Iiiinoa?noai inaioe Oe?a?ie

Oa?iiiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Iaaia Ioethy

E I A A E Ue * O E

ss ? i n e a a I e a e n ? e i a e /

OAeE 620.191.33: 620.178.3: 620.187

AIEEA IIIA?AAeIUeI? IEANOE*II? AeAOI?IAOeI?

IA OeEEEI*IO O?IUEIINOIEEINOUe

AETHI?I??AIAI NIEAAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.02.04 — iaoaiiea aeaoi?iiaiiai oaa?aeiai oiea

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoii/ieo iaoe

Oa?iiiieue — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? ?aaia Ioethy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aieeaeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

ssNI?E Iao?i Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia Ioethy,
i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IEEEOI?*EI A?eai??e Ieeieaeiae/,

O?ceei iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?iai? A.A. Ea?iaiea

IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a), caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ei?ic?eii aiaeiaai?
aeaa?aaeaoe?? oa caoenoo iaoa??ae?a

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAENO?AIEI Aiaoie?e Eueaiae/,

?inoeooo iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a ?iai? A.I.Aaeoey IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a),
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oaoiieia?? aeiacia’yceeo eiiiiceo?a ?
aeiacii-eaiaiaia?iaieo ?ino?oiaio?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e aoiie ? oa?iiaoiie iaoa??ae?a, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “20” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 13-00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E58.052.01 a
Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
Ioethy, 282001, i.Oa?iii?eue, aoe. ?onueea, 56.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia
Ioethy, 282001, i.Oa?iii?eue, aoe. ?onueea, 56.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iao?ee I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaeiei c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo /eiiee?a, ui ?noioii
aieeaathoue ia caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ?oeioaaiiy o?e c o??ueiaie ca
oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeoaaiiy ? iaeii?aciaa iiia?aaei? ieanoe/ia
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeo i?e aeaioiaeaii? aeaoaeae (eoaaiiy, i?anoaaiiy
aioooy, aaeueoethaaiiy, iaei/oaaiiy) aai oi?iaeiaae ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo na?ae/eoue, ui iiia?aaei? ieanoe/ia
aeaoi?ioaaiiy cieaeo?, i?aeaeuo? aai ia aieeaa? ia oeeee?/io
o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a o ii??aiyii? c ia?a?niei noaiii.

Aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia
oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue i?enay/ai? i?aoe? I.I.?iiai?aa,
A.O.O?iuaiea, A.A.Iie?ianueeiai, I.A.ssni?y, A.I.Ieeeoi?/eia.
N.A.Iao?iiaa, N.Iaeioi, L.Legriss, J.Bulloch, K.Shulte, P.Liav, R.Pippan
oa ?ioeo.

Aaaiiee aianie o aena?oeaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ? ?ic?iaeo
iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
ia oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei aianee A.O.O?iuaiei,
I.I.?iiai?a, A.I.Ieeeoi?/ei, K.Shulte oa ?io?.

I?ioa iaeaea a?aenooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy noeneii ia oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy aoiiieo
o??uei. Ia aeinoaoiuei aea/aiei ? ieoaiiy aca?iica’yceo oa?aeoa?enoee
oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? aeaoi?iiaaieo iaoa??ae?a c i?e?iiaoai?ciaie
iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei. Oea ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ia?iaee oeneii ca aeiaaia?/i?noth aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e. O ca’yceo c oeei aeooaeueiei ? aeyaeaiiy caaaeueieo
caeiiii??iinoae aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii
oa noeneii ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue ? i?e?iiaoai?cie iioe?aiiy
aoiiieo o??uei.

Aeine?aeaeoaaee aieea iai?yieo iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
(?icoya – noene) ia ii?iaiao o??ueiino?ee?noue ? oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy
aoiiieo o??uei a aethi?i??aiio nieaa? AIa6. Oeae iaoa??ae oe?iei
canoiniao?oueny a ??cieo aaeocyo, cie?aia o e?oaeiaoaeoaaii?. E??i oiai,
aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a na?ae/eoue, ui iiia?aaei?
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii ?noioii i?aeaeuo? oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy
aoiiieo o??uei o oeeee?/ii ci?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??aeao, aei yeeo
a?aeiineoueny aeacaiee aethi?i??aee nieaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa iia’ycaia c oaeeie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie oaiaie, ye? aeeiioaaeeny
a Oa?iii?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
Ioethy:

— eiieo?nia oaia AeEIO Oe?a?ie ?AeE-45-94 “Anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo
caeiiii??iinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?iiaaieo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
1(3)3/15);

— aea?aeathaeaeaoia oaia ?Ae?-15-91 “?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?oeiino? oa o??ueiino?eeino? eiino?oeoe?eieo nieaa?a i?e noaoe/iiio ?
oeeee?/iiio iaaaioaaeoaaii? oa iaeaoo i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey
aaoiiaoecaoe?? aenia?eiaioo”, ui aeeiioaaeany ca?aeii oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a
IAe? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei ? oi?ioaaiiy ii?ia?a oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiino?eeino? a ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaiiio iaeiia?niei ?icoyaii oa
noeneii aethi?i??aiio nieaa? AIa6; ?ic?iaea eeaneo?eaoe?? iaoa??ae?a ca
/ooeea?noth oaeaeeino? ?inoo aoiiieo o??uei (?AO) ? ii?iaiaeo
eiao?oe??io?a ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue (E?I) aei iiia?aaeiueiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii oa noeneii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??ooaaeenue oae? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino?
iiia?aaeiuei ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaieo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia aac?
na?aia?ae?aae?/ii? aei?iaoaaeueii? iaoeie NOI-100 c ea?oth/ei IE oeio
?AI ?N/AO ? iaeao?a i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey aaoiiaoecaoe??
aenia?eiaioo;

— aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei ? oi?ioaaiiy
ii?iaiai? o??ueiino?eeino? nieaao AIa6 a iiia?aaeiuei ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?iiaaiiio ? ia?a?niiio noai? oa iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue
oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue oeueiai iaoa??aeo;

— anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ae i?e?iiaoai?ciaie iioe?aiiy aoiiii?
o??ueie, ?? ii?oieia??th oa ia?aiao?aie oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino?
nieaao AIa6;

