OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

A?aoi?ae Iaaae

AIEEA IIEss?ECAOe?? ?IAeOEOTH*IAI AEI?II?ITHAAIHss IA OI?IOAAIIss
NIIIOAIIEO IA??IAeE*IEO NO?OEOO? O NA?OEI*OOEEAEO IE?AEAO

01.04.05 — Iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?,

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieeinueeaaneee Aieiaeeie?
Einoyioeiiae/, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e o?ce/ii? iioeee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oeo?aoia TH??e A?eai?iae/, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii

aeenoaioe?eiiai ciiaeoaaiiy ieaiao
ano?iiii?/ii?

iana?aaoi??? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
, noa?oee iaoeiaee

ni?a?ia?oiee , Ion?e Aieiaeeie?
A?eoi?iae/ , aeioeaio

eaoaae?e caaaeueii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o?ceee

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie;
a?aeae?e

iioeee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 8 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i— 16 30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.03 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (310077, i. Oa?e?a-77, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4,
aoae. ?i. E.Ae.Neiaeueieeiaa).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeii iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310077, i. Oa?e?a-77, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 02 .09.1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iieaea A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aieia?ao?/ieo aeeo?aeoe?eieo
??aoie, noi?iiaaieo o oioi/ooeeaeo na?aaeiaeuao aeaiia na?oeiaeie
io/eaie, o aeena?oaoe?? aea/athoueny oioi?iaeoeiaai? ia??iaee/i?
no?oeoo?e (niiioaii? ??aoee (NY)) , ui aeieeathoue o na?oei/ooeeaeo
ie?aeao i?ae ae??th iaeiiai na?oeiaiai ?, cie?aia, eaca?iiai io/ea.
Aeieeiaiiy NY iia’ycaii c iaieio/ei neaaeei ?icn?thaaiiyi na?oea o
?aaeueieo na?aaeiaeuao c ??ciiiai?oiith aaiiao???th. ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea
a oiieeo na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao i?ecaiaeeoue, ca iaaieo oiia, aei
caoaeaeaiiy oaeeaaiaeieo aai aei?ii?ithaaeueieo iiae, ye?
ni?yiiaothoueny ocaeiaae iiaa?oi?. ?ioa?oa?aioe?y iaaeath/iai
iiiio?iiaoe/iiai io/ea c ?icn?yieie iiaeaie noai?th? ia??iaee/ia ca
?ioaineai?noth na?oeiaa iiea, ui ni?ey? ia?aiino iane na?oei/ooeeaiai
iaoa??aeo c iaeneioi?a o i?i?ioie ?ioa?oa?aioe?? ? oi?ioaaiith NY. *a?ac
?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ia ie?aieo aeaoaeoao NY ia?aaoey?i? ? neeaaeathoueny
c iaai?o i?e?i??aoie, ui a?ae??ciythoueny a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ca
aaee/eiith ? iai?yieii ?oiueiai oaeeaaiai aaeoi?a. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey NY ?
aaoiiaoe/ia caaeiaieaiiy oiia? oaciaiai neio?ii?cio ? ?oi?e ??no ca
?aooiie iiceoeaiiai cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo. Iiceoeaiee cai?ioiee ca’ycie
aecia/a? iano?ee?noue NY ? ?oi?e cia/iee ??no ca aiie?ooaeith iaa?oue
i?e neaaeiio caoaeaeaii? iiae i?e ?icn?thaaii?. Oe? aeanoeaino?, c
iaeiiai aieo, aecia/athoue i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy NY. C ?ioiai aieo, NY
aeyaeythoue aeanoeaino? aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo?, aeey yeeo oa?aeoa?ia
naiii?aai?caoe?y, eiieo?aioe?y ??aoie ??ciiiai?oiiai oeio, a?oo?eaoe?ei?
yaeua, aaoieieeaaiiy oa ?i. , oiio ?oi? aea/aiiy noaiiaeoue ?ioa?an aeey
o?ceee ia??aiiaaaeieo nenoai.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae NY, noi?iiaaieo ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo o?e, aai ooiiaeo
aieia?ai a ia’?iieo na?oei/ooeeaeo na?aaeiaeuao, aea/aiith NY o oiieeo
oaeeaaiaeieo ie?aeao i?enay/aii ii??aiyii iaei i?aoeue. Iniiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy o oeueiio iai?yieo aoee aeeiiai? ia eaoaae?? o?ce/ii?
iioeee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo . Ia?aaaaeia a?eueoenoue
i?aoeue aoea i?enay/aia aea/aiith ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo NY ia
oaeeaaiaeieo OA- ? OI- iiaeao i?e ae?? e?i?eii iiey?eciaaieo eaca?ieo
io/e?a. O yeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia’?eo?a aoee aeei?enoai? oiie? ie?aee
AgCl-Ag, AgBr-Ag, Ag? oa ?i., o yeeo ?icaeoie NY a?aeaoaa?oueny o
?aaeueiiio /an? (real-time). I?ioa, o oe?e aaeoc? oioio?ceee ? iaai?
i?iaeaie. Cie?aia, iaei oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny aea/aiith NY i?e ae??
eaca?ieo io/e?a c ??ciiiai?oiith iiey?ecaoe??th. Io/ee c ??ciith
iiey?ecaoe??th ?iaeoeothoue ??ciiiai?oia ?icn?thaaiiy ? caoaeaeaiiy
iiae, ui iaieio/a iiaeiii aecia/aoe iia? iniaeeaino? a ?icaeoeo NY .
Iiiaeeiie? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? ca?iaeaeaiith NY ia iiaa?oiaaeo
iiey?eoiiao, ye? caoaeaeothoueny oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaieie io/eaie ia
iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo o?e, oeacothoue ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue NY ? caeaaei?noue
?oiuei? no?oeoo?e a?ae eooa iaae?iiy eaca?iiai io/ea oa noaio iiaa?oi?
ii?ii?ithaaieo o?e. Ana neacaia aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue cae?eniaiiai o
oe?e aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
ia eaoaae?? o?ce/ii? iioeee OAeO a ?aieao IAe? eaoaae?e «Aeanoeaino?
niiioaiieo ?ao?oie oa oioi?iaeoeiaaiiai aeeo?i?cio a oiieeo
na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao» ? Ae? 0197 U 002480, caoaa?aeaeaii?
a?aeiia?aeiith iinoaiiaith I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
c’ynoaaiiy aieeao ae?ioe/ii ? oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ia oi?ioaaiiy NY o oiieeo ie?aeao AgCl, eaaiaaieo a?aioey?iei Ag i?e
??ciiiai?oieo oiiaao ii?ii?iaiiy, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino?
caieno niaeo??a eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai na?oea ??cii? iiey?ecaoe?? o
aeaeei?e iaeano?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe oae? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaeoe ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
?icaeoeii NY o i?ioean? ?o ii?ii?iaiiy eaca?iei na?oeii ? iaoiae
aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy aeeo?aeoe?? a?ae NY;

