Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo aaco

Aeoia?anueea Iaoae?y ?aai?aia

OAeE 662.66

Aieea oa?iio?i?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ia aeanoeaino? aenieicieueiiai
aio?aoeeoo i?e eiai oaeaeueiiio niaethaaii?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.14.04 — i?iieneiaa oaieiaia?aaoeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oeaio?? aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e

IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee —

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Iaeno?aiei
Ieaenaiae? TH??eiae/, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oeaio?o
aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Neaae ?nae sseiae/, ?inoeooo aaco IAI
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe A?a/aiee Ieaenaiae? Ieeeoiae/,
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaieiaia?aaoeee I?i?noa?noaa aia?aaoeee
Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i.A.I.I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e iiaeaethaaiiy oaieiaeo oa iaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a (i.Oa?e?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 eenoiiaaea 1999 ? i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.255.01 a ?inoeooo? aaco IAI Oe?a?ie
ca aae?anith: 252113, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aeaaoy??anueea, 39; o.446-44-71)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aaco IAI
Oe?a?ie (252113, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aeaaoy??anueea, 39)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “__22__” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, e.o.i. __________ A.E. ?eue?iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Noai i?iaeaie. Ca inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y a Oe?a?i? cia/ii iia??oeany
noai oaa?aeiiaeeaieo oaieiaeo aeaeo?e/ieo noaioe?e (OAN), ui coiiaeaii
ii?aeueiei oa o?ce/iei ni?aoethaaiiyi caoaeiaaieo o 1950–60-o? ?iee
ieeiaoa?eueieo aeie?a; i?aeaeuaiiyi na?aaeiuei? cieueiino? aia?aaoe/iiai
aoa?eey, yea aeinyaea 34 %; iaiao?aei?noth canoinoaaiiy a oiiaao
niaethaaiiy iai?iaeoiiai iaeeaa ?iii?oiaaieo i?e?iaeiiai aaco oa iacooo.
Ana aeuacacia/aia i?ecaaei aei cieaeaiiy e.e.ae. oeeo aia?aiaeie?a aei
25-28 %, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy ieoiieo aeeeae?a caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei o
aeiae?eey.

E?eciaee aeiiii?/iee noai aaeoc?, oe?iea caeo/aiiy aei
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino iacaaaa/aiiai aoa?eey, ooea?a oa oeai?a
iio?aaothoue iaaaeueiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a aia?aaoeeo iaeicao?aoieo
aenieiaoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e ?o niaethaaiiy, ye? iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? ia aaea ?nioth/eo ieeiaoa?eueieo eioeiaa?aaaoao.

Iniaeea? o?oaeiiu? aeieeathoue c aeei?enoaiiyi a ieo aenieicieueiiai
aio?aoeeoo (ACA), ui ca nai?ie aeanoeainoyie aenieiiaoaii?o?ciaaiiai oa
caaaeanoiaaiiai i?ia?aeueiith neeaaeiaith aoa?eey iio?aao? noai?aiiy
iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey caeiaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai aeai?aiiy.
Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a iie?ioaiiy niaethaaiiy ACA a
oiieao oaeaeueieo eioeiaa?aaao?a ? eiai oa?iio?i?/ia i?aeaioiaea (OOI)
ia?aae niaethaaiiyi, ui iieyaa? a oaeaee?niiio iaa??aaii? oa /anoeia?e
aaceo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa aenieioaiia?aoo?iei o?i?/ii ?aaaoth/ei
oaieiiin??i (iae/ano?oa i?iaeoeoaie cai?aiiy i?aai?/iiai iaeeaa). A
?acoeueoao? OOI noai?th?oueny aeaioaciaa iaeeai, ui neeaaea?oueny c
eaoeeo, aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a aaceo?eaoe?? oa eieniaiai caeeoeo (EC)
c aeanoeainoyie, a?aei?iieie a?ae aeanoeainoae ia?aeiiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai
ieeo. Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy OOI noinoaaeeny, aieiaiei /eiii,
iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano, aiae?co e?eueeino? oa
neeaaeo aaciai? oace, i?aeaeuaiiy noaa?eueiino? oa oaiia?aoo?e ai??iiy
aeaioaciaiai iaeeaa, canoinoaaiiy OOI aeey aoa?eey ??ciiai nooiaith
iaoaii?o?cio. I?e oeueiio ia a?aoiaoaaeiny, ui i?e i?ioeanao i??ie?co oa
aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie o o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoeeao oaa?aei? oace aeaioaciaiai iaeeaa, ye? nooo?aei /eiii
aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane caeiaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai aeai?aiiy EC.
Aeine?aeaeaiith oeeo ci?i aeey ieeiaeaeiiai aio?aoeeoo, ?o caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a OOI, ai?noo oa ?iciiae?eo i?ia?aeueii?
neeaaeiai? o aoa?ee?, a oaeiae aieeao OOI ia oa?aeoa?enoeee caeiaiiy EC
? i?enay/aia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iaoiae OOI aeine?aeaeoaaany oa ai?iaaaeaeoaaany
ia aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaaoao aaaaoueia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie
i?aai?caoe?yie e?a?i NIAe. Aaaaeaeiny, ui aeey ?ic?aooieo i?ioeano
aeinoaoiuei ciaoe nooi?iue aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey, ci?ie ?aaeoe?eii?
caeaoiino? ? e?ioeaao oaiia?aoo?o aeaioaciiai iaeeaa oa aa?iaeeiai?eo
iioieo. I?e oeueiio ia a?aoiaoaaeiny, ui a aio?aoeeo? naia oaa?aea oaca
a?ae?a?a? aieiaio ?ieue o i?ioeanao caeiaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai aeai?aiiy.
Aeey iioei?caoe?? oeeo i?ioean?a o oiieao eioeiaa?aaao?a iaiao?aeii
aea/eoe aieea OOI ia oa?aeoa?enoeee EC. Oea aeicaieeoue ciaeoe
iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie OOI oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee EC a
?ic?aooieao i?ioeano niaethaaiiy aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo a oiieao
?aeiino?oeiaaieo c canoinoaaiiyi OOI ieeiaoa?eueieo eioeiaa?aaao?a.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, aeeiiai? aaoi?ii a ?aieao
oaeeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oeaio?o aoa?eueieo
aia?aioaoiieia?e: Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?ia?aia «Aia?aieiiieaen», oeo?
caaaeaiiy ?I.01.06.Oe.04.04.01, oaia «?ic?iaeoe oa aeine?aeeoe niin?a
iiia?aaeiuei? aaceo?eaoe?? iecueeiye?niiai aoa?eey noiniaii eiai
aeei?enoaiiy ia aeaeo?inoaioe?yo, ?ic?iaeoe oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th oa
noai?eoe aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao onoaiiaeo iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe??
iecueeiye?niiai aoa?eey» (?icii?yaeaeaiiy ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? ? 282
a?ae 14.05.81 ?.); IAe? «?ic?iaea oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeueieeiaiai
i?eno?ith c iiia?aaeiueith oa?iiia?iaeith aoa?eey aeey oaieiaeo
aeaeo?inoaioe?e oa aaceo?eaoe?eieo onoaiiaie» (a?aeii/a oaiaoeea IAIO,
i?ioieie can?aeaiiy Ath?i A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeai
aia?aaoeee ? 7 a?ae 03.12.90 ?.); IAe? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiae?a
aaceo?eaoe?? oa niaethaaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai caaaeainiaiai aoa?eey o
iioioe? oa eeiey/iio oa?? i?ae oeneii c iaoith ?ic?iaee oaoi?/iiai
caaaeaiiy ia noai?aiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaie ia oaa?aeiio
iaeea?» (a?aeii/a oaiaoeea IAIO, i?ioieie can?aeaiiy Ath?i A?aeae?eaiiy
o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeai aia?aaoeee ?2 (15 a?ae 08.02.94?.).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aea/aiiy aieeao
oa?iio?i?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo ia iniaeeaino? eiai
niaethaaiiy o oiieao aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaao?a.