— ?ic?iaea eeaneo?eaoe?? iaoa??ae?a ca aieeaii iiia?aaeiueiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii oa noeneii ia ii?iaiao
o??ueiino?ee?noue ? oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei c a?aooaaiiyi
?o noeeueiino? aei oeeee?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy /e ciai?oeiaiiy. Iiaoaeiaa
ocaaaeueiaieo ae?aa?ai, ye? ca’ycothoue ia?aiao?e oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiino?eeino? c ??aiai iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? (IIAe)
oa iai?yieii aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— ?ic?iaeai? iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey aaoiiaoeciaaiiai aecia/aiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ca noaoe/iiai ?icoyao, oaeaeeino?
?inoo aoiiieo o??uei ? ia?aiao??a cae?eooy o??ueie ye? aeicaieythoue
i?aeaeueoe aeinoia??i?noue ? ciaioeoe o?oaeii?noe?noue io?eioaaieo
?acoeueoao?a;

— aeyaeaia ia?iaa??aioi?noue e?iaoe/ieo ae?aa?ai aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy
(AeA?) nieaao AIa6 a aoaeoeaieo eii?aeeiaoao V=f(Keff) a?aeiinii IIAe
aiane?aeie ?icoyao oa noeneo, a oaeiae /eiieee, ye? aeathoue
aeii?ioth/ee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy ii?ia?a aoiie ? oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiino?eeino? iiia?aaeiuei ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaiiai nieaao AIa6;

— anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie ia? iiaea?eiee iaoai?ci aieeao ia
oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue nieaao AIa6: ca?eueoaiiy eiai, c iaeiiai
aieo, i?aeaeuo? oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ?, ye iane?aeie, ca?eueoo? E?I
?ice?eooy o??ueie Kop, c ?ioiai – i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy E?I ca
iaoai?ciii iiia?a/iiai cnoao KII ? ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaiiai cia/aiiy E?I KI
ca iaoai?ciii ii?iaeueiiai a?ae?eao;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaiai ?iciaoo E?I,
yea a?oioo?oueny ia a?aooaaii? aieeao a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie ia iai?oaeaii
aeaoi?i?aiee noai a ?? a?no??;

— cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoa??ae?a uiaei aieeao IIAe ia ii?iaia?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? ca ?o noeeuei?noth aei
oeeee?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy /e ciai?oeiaiiy ? io?eiai? ocaaaeueiai?
ae?aa?aie, ye? ca’ycothoue a?aeiiniee ?iciao ii?iaiaeo E?I c aaee/eiith
caeeoeiai? aeaoi?iaoe??;

— ?icoe?aii ?ai?oa cai?iiiiiaaio eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoa??ae?a uiaei
/ooeeaino? oaeaeeino? ?AO aei IIAe ? iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiai? ae?aa?aie,
ye? ca’ycothoue a?aeiinio oaeaee?noue ?AO ia na?aaeeii?e ae?eyioe? AeA?
c ??aiai IIAe, aeey aeiaaeeo inueiaiai noeneo. Aeyaeaii, ui IIAe
aiane?aeie noeneo ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue ?AO aeey an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoa??ae?a, ia caeaaeii a?ae ?o noeeueiino? aei oeeee?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy
/e ciai?oeiaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y
iaoa??ae?a ca /ooeea?noth oaeaeeino? ?AO ? ii?iaiai? o??ueiino?eeino?
aei ia’?iii? IIAe ??ciiai iai?yieo ? ??aiy iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey
iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a oeneii.

Aeyaeai? caeaaeiino? ii?iaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino?
a?ae ia?aiao??a oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy a nieaa? AIa6, a oaeiae
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aoaeoeaieo ii?ia?a o??ueiino?eeino?
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey aiae?co ceai?a aeaoaeae c iaoith
a?aeoai?aiiy ?noi??? ?o iaaaioaaeoaaiiy i?e i?iaaaeaii? oaoi?/ii?
aenia?oece.

?ic?iaeai? iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ca noaoe/iiai ?icoyao, ?ic?aooieo oaeaeeino? ?AO
oa ia?aiao??a cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
aeinoia??iino? io?eioaaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? ciaioaiiy o?oaeii?noeino?
aei?iaoaaiue.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a /anoei? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy
aeey ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeei?enoiaothoueny eaai?aoi???th
aei?iaoaaiue ia i?oei?noue AIOE ?i. 0.E.Aioiiiaa (i.Ee?a) i?e aecia/aii?
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ca
noaoe/iiai ?icoyao, oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy oa ia?aiao??a cae?eooy aoiiieo
o??uei ? ii?iaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? iaoa??ae?a
i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e e?oae?a
(Aeia?aeea AIOE ?1/3445 a?ae 22.06.1999 ?ieo).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a
oiio, ui an? iieiaeaiiy, ye? noaiiaeyoue nooue aeena?oaoe??, aoee
noi?ioeueiaai? oa ae??oaii? naiino?eii. O ioae?eaoe?yo, iaienaieo o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, caeiaoaa/aa? iaeaaeeoue: a ?iaio? [1] – aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao IIAe ia oaeaee?noue ?AO a nieaa? AIa6, iiaoaeiaa AeA? aeey
ia?a?niiai noaio iaoa??aeo ? c a?aooaaiiyi IIAe, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c a?aeiia?aeieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeey oeeee?/ii
ci?oeithaaeueieo oa ciai?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ca aeaieie ?ioeo
aeine?aeiee?a; a ?iaio? [2] – aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a i?e?io?aeoia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoiiieo ceai?a ?c nieaao AIa6, aeyaeaiiy i?e?iiaoai?ci?a
?AO, io?eiaiiy e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aiao??a i?e?i?aeue?oo aeey
??cieo ae?eyiie iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ae
e?ieii aoiiieo ai?icaiie oa iae?ioaeaee?noth ?AO; a ?iaio? [4]
–aenia?eiaioaeueia io?eiaiiy ia?aiao??a cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie,
ii?iaiaeo ?iciao?a E?I aeey nieaao AIa6 oa anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yceo
oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee c ??aiai ? iai?yieii IIAe, ?icoe?aiiy ?ai?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? iaoa??ae?a uiaei /ooeeaino? oaeaeeino? ?AO
aei IIAe aeey aeiaaeeo inueiaiai noeneo; a ?iaio? [5] – ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c AeA? nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio oa iiia?aaeiuei ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?iiaaiio inueiaei ?icoyaii oa noeneii noai?; a ?iaio? [6] –
aeyaeaiiy iaiaeiicia/iiai aieeao IIAe aiane?aeie noeneo ia oaeaee?noue
?AO aeey oeeee?/ii ci?oeithaaeueieo oa ciai?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a; a
?iaio? [7] – aeyaeaiiy aieeao i???ioaoe?? o??ueie a?aeiinii iai?yieo
iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia oaeaee?noue ?AO a
aeaoi?iiaaiiio iaoa??ae?; a ?iaio? [8] – aeyaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai oaeoi?a
aieeao ia oaeaee?noue ?AO a nieaa? AIa6 – caooieaiiy a?no?y o??ueie, yea
ia i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac E?I ?ice?eooy o??ueie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeii?noe? oaoiieia?? iiaea?eiiai
i?ecia/aiiy” (Ee?a, 1994), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaoai?ee
?oeioaaiiy “Materials ageing and component life extension” (?oae?y,
I?eai, 1995), 4-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaoai?ee iaiaeii??aeieo
no?oeoo? (Oa?iii?eue, 1995), Oe?a?inueei-Iieuenueeiio neiiic?oi?
“I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? a aoiai?oa?i?e, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e oa
iaoeiai-ina?oi?e noa?ao” (Oa?iii?eue, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 70-??//th aeaaeai?ea IAI Oe?a?ie
ss.N.I?aeno?eaa/a “No/ani? i?iaeaie iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee” (Euea?a,
1998), ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?iai?
A.A.Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a, 1999) oa Oa?iii?euenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia Ioethy (Oa?iii?eue,
1994-1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 8 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo. C ieo — 3 noaoo? a oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 1 noaooy a
ca??ieeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a 4 oacao aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 142 noi??iee, i?noeoue 6 oaaeeoeue,
59 ?ethno?aoe?e, aeiaeaoe?a ia 1 noi??ioe?, 206 iaeiaioaaiue o nieneo
aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, aecia/aia iaoa
?iaioe oa iniiai? iai?yiee ?? aeinyaiaiiy, iieacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia oa
ai?iaaoe?y iaoa??ae?a ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c?iaeaiee iaeyae i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? oa
aiae?c no/aniiai noaio i?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny. Iiaeai? iniiai?
??aiyiiy, ui iienothoue iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiee noai o?e c o??ueiaie ca
noaoe/iiai oa oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeoaaiiy, oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy aoiiieo
o??uei.