— aeine?aeaeeoe ?icaeoie NY i?e ae?? ae?ioe/ii iiey?eciaaiiai na?oea
(AIN) ?c ??cieie aaee/eiith oa ciaeii ae?ioe/iino?;

— aeine?aeaeeoe aieea oee?eoey?ii- ? e?i?eii iiey?eciaaiiai na?oea (OeIN
? EIN) ia aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie NY i?e ??ci?e iine?aeiaiino? a ae??
io/e?a c ??ciith iiey?ecaoe??th, ye? ii?iaeueii iaaeathoue ia c?acie;

— aeine?aeaeeoe ?icaeoie NY i?e iioeeiio iaae?ii? oee?eoey?ii
iiey?eciaaiiai eaca?iiai io/ea ia na?oei/ooeeaee oa?;

— noai?eoe onoaiiaee aeey iioe/iiai caieno ? c/eooaaiiy niaeo??a
aei?ii?ithaaiiy c ??ciith iiey?ecaoe??th c aeei?enoaiiyi aoaeoo Aaeaa?oa
oa ?iaeoeiaaieo NY o ?a?no?oth/eo ie?aeao AgCl, ui i?noyoue n??aei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a :

— cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? o /an? NY i?e
ae?? ii?ii?ithth/eo io/e?a c ??ciith iiey?ecaoe??th , ui a?oioothoueny
ia aoaeo? iaeieooiaiai ?icn?thaaiiy;

— aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui aceiooaeueiee ?iciiae?e ?iaeoeiaaieo AIN
niiioaiieo i?e?i??aoie ca oaeeaaei aaeoi?ii caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo ?
aaee/eie ae?ioe/iino? ?iaeoeoth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy;

— iieacaii, ui ?icaeoie NY, noi?iiaaieo iine?aeiaiei ii?ii?iaiiyi EIN ?
OeIN, ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aaiethoe?? NY, ?iaeoeiaaieo io/eaie
iaei??? iiey?ecaoe??. I?e iine?aeiaiiio ii?ii?iaii? oi?iothoueny
i?e?i??aoee, i???ioiaai? nai?ie aaeoi?aie i?ae eooaie ±60i, ±45i aei
aeo?aeieo i?e?i??aoie, a ?oi?e ?icaeoie caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaea OeIN;

— aia?oa aeyaeaii aieea a??io?ii??, iaaaaeaii? OeIN o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag ,
ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie NY i?ae ae??th EIN;

— aia?oa aea/ai? NY, noi?iiaai? ia ?aae?aoe?eieo OA- iiaeao i?e iioeeiio
iaae?ii? OeIN. Neeaaeia ea?oeia aeeo?aeoe?? a?ae NY o oeueiio aeiaaeeo
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio nenoai ieyi, aeoa ? e?eaoeue, aeoae o?aouei?
nenoaie iathoue oi?io, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aeoa eiea;

— aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iioe/iee iaoiae caieno ? c/eooaaiiy niaeo??a
i?iioneaiiy ai?cio?iiieo e?enoae?a, ui a?oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaii?
aoaeo?a Aaeaa?oa ? NY, ?iaeoeiaaieo o oiieeo ie?aeao AgCl-Ag.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe ? iieiaeaiiy.

1. Iiyniaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy NY i?e ae?? AIN, ye? coiiaeai?
ii?iaiaei oa?aeoa?ii ?o ca?iaeaeaiiy, aeieeiaiiyi i?e aeiii?iaia?e
aeniiceoe?? ni?yiiaaieo eaioethaee?a ?c a?aioe Ag ? ?icn?thaaiiyi AIN ia
eaioethaeeao ? ?ioeo ai?ciiao?e/ieo /anoeao.

2. Iaoai?ci ?inoo NY i?ae ae??th OeIN o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag, ii?ii?iaieo
iiia?aaeiuei EIN, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia oai??? ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea iaeeie
ai?ciiao?e/ieie /anoeaie Ag ? ia aoaeo? aeaiaei??ii? aeeo?aeoe?? A?aaa
OA- iiae ia aeo?aeieo i?e?i??aoeao.

3. A??io?ii?y a ie?aeao AgCl-Ag iaaaaeaia OeIN /a?ac ?icn?thaaiiy na?oea
ia ai?ciiao?e/ieo /anoeao Ag i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?noioieo, ui caeaaeaoue
a?ae ciaeo OeIN, iniaeeainoae o /aniaiio ?icaeoeo NY i?e iiaeaeueiiio
ii?ii?iaii? EIN.