Aeey ?? cae?eniaiiy o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aoee iinoaaeai? oae?
caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aenieicieueieo aio?aoeeo?a.

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?i o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee EC ACA i?ney OOI.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?i neeaaeo aaciai? oace aeaioaciiai iaeeaa i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy OOI.

4. Aecia/aiiy aieeao ?aaeei?a OOI ia oa?aeoa?enoeee caeiaiiy EC ACA.

5. ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? niaethaaiiy ACA c
aeei?enoaiiyi OOI.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

1. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao OOI ieeo ACA ia
ci?ie eiai o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

2. Ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aecia/aiiy aieeao e?eueeino? oa
?iciiae?eo i?ia?aeueii? neeaaeiai? o aio?aoeeoiaiio ieeo ia oaiia?aoo?o
oa /an cao?eiee caeiaiiy ye aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoo, oae ? EC o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeei?a OOI.

3. Aia?oa io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe c aieeao eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a
ieenethaa/? ia oaiia?aoo?o oa

/an cao?eiee caeiaiiy EC i?ney OOI.

4. Aia?oa ciaeaeaii aoaeo eieaeueiiai ciaioaiiy iiaa?oi? i?e?iii? a cii?
oaiia?aoo? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo i?ia?aeueii? neeaaeiai?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

1. Io?eiai? ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo /anoi/ie EC aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeei?a OOI, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aecia/aii?
ae?eniiai aeenia?niiai neeaaeo EC i?ney OOI o ?ic?aooieao i?ioean?a
niaethaaiiy ACA a oiieao aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaao?a.

2. Aecia/ai? ?ici??e ieoiii? iiaa?oi? i?e?i- oa iaciii? ye ieeo ACA, oae
? eiai EC i?ney OOI, eio?? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e ?ic?aooieao aieeao
?aaaoth/eo iiaa?oiiue ia i?ioeane niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? /anoi/ie
aio?aoeeoo.

3. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo OOI o iaeueieeao
ieeiaoa?eueieo eioeiaa?aaao?a, ui niaeththoue aio?aoeeo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe??
aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo eioea OI-230-2 (noaioe?eiee ? 10) ia
Ie?ii?anuee?e OAN , iaeueieea aeey niaethaaiiy aenieicieueiiai
aio?aoeeoo ei?iona A eioea OII-210A (noaioe?eiee ? 9) Ci??anueei? OAN,
iaeueieea eioea OII-210A OAN ? 22 Iinaia?ai ? iaeueieeiaeo i?eno?i?a
aeey iiaea?i?caoe?? oaeaeueieo eioeiaa?aaao?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia
aio?aoeeoao iia??oaii? yeino?, ?ic?iaeith yeeo caeia?oueny Oa?e?anueea
Oeaio?aeueia eiino?oeoi?nueea ath?i I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iioae?eiaai? iaoeia? i?aoe? iieyaa? a:
o/ano? a i?iaeooaaii? oa iiaea?i?caoe?? aeine?aeieo onoaiiaie oa a
i?iaaaeaii? ia ieo aenia?eiaio?a; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeee; neeaaeaii? ieai?a
aeine?aeaeaiue; aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a i?e iaoaiaoe/iiio
iiaeaethaaii? i?ioean?a; ia?iaoe? oa aiae?c? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a
oaeiae iaienaii? a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a noaoae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao: VIII
Ananithciiio neiiic?oi? ii ai??iith oa aeaooo (Oaoeaio, 1986),
I?aeia?iaei?e oeie?-nai?ia?? «I?iaeaie oaiei- oa ianiiai?io o no/anieo
oaoiieia?yo niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa» (I?inuee,
1988); Ananithciiio neiiic?oi? «I?iaeaie aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey»
(E?aniiy?nuee, 1991), I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? «Member state technologies
dedicated to help the energy self sufficiency process optimising the
local resources such as coal» (Ee?a, 1997); aia?eeaii-oe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Ukraine Clean Coal Power Plant Upgrade Opportunities»
(Ke?a, 1998); oeie?-naieia?? «I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? niaethaaiiy AO, I
oa oeioieiioeaio?aoo c ooee?caoe??th cieiaiai caeeoeo» (Ee?a, 1998);
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie i?iieneiai? oaieioaoi?ee» (Ee?a,
1999); 2-?e I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie
aeiiii?? aia?a??» (Euea?a, 1999).

Ioaeeeaoe??: Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 14 ?iaioao, c
ieo: 6 noaoae o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao Oe?a?ie, 2 noaoo? — a
ia??iaee/ieo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao e?a?i NIAe, 2 noaoo? — o ca??eao
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 4 noaoo? — a ca??eao i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioeee.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. ??
caaaeueiee ianya neeaaea? 180 noi??iie, c ieo ia 117 noi??ieao
ciaoiaeeoueny iniiaiee oaeno, ia 44 ie?aieo noi??ieao — 4 oaaeeoe? ? 37
iaethie?a, ia 12 noi??ieao — nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 136
iaeiaioaaiue, ia 7 noi??ieao — 7 aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
?icaeyiooi oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? niaethaaiiy iecueeiye?niiai
aoa?eey, o oiio /ene? ACA. ?icaeyiooi i?e/eie iia??oaiiy yeino?
aia?aaoe/iiai aoa?eey, aecia/aii oiiae, iaiao?aei? aeey eiai iiaiiai
aeai?aiiy o oiieao oaeaeueieo aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaao?a, iienaii
no/ani? na?oia? oaoiieia?? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee iecueeiye?niiai aoa?eey,
iieacaii i?noea OOI na?aae iaoiae?a oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy
aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey, ?icaeyiooi ia?aaaae oeueiai i?ioeano.

Aoa?euei? oaieia? aeaeo?e/i? noaioe?? ? ia nueiaiaei? aaciaeie aeey
aia?aaoe/ii? aaeoc?, ine?eueee ana ?ioa iaeeai ?iii?oo?oueny ? noaaeoue
a?o/eciyio aia?aaoeeo a caeaaei?noue a?ae eiai iinoa/aeueiee?a. Ca
1991–1998 ??. /anoea aoa?eey o iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiio aaeain? OAN
ca?eueoeeany c 31,3 aei 52,5 %. Iaeaea o?aoeio anueiai aia?aaoe/iiai
aoa?eey neeaaea? aio?aoeeo. Onueiai ia Oe?a?i? ia aio?aoeeoao i?aoeth?
31 aeie caaaeueiith anoaiiaeaiith iiooaei?noth 6,81 iei. eAo, ia yeeo
ae?iaey?oueny /aa?oue an??? aeaeo?e/ii? aia?a?? c i?aai?/iiai iaeeaa.
Aea ? eiai ye?noue iino?eii iia??oo?oueny: oae, o 1998 ?. oaieioa
cai?aiiy aeiiaoeueeiai aio?aoeeoo, ui iinoa/aany ia OAN, aeinyaea iaae?
19 IAeae/ea. Ieoii? aeo?aoe oiiaiiai iaeeaa ia aio?aoeeoiaeo
eioeiaa?aaaoao aeinyaathoue 420-480 a/eAo(aiae cai?noue 370 a/eAo(aiae
ca i?iaeoii. Ana aeuacaaaeaia iio?aao? iaaaeueieo caoiae?a uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? niaethaaiiy oaeiai aio?aoeeoo.

