IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI IAOA??AEICIAANOAA

?i. ?.I. O?AIOeAAE*A

I?iaeia Ieeiea Aai?ai?iiae/

OAeE 669.

“Aieea aeo?aeii? no?oeoo?e ? iiia?aaeiueiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee ci?oeiaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy oaoi?/iiai oeoaio ??ciiiai?oieo
niinia?a aeieaaee”,

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.01 — iaoaeiciaanoai ? oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a.

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I.
O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: ae.o-i.i., i?io., aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie O?ao?eia
A?eoi? ?aaiiae/, ?II IAI Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

ae.o.i., i?io. ?aaneoei I?ano Ieoaeeiae/, ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A.
Eo?aethiiaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a
c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

e.o.i. Iiey? Ieaenaiae? A?eai?iae/, AIOE “Aioiiia”, Aieiaiee iaoaeo?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

AAO “Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aa?aoe?eii? oaoiieia??”
I?i?noa?noaa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “11”aeiaoiy 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.207.03 a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie (252680, Ee?a-142, aoe.
E?aeeaeai?anueeiai 3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?II IAI
Oe?a?ie.

A?aeaoe ia aaoi?aoa?ao o aeaio i?ei??ieeao, cana?/aieo aa?aiaith
ia/aoeith onoaiiae, i?ineii iaaeneeaoe ca aae?anith: 252680, Ee?a-142,
aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai 3, ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI
Oe?a?ie, niaoe?aaea Ae 26.207.03.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “21” na?iiy 1999 ?..

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee __________ Ooa?i I.A.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe: Iniiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aecia/athoue ??aaiue
no/anii? oeoaiiai? i?iieneiaino? ocaaaeueiai? a i?aoeyo i?ioani??a O.O.
O?ina, ?.E. Eaieaia, I.A. Aeaie?iniia, ?.A. Ai?ei?ia, I.O. Aiioe?ia,
A.A. Oaotho?ia, A.?. Iaoiia, A.I. A?eaeiaaa, I.I. ?aaneoeia.

Iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? ca oe??th oaiaoeeith a na?oia?e e?oa?aoo??
i?enay/ai? no?oeoo?iooai?aiith iaoa??aeo c iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiiieaeno
o?ceei — iaoai?/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae, ? ye iane?aeie,
eiieo?aioi-ni?iiiaei?noue i?iaeoeoe??. Neeaae nieaa?a ? eiio?ieueiaai?
ia?aiao?e, iaaaaeai? a ii?iaoeai?e aeieoiaioaoe??, aiaeia?/i?, i?ioa a
cao?aeieo noaiaea?oao canoiniaothoueny a?eueo aei?noe? aeiiae aei
oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? (oiiaii? a?aieoe? ieeiiino?,
(0.2; a?aieoe? i?oeiino?, (a; a?aeiinieo caoaeaiiy, (; iiaeiaaeaiiy, (;
oaea?ii? a’yce?no?, ae; eiao?oe??ioo ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy, E1N).
Oae aeey nieaao AO6 cao?aeieie noaiaea?oaie ?aaeaiaioo?oueny cia/aiiy
a?aieoe? ieeiiino? ia 200 IIa aeua, i?ae o ae?th/eo a Oe?a?i? oaoi?/ieo
oiiaao. Ona /ano?oa a na?oia?e e?oa?aoo?? caaaeothoueny no?oeoo?i?
ae?aa?aie aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Iniiai? i?aoe?, ui aoee iioae?eiaai? ii
oeueiio iai?yieo iaeaaeaoue A.O. Ii?na?ao ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie. Ae?aa?aie
aeicaieythoue ii??aithaaoe ia o?eueee aeanoeaino?, aea ? aeeiai?eo
i?ioean?a ia no?oeoo?iiio ??ai?, ui aaaeeeai aeey ioe?iee yeino? ceeoea
? ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiae?a oa?iiiaoai?/iiai aieeao ia no?oeoo?o iaoaeo (
aeey eeoiai oeoaio oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaia?).

?nioth/eie noaiaea?oaie ia ?aaeaiaioo?oueny ai?no K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl,
ye?, iieieaoenue ia iaae? iiae?eo, ni?eythoue iie?eo/aiith oeoaio ? eiai
nieaa?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo aoaeo?a aeeeeeaii a?aeiiaaie ae?ia?a
aa?aeini?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy ? i?iaaaeaii a?oiith a/aieo i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii A.?. O?ao?eiaa a ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? c i?io. ?.N. Iieuee?iei.
I?ioa aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo ai?noo aeacaieo aeii?oie a ia’?i? ?
ia iaaeao iiae?eo aeey oeoaio oaoi?/ii? /enoioe ia cae?enithaaeiny ? oea
caaaeaiiy iinoa? aeooaeueiei.

A ioae?eaoe?yo, i?enay/aieo oeoaio ? eiai nieaaai, iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny ieoaiiyi aca?iica’yceo eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino?
iai?oaeaiue ? no?oeoo?e aeey nieaa?a aa?ieini?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.
I?aeaeuaiiy E1N caaacia/oaaeiny ca?eueoaiiyi oi?noeino? iiaa?oi?
?oeioaaiiy ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aia?a?? iaiao?aeii? aeey ?ice?eooy o??ueie.
Inoaii?i /anii c’yaeeeny ?iaioe i?i aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeaiue o?aeoaeueii?
aaiiao??? aeey iieno iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy oeeo i?aeoiae?a
aei iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio ? eiai nieaa?a ? aeooaeueiei, ine?eueee
anoaiiaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai /eiieea iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy
?c neeaaeii oa aeo?aeiith no?oeoo?ith aeicaieeoue i?iaiicoaaoe
ia?niaeoeai? niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiiy
aeey ieo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeeny a ?aieao oai: a?aeii/iai caiiaeaiiy — 4E.2-96 “Anoaiiaeaiiy
i?e?iaee aeaoaeo?a aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai ca?iaeaeaiiy i?e?io??uei,
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca ao?aoo ieanoe/iino? oeoaio”; oaie 1.6.2.14-1997a.,
ui caoaa?aeaeaia Ath?i a?aeae. I?ac. OOII, i?io. ? 12 a?ae 08.07.1997a.
(?icae?e “O?ce/i? canaaee io?eiaiiy aenieiieanoe/ieo noai?a oeoaio ?
nieaa?a ia eiai iniia? c iaoith iioei?caoe?? ?o oaoiieia??.”); oaie
Oe?aea?ae?ioi?i neoaeae “E?eoe/i? oaoiieia??” “?ano?ninaa?aaath/a
oaoiieia?y IAI oeoaio iiaeo nieaa?a aeniei? i?aoeacaeaoiino?” ? 301-101
a?ae 5.12.94 ?icae?e “Aea/aiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa
no?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae eeoiai oeoaio IAI,” aeiae. 810-95/6828.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ci?oeiaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy oaoi?/ii
/enoiai oeoaio ??cieo niinia?a aeieaaee o aeo?aeiiio ? iiia?aaeiuei
aeaoi?iiaaiiio noai? aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeeee ioe?iee yeino?
iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoaeo, a oaeiae oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??ooaaeeny ianooii?
caaea/?:

1. Iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ia iniia?
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ae?aa?ai a eii?aeeiaoao ?noeiia iai?oaeaiiy —
?noeiia aeaoi?iaoe?y (S — e) aeey iie?e?enoae?/iiai eeoiai ?
aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoaeo, ?o c?noaaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae no?oeoo?ieo
/eiiee?a (a oiio /ene? ia?aiao??a iiaa?oiiue ?oeioaaiiy), ?iciiae?eo
aeii?oie o oeoai? c ??ciiiai?oiith oaoiieia?/iith ia?aae?noi???th.

2. Aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy, ?oeioaaiiy, a oaeiae
aeanoeainoae iie?e?enoae?/iiai eeoiai ? aeaoi?iiaaiiai oeoaio
??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a io?eiaiiy.

3. Anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ci?oeiaiiy iie?e?enoae?/iiai oeoaio i?e
iaeiiinueiaiio ?icoyaoaaii?, i?ieaooaaii? ? ?ie? aoaeo?a ?aeaenaoe?? a
aeaoi?iiaaiiio iaoa??ae?.

4. Aeaea/a ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c ei?aaoaaiiy oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy c
iaoith io?eiaiiy iaoaeo c aeia?ith caeaoi?noth aei aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iaoiaeieia?y ioe?iee yeino? iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoaeo ? i?iaiicoaaiiy
ia?aiao??a ?oeioaaiiy iie?e?enoae?/iiai eeoiai ? aeaoi?iiaaiiai oeoaio,
caniiaaia ia aiae?c? ae?aa?ai iaaaioaaeaiiy, oiiia?ao??, ?ici??o
e?eoe/ieo i?noeue ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o??ueie, aeei?enoaii?
i?aeoiae?a o?aeoaeueii? aaiiao???. I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey ia?iaee
ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue ceai?a ?c
canoinoaaiiyi aeai?eoi?a, iiaoaeiaaieo ia i?aeoiaeao o?aeoaeueii?
aaiiao???.

2. Onoaiiaeaiee aieea niiniao aeieaaee oeoaio ia oei aeeneieaoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e: aeey iaeiiai ? oiai ae oeio no?oeoo?e c? ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo
aeii?oie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy a?aieoe? ieeiiino? ?
ci?ia iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy.

Caoaeaiiy iaeano? ??aiii??ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy o?aeoaeueii?
?ici??iino? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy ? a?aie/iiai ?oeioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy i?e
cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiiy, yeui i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy ia
eiio?ieth?oueny iayai?noth /anoie ? aeii?oie ia iaaeao iiae?eo, a
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie nioa eiacaiiy, oa ?o aca?iiae??th c iie?aiiaeueiith
no?oeoo?ith.