4. Iaoai?ci ?inoo NY ia ?aae?aoe?eieo OA- iiaeao i?ae ae??th iioeei
iaaeath/iai OeIN, ui a?oioo?oueny ia aeieac? ?nioaaiiy iaae??aoie,
aeieeiaiiy yeeo iia’ycaia c ia?aiaeeaaeaiiyi aioeia?aeaeueieo ca
oaeeaaei aaeoi?ii i?e?i??aoie, ii-??ciiio i???ioiaaieo uiaei ieiueie
iaae?iiy ?iaeoeoth/aai eaca?iiai io/ea.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo o aeena?oaoe??.
Ii?ii?iaiiy na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aie na?oeii c ??ciith iiey?ecaoeith
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ciiiai?oii? no?oeoo?e NY, ui iiaeiii aeaoe noeioe
aeey ?icaeoeo oai??? oi?ioaaiiy aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo?, ye? aeieeathoue
i?e ae?? ii-??ciiio iiey?eciaaieo eaca?ieo io/e?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aa?oi a?aoiaoaaoe a iiey?ecaoe?eiee aieia?ao??, cie?aia, i?e oi?ioaaii?
aieia?ao?/ieo ??aoie OeIN, o i?ioeanao caieno aeaio cia?aaeaiue
i?oiaiiaeueii iiey?eciaaieie io/eaie o oioiai?cio?iiieo na?aaeiaeuao ?
o.ae. . ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a
?ioaa?aeuei?e iioeoe? aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a oaeeaaiaeieo oa??a oa a
iioeoe? aieia?ao?/ieo aeeo?aeoe?eieo aeaiaio?a. Iiaeai? a aeena?oaoe??
iia? iioe/i? iaoiaee caieno ? a?aeoai?aiiy eieuei?iaeo niaeo?ia?ai a?ae
ai?cio?iiieo e?enoae?a a?aee?eaathoue iia? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
oioi/ooeeaeo iaoa??ae?a, o yeeo iathoue i?noea aoaeo Aaeaa?oa ?
oi?ioaaiiy NY.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a aaciina?aaeiueiio iaea?aeaii?
an?o aeaieo aenia?eiaioo, ui neeaaeathoue i?aaeiao aeena?oaoe??, o
eiii’thoa?i?e ia?iaoe? oeeo aeaieo. Aeena?oaio a?aa aeoeaio o/anoue a
iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo ia i?aenoaa? ?nioth/eo oai??e, o
?ic?iaoe? iiaeo iaoiae?a niinoa?aaeaiiy ? ?a?no?aoe?? NY, o
i?aeaiooaaii? e ioi?ieaii? iaoa??ae?a aei ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? ii?eethaeiai?,
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:

3-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?ce/i? yaeua o oaa?aeeo o?eao» .-
Oa?e?a: OAeO .-1997 ; VI I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «O?ceea ? oaoiieia?y
oiieeo ie?aie»._ ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: IO.- 1997 ; Seminars of Optics
Summer School .- Zanjan, Iran: IASBS .-1997; International Conf. of
Photosensitive Optical materials and Devices II, part of SPIE’s
Symposium . — San Jose, USA : SJU . — 1998.

