is discovered.

Key words: sunflower, seed quality, yield, oil output, oil contents,
husking, seeds of different degree of maturity, morphological
parameters, ethrel, sterility.

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