3. A?aeiia?aei?noue e?eaeo aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e ?icoyaoaaii? ? i?ieaooaaii?
(?noeiia aeaoi?iaoe?y e<1) aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy aeanoeainoae oeoaiiaiai eenoa, io?eiaiiai oeyoii oieiaeii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Oiiae iaea?aeaiiy aeniei-ieanoe/iiai noaio iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoa??aeo. Iaoeiaa iiaecia: 1. Anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaiiy ?c caeo/aiiyi aiae?co: e?eai? iaaaioaaeaiiy a ?noeiieo eii?aeeiaoao; ???a?o?/iiai ?yaeo no?oeoo?ieo /eiiee?a, o oiio /ene? o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? ceaio; ?iciiae?eo ? aieeao eiio?ieueiaaieo ? iaeiio?ieueiaaieo aeii?oie, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe ye?noue iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoaeo oaoi?/ii? /enoioe ? aeaoe ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo oeoaio, aeaioiaeaiiai ??ciiiai?oieie niiniaaie. 2. Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy i?aeoiae?a o?aeoaeueii? aaiiao??? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeaoa?i?iiaaieo i?noeue ca?iaeaeaiiy o??ueie ( yiie e?eoe/iiai ?ici??o, yeee c?inoa? c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e) aeicaiey? ?a?no?oaaoe ci?io iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy. O?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue ceaio - aeiaeaoeiaee no?oeoo?iee /eiiee, /ooeeaee aei ai?noo aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiiy. 3. Iiyniaia i?e?iaea i?aeaeuaii? ieanoe/iino? i?ieaoaiiai iaoaeo a ?aieao ?icaeiaii? iaoiaeieia??. Iieacaii, ui aeaeaeaiiy oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie i?e aeieaaeaii? ceeoe?a, a oaeiae ?o ia?a?iciiae?e i?e ciaioaii? ?ici??o ia?aeiiiai (- ca?ia (aoaeoe iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ? i?e?ieaaoaaiiy) aeicaieythoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe aei?ae?enoae?caoe?eiee a?aeiae aeey ciyooy aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy ? onoiooe aai ciaioeoe e?euee?noue aeiaeaoeiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e i?e iaea?aeaii? aeaoi?iiaaieo iai?aoaa?eeao?a ? oieueae. 4. Anoaiiaeaia a?aeiia?aei?noue a?aieoe? ieeiiino? oeoaio, iiia?aaeiuei i?iaeaoi?iiaaiiai i?ieaooaaiiyi, iai?oaeaiith, yea aeieea? a iaoae? i?e iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyc? ca oiiae aea?aaeaioiino? aeaoi?iaoe?e, yeui ?noeiia aeaoi?iaoe?y e<1. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ioe?iee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae eeoiai ? aeaoi?iiaaiiai oeoaio aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe ye?noue iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoaeo ? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe oaoiieia?/i? noaie ia?a?iaee ceeoe?a o iai?aoaa?eeao ? ae?iae c i?aeaeuaiei caianii ieanoe/iino?. Ia i?aenoaa? ?icaeiaieo oyaeaiue i?i ieanoe/iee noai, aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue aeaioiaeaiiy oieueae 0,1 ii caaoiaoee aac i?ii?aeieo a?aeiae?a, o?aaeaiiy ? iie??iaee i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? c oeoaio oaoi?/ii? /enoioe ??cieo niinia?a ieaaee. Oe?aeeea? aeii?oee, ia ?aaeaiaioiaai? ca oaoiieia??th ae?iaieoeoaa ceeoea aieeaathoue ia ieanoe/i?noue oeoaio ? ia aeicaieythoue iaea?aeaoe ye?nio oieiaeii-aeaoi?iiaaio oieueao. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeieia?y ai?iaiaaia i?e aeine?aeaeaii? oeoaio, aeaioiaeaiiai iaoiaeaie iaai?oiea?iaaiiai aeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ? aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaiai ia?aieaao ? ia?aaeaia aeey iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?? a ?AN ?i. Iaoiia. Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, aeeiiaiiy anueiai eiiieaeno aenia?eiaio?a uiaei aea/aiiy aieeao aeo?aeii? no?oeoo?e ia iniaeeaino? aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae eiii’thoa?io ia?iaeo aeaieo oa ?ic?iaeo a?aeiia?aeieo i?ia?ai aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaa iniaenoi. Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe: Iniiai? ianoaiiae aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia V i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? “Hydrogen materials science and chemistry of metals hydrides” ( Aa?anaiue 1997, Eaoeeaae?); “Iaoaee ? nieaae: oacia? ia?aoai?aiiy, no?oeoo?a, aeanoeaino?” - iaii??aeueiee neiiic?oi aeaaeai?ea A.I. A?eaei?aa (21-25 aa?aniy 1998 ?. Ee?a, Oe?a?ia); 9-oa anana?oiy eiioa?aioe?y ii oeoaio (7-11 /a?aiy 1999 ?. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ?in?y) Ioae?eaoe??: Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 ?ia?o. No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe: Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (100 aeaea?ae) ? 2 aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 107 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 77 ?enoie?a ? 7 oaaeeoeue. O anooi? aeeeaaeaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue, iieiaeaiiy ui caoeuathoueny. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaiee no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, ye?e a?aeiia?aea? oaia aeena?oaoe??. Ia aac? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co iaa?oioiaai? iaoa ? iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe. O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaee, aeei?enoai? i?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue. sse ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iie?e?enoae?/iee oeoai oaoi?/ii? /enoioe, oeoai, aeieaaeaiee c aoaie OA80...150; eiaeeaeiee oeoai. Oe? iaoa??aee aoee ae?iaeai? iaoiaeaie aaeooiii - aeoaiai? ieaaee (AAeI), iaai?oiea?iaaii? aeaeo?ioeaeiai? ieaaee (IAI), ?iaeoeoe?eii? ieaaee a caoeni?e aoiinoa?? (?I), aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaai? ieaaee (AII), eaai?aoi?ii? AII (EAII), AII eiaeeaeiiai oeoaio (EAII). Aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo nieaa?a ca ai?noii aeii?oie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany cai?iiiiiaaiee Eii?aaeii iieaciee: . (1) Ai?no aeaiaio?a ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy aecia/aany ia ceaiao, io?eiaieo aaciina?aaeiuei a eieii? i?e?ineiia o aaeooi? ia a??oa 1.3o10-7 Ia iaoiaeii Iaea-aeaeo?iiii? niaeo?iiao???. O?i?/iee neeaae nieaa?a aecia/aany ca aeiiiiiaith ian-niaeo?iiao?a VG-9000, c iioeaeith ia a?eueoith 10-7%. Aeey aiae?co ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iie?e?enoae?/iiai oeoaio aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iieiaeaiiy Eii?aaea aeey iie?e?enoae?a: iai?oaeaiiy, ui aeieea? i?e ?icoyc?, iiaea aooe iiaeaia o aeaeyae?: , (2) aea s* - oa?i?/ia neeaaeiaa iai?oaeaiiy ieanoe/iiai ieeio; T - oaiia?aoo?a; e - oaeaee?noue aeaoi?iaoe??; C? - ai?no aoii?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy; m - iiaeoeue cnoao; b - aaeoi? Ath?aa?na; r - u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue eeoiai iaoaeo a oiiaao iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyaoaaiiy (AINO- 1497-84) aoei aeaioiaeaii c?acee a iai?yieo, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio in? ceeaea; iiaa?oiy ?o aeaeo?ie?oe/ii iie??oaaeanue aeey aeaeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeaoaeo?a. ?acoeueoaoe iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue iiaeaii a cia/aiiyo “?noeiia iai?oaeaiiy - ?noeiia aeaoi?iaoe?y”. Aeey aecia/aiiy aeanoeainoae iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoaeo c iaoa??aeo ceeoea aoee ae??cai? c?acee caaoiaoee 10 ii, ye? aoee i?ieaoai? (iine?aeiaii) aei 4 ii, 2 ii, ? 0,2 ii (e??i iaoa??aeo ?I). Aeaoi?iiaaiee iaoae aei?iaiaoaaany ocaeiaae iai?yieo i?ieaooaaiiy i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo??. Oaeaee?noue ia?ai?uaiiy caoaao?a i?e on?o aei?iaoaaiiyo aoea iino?eiith ? neeaaeaea 1,2 ii/ oa. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiue oiiei? no?oeoo?e iaoaeo iaoiaeii o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? (OAI) aoee aeaioiaeai? oieueae iaoai?/iei oe?ooaaiiyi iaoa??aeo c ianooiiei aeaeo?io?i?/iei iioiioaiiyi. Aeey aiae?co o?aeoia?ai, io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith neaioth/iai aeaeo?iiiiai i?e?ineiia aoei noai?aia i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy. O?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue aecia/aeany c? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy naiiiiae?aiino? aei??ii noia?ii? ieiu? iiaa?oi? M( o oe?ieiio ( o?e ii?yaeee) ae?aiacii? ianooaa?a: O a a e e oe y 1 O?i?/iee neeaae oeoaio ??ciiiai?oieo oaoiieia?e aeieaaee. * Oeoai C, ppm N, ppm O, ppm Na, ppb P, ppb S, ppb Cl, ppm K, ppm Ca, ppm Ni, ppm EEII 107 20 83,1 309 389 3,34 13,5 0,85 130 202 IEI 249 39,5 155 1646 2,66 10,6 2,54 420 ?I 95.17 10.3 68.6 632 527 10.1 2.63 1.08 122 160 EEII 241 9.1 154 299 4.3 4.8 0.757 353 AAeI OA88 223 13.1 195 502 8735 2.32 63.4 0.081 162 385 AAeI OA110 42.7 81 183 110 3897 0,69 42,3 0,102 156 376 AAeI OA130 83 99,7 231 285 12039 1,2 34,7 0,128 162 490 I?ii. AAeI 132,9 89,6 343,5 8521 23313 6,4 150,7 6,74 182 620 * I?e ai?no? aeaiaioa iaioa oeny/ieo %, eiai eiioeaio?aoe?y iaaiaeeoueny a pPB (10-7%) aai pPM (10-4%). , (3) aea M( - i??a; (- i??iee aeaiaio; Df - o?aeoaeueiay ?ici??i?noue; D - yaee?aeiaa ?ici??i?noue, aeey ieiueie D=2. O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny oaiia?aoo?i? ae?aa?aie ia?aiao??a ci?oeiaiiy. Aiae?cothoueny caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a ci?oeiaiiy a?ae ai?noo aeii?oie. ?ic?aoiaaiee aea?aaeaioiee ai?no aeii?oie ii eenith - NI iaaiaeeoueny a oaae. 1. Ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy a?aieoe? ieeiiino? (o 2 ?ace), eiao?oe??io aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy c?inoa? eeoa ia 10% ( ?en. 1). ?en. 1. Caeaaeiino? ?noeiiiai iai?oaeaiiy a?ae ?noeiii? aeaoi?iaoe??, io?eiai? i?e iaeiiinueiaiio ?icoyc? ? oaiia?aoo?? -196 iN, aeey oeoaio ??cii? /enoioe: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 - oeoai, io?eiaiee aaeooiii-aeoaiaei ia?aieaaii aoaee ia?ie, a?aeiia?aeii, OA88, 110, 120, 130, 150 o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao. A?aieoey ieeiiino? 223; 347.9; 405; 457.4; 678 IIa, a?aeiia?aeii. O a a e e oe y 2 O?i?/iee neeaae iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy eeoiai oeoaio, io?eiaiiai ca oaoiieia?yie IAI, AII, ?I No?oeoo?ia neeaaeiaa Cl, ao. % Na, ao. % C, ao. % O, ao.. % Cu, ao. % Ti, ao %. Oeoai IAI ssiea - - 11,3 34,7 - 59,9 -”- - - 11,2 16,6 - 72,0 -”- - - 8,4 33,2 - 58,3 Oeoai iai?ai?iieneiai? AII ssiea 4,2 3,2 12,4 15,2 4,8 59,9 -”- 0,3 - 15,6 22,3 - 59,7 *anoea 0,1 - 22,6 8,7 23,4 41,9 O?ei ca?ia - - 5,8 20,7 - 73,3 Ii?a 17,3 - 15,5 15,2 - 49,7 Oeoai ?I Iaaea ca?ia 21.9 14.4 15.8 47 7.7 -”- 23.8 8.7 9.5 50 Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy oeoaio, aeieaaeaiiai c aoaie ?c ??ciei ai?noii aeii?oie aeicaiey? eiinoaooaaoe: ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaaea aei ?inoo a?aieoe? ieeiiino?. Iayai?noue aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaaea aei cae??ieaiiy aeeneieaoe?e, ui ooai?ththoueny i?e e?enoae?caoe?? oa iie?ii?oiiio ia?aoai?aiith. ??cieoey i?ae oeoaiii IAI ? AAeI, ui aeieaaeai? c aoaee OA110, iieyaa? a oiio, ui o aeo?aeiiio noai? oeoaio IAI i?eoaiaii? a?eueo? cia/aiiy a?aie/ii? ?noeiii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a=1,8...1,4 i?ae 0,8 o AAeI. O oaae. 2 iaaaaeai? aeai? Iaea-yeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio ??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a aeieaaee. sse iieacaii a oaae. 2, ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio IAI, ia a?aei?io a?ae iai?ai?iieneiaiai AII, ia aeyaeaii oei?o ? iao??th. I?e OAI oiiei? no?oeoo?e oeoaio IAI ia iaaeao iiae?eo ia aeyaeai? /anoee ae?oai? oace. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy c?ace?a, ae??caieo ?c ceeoea oeoaio IAI, niinoa??aa?oueny a’yceee oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy ca iaoai?ciii ooai?aiiy ? ceeooy yiie ia iaaeao ca?ai aeo?aeiiai b-ca?ia. Oe? aeai?, ii?yae ?c anoaiiaeaiei oaeoii nooo?aiai iiae??aiaiiy ca?ia a ceeoeo IAI, aeicaieythoue iiynieoe aenie? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieanoe/iino? oaoi?/iiai oeoaio a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?ae +20 aei -253iN, a oaeiae aenieo ?iaioo O a a e e oe y 3 A?aieoey i?oeiino? ? iaeneiaeueia ??aiii??ia aeaoi?iaoe?y aeey eeoiai oeoaio o ae?aiaciio oaiia?aoo?. IAI EAII ?I O, iN a (AE, IIa a (AE, IIa a (AE, IIa -253 0,268 1451 0.38 1658 -196 0,19 860 0.36 1152 0.166 717 +20 0,17 480 0.22 620 0.296 484 +200 0,082 211 0.071 189 ?en. 2. Caeaaeiino? ?noeiiai iai?oaeaiiy a?ae ?noeiii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oeoaio: a - IAI; a - EAII; a - ?I o ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? -253... +200 iN. Aeai? iiaeai? o aeaeyae? n?oie 25o25 ee?oeiie. ?oeioaaiiy i?e oaea?? - ak ?2 IAeae/ i2 o oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? a?ae +20 aei -196 iN. Aiae?c aeaieo uiaei ai?noo oei?o ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy (oaae. 2) ? a o?e? ca?ia (oaae. 1) iieacaa, ui oeoai ?I ? iaea?eueo /enoei ca ia’?iiei ai?noii (2.6o10-4%), oiae? ye ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy ca aeaieie Iaea-yeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? oeueiai aeaiaioa i?noeoueny 21 - 23 ao.%; oeoai IAI ia? iaea?eueoee ai?no oei?o a o?e? ca?ia 10,6o10-4%, aea ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy oei? ia aeyaeaiee. E??i oiai, ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio ?I niinoa??aathoueny aeii?oee Na, K, Ca, a oaeiae S ? P. Oaeei /eiii, ?iaeoeoe?eiee ia?aieaa a caoeni?e aoiinoa??, ui ia ?aaaia?o?oueny, ia aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii i?eai?/oaaoe naa?aaaoe?th oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie ia aeo?aei? (- iaae? eeoi? no?oeoo?e. E?ea? aeaoi?ioaaiiy, io?eiai? a oiiaao iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyao a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? -253... +200 iN aeey oeoaio IAI, eaai?aoi?iiai AII, ?I, aoee ai?ieneiiaai? n?oeith ca aeiiiiiaith iaeaoa i?ia?ai “Surfer”. ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee iiaeai? ia ?en. 2. Ia n?ooe? (?en. 2) aeae?eai? ianieie e?i?yie a?aieoe? i?oeiino? sB, ?noeiia ?oeioth/a iai?oaeaiiy SE, a oaeiae aeo?aei? e?ea? aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Cia/aiiy a?aieoe? i?oeiino? ? a?aie/ii? ??aiii??ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaaiaeyoueny a oaae. 3. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae -196 aei 200 iN c?inoa? ?ieue ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a (ye oea iieacaii ia ?en. 2), ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei cieaeaiiy aeaoi?ioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy. Iaeanoue ??aiii??ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e oa o a?aenooiino? oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie ia iaae? ca?ia caoaeo?oueny ? cieaeo?oueny a?aieoey i?oeiino?. Aeey oeoaio ?I iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oaeaiiy i?e ?en. 3. Caeaaei?noue o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? (a) ? ?ici??o yiee (a) a?ae a?aie/iiai ?oeioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oaiia?aoo?ao ?noioii ieae/a a ii??aiyii? c IAI ? EAII. Oeae ?acoeueoao ca?aa?oueny c aeaieie uiaei noaio iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy, iaaaaeaieie ?ai?oa. ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio eaai?aoi?iiai AII, ye ? IAI, iineei a’yceee oa?aeoa? ? a?aeaoaaeiny ca iaoai?ciii ooai?aiiy ? ceeooy yiie. Ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy Cl, S, P, Na, K, Ca ca aeaieie Iaea-yeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co ia niinoa??aaeeny. Oaeei /eiii, a?aie/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y, aecia/aia ca iiia?a/iei ia?aoeiii, caeaaeeoue a?ae iayaiino? oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie ia iaaeao ca?ai. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae -253 aei + 20 iN ? i?aeneeaiiyi ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a oeoai? IAI ? EAII a?aeaoaa?oueny iioe?aiiy ciie aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano oeeeinoai?aiiy ? caoaeaiiy ciie ??aiii??ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. E?eoe/iee ?ici?? o??ueie, ui a?aeiia?aea? ?ici??o yiee, ca?eueoo?oueny c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e. Ca?eueoaiiy a?aenoai? i?ae nioaaie eiacaiiy i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e ?, a?aeiia?aeii, c?inoaiiy ?o oe?eie na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a iaei?e nioc? ia?aaea?oueny a?eueoa aeaoi?iaoe?y.. Aiae?c aeaieo, iaaaaeaieo ia ?en. 3, iieaco?, ui o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue Df c?inoa?, ei?aethth/e c? ca?eueoaiiyi a?aie/ii? i?oeiino?: Df(Se. (4) O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue iiaa?oiiue ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio a eeoiio noai?, aei?iaoaaiiai a oiiaao iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyao, aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii c?inoaiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? ceaio ? ciaioaiiy ?ici??o yiee i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiiy. I?e oeueiio c?inoa? ?noeiia a?aie/ia ?oeioth/a iai?oaeaiiy. Iiaa?oi? ceai?a ? ioeueoeo?aeoaeueieie. Ii?ooaiiy noaeino? Df aeaco? ia a?aenooi?noue ianooaaii? ?iaa??aioiino? naiiiiae?aiino? iiaa?oi? ceaio. Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny i?eiouaiiy i?i ioeueoeo?aeoaeueiee (noaoenoe/ii naiiiiae?aiee) oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ceai?a. I?e/eia oeueiai iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?ioean? ?oeioaaiiy i?oaeia aia?a?y ?icn?th?oueny ia?aaaaeii ia i?noeyo ia?aoeiaiiy nioaaie eiacaiiy iaae iiae?eo, o yeeo ii/eia?oueny ooai?aiiy yiie ca a?aenooiino? /anoie. Oaeeie i?noeyie ca aeaieie A.?. O?ao?eiaa iiaeooue aooe iaae? iie?aii?a, aeaoi?iaoe?eieo eii??ie. Iiyaa ia?aeiii? ii?e a i?noe? aca?iiae?? nioae eiacaiiy c iiaa?oiath iiae?eo aaaea aei aeieeiaiiy na??? aeiiiaeaoe?eieo cnoa?a. Oea a?aeiia?aea? ca ooai?aiiy oeeee, yieiaee oa?aeoa? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy ?? neeaaeiiai ?aeue?oo. Oeoai EAII i?noeoue iaioa aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, i?ae oeoai IAI (aea?aaeaioiee ai?no aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy (C, N, O) neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii 202 ? 