Aiae?c ?icaeyaeo no/anieo iaoiae?a oa oaoiieia?e (i?eno?i?a aeey ?o
?aae?caoe??) ?ioaineo?eaoe?? niaethaaiiy iecueeiye?niiai aoa?eey a
iioioe? iieaco?, ui i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo eioeiaa?aaao?a ia iiaeia
ciaeoe ?aeeiiai caaaeueiiai ??oaiiy. Aei canoiniaoaaieo iei? a
aia?aaoeoe? iaoiae?a iie?auaiiy niaethaaiiy aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo
iiaeia a?aeianoe: 1) ni?eueia niaethaaiiy ACA c aeniei?aaeoe?eiei
??aeeei oa aaciiiae?aiei iaeeaii c iaoith noaa?e?caoe?? i?ioeano
caeiaiiy oa iie?eooy oaieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?aoeio oiiee; oaea
oaoiieia?y i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?oi/a?aiaiai aeai?aiiy aaco /e iacooo,
caoyaoaaiiy aeiiaethaaiiy aoa?eey o ca?aeiai? eeniai ciie oiiee,
ca?eueoaiiy /a?ac oea iaoai?/iiai iaaeiiaeo, ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?iii?oiaaieo aia?aiiin??a; 2) ciaioaiiy ?ici??o ieeiaeo
/anoeiie, ui aeeeeea? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ieei?a, i?aeaeuaiiy aeo?ao ia
aeani? iio?aae, a oaeiae ia? ia’?eoeaii anoaiiaeaiee i?i?ioi
iiae??aiaiiy c oi/ee ci?o aaeiia?aoe??; 3) caaaa/aiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?e no/aniiio oaoi?/iiio noai? oa canoiniaoaaieo
oaoiieia?yo ia caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?eeao (CO) aaeeeeie ao?aoaie aoaeaoeth
(aei 20 % o a?aeoiaeao), iaaaeeeith e?euee?noth CO aeey ia?acaaaa/aiiy
iaeiiai c iniiaieo ca ianyaii ae?iaieoeoaa ni?oo aio?aoeeo?a – AO (6 c
23), oa i?aeaeuaieie aeiiaaie aei aonoeie oa ?aieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
aaaeeeo ??aeei i?e eiai a?aa?oaoe?eiiio caaaa/aii?.

Aei no/anieo oaoiieia?e niaethaaiiy aenieicieueieo aio?aoeeo?a
a?aeiinyoueny niaethaaiiy o iea/ia?e (U-iiae?ai?e) oiioe?, o ieaaeeueieo
ia?aaeoiieao oa o ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo eeiey/iai oa?o. Canoinoaaiiy
oeeo oaoiieia?e, eiaeia c yeeo ia? nai? ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee, iio?aao?
cia/ieo aeo?ao ia ?aeiino?oeoe?th aai iiaa aoae?aieoeoai eioeiaa?aaao?a
(450-1100 aeie. NOA ca 1 eAo anoaiiaeaii? aeaeo?e/ii? iiooaeiino?).

Iaeiei c iaeiaeo?aoieo aeueoa?iaoeaieo oeyo?a i?aeaeoaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
niaethaaiy ACA ? oa?iio?i?/ia i?aeaioiaea (iae. 1). sse i?aaeei, i?ioean
OOI i?iaiaeyoue o ie?aiiio iaeueieeiaiio i?eno?i?, ui anoaiiaeth?oueny
ia i?noe? ooaoiiai iaeueieea eioeiaa?aaaoo. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeueiai
iaoiaeo iio?aao? iaaaeeeeo aeo?ao ia ?aeiino?oeoe?th (150-200 aeie. NOA
ia 1 eAo), a eiai canoinoaaiiy ii aoaeoeaiino? ai??iiy iiaeia ii??aiyoe
?c iea/iaeie oiieaie oa ieaaeeueieie ia?aaeoiieaie. Aei iniiaieo ia?aaaa
OOI ne?ae a?aeianoe iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy a ?nioth/eo ieeiaoa?eueieo
eioeiaa?aaaoao aio?aoeeo?a iai?iaeoii? cieueiino? (aei 30 %),
iiaeeea?noue eieeaaiue cieueiino? aio?aoeeoo ia ?iai/iio ?aaeei?,
ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiaciio ?aaoethaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue eioeiaa?aaaoo, ui
i?aoeth? ia ACA.

I?ia?aeieie iaoeiaeie i?aai?caoe?yie o aaeoc? niaethaaiiy aoa?eey o
eieeoiueiio N?N?, oaeeie ye AO?, ACI?, ?AOAI, Nea??nueea a?aeae?eaiiy
AI, EacIAe?Aia?aaoeee, I?aaeaiAO? oa ?i., aoei i?iaaaeaii ?yae
aeine?aeaeaiue ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano, neeaaeo oa oaiia?aoo?e
aaciai? oace aeaioaciiai iaeeaa, cai?iiiiiaai? eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy
iaeueieeiaeo i?eno?i?a aeey eiai ?aae?caoe?? oa aeine?aeaeaii ?o
aa?iaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aea i?e oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo i?aeoe/ii
i?eiee ia aiae?coaaeany oaa?aea neeaaeiaa aeaioaciiai iaeeaa, yea aeey
aenieiiaoaii?o?ciaaiiai ACA a?ae?a?a? iniiaio ?ieue o i?ioeanao caeiaiiy
oa iiaeaeueoiai ai??iiy. Iaoiae OOI o an?o i?iaaaeaieo eaai?aoi?ieo oa
i?iieneiaeo aenia?eiaioao i?eaiaeea aei noaa?e?caoe?? caeiaiiy oa
i?aeaeuaiiy iiaiioe aeai?aiiy. I/aaeaeii, ui oe? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?
noia?iei aoaeoii /eneaiieo o?ce/ieo oa o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a (a?aoiaoth/e
neeaaei?noue aoa?eey ye aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiai oa iaiaeii??aeiiai iaeeaa).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? OOI ci?ith?oueny aeenia?niee neeaae,
ieoiia iiaa?oiy, ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue, oa?aeoa?enoeee caeiaiiy,
e?oieia?/iee neeaae oa ?i. Iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ci?i oeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey a ?acoeueoao? OOI coiiaeea iniiai?
caaea/? aeena?oaoe??, ui iacaai? o caaaeuei?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ?iaioe.

, eiieue/aiae, aea n0i – ia’?iia aeiey eiiiiiaio?a ia aeoiae? aei
iiaea/? aoa?eey; ni – ia’?iia aeiey eiiiiiaio?a ia aeoiae? i?e iiaea/?
aoa?eey; G — aeo?aoa iia?o?y, ii3/aiae.

, aea A rKC, A r, C rKC, C r — /anoea ciee oa aoaeaoeth ia ?iai/o iano
eieniaiai caeeoeo oa aoa?eey a?aeiia?aeii.

*an ia?aaoaaiiy aoa?eueieo /anoeiie o ?aaeoi?? ?ic?aoiaoaaany ca
na?aaeiueith a ia?a??c? oaeaee?noth aaciaiai iioieo c o?aooaaiiyi eiai
oaiia?aoo?e.

aea I0 — iana ii?oe?? aoa?eueiiai ieeo, ui ai?eniooi; D0 — aeeaiao?
?aaeoe?eii? eaia?e; L — a?aenoaiue, ui ?? i?ieaeaii ia?aaei?i o?iioii
ieeiai? oia?e; t — /an oi?ioaaiiy ieeiai? oia?e.