Ioae?eaoe?y. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo noaoae ? 2
oace aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 6
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 130 iaeiaioaaiue .
?iaioa i?noeoue 181 noi??iie oa 62 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? i?iaiaeeoueny iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? ?ic?iaethaaii? oaie
aeena?oaoe??, cacia/aii ?? ca’ycie c iaoeiaith i?ia?aiith eaoaae?e,
noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?acae?e? aeena?oaoe??, “E?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae” iaaaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy niiioaieo ??aoie ? ooiiaeo aieia?ai,
?iaeoeiaaieo eaca?iei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi o ??ciiiai?oieo na?aaeiaeuao.
Iiaeaii noenea iaaiai?aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiaaeo ia??iaee/ieo
no?oeoo?, noi?iiaaieo iaeiei iiooaeiei eaca?iei io/eii ia iiaa?oi?
iaoae?a ? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, ia’?iieo ooiiaeo aieia?ai, ?iaeoeiaaieo o
oioi?ao?aeoeaieo e?enoaeao oa ?ioeo oioi/ooeeaeo na?aaeiaeuao. A?eueo
aeaoaeueii ?icaeyioo? oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny oioi?iaeoeiaai? ia??iaee/i?
no?oeoo?e (OIN) o oiieeo oaeeaaiaeieo oioi/ooeeaeo ie?aeao, ine?eueee
naia oe? no?oeoo?e neeaaeathoue i?aaeiao aea/aiiy o aeaie aeena?oaoe??.
O iaeyae? iieacaii, ui NY, noi?iiaai? a oiieeo oaeeaaiaeieo ie?aeao ia
?icn?yieo OA- ? OI-iiaeao iathoue aeanoeaino? noiae?, c iaeiie aieo, c
ia??iaee/ieie no?oeoo?aie, ui ooai?ththoueny ia iiaa?oi? oaa?aeeo o?e,
a c ?ioiai –o ieo aeyaeythoueny aeanoeaino? ia’?iieo ooiiaeo aieia?ai.
Ia a?aei?io a?ae no?oeoo? ia?oeo aeaio oei?a NY o oaeeaaiaeieo ie?aeao
aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaee io?eiaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy OIN o oiieeo
na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao ” iaaiai?ththoueny iioe/i? ? oioino?oeoo?i?
aeanoeaino? oa iaoiaeeea i?eaiooaaiiy ie?aie AgCl-Ag , ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aenia?eiaioo. Iiaeaii iien onoaiiaie,
i?ecia/aieo aeey oi?ioaaiiy NY, aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeo?aeoe?eieo
ea?oei ? aecia/aiiy aceiooaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo a?aeiinii? aeeo?aeoe?eii?
aoaeoeaiino?. Iaaiai?ththoueny iaoiaee aea/aiiy aaiethoe?? NY o
i?ioean? ?o caieno eaca?iei io/eii, ui aeei?enoiaothoue iaeieooiaa
?icn?thaaiiy na?oea aai c?acee c i?ii?aeiei (aooa?iei) i?ioa?eii ?c
iaioei, i?ae o i?aeeeaaeee, iieacieeii caeiieaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? » Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy niiioaiieo ??aoie i?e ae??
ae?ioe/ii ? oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaieo io/e?a» iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeo?aeoe?eieo ea?oei ? iaeieooiaiai ?icn?thaaiiy (I?)
a?ae NY, noi?iiaaieo o oiieeo ie?aeao AgCl-Ag i?ae ae??th AIN, OeIN ?
i?e iine?aeiaiiio ii?ii?iaii? EIN ? OeIN i?e ii?iaeueiiio iaae?ii?
io/ea. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ae?ioe/iino? eaca?iiai io/ea (He-Ne
eaca?, ? = 10 iAo, l0 = 633 ii) ia oi?ioaaiiy NY aeei?enoiaoaaeany
oiiea, oiaueiith iaioa oiaueie a?aen?/ee oaeeaaiaeii? OA0-iiaee, ie?aea
AgCl-Ag. Ae?ioe/i?noue e = tgy caaeaaaeany eaa?oeiaith l0 / 4 ieao?aeith
oeyoii ?? iiai?ioo ia eoo y a?aeiinii aaeoi?a iiey?ecaoe?? A0 eaca?iiai
io/ea ? ci?ithaaeany a iaaeao 0 — 0,45. Oi?ioaaiiy NY o i?ioean? ?o
?inoo i?inoaaeoaaeiny ca ea?oeiaie I? ? ia e?ioeaa?e noaae?? ii?ii?iaiiy
aea/aeiny ca aeeo?aeoe??th i?iaiiai io/ea (N2 eaca?, l = 337 ii). I?e
ae?? EIN ea?oeia I? neiao?e/ia a?aeiinii A0 ? neeaaea?oueny c aeaio aeoa
iaeiaeiai? ?ioaineaiino?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ??no NY ia a?aie/i?e
OA-iiae?. Ii?ii?iaiiy ie?aie AIN i?ecaiaeeoue aei ea?oeie I?,
aneiao?e/ii? uiaei aaeeei? in? ae?ina. Aneiao??y ea?oei I? ? aeeo?aeoe??
caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo AIN ? niieo/ai? ea?oeie, io?eiai? i?aai- oa
e?ai-iiey?eciaaiei AIN, ? aeca?eaeueii neiao?e/ieie a?aeiinii aaeeei?
in? ae?ina.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo iiyniai? ia i?aenoaa? oai??? ?icn?thaaiiy
na?oea iaeeie /anoeaie Ag c o?aooaaiiyi ii?iaiaiai oa?aeoa?o
ca?iaeaeaiiy NY. I?e aeiii?iaiaeo aeniiceoe?yo EIN ? AIN ?c iaeith a
?iaeoeo? o ie?aoe? aeeo?i?ci, aeeeeeaiee ooai?aiiyi eaioethaee?a ?c
aeecueei ?acoaoiaaieo a?aioe Ag ? aeoyaiooeo ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii a?aeiinii
A0 /e aaeeei? in? ae?ina, noa?i?ae?a ? ?i. ai?ciiao?e/ieo /anoie Ag.
?icn?thaaiiy na?oea ia /anoeao i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?aaaaeiiai caoaeaeaiiy
o ie?aoe? OA-iiae ? i?e aeniiceoe?yo, a?eueoeo a?ae ii?iaiai?, aei
ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?inoo ia ieo NY. ?ic?aooiie ca aeiiiiiaith eiiiiiaio
aiie?ooaeii? iao?eoe? , ui a?aoiao? ?icn?thaaiiy a OA-iiaeo, ? eiiiiiaio
iao?eoe? ?icn?thaaiiy 4o4 c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a Noiena
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui ii?iaeueii iaaea? ia c?acie, i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeiai
aceiooaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ?ioaineaiino? ?icn?yiiai a OA-iiaeo
aei?ii?ithaaiiy:

wmetafile8? ??[??????????? ??????? _4???

????_4??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
 ?/??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy§yyy@/??G?? ???&?
?MathType???????u tha?????aea ax,y = a1x,y+ ia2x,y — eiiieaenia
iiey?eciaai?noue ai?ciiao?e/ieo /anoie Ag , ui iiaeeiathoue , D =
a2xa1y — a1xa2y; ai?ciiao?e/i? /anoee ai?ieneiiaai? aeoyaiooeie ocaeiaae
in? o iaeeie noa?i?aeaie Ag (|ax| > |ay|); kS ? kSt – oaeeaaee aaeoi?
?icn?yii? oaee? ? eiai eiiiiiaioa o ieiuei? (o,o) ie?aee, j = ?( kSt ,
x). C (1) aeieeaa? aceiooaeueia iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio IS, TE :

wmetafile8? ??T??????????? ??????? ????

???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ?
??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya????? ???&? ?MathType??P
???u?????????»????-??????§????oiaoi i?e ae?? AIN iaeneioi
?icn?yiiai na?oea ?icoaoiaaiee i?e aceioo? jm ? p / 2 , aaee/eia
? ciae dj = jm — p / 2 caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo AIN ?, i?e caaeaiiio
cia/aii? ax ? ay , |dj | ca?eueoo?oueny c ?inoii e = tgy. Aaee/eia dj
caeaaeeoue oaeiae a?ae ai?ciiao??? /anoie , ui iiaeeiathoue, oiio ui
i?e D = 0, dj = 0. C ?inoii a eaca?iiai io/ea aeeo?i?ci i?e aeiii?iaiaeo
aeniiceoe?yo ciaioo?oueny, ax ® ay ? i?e ae?? OeIN aeeo?aeoe?y a?ae NY
ia? aeae ??aiii??ii ina?oeaiiai e?eueoey, ae?aiao? yeiai aecia/a?oueny
ia??iaeii NY, ??aiei l0 / n , aea n -iieaciee caeiieaiiy i?aeeeaaeee.
Aeae aeeo?aeoe?? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeaco? ia ooai?aiiy i?iiecoth/eo
iaeia iaeio i?e?i??aoie ?c ?cio?iiii i???ioiaaiei aaeoi?ii K o ieiuei?
ie?aee.