420 o10-4%). Oiio o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue o caeaaeiino? a?ae ?noeiiiai ?oeioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy ?noioi?oa ciaioo?oueny aeey EAII oeoaio c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e. Aeey oeueiai iaoa??aeo oa?aeoa?ia aaeeea ?en. 4 Caeaaei?noue iai?oaeaiiy i?e iaeiiinueiaiio ?icoyc? a?ae ae?th/i? oa iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e 20 iN. aeoeai?noue ?aeaenaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ui, ai/aaeaeue, ? iicia/a?oueny ia oa?aeoa?? iiaiaeaeaiiy /eiieea iaeiie/aiiy ieiu? iiaa?oi? i?e ia?aoiae? c ianooaao ia ianooaa (o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino?). Oaeei /eiii, iieacaii, ui o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue ceaio /ooeeaa aei ai?noo aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, ye aei /eiieea, a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai ca aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e a i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe??. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aecia/athoueny ia?aiao?e ci?oeiaiiy aeey aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoaeo, ? aeyaey?oueny ?o a?aeiia?aei?noue ia?aiao?ai eeoiai iaoaeo. Noia?ia caeaaei?noue ?noeiiiai aeaoi?ioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy, S, a?ae ?noeiii? aeaoi?iaoe?? e iiaeaia ia ?en. 4 (e?eaa 1). Aeaeyae e?eai? aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy caaeia?eueii ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioaeueiith caeaaei?noth (io?eiaiith ia cae?c?) ? oai?aoe/ieie oyaeaiiyie, ?icaeiooeie Eaiaoi?aeii ? eiai iine?aeiaieeaie. Ia ?aii?o noaae?yo aeaoi?iaoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny ia?aaie?/ia ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo, a i?e aaeeeeo nooiaiyo aeyaey?oueny e?i?eia noaae?y ci?oeiaiiy. Ci?ia oa?aeoa?o ci?oeiaiiy ca’yco?oueny c? ci?iith no?oeoo?iiai noaio aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoa??aeo (ia?ao?ae a?ae neaaei ?ici???ioiaaii? eii??/anoi? no?oeoo?e aei ?ici???ioiaaii?). Eaeo/e ca oyaeaiiyie Eaiaoi?aea, c?noaaeii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe c ia?aiao?aie ci?oeiaiiy c?ace?a nieaao IAI, i?aeaeaieo iiia?aaei?e aeaoi?iaoe??. C?acee aoee i?ieaoai? i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? aei nooiai?a a?aeiinii? aeaoi?iaoe?? e=40%, 70%, 98%, ui a?aeiia?aea? aaee/ei? ?noeiii? aeaoi?iaoe?? e= 0.6, 1.3, 3.5 ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeai? ia ?en. 4. I?e nooiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? 0.6 ?en. 5. No?oeoo?a oeoaio IAI a aeo?aeiiio (a), a aeaoi?iiaaiiio (a) noai?. (?en. 4, e?eaa II) a?aieoey ieeiiino? i?ieaoaiiai iaoa??aeo i?aeoe/ii ca?aa?oueny c iai?oaeaiiyi o iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaiiio c?aceo, aei?iaoaaiiai a oiiaao iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyao (?en. 4, e?eaa I). E?eaa aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy (?en. 4, e?eaa II) i?aeoe/ii oe?eeii iaeeaaea?oueny ia e?eao ci?oeiaiiy eeoiai iaoaeo. I?e i?aeaeuaii? nooiaiy iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? aei e ~1.5 (?en 4, e?eaa III) a?aieoey ieeiiino? aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoa??aeo ?noioii ieae/a ca aaee/eio, i?iaiiciaaio ii e?ea?e eeoiai iaoa??aeo. Eiao?oe??io ci?oeiaiiy ia e?i?ei?e noaae?? caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiei, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaci?ii?noue iaoai?cio ci?oeiaiiy. Ia?aoo?, i?e nooiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? e=3.5 ( ui aeinyaiaii ia oieuec? caaoiaoee 200 iei) a?aieoey ieeiiino? aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoa??aeo i?ioiaeeoue cia/ii ieae/a ??aiy, i?iaiiciaaiiai ii aacia?e e?ea?e ( iae. 4 e?eaa IV). O oaeee niin?a aeey iaoa??ae?a aeaoi?iiaaieo aei iaeeo nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe?? io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ocaiaeaeothoueny c oyaeaiiyie i?i aea?aaeaioi?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e. I?e ca?eueoaii? nooiaiy iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo iaioa, i?ae oa?aeoa?ia aeey aaciai? e?eai? (iaeanoue oeeeinoai?aiiy), ui, ai/aaeaeue, aeeeeeaia i?ioeanaie ?aeaenaoe??. Iaoiaeii OAI onoaiiaeaii, ui a c?aceao, i?aeaeaieo aeaoi?iaoe?? µ60% aeo?aeia aie/anoa no?oeoo?a i?aeaea?oueny ?icae??aiaiith (?en. 5). Iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?ao ??cieoeth a i?oeiino? oeoaiiai? oieueae, io?eiaii? a oiiaao oieiaeii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o ii??aiyii? c oai?aoe/ii i/?eoaaiei ??aiai a?aieoe? ieeiiino?, io?eiaiee iaoa??ae ia? a 3 ?ace aeuo a?aieoeth ieeiiino? a ii??aiyii? c oieueaith, aeaoi?iiaaiith i?e oaiia?aoo?? 800iN ? aeinoaoiuei aenieee ?ano?n ieanoe/iino? (aaee/eia a?aeiiniiai caoaeaiiy iaoa??aeo oieueae neeaaea? (50%). ?noeiia ?oeioth/a iai?oaeaiiy aeey eeoiai iaoa??aeo e aeey c?ace?a iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaieo aei ??ciiiai?oieo nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe?? i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaa, ? aeinyaa? cia/aiue s?~1600 - 1800 IIa. Oiaoi a on?o aeiaaeeao a?aie/ia i?oei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oeoaio IAI aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe??th iai?oaeaiue iaaeiei iaeiioeiieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo aeaoaeo?a aeaoi?iaoe?eii? i?e?iaee, ui aaaea aei ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo yieiaiai iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy. O iaoa??ae?a, aeaoi?iiaaieo aei iaeeo nooiai?a aeaoi?iaoe??, aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai? ia?aiao?e ci?oeiaiiy ca?aathoueny c a?aeiia?aeieie cia/aiiyie, ?ic?aoiaaieie a ?aieao oyaeaiue i?i aea?aaeaioio aeaoi?iaoe?th. I?e ca?eueoaii? nooiaiy iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny iii?oia ?ica?aei?noue, aeeeeeaia ?aeaenaoe??th iai?oaeaiue. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe Iiaeaia aeena?oaoe?y noaiiaeoue cae?i/aia aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ? nooo?aei aeey ?icaeoeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iniia ae?iaieoeoaa oaoi?/ii /enoiai iie?e?enoae?/iiai oeoaio a Oe?a?i? ? i?enay/aia noai?aiith iaoiaeieia?? ioe?iee yeino? eeoiai iaoaeo ??cieo niinia?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeai?o oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino? ? i?oeiino?. 1. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeieia?y ioe?iee yeino? iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoaeo ? i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aiao??a ?oeioaaiiy iie?e?enoae?/iiai eeoiai ? aeaoi?iiaaiiai oeoaio, caniiaaia ia aiae?c? ae?aa?ai iaaaioaaeaiiy a ?noeiieo eii?aeeiaoao, c?noaaeaii? ai?noo oa ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie a ia’?i? ca?ai oa ia a?aieoeyo ?icae?eo, oa aiae?co oiiia?ao?? ? ?ici??o e?eoe/ieo i?noeue ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o??uei c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?aiao??a o?aeoaeueii? aaiiao???. ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey ia?aooieo ae?aa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue ceai?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeai?eoi?a, iiaoaeiaaieo ia i?aeoiaeao o?aeoaeueii? aaiiao??? 2. Canoinoaaiiy iienaii? iaoiaeieia?? aei aiae?co aeanoeainoae oeoaio, io?eiaiiai i?e aeei?enoaii? ia?niaeoeaieo a?o/eciyieo niinia?a ia?aieaao a eeoiio ? aeaoi?iiaaiiio noai?, aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ianooiia: on? niiniae ia?aieaao aeicaieythoue cieaeoaaoe ai?no aeii?oie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? cai?uaiiy a ii??aiyii? c i?iieneiaei AAeI oeoaiii, i?ioa o?eueee aeaeio?? c ieo, - cie?aia IAI, aoaeoeaii ni?eythoue ia?a?iciiae?eo aeii?oie ? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue e?eaaoe?eiiio oa naa?aaaoe?eiiio caaaa/aiith oa iineaaeaiith iaae ?icae?eo i?e iayaiino? iaeiio?ieueiaaieo ca oaoiieia??th ae?iaieoeoaa ceeoe?a aeii?oie (Na, K, Ca, S, Cl, P) ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo. A?aenooi?noue aeii?oie, ui iineaaeythoue iiaa?oi? iiae?eo, ia iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy, /a?ac ?o ia?a?iciiae?e ia ?icaeiai?e ia?aae? noaiaae, o aeo?aeiiio eeoiio noai?, aeicaiey? aeinyaoe aenieeo a?aie/ieo cia/aiue i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? ? caaacia/othoue iaea?aeaiiy oieueae 0,1 ii caaoiaoee i?e O=20iN aac aeiaeiiai i?ii?aeiiai a?aeiaeo. 3. Oiiae e?enoae?caoe??, ye ? ai?no aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aieeaathoue ia u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e, aeeneieaoe?eio no?oeoo?o ?, ye iane?aeie, ia a?aieoeth ieeiiino? oa eiao?oe??io aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy. Ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo oeeo aeii?oie a?ae OA80 aei OA180 a?aieoey ieeiiino? eeoiai oeoaio ?inoa a?ae 340 aei 1100 IIa. 4. Iaeanoue ??aiii??ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oaoi?/ii /enoiai oeoaio i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e ? a?aenooiino? aeaoaeo?a, ia iaae? ca?ia caoaeo?oueny ? cieaeo?oueny a?aieoey i?oeiino?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e nooiaiyo aeaoi?iaoe?? a<1 a?aieoey ieeiiino? aeaoi?iiaaiiai eenoa i?aeoe/ii ca?aa?oueny c aeaoi?ioth/ei iai?oaeaiiyi, o iaoae? i?ae /an aei?iaoaaiue a oiiaao iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyao (a?ae 300 aei 700-800 IIa), i?ioa i?e iiia?aaei?e aeaoi?iaoe?? e>1 ??no a?aieoe? ieeiiino? a?aeaoaa?oueny neaaei (ia
a?eueo 10%).

5. ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio EAII ? IAI o oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae? -253…
200iN a?aeaoaa?oueny c ooai?aiiyi oeeee. Ia iaaeao ca?ai ooai?ththoueny
yiee, ?ici?? yeeo ca?eueoo?oueny i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e (a?ae 3 aei
17 iei aeey IAI ? a?ae 1 aei 10 iei aeey EAII). Ia aei? yiie /anoee ia
aeyaeai?, oiaoi i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy ii iaoai?cio ceeooy yiie
a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac aca?iiae?th nioa eiacaiiy c iaaeaie ?icae?eo.

6. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue ?oeioaaiiy oeoaio a eeoiio noai?,
aei?iaoaaiiai a oiiaao iaeiiinueiaiai ?icoyao, i?aeoaa?aeeee c?inoaiiy
o?aeoaeueii? ?oci??iino? ceaio i?e ciaioaii? ?ici??o yiee c? cieaeaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiiy i?e iaeii/aniiio c?inoaii? ?noeiiiai a?aie/iiai
?oeioth/iai iai?oaeaiiy. Iieacaii, ui o?aeoaeueia ?oci??i?noue ceaio
/ooeeaa aei ai?noo aeaiaio?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy, ye aei /eiieea,
a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai ca aeeiai?eo ?icaeoeo aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e a
i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe??. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i
ioeueoeo?aeoaeueiee (noaoenoe/ii naiiiiae?aiee) oa?aeoa?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ceai?a.