I?iaiae?ciaai? aeai? uiaei aieeao IIAe ia oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii?
o??ueiino?eeino? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. Iieacaii, ui a?aenooi?noue
aeaieo uiaei aieeao IIAe noeneii ia oaeaee?noue ?AO ia aeicaiey?
noai?eoe ocaaaeueiaiee i?aeo?ae uiaei i?iaiicoaaiiy aieeao iai?yieo ?
??aiy aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a.

Noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e ei?ioei/aniiio ?icoyaia?, oaeaeeino?
iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei, ia?aiao??a cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie,
i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy oa oi?noeino? ceai?a. Iiaeai? e?aneaiiy
c?ace?a aeey aei?iaoaaiue ? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy E?I.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy aoiiieo
o??uei aecia/aee ia na?aia?ae?aae?/i?e aei?iaoaaeuei?e iaoei? NOI-100
ae?iaieoeoaa AIOE ?iai? I.E.Aioiiiaa c ea?oth/ei IE oeio ?AI ?N/AO.
Iaoai?/i? aeanoeainoae ca noaoe/iiai ?icoyao aecia/aee ia c?aceao c
oeee?iae?e/iith ?iai/ith /anoeiith ae?aiao?ii 10 ii.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? aecia/aee i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo?? ia c?aceao ?c ieineith ?iai/ith ae?eyieith, aieiaith
o??ueiith oa iiia?a/iei ia?a??cii 10o24 ii. Iiia?aaeiuei c?acee
aeaioiaeyee aac i?i??caiiy eiioeaio?aoi?a iai?oaeaiue, ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?ioaaee ?o inueiaei ?icoyaii /e noeneii i?e oaiia?aoo?? 293E.

Aaee/eio iicaeiaaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith

e=ln(1/(1-)), (1)

aea =F0/Fe – a?aeiinia caoaeaiiy ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co c?acea; . F0
? Fe – a?aeiia?aeii ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co c?acea aei ? i?ney
aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy i?e?iaeiiai noa??iiy ? c iaoith ciaioaiiy aioo??oi?o
iai?oaeaiue a iaoa??ae? c?acee aeo?eioaaeenue ia iaioa 30 ae?a i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 293E. Iio?i i?i??caee eiioeao?aoi?, ae?iuoaaee ia?a?nio
aoiiio o??ueio.

Aecia/aiiy oaeaeeino? ?AO i?iaiaeeee ca iinooiiaiai cieaeaiiy E?I aae
aei ii?iaiaeo cia/aiue. Ia??iaee/ii /anoioo iaaaioaaeoaaiiy a oeeee?
ciaiooaaee aei 0,5 Aoe ? caienoaaee iioi/i? cia/aiiy coneeey ? ?
aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaeeco a?no?y o??ueie ia iaai?oiee iin?e IE c ianooiiei
ia/eneaiiyi aaee/eie E?I Kop, ca yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ice?eooy aa?aa?a
o??ueie. Aeey eiio?ieth ae?aa?aio ?- aeoaethaaee ia aeaioeii?aeeiaoiiio
naiiieoo/iio iioaioe?iiao?? oeio I307/1.

A?coaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ia?ai?uaiiyi a?no?y o??ueie i?iaiaeeee
a?aeaieiio?ieueiei i?eno?i?i ia aac? i?e?ineiia oeio IAN-10 ?
i?eieneiai? oaeaa?c?eii? onoaiiaee IOO-44. Aaee/eio oaeaeeino? ?AO
ia/enethaaee ca ?ic?iaeaiith i?ia?aiith OBRUT c a?aooaaiiyi iii?aaee ia
oi?io o?iioo o??ueie.

Aeey aea/aiiy i?e?iiaoai?ci?a aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy nieaao AIa6 i?iaaaeai?
i?e?io?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue ceai?a c?ace?a. Aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoaiee aeaeo?iiiee ?ano?iaee i?e?ineii, yeee caaacia/ea
ca?eueoaiiy iaeyaeiai? ciie a?ae o500 aei o3000 ?ac?a i?e aenie?e
?icae?euei?e caeaoiino? ? aeeaei? ??ceino?. Neaioaaiiy iiaa?oi?
aeeiioaaeenue acaeiaae in? ceaio ? a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo ae?eyieao c?acea.