?ioee ?icaeoie NY niinoa??aa?oueny, yeui c?acie iiia?aaeiuei ii?ii?iaiee
EIN, a iio?i OeIN. Ii?ii?iaiiy EIN ni?ey? ?inoo i?e?i??aoie ?c
ia?aaaaeiith i???ioaoe??th ?o aaeoi?a K0^E0. I?e ianooii?e ae?? OeIN
?inoooue aoi?eii? i?e?i??aoee c K1, i???ioiaaieie i?ae eooaie g = ±p /
3 , mp / 4 , g =? (K1 , K0) = j — p / 2 (aa?oi?e ciae a?aeiia?aea?
i?aaiio, ieaei?e — e?aiio iaa?oaiith a OeIN). Iiaeaeueoa ii?ii?iaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy o?aoeiieo i?e?i??aoie ?c ? (K2 , K0) = ±2p /
3, mp / 2.

Neeaaeia aaiethoe?y NY o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ciaoiaeeoue oaea iiyniaiiy.
Oo?eoe i?e?i??aoie, noi?iiaaieo EIN, neeaaeathoueny c ai?ciiao?e/ieo
a?aioe , aeoyaiooeo ocaeiaae A0. Iaaeath/a OeIN e??i aeeo?aeoe?? ia
a?aooe? ?icn?th?oueny ia /anoeao Ag ?, a?aeiia?aeii aei o. (1) ? (2) ,
?ioaineai?noue ?icn?yiiai na?oea i?ae aceiooaie +j ? — j ??cia.
?icn?yi? OA-iiaee, aca?iiae?th/e c aeo?aeiith a?aoeith, i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iiyae oe?ieiai eooiaiai niaeo?a aei?ii?ithaaeueieo iiae ?c oaeeaaei
aaeoi?ii kt = b + K0. Aaee/eia kt caeaaeeoue a?ae g , ? i?e g = ±p / 3
aei?ii?ithaaeueia iiaea ia?aoai?th?oueny o oaeeaaiaeio (a?aie/io) iiaeo
c aaeoi?ii b’ = b + K0, |b’ | = b, oae ye | K0| = b . Iiaea b’ , ui
aeieea? ye ?acoeueoao aeaiaei??ii? aeeo?aeoe?? A?aaa, ? iaea?eueo
aeia?ioiith a ii??aiyii? c aei?ii?ithaaeueieie iiaeaie ? ia i?e
ca?iaeaeothoueny iia? i?e?i??aoee c i???ioaoe??th, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae
ciaeo OeIN.

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia ia iiynith? oi?ioaaiiy aoi?eiieo NY, i???ioiaaieo
i?ae eooaie ±p / 4 aei aeo?aeii? a?aoee. I?ioa, ine?eueee ia??iae
??aoie iaioa l0 , ie?aeo AgCl-Ag ?c iaaaaeaiith a i?e EIN a?aoeith
iiaeia ?acaeyaeaoe ye iaeii??aeiee iaeiia?niee e?enoae ?c iaaiei
e?i?eiei aeeo?i?ciii, aeaicaeiieaiiyi ? iioe/iith a?nnth, ia?aeaeueiith
A0. ?ic?aooiie ca aeiiiiiaith iao?eoeue Aeaeiina iieaco?, ui AIN, yea
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac e?enoae, cacia? iiai?ioo aaeeei? in? ae?ina ia eoo,
ui caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie aeeo?i?cio, aaee/eie ? ciaea ae?ioe/iino? ?
??cieoe? oac aeaio i?oiaiiaeueieo oaeeue. sseui e?enoae i?ici?ee
(aeeo?i?ci a?aenooi?e) ? na?oei oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaia, oi a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ciaea OeIN eoo g = ±p / 4 iaa?oue i?e aeoaea iaeiio
aeaicaeiieaii?. Aa?oi neacaoe, ui i?e?i??aoee, i???ioiaai? i?ae oeeie
eooaie, c’yaeythoueny i?ci?oa i?ae i?e?i??aoee ?c g = ±p / 3 .

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? » Aieea oioi?iaeoeiaaii? a??io?ii?? ia oi?ioaaiiy
OIN (oioi?iaeoeiaai? ia??iaee/i? no?oeoo?e) o oiieeo na?oei/ooeeaeo
ie?aeao AgCl-Ag » aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaiethoe?y o /an? NY, noai?aieo o
ie?aeao AgCl-Ag i?e iine?aeiai?e ae?? OeIN ? EIN.

Ine?eueee i?e ii?iaeueiiio iaae?ii? OeIN oi?io? o ie?aeao i?e?i??aoee c
?cio?iiiith i???ioaoe??th aaeoi?a K, oi c?acee, iiia?aaeiuei ii?ii?iai?
OeIN , c?o/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aeo?aei? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? /aniai?
caeaaeiino? aceiooaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aeeoa?aioe?aeueii? aeeo?aeoe?eii?
aoaeoeaiino? h (t, c) ??aoie, oi?iiaaieo EIN. Aei??thaaiiy h (t, c), ye?
i?iaaaeai? ia onoaiiaoe?, ui iienaia o ?icae?e? 2, iieacothoue, ui
aeo?aeia, ??aiii??ii ina?oeaia e?eueoea aeeo?aeoe?? i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
EIN ?icuaieth?oueny ia aea? oe?ie? aeoae, aneiao?e/ii ?icoaoiaai?
a?aeiinii A0 ? ?o aneiao??y caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo OeIN. ?c c?inoaiiyi
/ano aeniiceoe?? eooiaa oe?eia aeoa ciaioo?oueny, ea?oeia aeeo?aeoe??
noa? a?eueo neiao?e/iith ? ia e?ioeaaeo noaae?yo ii?ii?iaiiy
aceiooaeueiee ?iciiae?e i?e?i??aoie ca K ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
?iciiae?eo, ui aeinyaa?oueny i?e ii?ii?iaii? ie?aie o?eueee EIN.