*an cao?eiee caeiaiiy aecia/aany aai ca aeiiiiiaith oaeaee?nii?
e?iiceiiee a?ae iiiaioo ai?eneoaaiiy ii?oe?? aoa?eueiiai ieeo aei
iiiaioo iiyae ia?oeo ina?aaee?a caeiaiiy aai ca aeiiiiiaith oioiae?iaeo,
yeee ?a?no?o? ?ioaineai?noue na?o?iiy oia?e aoa?eueiiai ieeo, neaiae c
oioiae?iaeo iiaeaaaany ia oeaeoiee inoeeeia?ao.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue ia aeuaaeacaieo onoaiiaeao c iaoith
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueii io?eiaieo c?ace?a EC e??i noaiaea?oieo
iaoiae?a aiae?co aoa?eueii? ?a/iaeie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeaye?
niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaeeee: aecia/aiiy a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo aoa?eueiiai
ieeo iioe/ieie iaoiaeaie; ?icae?eaiiy aoa?eueiiai ieeo o aaaeeeo
??aeeiao; aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?iai? no?oeoo?e aoa?eueieo /anoeiie oa ?io?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao OOI ia ci?ie aeanoeainoae aeaioaciaiai iaeeaa oa
oiiae eiai caeiaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai aeai?aiiy. sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaany iee aeiiaoeueeiai aio?aoeeoo ??ciiai aeenia?niiai
neeaaeo oa ai?noo ciee (6(78%). Ca iniiaiee ia?aiao?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?
i?ioean OOI, acyoi eiao?oe??io iaaeeeoeo aaceo?eoth/iai aaaioo (, ui
a?aoiao? neeaae oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeo?ao aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo i?iaeoeo?a
cai?aiiy oa aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo.

Ci?ie aeenia?niiai neeaaeo. Neoiaee aiae?c aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai
ieeo noaiaea?oiiai iiiieo iieaco?, ui eeoa aeae?eueea i?ioeaio?a eiai
iathoue ?ici?? /anoeiie iaioa ca 50 iei, oiae? ye EC i?ney OOI a onueiio
aeine?aeaeaiiio aeeaiacii? ( (0,1(2,6) ia? a?ey 50 % /anoeiie c
( ( 50 iei. No?oeoo?i? ci?ie aoa?eueiiai ieeo, a?aeia?aaeai? e?eaeie
?iciiae?eo, aeecueeeie aei ooieoe?? ?ic?ia-?aiiea?a, i?aaenoaaeai? ia
iae. 4. *ei aeua cia/aiiy (, oei a?eueoa e?euee?noue oa ?ici??e
aaeiia?ao?a, ui ooai?ai? oeyoii ceeiaiiy ?ici’yeoaii? i?ia?aeueii?
neeaaeiai? ?c iacia/ieie aeeth/aiiyie aoaeaoeth. ?o aonoeia noaiiaeoue
2300(2500 ea/i3. I?e aecia/aieo ?aaeeiao o eieniaiio caeeoeo a cia/i?e
e?eueeino? (aei 10 %) i?noeoueny iaaeeaaea o?aeoe?y, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c
ii?iaeienoeo neeyieo noa? c A(( ( 98 %. Aiae?c aeo?aeiiai aoa?eueiiai
ieeo oa eiai EC ca ?ici??aie o eean? 0(50 iei (iae. 5), i?iaaaeaiee
iaoiaeaie iioe/iiai e?euee?niiai aiae?co, aeyaea ??cieoeth o ?o
?iciiae?e?. O EC oeae eean i?noeoue a?ey 90 % /anoeiie ?ici??ii 5(25iei
aai /enoi aoaeaoeaaeo, aai i?ia?aeueieo, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?icaae
aoaeaoeaai-i?ia?aeueieo c?inoe?a c a?eueoeo ca ?ici??aie eean?a ii
a?aieoe? aoaeaoeue-i?ia?aeueia neeaaeiaa. C aeuaiaaaaeaiiai aeieeaa?, ui
oaa?aea oaca, io?eiaia a ?acoeueoao? OOI, neeaaea?oueny: c a?eueoi?
e?eueeino? iaioeo ca ?ici??aie aoa?eueieo /anoeiie, a yeeo iaeaea
a?aenooi? eaoe? oa aieiaa; c iiainoai?aieo aenieicieueieo aaeiia?ao?a,
e?euee?noue ? ?ici?? yeeo oei aeuee, /ei aeua (. Aoaeo oa?ii?icaaeo ye
?acoeueoao ae?? oaieiaiai oaea?o i?e OOI iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia i?ioean
niaethaaiiy aio?aoeeoo, ca?eueooth/e eiai ciai?oith iiaa?oith oa
ciaiooth/e aeo?aoe ia iiae??aiaiiy.

. C iaoith ca?eueoaiiy ?aaaoth/i? iiaa?oi? i?e i?iaaaeaii? OOI eiai
?aaeeii? ia?aiao?e iiaeii? a?aeiia?aeaoe oaeiio nooiaith eiiaa?n??, i?e
yeiio i?ioeane ?ic?iaee ii?iai? no?oeoo?e ia?aaaaeathoue i?ioeane ?o
ceeooy oa aeacaeoeaaoe??

, eieeaaiiy yeeo ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao iioeaee iaoiaeo.

?iciiae?e i?ia?aeueii? oa i?aai?/ii? neeaaeiaeo o aeo?aeiiio
aio?aoeeoiaiio ieeo oa EC i?ney OOI. Ia o?eueee o?i?/iee neeaae ACA, aea
e oa?aeoa? c’?aeiaiiy i?ia?aeueii? oa i?aai?/ii? /anoei aieeaa? ia
i?ioean ai??iiy ACA, ine?eueee aaoa?iaaiiee i?ioean aca?iiae?? eenith
iia?o?y c aoa?eeyi caeaaeeoue a?ae aeinooiiino? aoaeaoeaai? iiaa?oi?.
Aenia?eiaioe c aieeao OOI ia ?icae?eaiiy i?ia?aeueii? oa i?aai?/ii?
neeaaeiaeo a aio?aoeeoiaiio ieeo i?iaiaeeeeny o aocueeeo ?ici??ieo
o?aeoe?yo ii aonoei? aaaeeeo ??aeei. A?aoiaoth/e i?aeaeuaio aonoeio
i?aai?/ii? /anoeie aio?aoeeoo (aei 1600 ea/i3) oa i?enooi?noue a i?e
«iaoa?einueei?» ciee ca oa?aeoa?io (aeey ?iciiae?eo ia i?ia?aeueio oa
i?aai?/io /anoeie) aonoeio aaaeei? ??aeeie ia?aii 1800 ea/i3. I?e
aecia/aii? aieeao OOI ia i?ioean ?icae?eaiiy aoei aeyaeaii (iae. 7)
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo «/enoiai» aoaeaoeth o EC. I?e
?icae?eaii? aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo oa EC o aaaeeeo ??aeeiao
??cii? aonoeie (1500 ( ( ( 2200 ea/i3) aoei aecia/aii iayai?noue o
noi?o? /anoi/ie o?ueio eean?a: «/enoiai» aoaeaoeth (A) — c A(( ( 10%,
«aoaeaoeaai-i?ia?aeueieo» (AIC) — c 30%(A(((60% oa
«i?ia?aeueii-aoaeaoeaaeo» (I) — c A(( ( 80 %, ia?o? c yeeo yaeythoue
niaith aoaeaoeue ?c aeeth/aiiyie «iaoa?einueei?» ciee; ae?oa? — noi?o
aoaeaoeth oa i?ia?aeueii? /anoeie o aeacaiiio ae?aiacii? cieueiino?, a
o?ao? — ??aee? aoaeaoeaa? aeeth/aiiy o i?ia?aeueiiio ianea?. Ianiaa
/anoea eeano I a onueiio ae?aiacii? ?ici???a aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai
ieeo (0(160 iei) o EC i?e 0,1 ( ( ( 0,3 ciaioo?oueny. I?e oeueiio cia/ii
i?aeaeuo?oueny cieuei?noue eeano I, ui iia’ycaii ye c a?aeae?eaiiyi
/anoeie aoaeaoeth /e c?inoe?a i?e oaieiaiio oaea?? oa ia?aoiaeii ?o aei
eean?a A /e AIC, oae ? c aaeiia?aoe??th i?ia?aeueii? neeaaeiai? i?e ( (
0,2. O oaaeeoe? iaaaaeaii ci?ie o neeaae? i?ia?aeueii-aoaeaoeaaeo
c?inoe?a aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeei?a OOI.