7. Ea?oaaiiy ia?a?iciiae?eii oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie ua ia aoai? aeieaaee
caaacia/o? aenieo ye?noue oeoaio ? eiai nieaa?a, cie?aia caeaoi?noue
aei i?ieaooaaiiy e ia?iaee oeneii. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia??
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oeoaio, iaea?aeaiiai ??cieie niiniaaie, aeicaieeei
ae?iaieeai i?iaanoe iioei?caoe?th oaoiieia?? aeieaaee e io?eiaoe oeoai,
?c i?aeaeuaiith caeaoi?noth aei aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oieueae.

Ia?ae?e iaoeiaeo i?aoeue

1. Ieiaeiaa A.A., Ieiaeia I.A. Aaeaaa A.I. Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u
?ac?ooaiey IYI e EYEI — oeoaio ia ?acia? yiie. // Iaoaeeioeceea e
iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. — 1995. — 17, ?11. — N. 68.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia ?ici?? yiie.

2. Ieiaeia A.I., Ieiaeia I.A., Iiae?acia TH.I.. Iniaaiiinoe oi?i/iaiey
nieaaia oaoie/anee /enoiai oeoaio i?e iaeiiiniii ?anoyaeaiee e i?ieaoea.
// Iaoaeeioeceea e iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee. — 1998. — 20, ?9. — N. 72.2.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia/eneaiiy aeaiieo,
oa ?ic?iaea i?ia?ai.

3. Ea?oocia A.A. Ieiaeia I.A. Iienaiea iiaa?oiinoe ?ac?ooaiey,
i?ienoiaeyuaai ii iaoaiecio ia?aciaaiey e neeyiey yiie a i?aaenoaaeaieyo
o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe. // Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey e i?i/iinoue
iaoaeeia. — Eeaa: EII IAI Oe?aeiu, 1997. — N.69-76.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy o?aeoaeueieo iiaa?oiiue, ?ic?iaea
i?ia?ai, oa ia/eneaiiy aeanieo aenia?eiaoaeueieo aeaiieo.

4. Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey, ieanoe/iinoue e i?i/iinoue eeoiai
oeoaia/A.A. Eioei, A.A. Ieiaeiaa, I.A. Ieiaeia, TH.I. Iiae?acia //
Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey e i?i/iinoue iaoaeeia .- Eeaa: EII IAI Oe?aeiu,
1997. — N.59-68.

Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiia?ai
ceai?a, oa aeeaa?ai aeaoi?ioaaiiy eeoiai oeoaio.

5. Statistical failure model of materials with micro — inhomogeneity
/Yu.N. Podrezov, N.I. Lougovoy, V.N. Slunyaev, N.V. Minakov //
Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics 26 (1997) 35-40.

Aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue o noai?aii? i?ia?ai, oa iiaeaethaaii? i?ioeano.

6. ?ieue no?oeoo?u a i?i/iinoe e ayceinoe ?ac?ooaiey E1N/ Ieiaeiaa A.A.,
Ieiaeia I.A., O?aoeeia A.E., Eiiiai ss.TH. — Eeaa, 1995.-19n.-
(I?ai?./IAI Oe?aeiu. Ei-o i?iae. iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey ? 5).

7. Oece/aneay i?e?iaea oaciaiai iaeeaia / Ieiaeia A.I., Ieiaeia I.A.,
O?aoeeia A.E.. // Eeaa, 1997.-19n.- (I?ai?./IAI Oe?aeiu. Ei-o i?iae.
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey,-?-12).

8. I no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa oeoaiiaie i?iaeoeoeee: ie?iaie iiuo e
?aaeecaoeey a Oe?aeia/ A.A. Ieiaeiaa, A.I. Ieiaeia, I.A. Ieiaeia, A.E.
O?aoeeia // Eeaa, 1998.-22n.- (I?ai?./IAI Oe?aeiu. Ei-o i?iae.
iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey,-?-4).

Aaoi?ii aeeiiaii iaci? iaoiae?a io?eiaiiy oeoaio oa eiai nieaa?a a
Oe?a?i? oa na?o?.

Iaaaaeaiee ia?ae?e iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a?aeia?aaea? iniiai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa ?ic?aooieia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui eyaee a iniiao
aeniiae?a oa iieiaeaiue, aeianaieo ia caoeno. A io?eiaii? oa iaaiai?aii?
ie?aieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe a?aee o/anoue Iiae??cia TH.I., Ea?oocia A.A.
I?e ae??oaii? /anoeiaeo caaea/ a?aee o/anoue I?iaeia A.I., Aae??a A.I.,
Nethiy?a A.I., Eioei A.A., I?iaeiaa A.A., Eoaiaee I.?. I?e ae??oaii?
oaoiieia?/ieo caaea/ a?aa o/anoue Eiiiai ss.TH.

AiioAoe?ss

I?iaeia I.A. Aieea aeo?aeii? no?oeoo?e ? iiia?aaeiueiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee ci?oeiaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy oaoi?/iiai oeoaio ??cieo
niinia?a aeieaaee. -?oeiien.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia caeiaoooy nooiaiy eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca oaoii
05.16.01 — iaoaeiciaanoai ? oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a.

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeieia?y ioe?iee yeino? iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoaeo ?
i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aiao??a ?oeioaaiiy iie?e?enoae?/iiai eeoiai ?
aeaoi?iiaaiiai oeoaio, caniiaaia ia aiae?c? ae?aa?ai iaaaioaaeaiiy a
?noeiieo eii?aeeiaoao, c?noaaeaii? ai?noo oa ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie a
ia’?i? ca?ai oa ia a?aieoeyo ?icae?eo, oa aiae?co oiiia?ao?? ? ?ici??o
e?eoe/ieo i?noeue ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo o??uei. Aeyaeaii aieea
oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiiy oa ai?noo aeii?oie ia iieaciee aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai
ci?oeiaiiy oa oe?eio iaeano? aeaoi?iaoe?e iie?e?enoae?/iiai oeoaio
??cieo niinia?a aeieaaee. Iieacaii, ui oe? oaeoi?e aieeaathoue ia
o?aeoaeueio ?ici??i?noue ceaio, ye ia iieaciee, a?aeaeca?eaethth/ee
aeeiai?eo aeeneiaoe?? aia?a?? i?e eieae?caoe?? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??.