Iiaeai? aeie-noaie i?ia?ai aaoiiaoecaoe?? aei?iaoaaiue ia noaoe/io
i?oei?noue oa ia/eneaiiy ia?aiao??a cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie ca
io?eiaieie a ?iaio? aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iiaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
nieaao AIa6, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii oa noeneii ia oaeaee?noue iioe?aiiy
aoiiieo o??uei, i?e?iiaoai?cie ?oeioaaiiy, oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ceaio,
ia?aiao?e cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie oa ii?iaiao o??ueiino?ee?noue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei a nieaa? AIa6
i?iaiaeeee i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? c eiao?oe??ioii aneiao??? oeeeeo
iaaaioaaeoaaiiy R=0,1 oa R=0,7 , /anoio? iaaaioaaeoaaiiy 25 Aoe, ca
aeiyoeii i?eii?iaiai? ae?eyiee, aea /anoioa aoea 70 Aoe.

Ai?iaeiaae aei?iaoaaiue eiio?iethaaee ?iciao E?I

K=Kmax — Kmin, (2)

aea Kmin oa Kmax – iaeiaioee ? iaea?eueoee E?I oeeeeo iaaaioaaeoaaiiy.

Ia ?en. 1 iiaeai? AeA? a iii?iaeueieo (a) oa aoaeoeaieo (a) eii?aeeiaoao
aeey nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? ? i?ney ??cieo ??ai?a IIAe ?icoyao
oa noeneo.

IIAe aiane?aeie noeneo aei ??aiy a= — 0,102 ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue
iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei o anueiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie E, ca aeiyoeii
aenieiaiie?ooaeii? ae?eyiee AeA? (?en.1,a). Iaea?eueoa i?aeaeuaiiy
oaeaeeino? ?AO (aei 15 ?ac) niinoa??aa?oueny ia i?eii?iaia?e ae?eyioe?
ae?aa?aie.

Aieea iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii ia oaeaee?noue
?AO a nieaa? AIa6 ia ? iaeiicia/iei. I?e E8IIai oaeaee?noue ?AO a
aeaoi?iiaaiiio iaoa??ae? ? a?eueoa, a i?e E8IIai iaioa a ii??aiyii? c
iaoa??aeii a noai? iinoa/aiiy. O?aaa caoaaaeeoe, ui i?e iaeiaeiaiio ca
aaniethoiith aaee/eiith, aea i?ioeeaaeiiio ca ciaeii ??aiaa? IIAe,
oaeaee?noue ?AO i?ney noeneo i?eaeecii a 6 ?ac?a a?eueoa, i?ae i?ney
?icoyao.

AeA? a aoaeoeaieo eii?aeeiaoao (?en.1,a) ia ? ?iaa??aioieie a?aeiinii
IIAe ?icoyaii – noeneii. Oea na?ae/eoue, ui aaee/eia ?ice?eooy aa?aa?a
o??ueie ia ? ?aeeiei e?eoa???i aieeao ia oaeaee?noue ?AO a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio nieaa? AIa6.

?en.1.

E?iaoe/i? ae?aa?aie aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? ?
i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai ?icoyao oa noeneo (R=0,1, O=293E)