Oaaeeoey

O-ee aoa?eey Aeo?aeiee aio?aoeeo Eieniaee caeeoie i?e (

0,102 0,156 0,201 0,251

(, iei 50-63 63-100 100-160 50-

63 63-100 50-63 63-100 100-160 50-63 63-100 100-160 50-63 63-100 100-160

Aeo.,% 37,9 29,3 20,8 16,3 11,7 20,7 16,0 17,6 12,4 14,5 17,7 12,8 8,0
11,6

Ari,% 77,5 79,7 76,7 89,9 91,8 92,6 92,6 92,4 99,4 91,7 89,7 83,3 88,6
89,1

Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieacaa, ui o anueiio ?ioa?aae? ?ici???a
aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo iaea?eueoee aeo?ae aoaeaoeaaeo /anoi/ie iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooee i?e ((0,15. I?e iaioeo cia/aiiyo ( i?ioeane
oa?iiiiae??aiaiiy ae?aaeai? iaioa ? o?aeoe?eiee ?iciiae?e aeeae/a aei
aeo?aeiiai. I?e ( ( 0,15 i?ioeane oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? ?ioaineo?eothoueny,
aea, ye aeaeii c aiae?co nooiaith eiiaa?n?? aoaeaoeth i?e O ( 1573 E,
cia/io ?ieue ii/eia? a?ae?a?aaaoe o?i?/ia ?aaaoaaiiy EC, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai ciaioothoueny ?ici??e /anoeiie oa i?aeaeuo?oueny ai?no ciee.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao /ano ia?aaoaaiiy /anoeiie
aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo o ?aaeoi?? ia ?icae?eaiiy i?ia?aeueii? oa
i?aai?/ii? neeaaeiaeo iieacaa, ui o anueiio aeine?aeaeaiiio ?ioa?aae?
/ano (aei 0,3 n) oeae i?ioean ia cae?i/oaaany.

Aieea OOI ia caeiaiiy aoa?eey a iioioe?. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaiaeeeeny ia
onoaiiaoe?, ui cia?aaeaia ia iae. 3. sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaany aio?aoeeoiaee iee, ie?ai? eiai o?aeoe??, ye? aoee
io?eiai? ?icae?eaiiyi ii aonoei?, a oaeiae EC i?ney OOI. Aeey aeyaeaiiy
aieeao oa?aeoa?enoee c’?aeiaiiy ciee c i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith ia
oaiia?aoo?o eiai caeiaiiy (Oc) aeai? ii eiioeaio?aoe?? iaeeaa a
?aaeoe?eiiio ia’?i? Ni aoee ia?a?aoiaai? ia eiioeaio?aoe?th eiai
aoaeaoeaai? neeaaeiai? Nni = (1- Ari/100)Ni (iae. 8). Aeey an?o c?ace?a
c cieuei?noth aei 40% a iaaeao iioeaee iaoiaeo aeyaeaia ?aeeia
caeaaei?noue Oc a?ae Nni . Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy cieueiino? (c?acie c
Ari=77,6%) oneeaaeith? caeiaiiy ieeo ACA, ui aoei oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
aenia?eiaioaie ii caeiaiith /anoeiie ACA a?eueoiai ?ici??o (1,0(1,6 ii)
i?e nooo?ai ?io?e i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano – a eeiey/iio oa oiioaioth/iio
oa?ao. Oeae ?acoeueoao iiaeia iiynieoe ?iciiae?eii i?ia?aeueii?
neeaaeiai? o aenieicieueieo /anoeieao oa ?? ?icieaaeaiiyi c ooai?aiiyi
caoenii? ie?aee ? aeiaeaoeiaei nei?i/aiiyi a ?acoeueoao? oeueiai
?aaaoth/i? iiaa?oi?.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy /ano cao?eiee caeiaiiy (c.c
aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo iieacaei, ui i?e Ni = 0,05-0,25 ea/i3 (c.c iaa?iaii
i?iii?oe?eia eiioeaio?aoe?? iaeeaa oa i?aeoe/ii e?i?eii c?inoa? i?e
ca?eueoaii? ?ici???a /anoeiie (iae. 9). I?e caaeai?e ii/aoeia?e
oaiia?aoo?? aaco i?aeaeuaiiy cieueiino? c?acea cia/ii ci?ith? (c.c: oae,
i?e Oa= 1380 E oa Ni = 0,36 ea/i3 ci?ia Ari c 6,9% aei 77,6% i?eaaea
aei c?inoaiiy (c.c c 30 aei 130 in. I?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? iiaa?oi? EC
i?ney OOI ia aieeaa? ia oaiia?aoo?o eiai caeiaiiy, aea ciaioo? (c.c. I?i
oea ae na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe oano?a ii aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio ieeneaiith
(O = 679–860 E) ??aiiianiaeo c?ace?a aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo oa
EC. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o anueiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?aeiinia oaeaee?noue
ieeneaiiy c?ace?a EC o ia?o? 10-15 in cia/ii aeua, i?ney /iai oe?
oaeaeeino? ae??aiththoueny. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui /an
cao?eiee caeiaiiy EC ia 20-30% ieae/ee, i?ae aeey aeo?aeiiai
aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo. Ci?ia iieueii? aeie? eenith o ieenethaa/? a?ae 21 %
aei 11 % i?aeaeueea Oc ye EC, oae ? aeo?aeiiai aio?aoeeoo ia 120-170 E a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ianiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? aoa?eueiiai ieeo
(Ni = 0,15-0,35 ea/i3).