Ianooii? i?eiouaiiy aeei?enoai? aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aei??thaaiue h (t, c) : 1- Ine?eueee NY aaoiiaoe/ii caaeiaieueiythoue
oiia? oaciaiai neio?ii?cio, o ?o ?acaeoeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a? iiceoeaiee
cai?ioiee ca’ycie; 2- ?ie?aiaio ?inoo i?e?i??aoie caeaaeeoue a?ae eooa
c = p / 2 -?(E0, Ki), aea Ki -aaeoi? aeo?aeii?, noai?aii? OeIN
i-i?e?i??aoee; 3- ??no i?e?i??aoie i?e iaeeo c noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
?oiueith aeac?ioaa?iaai?noth i?e aaeeeeo c ; 4- Ia e?ioeaa?e noaae??
ii?ii?iaiiy aeinyaa?oueny iane/aiiy a ?ino? NY.

?ica’ycie aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ??aiyiiy, ui iieno? oaeaee?noue ci?ie h
(t, c) i?e aeneiaeaieo i?eiouaiiyo ? i?e ii/aoeia?e oiia? h (0,c) =
Const. , aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aenia?eiaioii i?e /anao aeniiceoe?? t
>3 oa. ye ca eooiaith caeaaei?noth h (t, c), oae ? ca ci?iith eooiai?
oe?eie aeeo?aeoe?eieo ?aoeaen?a o /an?. I?ioa, i?e t <3 oa. niinoa??aa?oueny ?ica?aei?noue ?ic?aooieiaeo e?eaeo c aenia?eiaioii: iaeneioi h (c) aeinyaa?oueny i?e c* ? 0 ( c* » 8° ) ? c* > 0 (c* <0) o ie?aeao, ii?ii?iaieo OeIN ?c i?aaith (e?aith) iiey?ecaoe??th a?aeiia?aeii. Inoaii?e ?acoeueoao ciooo? i?eioneaoe, ui i?ae ae??th OeIN o ie?aoe? AgCl-Ag ?iaeoeothoueny ia o?eueee NY, aea ? a??io?ii?y. C iaoith aeyaeaiiy a??io?ii?? ie?aie, ii?ii?iaieo OeIN, aoei i?iaaaeaii niaoe?aeuei? aei??thaaiiy. Oioi?iaeoeiaaia a??io?ii?y aoea aeyaeaia oeyoii aei??thaaiue aaee/eie iaa?oaiiy ieiueie iiey?ecaoe?? i?iaiiai e?i?eii iiey?eciaaiiai io/ea ? aaee/eie e?oaiaiai aeeo?i?cio. ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiiy aaee/eie iioe/iiai iaa?oaiiy iieacothoue, ui a caeaaeiino? J (l) iaeneioi |J (l)| eaaeeoue i?e l = l0 (l0 = 632,8 ii - aeiaaeeia oaee? ?iaeoeoth/iai io/ea ) ? aei??aith? 40 ' – 60 ' , a iai?yiie iaa?oaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo OeIN. Aaee/eia oioi?iaeoeiaaiiai e?oaiaiai aeeo?i?cio i?e l = l0 caeaaeeoue a?ae /ano ii?ii?iaiiy ? aeinyaa? ii iiaeoeth 0,02 i?e t »10 oa. ; ciae aeeo?i?cio i?ioeeaaeiee ciaeo OeIN. ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue ciooothoue i?eioneaoe, ui o aeo?aeii? (iaii?ii?iaii?) ie?aee AgCl-Ag ?niothoue eeanoa?e, ye? neeaaeathoueny c a?aioe Ag , ui ia iathoue oeaio?a ?iaa?n?? ? aeca?eaeueii? neiao???. Aeo?aeia ie?aea yaey? niaith ?aoeai?/iee ?ic/ei oaeeo eeanoa??a. Ii?ii?iaiiy ie?aee OeIN iaaiiai ciaeo i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeiaoe?? eeanoa??a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca aeeo?i?ci caaeaiiai ciaeo, ui iiynith? aeai? aei??thaaiue. I?e ii?ii?iaii? a??io?iiii? ie?aee EIN o i?e, e??i iaaaaeaiiai e?i?eiiai aeeo?i?cio, aeieea? iaa?oaiiy ieiueie iiey?ecaoe?? ? ia?aoai?aiiy EIN o AIN ?c iieiaeaiiyi aaeeei? in? ae?ina, ui neeaaea? iaeee eoo e c inyie ai?ciiao?e/ieo /anoie Ag . Ciae iiai?ioo ia eoo e caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo OeIN. Oai??y ?icn?thaaiiy ia iaeeo noa?i?aeao Ag, yea aeeeaaeaia o 3-io ?icae?e?, ocaaaeueiaia c o?aooaaiiyi a??io?ii?? ie?aee ? ia?aaeaa/a? eooiaa iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio ?iaeeeao?ene IS,TE(j), yea caeaaeeoue a?ae e ? ae?ioe/iino?. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo ocaiaeaeothoueny c aeaieie aei??thaaiue h (t, c) ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ii?ii?iaiiy a??io?iiii? ie?aee EIN. O i'yoiio ?acae?e? " Oi?ioaaiiy OIN oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaiei na?oeii o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag i?e iioeeiio iaae?ii? eaca?iiai io/ea " iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo OIN ia ?aae?aoe?eieo ( aeo?eath/eo) OA-iiaeao i?e iaeeo eooao iaae?iiy ( 0°- 15° ) OeIN. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?ae?a canoiniao?oueny iaoiae aaciina?aaeiueiai niinoa?aaeaiiy aeeo?aeoe?? a?ae NY, ui aeei?enoiao? i?ii?aeiee (aooa?iee) i?ioa?ie i?ae ie?aeith AgCl-Ag ? i?aeeeaaeeith ?c iieacieeii caeiieaiiy n iaioei, i?ae o i?aeeeaaeee. Aeaaaeaii aeenia?n?eia ??