I?iaaaeaiee e?euee?niee o?aeoia?ao?/iee aiae?c caeaaeiino? e?ieo aoiiieo
ai?icaiie S a?ae ?iciaoo E?I a?ey iiaa?oi? c?acea ? acaeiaae in? ceaio.
Ca eiai ?acoeueoaoaie iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeey iaeeo cia/aiue
?iciaoo E?I (E<9...10IIai) iiia?aaei? ieanoe/ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy ye ?icoyaii, oae ? noeneii i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy e?ieo aoiiieo ai?icaiie o ii??aiyii? c ia?a?niei noaiii iaoa??aeo. I?e i?aeaeuaii? ?iciaoo E?I e?ie ai?icaiie iaioee i?ney aeaoi?ioaaiiy, i?ae aeey iaoa??aeo a ia?a?niiio noai?. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth, aeyaeaiith a i?ioean? i?e?io?aeoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co, ? oa, ui ?icoya ? noene iaeiaeiai aieeaathoue ia aaee/eio e?ieo aoiiieo ai?icaiie a?ey iiaa?oi? c?acea, oiaoi e?ie S caeaaeeoue eeoa a?ae aaniethoii? aaee/eie ??aiy IIAe ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?yieo aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ?o aiae?co iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iacaeaaeii a?ae ??aiy IIAe ? iai?yieo aeaoi?ioaaiiy a nieaa? AIa6 ?aae?cothoueny iaeiaeia? i?e?iiaoai?cie iioe?aiiy aoiiii? o??ueie. Ia ia?o?e (i?eii?iaia?e) ae?eyioe? AeA? niinoa??aa?oueny no??/eiaee ?aeue?o, yeee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?iciaoo E?I ia ae?oa?e ae?eyioe? cai?iy?oueny inaaaeiai?icai/anoei ? ai?icai/anoei ?aeue?oii. I?e iiaeaeueoiio ia?inoaii? ?iciaoo E?I (o?aoy ae?eyiea AeA?) niinoa??aa?oueny ai?icai/anoi-a?aa?i/anoee ? yieiaee i?e?i?aeue?oe ii iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy. Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y noeneii iaoiiaeth? iiyao i?e?i?ico??neoaaiiy a i?eii?iaia?e ae?eyioe? AeA? ? noaai?icaiie a na?aaeei? iniiaieo ai?icaiie. Noeniai?noue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia e?ie aoiiieo ai?icaiie aeey c?ace?a i?ney IIAe aiane?aeie ?icoyao ? noeneo. Aeey nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? e?ie ai?icaiie ? a?eueoei a ieie? in? ceaio a ii??aiyii? c i?eiiaa?oiaaith ae?eyieith c?acea. Ni?aiaaeaiiy iae?ioaeaeeinoae ?AO ? e?ieo ai?icaiie aeey aeaoi?iiaaieo c?ace?a niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa o aocueeiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie ?iciaoo E?I: E=30...40 IIai aeey iiia?aaeiuei ?icoyaiooiai c?acea ? E=16...20 IIai aeey iiia?aaeiuei noeniooiai c?acea. Aeey ia?a?niiai noaio iaoa??aeo a onueiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie E e?ie ai?icaiie a?eueoee ca iae?ioaeaee?noue ?AO. Oaeei /eiii, a?oiooth/enue ia ?acoeueoaoao i?e?io?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ceai?a c?ace?a, aei?iaoaaieo ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ine?eueee aeey iaoa??aeo a ia?a?niiio noai? ? i?ney ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii oa noeneii caa??aathoueny iaeiaeia? i?e?iiaoai?cie iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei, oi aiie ia iiaeooue aecia/aoe aieea IIAe ia oaeaee?noue ?AO. I?iaiae?ciaaiee aieea IIAe ia ia?aiao?e cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie (CO). Aeyaeaii (?en. 2), ui a iiia?aaeiuei ?icoyaiooeo oa noeniooeo c?aceao Kop iaioa, i?ae aeey ia?a?niiai noaio iaoa??aeo, i?e/iio i?e iaeiaeiaeo ca iiaeoeai ??aiyo IIAe ?noioi?oa ciaioaiiy Kop (aei 2 ?ac?a) niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy noeneii. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?iciaoo E?I niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aaee/eie Kop. A?aeiii, ui aaee/eia Kop iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia ae??th oaeeo /eiiee?a, ye oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy, oeeee?/ia ieanoe/i?noue a ieie? a?no?y o??ueie oa ieeniaiiy iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy. A?coaeueiei aiae?cii, a oaeiae aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ceai?a c?ace?a ?c nieaao AIa6, aei?iaoaaieie ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue, ia aeyaeaii ne?ae?a ei?ic??, iia’ycaii? c ieeniaiiyi iiaa?oi? aai o?ao?iaii. Oiio iniiaieie iaoai?ciaie aieeao ia aaee/eio Kop ? oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy ? oeeee?/ia ieanoe/i?noue iaoa??aeo o a?no?? o??ueie. Aeyaeaii, ui aeey nieaao AIa6 IIAe ??cieo iai?yie?a cieaeo? ?iciao iii?iaeueiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaeo E?I a ii??aiyii? c oaeeie ae oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeey iaoa??aeo a ia?a?niiio noai? (?en. 3). I?e/iio, a?eueo nooo?aa cieaeaiiy iii?iaeueiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaeo E?I (a 1,5 ?ac?a) niinoa??aa?oueny i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy noeneii aei ??aiy a= - 0,102. ?en2. Aieea IIAe ia ia?aiao?e cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie aeey nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai?, i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai ?icoyao ? noeneo (R=0,1, T=293 K) ?en.3 Caeaaei?noue ii?iaiaeo E?I a?ae IIAe aeey nieaao AIa6 (R=0,1, T=293 K) A?aoiaoth/e aieea IIAe ia oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ceaio, a oaeiae ii?iaiao o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??aeo (?en.4), iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeii?ioth/ee aianie a cae?eooy o??ueie aecia/a?oueny oi?noe?noth iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy. Ia caeaaeii a?ae iai?yieo aeaoi?ioaaiiy ? ??aiy IIAe ca?eueoaiiy oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? iaeiicia/ii i?aeaeuo? Kth i?. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ceaio aeey i?eii?iaiai? ae?eyiee AeA? (?en. 5) aeyaeaii, ui IIAe ye noeneii, oae ? ?icoyaii ciaioo? oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy a ii??aiyii? c ia?a?niei noaiii nieaao AIa6. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeueiai e?ie aoiiieo ai?icaiie ia i?eii?iaia?e ae?eyioe? iiiioiiii c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ??aiy IIAe a?ae a= - 0,102 aei a= +0,106. ?en.4 Caeaaei?noue ii?iaiaeo E?I a?ae oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ceaio aeey nieaao AIa6 (R=0,1, T=293 K) ?en.5. Caeaaei?noue oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy oa e?ieo aoiiieo ai?icaiie nieaao AIA6 ia ae?eyioe? i?eii?iaiaeo E?I a?ae IIAe (R=0,1, T=293 K) Ia?iaa??aioi?noue AeA? nieaao AIa6 a aoaeoeaieo eii?aeeiaoao a?aeiinii IIAe iaeiia?niei ?icoyaii – noeneii na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui cae?eooy o??ueie ia a iiai?e i??? aecia/a? oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue ? oi?ioaaiiy ii?ia?a aoiie a nieaa? AIa6. A?aeiii, ui aeey a?eueoino? iaoa??ae?a, a o./. ? aeaoi?iiaaieo, aoaeoeaiee ii?iaiaee E?I aecia/a?oueny iiaeoeai i?oaeiino? ca aii??e/iith oi?ioeith, cai?iiiiiaaiith I.Eueth Kth eff = 1,6o10-5A, (3) aea A – iiaeoeue THiaa. A?eeoaaiiy o??ueie, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?eii?iaia?e ae?eyioe? AeA?, aaaea aei a?aeoeeaiy o??ueie a?ae iaa?no?aeueiiai iai?yieo, ?, ye iane?aeie, iiyae ci?uaiiy aa?aa?a o??ueie ca iaoai?ciii iiia?a/iiai cnoao ? ciaioaiiy E?I ii?iaeueiiai a?ae?eao E? o ii??aiyii? c ?ic?aooieiaei. Aeey ioe?iee aieeao a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie ia aaee/eio E? aeey ieanoeie c aieiaith o??ueiith, ?ici?uaiith i?ae eooii aei in? c?acea, aoei aeei?enoaii oi?ioeo M.Isida oa iiiia?aio aeey aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo eiao?oe??io?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie . Aeey ia/eneaiiy aoaeoeaiai ?iciaoo E?I cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ioea K?th eff = Kth eff (A)oK(=0)/ K(>0), (4)

aea Kth eff (A) – aoaeoeaiee ii?iaiaee E?I, ia/eneaiee ca oi?ioeith (3);
K(=0)/ K(>0) – ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae E?I E? aeey o??ueie, ui
iioe?th?oueny aac a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae iaa?no?aeueiiai iai?yieo oa E?I E?
aeey o??ueie, ui a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae iaa?no?aeueiiai iai?yieo ca ?aooiie
a?eeoaaiiy.