Ci?ie o neeaae? aaciai? oace aeaioaciiai iaeeaa a caeaaeiino? a?ae
?aaeei?a OOI. Aiae?c io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a iieaco?,
ui i?e OOI ieeiiiae?aiiai aio?aoeeoo o i?iaeoeoao cai?aiiy i?aai?/iiai
iaeeaa iiaeia io?eiaoe 3-9 % (ia.noo.) ai?th/eo aac?a (NI+I2+NI4), ui a
1,5-2 ?ace aeua, i?ae i?e iaa??aaii? ieeiiiae?aiiai aio?aoeeoo a
iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu?. A oie aea /an oe??? e?eueeino? ai?th/eo aac?a
iaaeinoaoiuei aeey nooo?aiai iie?auaiiy oiia caeiaiiy, oiio iaea?eueoee
aianie a ?ioaineo?eaoe?th caeiaiiy oa ai??iiy EC ACA i?ney OOI ?iaeoue
ca?eueoaiiy ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? oaa?aei? oace. ?c c?inoaiiyi /anoee
aaceo?eoth/iai aaaioo a ?ioa?aae? ( 0,1(0,3 c?inoa? ? nooi?iue eiiaa?n??
aio?aoeeoo a i?ioean? OOI, ui aei??thaaeany ii aacia?e oac?, aeinyaath/e
cia/aiue O = 0,2, ui a?aeiia?aea? iaeneiaeuei?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iai?
no?oeoo?e aeey aio?aoeeo?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo ia i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaeao oa iaeueieeiaeo
i?eno?iyo aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaao?a, a oaeiae iaaaaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii canoinoaaiith iaoiaea OOI i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaeueiee?a aeey niaethaaiiy
aio?aoeeoiaiai ieeo i?aeaeuaii? cieueiino?. I?iieneia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae eaai?aoi?ieo ia o?eueee ianooaaaie onoaiiaie, aea e
iaeeaii aeey ae?iaieoeoaa aaceo?eoth/iai aaaioo, ae?aiaciiii ci?ie
ai?noo ciee a aio?aoeeoiaiio ieeo, iiaeeea?noth aeine?aeeoe: cai?aiiy
aeaioaciiai iaeeaa aaciina?aaeiuei a oiioe? aia?aaoe/iiai eioea; aieea
eiino?oeoe?? iaeueieeiaiai i?eno?iy ia ?aae?caoe?th iioeiaeueieo oiia
OOI; ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo OOI aeey niaethaaiiy
aenicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo a ci?i? caaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee eioeiaa?aaaoo.
I?iieneia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia onoaiiaeao eioea OI-230-2
Ie?ii?anueei? Ae?AN oa OII-210A Ci??anueei? Ae?AN. Ia Ie?ii?anuee?e
Ae?AN* aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano OOI i?iaiaeeeeny ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa aaceo?eoth/iai aaaioo iacooo ia?ee I-100. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiue aoa aio?aoeeoiaee iee cieuei?noth Ari = 24-40%.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ian iacooo oa aoa?eey noaiiaeei 0,01-0,05 ea/ea
(( ( 0,25). Aeo?aoe aoa?eey ia onoaiiaeo noaiiaeee aei 5 o/aiae. A
i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioao niinoa??aaeiny c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ai??iiy,
ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? NI2 oa ciaioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? I2 ca
ia?a??cii iaeueieea i?ney OOI, ui oa?aeoa?eco? i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino?
ai??iiy EC ACA. Aaeainia? aei?iaoaaiiy eioeiaa?aaaoo, ui ?o aoei
i?iaaaeaii AeiiI?AAN, iieacaee (i?e ?iaio? ia eioe? eeoa iaei???
onoaiiaee) ciaioaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth a oiin? c 36 aei 24 %, aeo?ao
iacooa ia iaeueiee — o 3 ?ace.

I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy aeoi?iaiai noaa?e?caoi?a ai??iiy (ANA), ui aoa
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ooaoiiai iaeueieea eioea ? 9 ei?i.A Ci??anueei?
OAN, iieacaee iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy oaei? eiino?oeoe?? i?eno?iy OOI,
eiee iniiaiee iaeueiee oa eioae ?aeiino?oeoe?? ia i?aeeyaathoue.
Eiino?oeoe?y oa ?aaeeii? ia?aiao?e ANA aeicaieeee: cae?enieoe
iiia?aaeith aaceo?eaoe?th oaei? /anoee aoa?eueiiai ieeo, yea
a?aeiia?aeaea cae/aeiiio i?aena?/oaaiith oaeaea i?e?iaeiei aacii aaa
iacooii (ii oaieo); caaacia/eoe /an ?aaaoaaiiy a i?ioean? OOI aei 0,2 n;
caaacia/eoe iaeueieeo oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei, ui aeicaieea canoiniaoaaoe
cae/aei? iaoa??aee. A oiae? aei?iaoaaiue cao?eniaaii oae? ia?aiao?e
?iaioe ANA: aeo?aoe aoa?eueiiai ieeo ia iaeueiee 2,0-2,5 o/aiae;
oaiia?aoo?a aeaioaciiai iaeeaa (1070E; aeo?aoe aaco 130-150 ii3/aiae,
i?e oeueiio naia?aoe?y ieeo oa eiai ai??iiy a «caaeooe?» aai o?oa?
a?aenooi?; oeaeoaaiiy o?aeoo ANA a?aenooi?; caeiaiiy ieeo ia aoiae? a
eioae noaa?eueia, naia?aoe?? ieeo ia iiae oiiee oa caoeaeiaee eueioie
iaia?.

I?iaaaeai? a eaai?aoi?ieo oa i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy OOI iieacaee, ui iaiao?aeii a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy
i?ioeano iaea?aeaoe oaeo oaiia?aoo?o aeaioaciiai iaeeaa, yea a, ye
i?i?ioi, aei??aithaaea oaiia?aoo?? naiicaeiaiiy ieeiiiae?aiiai
aio?aoeeoo aeaii? cieueiino? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? ieeo o oiioe?, a, ye
iaeneioi, ia ia?aaeuoaaea oaiia?aoo?o ??aeeiieaaeiai noaio i?ia?aeueii?
neeaaeiai? aio?aoeeoo. I?e oeueiio ia iiaeii? ia?aaeuoaaoenue: ( (
0,15-0,2 oa O=0,2. Iaoiae OOI iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee ? aeey aio?aoeeo?a
cieuei?noth ( 30 %, aea oea aeiaaa? ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? nenoaie
ieeii?aeaioiaee oa ia?ao?ae ?? ia noaio c i?iiaoiea?ii oa
ieeieiioeaio?aoi?ii. C o?aooaaiiyi cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?? ai??iiy
aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo, o?aaa oaeiae i?aeaeueoe /an ia?aaoaaiiy
aoa?eey a oiioe?.

AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo ia eaai?aoi?ieo, iai?ai?iieneiaeo oa
i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaeao eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii aieea
oa?iio?i?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ACA ia ?aaeeie eiai niaethaaiiy a oiieao
aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaao?a, aecia/aii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa
aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieeiiiae?aiiai
aio?aoeeoo ??cii? cieueiino? a i?ioean? OOI, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaii aieea
oeeo ci?i ia oa?aeoa?enoeee caeiaiiy ieeiiiae?aiiai ACA. Oea aeicaieeei
?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? noaie i?ioeano OOI oa ?aae?coaaoe ?o a
aia?aaoe/ieo eioeiaa?aaaoao, ui ni?ey? ae??oaiith aaaeeeai? i?eeeaaeii?
i?iaeaie – noai?aiith iaeicao?aoieo aenieiaoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e
aia?aaoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo.

Anoaiiaeaii ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo ca ?ici??ii ieeiiiae?aieo /anoeiie
aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo oa eiai eieniaiai caeeoeo i?ney OOI, aea/aii
aieea e?ioeaai? oaiia?aoo?e aeaioaciiai iaeeaa (?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a
i?ioeano) ia oeae ?iciiae?e, aeyaeaii e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ci?ie neeaaeo
o?aeoe?e iaioeo 50 oa a?eueoeo 100 iei.

Anoaiiaeaii ?iciiae?e /anoeiie ia?aeiiiai aoa?eueiiai ieeo oa eiai EC
i?ney OOI ia «aoaeaoeaa?», «aoaeaoeaai-i?ia?aeuei?» oa
«i?ia?aeueii-aoaeaoeaa?» c?inoee oa anoaiiaeaii ?ioa?aaee ai?noo ciee a
oeeo a?oiao.