I?iaeaiiino?iaaii a?aeiia?aei?noue e?eaeo aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e
iaeiiinueiaiio ?icoyaiaii? ? i?ieaooe? i?e cia/aiiyo e<1. Noai?aii iaoiaeeeo i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aiao??a iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoa??aeo, caniiaaio ia aiae?c? ae?aa?ai iaaaioaaeaiiy, oiiieia?? ? ?ici??o e?eoe/ieo i?noeue ooai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo o??uei oa aeei?enoaiiy i?aeoiae?a o?aeoaeueii? aaiiao???. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeoai, i?oei?noue, ieanoe/i?noue, aeaoi?iaoe?y, iaeiiinueiaa ?icoyaiaiiy, i?ieaoea, ?oeioaaiiy, o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue. ABSTRACT Minakov M.V. The initial structure and preliminary deformation influence on the deformation and break down peculiarities of the Grade 0 titanium, obtained by different remelting processes. - Manuscript. Dissertation for a degree of Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) in speciality 05.16.01 - Metal Science and treatment. Institute for Materials Science, NAS of the Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. Experimental methodology for titanium quality control and fracture prognoses of polycrystalline titanium in initial and deformed state has been proposed. It is based upon deformation diagram “True deformation - true strength” analysis, the surface and grain body impurities content and distribution comparison, topography and size of critical sites of the crack nucleation and propagation. The influence of adoption elements, temperature, and thin structure on mechanical properties of the technically pure titanium has been examined. The factors above induce the fractal dimention of fracture as a factor of energy dissipation during the localisation of deformation. The rolling and stretching deformation equivalence has been indicated in limited (e<1) deformation rate conditions. The method for deformation ability prognoses has been created. The method based on structural diagrams of deformation, critical crack nucleation sites, and fractal geometry of fracture investigation. Key words: titanium, strength, plasticity, deformation, stretching, surface of fracture, fractal dimension AIIIOAOeEss Ieiaeia I.A. Aeeyiea enoiaeiie no?oeoo?u e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey ia oa?aeoa?enoeee oi?i/iaiey e ?ac?ooaiey oaoie/aneiai oeoaio ?acee/iuo niiniaia auieaaee.-?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01 - iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea iaoaeeia. Einoeooo i?iaeai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey IAI Oe?aeiu. I?aaeeiaeaiia iaoiaeieiaey ioeaiee ea/anoaa eeoiai iaoaeea, e i?iaiice?iaaiey ia?aiao?ia ?ac?ooaiey iieee?enoaeee/aneiai eeoiai e aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai oeoaia, iniiaaiiay ia aiaeeca aeeaa?aii aeaoi?ie?iaaiey a enoeiiuo eii?aeeiaoao, niiinoaaeaiey niaea?aeaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eianae a iauaia ca?ia e ia a?aieoeao ?acaeaea, e aiaeeca oiiia?aoee e ?acia?a e?eoe/aneeo iano ca?iaeaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey o?auei n eniieueciaaieai ia?aiao?ia o?aeoaeueiie aaiiao?ee. I?eiaiaiea iienaiiie iaoiaeieiaee e aiaeeco naienoa oeoaia, iieo/aiiiai i?e eniieueciaaiee ia?niaeoeaiuo ioa/anoaaiiuo niiniaia ieaaee a eeoii e aeaoi?ie?iaaiiii ninoiyiee, iicaieeei auyaeoue neaaeothuaa: ana niiniau ieaaee iicaieytho iiieaeaoue niaea?aeaiea i?eianae aiaae?aiey e caiauaiey ii n?aaiaieth n i?iiuoeaiiui AAeI iaoaeeii, iaeiaei oieueei iaeioi?ua ec ieo - a /anoiinoe IYI yooaeoeaii i?aaeioa?auaao auiin iaeiio?iee?oaiuo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa neeoeia i?eianae (Na, K, Ca, S, Cl, P), ia iiaa?oiinoe ?acaeaea. Oi?aaeaiea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai a?aaeiuo i?eianae aua ia yoaia auieaaee iaania/eaaao oi?ioaa ea/anoai oeoaia e aai nieaaia a /anoiinoe niiniaiinoue e i?ieaoea e ia?aaioea aeaaeaieai. Eniieueciaaiea ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeieiaee aeey enneaaeiaaiey oeoaia ?acee/iue niiniaia iieo/aiey iicaieeei ecaioiaeoaeyi i?iaanoe iioeiecaoeeth oaoiieiaee auieaaee e iieo/eoue oeoai, n iiauoaiiie aeaoi?ie?oaiinoueth aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oieueae. Oneiaey e?enoaeeecaoeee, eae e niaea?aeaiea yeaiaioia aiaae?aiey aeeytho ia ieioiinoue aeeneieaoeee, e aeeneieaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o e, eae neaaenoaea yoiai, ia i?aaeae oaeo/anoe e eiyooeoeeaio aeaoi?-iaoeeiiiiai oi?i/iaiey. I?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo n iiauoaieai niaea?aeaiey i?eianae aiaae?aiey io OA80 e OA180 i?aaeae oaeo/anoe ?anoao io 340 aei 1100 IIa. Iaeanoue ?aaiiia?iie aeaoi?iaoeee i?e iiauoaiee oaiia?aoo?u e ionoonoaee aeaoaeoia ia a?aieoea ca?ia noaeaaony e nieaeaaony i?aaeae i?i/iinoe. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?e noaiaiyo aeaoi?iaoeee a<1 i?aaeae oaeo/anoe aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai eenoa i?aeoe/anee niaiaaeaao n aeaoi?ie?othuei iai?yaeaieai ia?acoea, eniuoaiiiai a oneiaeyo iaeiiiniiai ?anoyaeaiey (io 300 aei 700-800 IIa), iaeiaei i?e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie aeaoi?iaoeee e>1 ?ino i?aaeaea oaeo/anoe
i?ienoiaeeo neaai (ia aieaa 10%).

?ac?ooaiea oeoaia EYEI e IYI a oaiia?aoo?iii eioa?aaea -253 … 200iN
i?ienoiaeeo n ia?aciaaieai oaeee. Ia a?aieoeao ca?ai ia?acothony yiee,
?acia? eioi?uo oaaee/eaaaony i?e iiauoaiee oaiia?aoo?u (io 3 aei 17 iei
aeey IYI e io 1 aei 10 iei aeey EYEI). Ia aeia yiie /anoeoeu ia
auyaeaiu, o.a. nai i?ioeann ?ac?ooaiey ii iaoaiecio neeyiey yiie
i?ienoiaeeo aac yaiiai o/anoey /anoeoe. Enneaaeiaaiey iiaa?oiinoae
?ac?ooaiey oeoaia a eeoii ninoiyiee, eniuoaiiiai a oneiaeyo iaeiiiniiai
?anoyaeaiey, iiaeoaa?aeeee aic?anoaiea o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe eceiia
i?e oiaiueoaiee ?acia?a yiee n iiieaeaieai oaiia?aoo?u eniuoaiey i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii aic?anoaiee enoeiiiai i?aaeaeueiiai ?ac?ooathuaai
iai?yaeaiey. Iieacaii, /oi o?aeoaeueiay ?acia?iinoue eceiia
/oanoaeoaeueia e niaea?aeaieth yeaiaioia aiaae?aiey, eae e oaeoi?o,
ioaaonoaaiiiio ca aeeiaieeo ?acaeoey aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u a
i?ioeanna aeaoi?iaoeee. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaii i?aaeiieiaeaiea i
ioeueoeo?aeoaeueiii (noaoenoe/anee naiiiiaeiaiii) oa?aeoa?a
enneaaeiaaiiuo eceiiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeoai, i?i/iinoue, ieanoe/iinoue, aeaoi?iaoeey,
iaeiiinaaia ?anoyaeaiea, i?ieaoea, ?ac?ooaiea, o?aeoaeueiay
?acia?iinoue.

-250

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-50

0

S, IIa

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1.5

1.0

0.5

-200

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0

-100

1.4

1.2

1.0

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0.2

S, IIa

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e

900

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-100

0.5

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0.3

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4

2

5

3

1

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