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo iino?eieo iioe?thaaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo OA-iiae o aeaioa?iaiio oaeeaaiae?, ui neeaaea?oueny c aooa?iiai i?ioa?eo ? oiiei? ie?aee AgCl-Ag. I?e ii?iaeueiiio iaae?ii? eaca?iiai io/ea aeeo?aeoe?eia ea?oeia neeaaea?oueny c aeaio nenoai aea?aeenoaioieo e?eaoeue, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue OA0- ? OA1-?aae?aoe?eiei iiaeai. I?ioa i?e iaeeo eooao iaae?iiy q ? 2° aeieea? neeaaeia ea?oeia, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio nenoai e?eaoeue, aeoa ? ieyi iaeiai ae?aiao?o. Oi/eia? ieyie ia?oi? nenoaie a?aeiia?aeathoue ?aaoey?iei N-??aoeai, ye? ?inoooue ia a?aie/i?e OA0-iiae? c oaeeaaei aaeoi?ii K, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iei a?aeiinii ieiueie iaae?iiy, |K| = (b0 2 - kx2 )1/2, aea b0 = k0 n - noaea iioe?aiiy OA0-iiaee, kx = k0 sinq . E?eueoey ae?oai? nenoaie a?aeiia?aeathoue i?e?i??aoeai, ui ?inoooue ia OA1-iiaeao c a?eueoei aeoieii. Aeoae 3-i? nenoaie ia?aoeiathoueny c e?eueoeyie ae?oai? nenoaie ? a?ae??ciythoueny ca oi?iith a?ae eieiaeo aeoa . Iiyaa N-??aoie i?e ae?? OeIN aecia/a?oueny, ia?aaaaeii, aeaiia /eiieeaie: ?icn?thaaiiyi OA0-iiae ia oi/eiaeo aeaoaeoao ? aeaiaei??iith aeeo?aeoe??th A?aaa ia iaaea?aoeao ?c aaeoi?ii K0S = 2kx , aea kx - oaiaaioe?aeueia eiiiiiaioa oaeeaaiai aaeoi?a iaaeath/iai io/ea; iiyaa iaae??aoie ia?aaeo? ca?iaeaeaiith N-??aoie. Aeoae 3-i? nenoaie iia'ycai? c ooai?aiiyi iaae??aoie o ?acoeueoao? ia?aiaeeaaeaiiy aioeia?aeaeueieo ii aaeoi?o K aeo?aeieo i?e?i??aoie, i???ioiaaieo i?ae ??cieie eooaie d aei ieiueie iaae?iiy. Iiaeoeue aaeoi?a iaae??aoie aei??aith? KS = K0S cosd . Aeeo?aeoe?y a?aie/ii? iiaee ia iaae??aooe? i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae iiai? iiaee c b2 = b0 + 2kx cosd, aceiooaeueia caeaaei?noue yei? a k–ieiuei? iieno? aeoae 3-i? nenoaie o aeaeyae? caaeoee Ianeaey (Limacon of Pascal). Ia?aoeiaiiy oeeo aeoa ?c e?eueoeyie 2-i? nenoaie (b1 = b2) ni?ey? aeieeiaiith iiaeo i?e?i??aoie, aneiao?e/ii ?icoaoiaaieo a?aeiinii ieiueie iaae?iiy c aneiao???th, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo OeIN. O oinoiio ?acae?e? " Canoinoaaiiy oioi?iaeoeiaaieo aoaeo?a o oiieeo na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao AgCl-Ag " iienai? iia? iaoiaee caieno ? c/eooaaiiy niaeo??a i?ici?eo ai?cio?iiieo e?enoae?a o iiey?eciaaiiio na?oe?. Iaoiaee caniiaai? ia oi?eaeueieo aeanoeainoyo ie?aie AgCl-Ag: ?nioaaii? oe?iei? eiei?aeii? nioae iioe/iiai iiaeeiaiiy a?aioeaie Ag , ui ioiieth? aanue aeaeeiee niaeo? ? aecia/a? oioi/ooeea?noue ie?aie, ooai?aii? aeeaieiai iiey?eciaaiiai niaeo?aeueiiai i?iaaeo o nioc? ia aeiaaeei? oaee? l0 ?iaeoeoth/iai EIN. Iaeneioi e?i?eiiai aeeo?i?cio aeinyaa?oueny i?e l0 , ui aecia/a? iiaeeea?noue caieno eieuei?iaeo niaeo??a. I?e aeniiceoe?yo a?eueoa ii?iaiai? o ie?aeao caienothoueny NY ?c ia??iaeii, i?iii?oe?eiei l0, oiaoi eieuei?ia? aieia?aie ia iii?ieo io/eao o aeaeyae? ?icn?yieo OA-iiae. Onoaiiaea aeey caieno niaeo??a iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea, ooai?thaaieo ai?cio?iiieie e?enoaeaie, a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae noaiaea?oii? onoaiiaee aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ?ioa?oa?aioe?? iiey?eciaaieo oaeeue o no?auaieo iiey?ecaoi?ao oei, ui o i?e a?aenooi?e aiae?caoi? i?ae e?enoaeii ? ao?aeiith u?eeiith niaeo?ia?aoa, a caienii niaeo?a o oieaeuei?e ieiuei? aeo?aeiiai eie?iaoi?a cae?enith?oueny ie?aeith AgCl-Ag cai?noue cae/aeii? oioiieanoeiee. Aiae?c caienaieo niaeo??a cae?enithaaee o a?eiio na?oe?, ie?aea AgCl-Ag ?c iaaaaeaiei o i?e aeeo?i?ciii ?acoaoiaoaaeany i?ae aeaiia iiey?ecaoi?aie ?c caaeaiei i?ae ieie eooii J ( i?e J = 0° iiey?ecaoi?e no?auai?). Niaeo?ia?aia neeaaea?oueny ?c oaiieo ? na?oeeo (caaa?aeaieo) nioa, ui ii/a?aiai ci?iththoue iaeia iaeio. Oaii? nioae i?e J = 0° a?aeiia?aeathoue iaaeath/iio ia ie?aeo OeIN, na?oe?