Iieacaii, ui i?e oa?iiaeano?oeoe?? iiae??aiaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny a
iniiaiiio ii a?aieoe? aoaeaoeue-i?ia?aeueia neeaaeiaa, ui ca?eueoo? ye
i??o aeinooiiino? ?aaaoth/i? iiaa?oi?, oae ? e?euee?noue aoaeaoeaaeo
/anoeiie, ui ni?ey? iie?auaiith oiia caeiaiiy oa iiaiiai aeai?aiiy
aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo o oaeae?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ie oiia caeiaiiy
oa aeai?aiiy ACA iia`ycai?, a iniiaiiio, ?c ci?iith no?oeoo?e
aoaeaoeaai-i?ia?aeueieo c?inoe?a, ine?eueee ?o oa?iiaeano?oeoe?y ?iaeoue
iaeaaaii?oee aianie o ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? /anoeiie /enoiai aoaeaoeth
o eieniaiio caeeoeo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeii/anii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? /anoeiie
ACA a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi?,
aeinooiii? ia noaae?? caeiaiiy iieaeoeai NI2 oa I2; c`yniaaii, ui oeae
i?ioean ? i?aenoieiaei /ioe?ueio eiieo?oth/eo i?ioean?a: ca?eueoaiiy
ieoiii? iiaa?oi? ca ?aooiie oa?iiaeano?oeoe??; ?ic?iaee aioo??oiuei?
ieoiii? iiaa?oi? ca ?aooiie /anoeiai? aaceo?eaoe??; aeacaeoeaaoe??
?aaaoth/i? iiaa?oi? ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aeoeaieo oeaio??a i?e c?inoaii?
oaiia?aoo?e; eieaeueiiai ciaioaiiy ieoiii? iiaa?oi? i?e?iii? a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo i?ia?aeueii? neeaaeiai?.

Aecia/aii, ui a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano OOI ACA ciaioo?oueny
/an cao?eiee caeiaiiy ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? o?i?/iiai
?aaaoaaiiy EC.

Anoaiiaeaii nooo?aa iia??oaiiy oiia caeiaiiy ieeiiiae?aieo aio?aoeeo?a
oa ?o eieniaiai caeeoeo i?ney OOI a oaeae? i?e ??ai? cieueiino?, ui
ia?aaeuo? 40%, ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy o aoa?ee? ai?noo
aoaeaoeaai-i?ia?aeueieo oa i?ia?aeueii-aoaeaoeaaeo c?inoe?a.

Anoaiiaeaii aieea OOI ia neeaae aaciiiae?aii? oace aeaioaciiai iaeeaa,
ui ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao? OOI, aecia/aii caeaaei?noue oeueiai
neeaaeo a?ae ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a OOI.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e OOI,
eiao?oe??ioo iaaeeeoeo aaceo?eoth/iai aaaioo oa nooiaith eiiaa?n?? ACA,
ui caaacia/othoue iaee?au? oiiae caiaeaiiy oa iiaeaeueoiai aeai?aiiy ACA

Iaoiae OOI ?aae?ciaaiee ia: aeaiiino?aoe?ei?e onoaiiaoe? Ie?ii?anueei?
OAN, a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaii iiaeeea?noue
iie?ioaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee eioeiaa?aaaoa oa aeiiii?? aaco
oa iacooo i?e niaethaaii? ACA c OOI; ia iaeueieeiaiio noaa?e?caoi??
ai??iiy eioea Ci??anueei? OAN, ?iaioa yeiai i?aeoaa?aeeea aoaeoeai?noue
i?ioeano i?e aeaiiio eiino?oeoeaiiio ae??oaii? i?eno?ith c aeei?enoaiiyi
OOI ACA.

?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? niaethaaiiy ACA c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo OOI.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Aeoiaaaneay I.E. Aeeyiea oa?iioeie/aneie iiaeaioiaee iuee aio?aoeeoa ia
eciaiaiea aa oa?aeoa?enoee //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.- 1999.-
?2.- N.10-15.

Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Oa?iioeie/aneay
iiaeaioiaea eae niinia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naeeaaiey aio?aoeeoa //
A?niee Aea?ae. oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”: Niaoe. aeione
“I?iaeaie aeiiii?? aia?a??”. — ?2. — Euea?a. – 1999. – N. 28-34.

Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aia/oe ss.E. Ainieaiaiaiea iuee
aunieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoa e aeeyiea aai oa?iioeie/aneie iiaeaioiaee ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeanna //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.- 1999.-
?2.- N.76-79.

Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Iani/ei A.?. Eciaiaiey eiioeaio?aoeee aeeieneaea
oaea?iaea a i?ioeanna oa?iioeie/aneie ia?aaioee oaa?aeiai oiieeaa //
I?iiuoeaiiay oaieioaoieea. — 1989. -O.11, ?5. — N.102-107.

Ei?/aaie TH,I., Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aia/oe ss.E.
Eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?enoee eienicieueiiai inoaoea aio?aoeeoa a i?ioeanna
oa?iioeie/aneie iiaeaioiaee // I?iiuoeaiiay oaieioaoieea.- 1999. — O.21,
? 6. – N. 21-26.

*a?iyaneee I.A., Aeoiaaaneay I.E. Aieue/ei E.A. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
aaceoeeaoeee a iioiea ca n/ao aunieinei?inoiiai iaa?aaa oaieueiuo
/anoeoe // Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. — 1991.- ?4.- N. 42-44.

*iaeue A.I., Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Iaee A.I., Aa?auoaa A.I. Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe naeeaaiey ieceini?oiuo oiieea iaoiaeii oa?iioeie/aneie
ia?aaioee // Eca. aocia. Na?. Yia?aaoeea.- 1985.- ?3.- N. 96-98.

Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Iani/ei A.?., Oieia/aa E.ss. ?an/ao aaceoeeaoeee
oaea?iaeiuo /anoeoe aeeieneaeii oaea?iaea. // Oeiey oaa?aeiai oiieeaa —
1986.- ?6.- N. 118-122.

*iaeue A.I., Aeoiaaaneay I.E., Iaee A.I., Neaa/aiei A.A. Eniieueciaaiea
iaoiaea oa?iioeie/aneie ia?aaioee aeey naeeaaiey ieceiea/anoaaiiuo oaeae
// O?oaeu O??? Ananithc. neiiic. ii ai?aieth e ac?uao. I?iaeaiu
oaieiyia?aaoeee. — Oaoeaio — *a?iiaieiaea, 1986.- N. 97-99.

Aeoiaaaneay I.E. Enneaaeiaaiea eciaiaiey ninoaaa iuee aio?aoeeoiaiai
oouaa i?e aa oa?iiia?aaioea // Aunieioaiia?aoo?iia i?aia?aciaaiea
yia?aee: Na. iao/i. o?oaeia. – E.: EIY AI ONN?. — 1989. — N. 109-110.

Dunayevskaya N., Roskolupa A, Chernyavsky N. Coal waste. Review of
resources and possibilities of utilisation //Proc. of Seminar
Commission of the European Committies Directorate General for Energy
«Member State Technologies Dedicated to Help the Energy Self
Sufficiency Process Optimising the Local Resources Such as Coal»
(DGXVII). — Kiev (Ukraine). — 1997. – ?.190-204.

Maystrenko A.Yu., Dunaevskaya N.I., Freeman M.C. Report on Pulvirised
Combustion of Ukrainian Anthracite // Proc. of Ukraine-US joint conf. on
Ukraine Clean Coal Power Plant Upgrade Opportunities. – Kiev (Ukraine):
USAID. – 1997. – P. 89-96.

A?eiue E.A., Aeoiaaaneay I.E., AEieoaeia ss.N. Iiauoaiea ?aaeoeeiiiie
niiniaiinoe aunieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoiaiai oouaa iooai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee. // I?iaeaiu oaiei- e ianniaiaia a nia?aiaiiie
oaoiieiaee naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee oaa?aeiai oiieeaa. — *.1. Iaoa?eaeu
Iaaeaeoia?. oeieu-naieia?a. — Ieine: Ei-o oaiei- e ianniaiaia AI ANN?. —
1988.- N.126-133.