A?aeoeeaiiy io?eiaieo ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue
aoaeoeaieo ii?iaiaeo ?iciao?a E?I aeey nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? oa
c a?aooaaiiyi aieeao IIAe ia ia?aaeuo? 18%. A ?iaeaia?i?e i?aeoeoe? oaea
iioeaea eiiiaino?oueny eiino?oeoeaiei eiao?oe??ioii caiano i?oeiino?.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii, yeee
aieeaa? ia iii?iaeuei? oa aoaeoeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?iaiai?
o??ueiino?eeino? a nieaa? AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? oa i?ney iaeiia?niiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii oa noeneii ? a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie.
A?ae ia?aiao??a a?eeoaaiiy caeaaeeoue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aaee/eiaie KI
i KII, a ioaea ? aoaeoeaiee E?I aeey o??ueie ii?iaeueiiai a?ae?eao.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaia ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo a ?iaio?
?acoeueoao?a c ?acoeueoaoaie ?ioeo aaoi??a ? ia iniia? oeueiai
cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee ioe?iee aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaeiia?niei ?icoyaii-noeneii ia oeeee?/io
o??ueiino?ee?noue eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.

A?oiooth/enue ia ?ai?oa cai?iiiiiaaiiio i?aeoiae?, iioe?aii
eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoa??ae?a uiaei /ooeeaino? oaeaeeino? ?AO aei IIAe ia
aeiaaeie iiia?aaeiueiai noeneo, iniiaaio ia noeeueiino? iaoa??ae?a aei
oeeee?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy /e ciai?oeiaiiy.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeacaio eeaneo?eaoe?th io?eiai? ocaaaeueiai? ae?aa?aie
a?aeiinii? oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy o??ueie a?ae iai?yieo ? ??aiy IIAe
(?en.6). Ia ?en. 6 a?aeiinia oaeaee?noue ?AO

V=Vaeao./Via?a., (5)

aea Via?a oa Vaeao – oaeaee?noue ?AO a?aeiia?aeii aeey iaoa??aeo a
ia?a?niiio noai? ? i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Ca?aeii c oe??th ae?aa?aiith IIAe ?icoyaii ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue ?AO
aeey oeeee?/ii ci?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a (a/0,21,5) o ii??aiyii? c
ia?a?niei noaiii ? ciaioo? aeey oeeee?/ii ciai?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
(a/0,21,5).

Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii, noene ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue ?AO
aeey an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoa??ae?a, ia caeaaeii a?ae ?o noeeueiino?
aei oeeee?/iiai ci?oeithaaiiy /e ciai?oeithaaiiy.

?en. 6. Eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoa??ae?a ca /ooeea?noth uaeaeeino? ?AO aei IIAe
aiane?aeie iaeiia?niiai ?icoyao oa noeneo

?en.7. Eeaneo?eaoe?y iaoa??ae?a ca /ooeea?noth ii?iaiai?
o??ueiino?eeino? aei IIAe aiane?aeie iaeiia?niiai ?icoyao oa noeneo

Cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoa??ae?a noiniaii aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaeiia?niei ?icoyaii oa noeneii ia ii?iaia?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? c a?aooaaiiyi noeeueiino?
oeeo iaoa??ae?a aei oeeee?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy /e ciai?oeiaiiy. Io?eiai?
ae?aa?aie a?aeiiniiai ?iciaoo ii?iaiaeo E?I a?ae a?ae iai?yieo ? ??aiy
IIAe (?en.7). Ia ?en. 7 a?aeiinia cia/aiiy ?iciaoo ii?iaiaiai E?I
aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith

Kth=Kth aeao./ Kth ia?a, (6)

aea Kth ia?a ? Kth aeao – ?iciao ii?iaiaiai E?I a?aeiia?aeii aeey
iaoa??aeo a ia?a?niiio noai? ? i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Ca?aeii c oeeie ae?aa?aiaie aeey oeeee?/ii ci?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a
IIAe aiane?aeie ?icoyao oa noeneo ciaioo? ii?iaiaee E?I ii??aiyii c
ia?a?niei noaiii iaoa??aeo (?en. 7). Aeey oeeee?/ii ciai?oeithaaieo
iaoa??ae?a iiia?aae?e noene o an?o aeiaaeeao i?aeaeuo? Kth, a ?icoya
ciaioo? Kth, ca aeiyoeii aeiaaeeo, eiee ia noaae?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e?i?ico??neoaaiiy ? ooai?aiiy i?e?iii?, yea coiiaeth?
a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie ? i?aeaeuo? Ktheff.

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aaoiiaoeciaaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaeaeeino? ?AO ?
ia?aiao??a cae?eooy aoiiii? o??ueie c iaeaoii i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey
ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia aac? na?aia?ae?aae?/ii?
aei?iaoaaeueii? iaoeie NOI-100 c ea?oaaiiyi a?ae IE ?AI ?N/AO.

2. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? iioe?aiiy aoiiieo o??uei ? oi?ioaaiiy
ii?iaiai? o??ueiino?eeino? nieaao AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? ? i?ney
iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaeiia?niei ?icoyaii oa noeneii
ca ??cieo aneiao??e oeeeeo iaaaioaaeoaaiiy. O an?o aeiaaeeao IIAe
?icoyaii oa noeneii ciaioo? iii?iaeueiee ?iciao ii?iaiaiai E?I nieaao
AIa6 a ii??aiyii? c ia?a?niei noaiii.

3. Ae?aa?aia aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy nieaao AIa6 ye a iii?iaeueieo, oae ? a
aoaeoeaieo eii?aeeiaoao V=f(Keff) ia ? ?iaa??aioiith aei IIAe ?icoyaii –
noeneii. Aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia oeeee?/io
o??ueiino?ee?noue nieaao AIa6.

4. Anoaiiaeaii aca?iic’ycie i?ae i?e?iiaoai?ciaie iioe?aiiy aoiiieo
o??uei, ?o ii?oieia??th ? E?I, ca yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny cae?eooy o??ueie.
Ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii aieeao ia oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?iaiai?
o??ueiino?eeino? a nieaa? AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? oa i?ney iaeiia?niiai
iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaii oa noeneii ?
oi?noe?noue iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy, cie?aia ?? ia?aiao? Rmax, yeee ?
?acoeueoaoii a?eeoaaiiyi o??ueie.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaiai ?iciaoo E?I
aeey nieaao AIa6, ui a?oioo?oueny ia a?aooaaii? aieeao a?eeoaaiiy
o??ueie ia iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?i?aiee noai a ?? a?no??.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoa??ae?a uiaei aieeao IIAe ia ?iciao
ii?iaiaiai E?I ? oaeaee?noue ?AO ? iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiai? ae?aa?aie c
a?aooaaiiyi noeeueiino? iaoa??ae?a aei oeeee?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy /e
ciai?oeiaiiy. Aeyaeaii, ui IIAe aiane?aeie ?icoyao ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue
?AO aeey oeeee?/ii ci?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ciaioo? aeey oeeee?/ii
ciai?oeithaaeueieo. IIAe noeneii ca?eueoo? oaeaee?noue ?AO aeey an?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaoa??ae?a, ia caeaaeii a?ae ?o noeeueiino? aei
oeeee?/iiai ci?oeithaaiiy /e ciai?oeithaaiiy.

7. Aeey oeeee?/ii ci?oeithaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a IIAe aiane?aeie ?icoyao ?
noeneo ciaioo? ii?iaiaee E?I ii??aiyii c ia?a?niei noaiii iaoa??aeo.
Aeey oeeee?/ii ciai?oeithaaieo iaoa??ae?a iiia?aaei?e noene o an?o
aeiaaeeao i?aeaeuo? Kth, a ?icoya ciaioo? Kth, ca aeiyoeii aeiaaeeo,
eiee ia noaae?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e?i?ico??neoaaiiy ?
ooai?aiiy i?e?iii?, yea coiiaeth? a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie ? i?aeaeuo? Ktheff.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Yasniy P.V. and Kovalchuk Ya.O. The influence of preliminary plastic
deformation on fatigue crack growth rate. // Materials Ageing and
Nomponent Live Extension: Proc Int. Symp.. on Mater. Life Ext. — Milan,
1995,- P.185-194.

2. ssni?e I.A., Eiaaeue/oe ss.I., Noaiaiaiei A.I. Aieea iiia?aaeiuei?
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia i?e?iiaoai?cie ?oeioaaiiy nieaao AIa6
//A?niee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998.
– O.3, ?1. N. 5-11.

3. Eiaaeue/oe ss.I. Aieea iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia
ii?iaiao o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a //A?niee Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1999. – O.4, ?1. N. 45-55.

4. ssni?e I.A., Eiaaeue/oe ss.I. Aieea iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ia oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue nieaao AIa6. //A?niee
AEeoiie?nueeiai ?iaeaia?ii-oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. – 1999. –, ?9, N.
56-63.

5. ssni?e I.A., Iiaeeieuec?i A.TH., Eiaaeue/oe ss.I. Aieea iiia?aaeiueai
ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia iano/o caeaoi?noue aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e//Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoeii?noe? oaoiieia?? iiaea?eiiai i?ecia/aiiy”. – Oii 2.- Ee?a: —
1994, — N.37.

6. ssni?e I.A., Eiaaeue/oe ss.I. Caeiiii??iino? ?inoo aoiiieo o??uei a
ieanoe/ii-aeaoi?iiaaieo iaoa??aeao.// Oace aeiiia?aeae IV I?aeia?iaeii?
eiioa?aioe?? c iaoai?ee iaiaeii??aeieo no?oeoo?. – Oa?iii?eue: — 1995.–
N. 222-223.

7. ssni?e I.A., Eiaaeue/oe ss.I., Oiea??a I.I., Iaeiaae A.I. Aieea
iiia?aaeiueiai aenieioaeaee?niiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?iaoeeo ?inoo
aoiiieo o??uei// Oace aeiiia?aeae 1 Oe?a?inueei-Iieuenueeiai neiiic?oio.
— Oa?iii?eue: — 1997. — N. 193-195.

8. ssni?e I.A., Eiaaeue/oe ss.I. Aieea iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiyi ?ic?yaoaaiiyi-noeneaiiyi ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo aoiiieo
o??uei // No/ani? i?iaeaie iaoai?ee ? iaoaiaoeee: Iaoa??aee
I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 70-??//th aeaaeai?ea
IAI Oe?a?ie ss.N.I?aeno?eaa/a. – Euea?a: — 1998. — N. 213.

AIIOAOe??

Eiaaeue/oe ss.I. Aieea iiia?aaeiuei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia
oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue aethi?i??aiai nieaao.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.04 — iaoai?ea aeaoi?i?aiiai oaa?aeiai o?ea. —
Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia Ioethy,
i. Oa?iii?eue, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeyaeaiith caeiiii??iinoae iioe?aiiy aoiiieo
o??uei ? oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaiai? o??ueiino?eeino? a aethi?i??aiio nieaa?
AIa6 a ia?a?niiio noai? oa i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaeiia?niei ?icoyaii oa noeneii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o an?o
aeiaaeeao iiia?aaeiy ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y (IIAe) ?icoyaii oa noeneii
ciaioo? iii?iaeueiee ?iciao ii?iaiaiai eiao?oe??ioo ?ioaineaiin?
iai?oaeaiue(E?I) nieaao AIa6 a ii??aiyii? c ia?a?niei noaiii.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaiai ?iciaoo E?I
nieaao AIa6. Iiaoaeiaaii ocaaaeueiai? ae?aa?aie aieeao IIAe ia ?iciao
ii?iaiaiai E?I ? oaeaee?noue ?inoo aoiiieo o??uei, ye? aeicaieythoue
iioei?coaaoe oaoiieia?th ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a oeneii. Aeyaeai? caeaaeiino?
ii?iaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeeee?/ii? o??ueiino?eeino? a?ae ia?aiao??a
oi?noeino? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy a nieaa? AIa6, a oaeiae iaoiaeeea ioe?iee
aoaeoeaieo ii?ia?a o??ueiino?eeino? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
ioe?iee ceai?a aeaoaeae c iaoith a?aeoai?aiiy ?noi??? ?o iaaaioaaeoaaiiy
i?e i?iaaaeaii? oaoi?/ii? aenia?oece. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo a?aeiia?aeaeueieo aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e e?oae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aethi?i??aee nieaa, aoiiia o??ueia, oaeaee?noue
iioe?aiiy aoiiii? o??ueie, eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue.

Eiaaeue/oe ss.A. Aeeyiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee ia
oeeeee/aneoth o?aueiinoieeinoue aethieieaaiai nieaaa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.04 — iaoaieea aeaoi?ie?oaiiai oaa?aeiai oaea. —
Oa?iiiieueneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia
Ioethy, Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia auyaeaieth caeiiiia?iinoae ?ani?ino?aiaiey
onoaeinoiuo o?auei e oi?ie?iaaiey ii?iaiaie o?aueiinoieeinoe a
aethieieaaii nieaaa AIa6 a enoiaeii ninoiyiee e iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
ieanoe/aneiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iaeiiiniui ?anoyaeaieai e naeaoeai. Nieaa
AIa6 eniieuecoaony aeey ecaioiaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiuo aeaoaeae naiieaoia e
iiaeaeaaony aicaeaenoaeth i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ieanoe/aneiai
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey a i?ioeanna iieo/aiey aeaoaeae ia?aaioeie iaoa?eaea
aeaaeaieai.