*a?iyaneee I.A., Aeoiaaaneay I.E. Aeeiaieea eiiaa?nee
iaeiiaoaii?oece?iaaiiuo oaeae i?e aaceoeeaoeee a iioiea // O?oaeu
Ananithciiai neiiiceoia «I?iaeaiu aaceoeeaoeee oaeae», E?aniiy?ne: Ei-o
EAOAEIEEOAIEUe.-1991.-N.76-83.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeoia?anueea I.?. Aieea oa?iio?i?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ia aeanoeaino?
aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo i?e eiai oaeaeueiiio niaethaaii?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.14.04 — i?iieneiaa oaieiaia?aaoeea.- ?inoeooo
aaco IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioeano oa?iio?i?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee (OOI) aenieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoo (ACA), ui aeicaiey?
iie?ioeoe oiiae caeiaiiy oa ai??iiy ACA i?e eiai oaeaeueiiio niaethaaii?
c nooo?aith aeiiii??th aeiiii?aeieo i?e?iaeiiai aaco oa iacooo. OOI
aeicaiey? ciaioeoe na?aaei?e ?ici?? /anoeiie ACA, aeiaeaoeiai ?icae?eeoe
eiai i?ia?aeueio oa i?aai?/io neeaaeia?, ca?eueoeoe aioo??oith ieoiio
iiaa?oith /anoeiie, /anoeiai aaceo?eoaaoe ACA. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii
aieea ?aaeeiieo oa?aeoa?enoee OOI ia eiaeiee c ia?ae?/aieo iieaciee?a.
Anoaiiaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii a i?iieneiaiio ianooaa? iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee OOI aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeaioaciaiai iaeeaa c iaee?aueie
aeanoeainoyie caeiaiiy oa ai??iiy a oiieao eioeiaa?aaao?a OAN. Iieacaii,
ui ciaioaiiy /ano cao?eiee caeiaiiy ACA i?ney OOI coiiaeaia aieiaiei
/eiii ca?eueoaiiyi ?aaaoth/i? iiaa?oi? /anoeiie. ?ic?iaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aeei?enoaiiy OOI i?e oaeaeueiiio niaethaaii? ACA.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aenieicieueiee aio?aoeeo, oaeaeueia niaethaaiiy,
oa?iiiiae??aiaiiy, ieoiia iiaa?oiy, /anoeiaa aaceo?eaoe?y, oaiia?aoo?a
caeiaiiy, /an cao?eiee caeiaiiy.

ABSTRACT

Dunaevskaya N.I. Impact of pulverised anthracite thermo-chemical
preparation upon the changes of its properties. Manuscript.

Thesis for candidat’s degree by speciality 05.14.04 — Heat Power
Industry.- The Gas Institute of National academy of sciences of
Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the investigation of the thermochemical
preparation (TCP) process, which enables to improve ignition and burning
conditions of high-ash anthracite (HAA) when pulverised combustion,
having appreciable economy of supplementary natural gas and oil feeding.
TCP lets to decrease average HAA particle size, to break down
additionaly its organic and mineral parts, to increase specific
intrinsic surface of particles, to perform partial HAA gasification. The
influence of TCP regime conditions on every characteristic noted above
has been studied. The optimal TCP regime conditions for two-phases fuel
producing with the best ignition and combustion properties have been
established and approved at industrial-scale plants. It was demonstrated
that HAA delay time of ignition decreasing after TCP was mainly due to
the particles’ reactive surface increasing. The recommendations were
worked out for TCP application when HAA pulverized combustion at thermal
power plant.

Key words: high-ash anthracite, pulverized combustion, thermochemical
preparation, partial gasification, thermocrushing, specific surface,
ignition temperature, delay time of ignition.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeoiaaaneay I.E. Aeeyiea oa?iioeie/aneie iiaeaioiaee ia naienoaa
aunieicieueiiai aio?aoeeoa i?e aai oaeaeueiii naeeaaiee.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.14.04.- i?iiuoeaiiay oaieiyia?aaoeea. — Einoeooo
aaca Iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaaeaiee iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aii aeeyiea ia eciaiaiea naienoa aunieicieueiiai
aio?aoeeoa Aeiiaoeeiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaeiiai ec iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo
iaoiaeia noaaeeecaoeee i?ioeannia ainieaiaiaiey e iiauoaiey iieiiou
auai?aiey oe?aeineeo aunieicieueiuo aio?aoeeoia (ACA) a oiieao
eioeiaa?aaaoia OYN -oa?iioeie/aneie iiaeaioiaee (OOI) oaey ia?aae aai
naeeaaieai. I?eiaiaiea yoiai i?ioeanna iicaieyao iiaeaaaoue a oiieo
aeaoooaciia oiieeai n oeceei-oeie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, cia/eoaeueii
ioee/athueieny io oa?aeoa?enoee enoiaeiie oaieueiie iuee.
Oa?iioeie/aneay iiaeaioiaea iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue n?aaeiee aeeaiao?
/anoeoe, oaaee/eoue aioo?aiithth oaeaeueioth iiaa?oiinoue ii?,
?acaeaeeoue aeiiieieoaeueii i?aaie/aneoth e iai?aaie/aneoth eiiiiiaiou a
oaea, /anoe/ii aai aaceoeoee?iaaoue. A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioaeaiey eaaeaeie ninoaaeythuae yoiai i?ioeanna:
onoaiiaeaiu ooieoeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey /anoeoe ACA e aai eieniaiai inoaoea
(EI) iinea OOI; ii?aaeaeaia caaeneiinoue oaeaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe iee?i- e
iaciii? aio?aoeeoa e aai EI io ?aaeeiia OOI; ?anniio?aiu eciaiaiey a
ninoaaa e eiee/anoaa ieia?aeueiie, i?aaie/aneie ninoaaeythueo, a oaeaea
oaeaieia?aeueiuo n?inoeia.

Enneaaeiaaiu oa?aeoa?enoeee ainieaiaiaiey aunieicieueiuo iueaaeaeiuo
aio?aoeeoia: oaiia?aoo?a e a?aiy caaea?aeee ainieaiaiaiey- a caaeneiinoe
io aai cieueiinoe, eiioeaio?aoeee oaieueiie iuee e niaea?aeaiey
eenei?iaea a ieeneeoaea, a oaeaea aeeyiea ia yoio i?ioeann
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie oa?iioeie/aneie iiaeaioiaee aio?aoeeoa. Onoaiiaeaii
iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ainieaiaiaiey iuee aio?aoeeoa n ?inoii
niaea?aeaiey cieu. Oa?iioeie/aneay iiaeaioiaea oiaiueoaao a?aiy
caaea?aeee ainieaiaiaiey ia 20-30% ii n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiui
aio?aoeeoii.

Eniuoaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a i?iiuoeaiiuo oneiaeyo, iieacaee nieaeaiea
eiioeaio?aoeee eenei?iaea e iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u oaeaea ca n?acii
ai?aeee, oiaiueoaiea eiee/anoaa ai?th/eo a oiina e iiauoaiea a
?acoeueoaoa e.i.ae. eioeiaa?aaaoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aunieicieueiue aio?aoeeo, iueaaeaeiia naeeaaiea,
oa?iioeie/aneay iiaeaioiaea, oa?iiae?iaeaiea, oaeaeueiay iiaa?oiinoue,
oaiia?aoo?a ainieaiaiaiey, a?aiy caaea?aeee ainieaiaiaiey.

* Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iio?i?/ii? i?aeaioiaee ieeiiiae?aiiai aio?aoeeoo ia
aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e onoaiiaoe? Ie?ii?anueei? OAN i?iaiaeeeenue i?ae
iaoeiaei ea??aieoeoaii ae.o.i.Iina/a A.A. oa e.o.i.*iaey A.I.

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