?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea aaoiiaoece?iaaiuo enneaaeiaaiee iaoaie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa?eaea, nei?inoe ?inoa onoaeinoiie o?aueie (?OO) e
ia?aiao?ia cae?uoey onoaeinoiie o?aueiu n iaeaoii i?eeeaaeuo i?ia?aii
aeey ia?aaioee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo ia aaca na?aiaeae?aaee/aneie
eniuoaoaeueiie iaoeiu NOI-100 n oi?aaeaieai io IE IBM PC/AT.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ai anao neo/ayo i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ieanoe/aneay
aeaoi?iaoeey (IIAe) ?anoyaeaieai e naeaoeai oiaiueoaao iiieiaeueiue
?aciao ii?iaiaiai eiyooeoeeaioa eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiee (EEI) nieaaa
AIa6 ii n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiui ninoiyieai. Aeeaa?aiia onoaeinoiiai
?ac?ooaiey nieaaa AIa6 a iiieiaeueiuo e yooaeoeaiuo eii?aeeiaoao ia
eiaa?eaioia e IIAe ?anoyaeaieai – naeaoeai. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?aoathuei
oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia ii?iaiaoth o?aueiinoieeinoue nieaaa AIa6,
yaeyaony aaoaeaiea o?aueiu, oi?ie?othuaa oa?ioiaaoinoue iiaa?oiinoe
eceiia.

I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee yooaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaiai ?aciaoa EEI aeey
nieaaa AIa6, aace?othuayny ia o/aoa aeeyiey aaoaeaiey o?aueiu ia
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiia ninoiyiea a aa?oeia o?aueiu. ?ac?aaioaia
eeanneoeeaoeey iaoa?eaeia ii aeeyieth IIAe ia ?aciao ii?iaiaiai EEI e
nei?inoue ?OO, a oaeaea iino?iaiu iaiauaiiua aeeaa?aiiu aeey ?yaea
eiino?oeoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia n o/aoii eo neeiiiinoe e oeeeee/aneiio
oi?i/iaieth eee ?acoi?i/iaieth. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi IIAe ?anoyaeaieai
oaaee/eaaao nei?inoue ?OO aeey oeeeee/anee oi?i/iythueony iaoa?eaeia e
oiaiueoaao aeey oeeeee/anee ?acoi?i/iythueony. IIAe naeaoeai oaaee/eaaao
nei?inoue ?OO aeey anao enneaaeiaaiuo iaoa?eaeia ia caaeneii io eo
neeiiiinoe e oeeeee/aneiio oi?i/iaieth eee ?acoi?i/iaieth.

Aeey oeeeee/anee oi?i/iythueony iaoa?eaeia IIAe ?anoyaeaiey e naeaoey
oiaiueoaao ii?iaiaue EEI ii n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiui ninoiyieai. Aeey
oeeeee/anee ?acoi?i/iythueony iaoa?eaeia IIAe naeaoey ai anao neo/ayo
iiauoaao ?aciao ii?iaiaiai EEI, a ?anoyaeaiey iiieaeaao aai, ca
eneeth/aieai neo/ay, eiaaea ia noaaeee aeaoi?ie?iaaiey inouanoaeyaony
iee?i?ano?aneeaaiea e ia?aciaaiea iee?iii?, iaoneaaeeaathueo aaoaeaiea
o?aueiu e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaiai ?aciaoa EEI.

I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea ioeaiee yooaeoeaiiai ii?iaiaiai ?aciaoa EEI e
nei?inoe ?OO, eioi?ay aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iioeiece?iaaoue oaoiieiaeth
ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia aeaaeaieai. Onoaiiaeaiua caaeneiinoe ii?iaiauo
oa?aeoa?enoee oeeeee/aneie o?aueiinoieeinoe io ia?aiao?ia oa?ioiaaoinoe
e oaaa onoaeinoiuo ai?icaeie iiaa?oiinoe ?ac?ooaiey a nieaaa AIa6 iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey ioeaiee eceiiia aeaoaeae n oeaeueth
ainnicaeaiey enoi?ee eo iaa?oaeaiey i?e i?iaaaeaiee oaoie/aneie
yenia?oecu. ?ac?aaioaiiay iaoiaeeea ioeaiee yooaeoeaiuo ii?iaia
o?aueiinoieeinoe iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny a eiaeaia?iuo ?an/aoao i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia iaa?oaeaiey yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee
aeey iaania/aiey i?iaeoiiai ?ano?na yenieoaoaoeee ecaeaeee. ?acoeueoaou
?aaiou eniieuecothony i?e eniuoaieyo ioaaonoaaiiuo yeaiaioia
eiino?oeoeee naiieaoia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aethieieaaue nieaa, nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey
onoaeinoiie o?aueiu, oeeeee/aneay o?aueiinoieeinoue, eiyooeoeeaio
eioaineaiinoe iai?yaeaiee.

Kovalchuk Ya. O. The Effect of the Preliminary Plastic Deformation on
the CyclicCrack Resistance of the Aluminium Alloy. – Manuskript.

The thesis presented for a Candidate’s of Sciences Degree in
engineering; speciality 01.02.04 – mechanics of fracture bodies.
Ternopil Ivan Pul’uy State Technical University. Ternopil, 1999.

The thesis deals with determination of pecularities of fatigue crack
propagation and formation of the threshold crack resistance in the
aluminium alloy AlMg6 at the original state as well as after preliminary
plastic stretch and stress deformation. It was found that in all cases
preliminary plastic stretch and stress deformation leads to the decrease
of the stress intensity factor (SIF) range of the AlMg6 alloy as
compared with the original state. The method of estimation of the
effective threshold SIF range of the AlMg6 alloy was suggested. General
diagrams of the preliminary plastic deformation effect on the threshold
SIF range and the fatique crack growth rate which allow to perfect the
technology of the material press treatment were built. The found
dependence of the threshold characteristics of the cyclic crack
resistance on the parametres of the fatigue strength surface condition
factor in AlMg6 alloy as well as the method of estimation of the
effective crack resistence threshold may be applied for estimation of
the parts fracture in order to learn the loading history while
technical testing. The results of investigations are applied for testing
the definite aircrafts construction elements.

Key words: aluminium alloy, fatigue crack, rate of fatigue crack growth,
stress intensity factor

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