–EIN. *enei oaiieo ? na?oeeo nioa ? iiaea?eiei o ii??aiyii? c /eneii nioa o noaiaea?oi?e noai? niinoa?aaeaiiy niaeo??a, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo oi/ii aecia/eoe aaee/eio aeaicaeiieaiiy e?enoaea ? eiai aeenia?n?th. I?e ca?eueoaii? J i?i?ioie o ?iciiae?e? ?ioaineaiino? I(J, l) noiaeyoueny ? i?e J* ceeaathoueny a iaeei. Aiae?c ea?oeie, ui niinoa??aa?oueny, ca aeiiiiiaith iao?eoeue Aeaeiina iia'yco? eoo J* ?c aaee/eiith aeeo?i?cio i?e caaeai?e aeiaaeei? oaee?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaiai iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy oioi?iaeoeiaaiiai aeeo?i?cio ? eiai aeenia?n??. I?e aeniiceoe?yo, a?eueoeo a?ae a?aie/ii?, c'yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue caieno niaeo??a iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea ia oioi?iaeoeiaaieo NY. Onoaiiaea aeey caieno iiae?aia iienai?e aeua. ?icoiaeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aeai?? oiaueie ie?aee AgCl-Ag ? a iaoiae? niinoa?aaeaiiy niaeo?ia?ai. Oiaueia ie?aee iiaeiia aooe iaioa oiaueie a?aen?/ee OA0-iiae. A?aeoai?aiiy caienaiiai niaeo?o aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith a?eiai na?oea, ni?yiiaaiiai /a?ac oi?aoeue i?aeeeaaeee acaeiaae aaeoi?a NY . Ea?oeia, ui niinoa??aa?oueny i?e oeueiio, oe?eeii a?aeoai?th? niaeo? ?c caa?aaeaiiyi eiai eieuei?o. Oeae iaoiae aeei?enoaii aeey caieno iiey?eciaaiiai niaeo?o, ui i?ieoia /a?ac ai?cio?iiiee e?enoae. Ea?oeia o oeueiio aeiaaeeo neeaaea?oueny ?c na?oeeo ? oaiieo nioa, ye? ii/a?aiai ci?iththoue iaeia iaeio. Na?oe? (oaii?) nioae a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiaaeeiai oaeeue lm = 2Dn*h/m , aea m - ia?ia (iaia?ia) oe?ea /enei , Dn - aaee/eia aeaicaeiieaiiy e?enoaeo ? h - eiai oiaueia. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae caieno eieuei?iaeo aieia?ai ia a?aie/ieo OA-iiaeao ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae a?aeiiiai iaoiaeo E?iiaia ianaiia?aae oei, ui aeei?enoiao? oiie? (oiaueiith 30 – 40 ii) na?oei/ooeea? ie?aee ? iiaee iaoiae ?aeiino?oeoe?? niaeo??a. AENIIAEE 1. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? o /an? NY i?e ae?? ii?ii?ithth/eo io/e?a c ??ciith iiey?ecaoe??th , ui a?oioo?oueny ia aoaeo? iaeieooiaiai ?icn?thaaiiy. Aia?oa aea/aia ?ai?aai?caoe?y NY i?e ci?i? aceiooa e?i?eii iiey?eciaaiiai eaca?iiai io/ea. 2. Aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? niiioaiieo i?e?i??aoie AIN aeieea?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ciaea ? aaee/eie ae?ioe/iino? ?iaeoeoth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aneiao??y ea?oei iaeieooiaiai ?icn?thaaiiy ? aeeo?aeoe??, ui ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny o i?eiouaii? ?icn?thaaiiy OA-iiae ia ai?ciiao?e/ieo iaeeo /anoeao Ag o ie?aeao AgCl. Ai?ciiao?e/i? /anoee c'yaeythoueny a ia??iae, ui ia?aaeo? ca?iaeaeaiith NY ca ?aooiie aoaeoo Aaeaa?oa. 3. ?icaeoie NY, noi?iiaaieo iine?aeiaiei ii?ii?iaiiyi EIN ? OeIN, ?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aaiethoe?? NY, ?iaeoeiaaieo io/eaie iaei??? iiey?ecaoe??: i?e iine?aeiaiiio ii?ii?iaii? oi?iothoueny i?e?i??aoee, i???ioiaai? ?oi?ie aaeoi?aie i?ae eooaie ±60 i, ±45i aei aeo?aeieo i?e?i??aoie ? ?o ?icaeoie caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaeo OeIN. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo iiyniaii ?c a?aooaaiiyi ?icn?thaaiiy OA-iiae /anoeaie Ag , ui oi?iothoue oo?eoe aeo?aeii? ??aoee, oa aeaiaei??ii? aeeo?aeoe?? A?aaa e iioe/ii? ai?cio?ii?? ie?aee, ii?ii?iaii? EIN. 4. Aia?oa aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy neaaei? a??io?ii??, iaaaaeaii? OeIN o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag , oa ?? aieea ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie NY i?ae ae??th EIN. Iaaaaeaia a??io?ii?y aeyaey?oueny a caeaaeiino? ciaea eooa iiai?ioo ieiueie iiey?ecaoe?? ? ciaea e?oaiaiai aeeo?i?cio a?ae ciaea OeIN. ?iaeoeiaaia a??io?ii?y aieeaa? ia aaiethoe?th o /an? NY i?e iiaeaeueoiio ii?ii?iaii? EIN: ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ii?ii?iaiiy aeieea?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ciaea OeIN, aneiao??y a aceiooaeueiiio ?iciiae?e? aeeo?aeoe?eii? aoaeoeaiino? i?e?i??aoie. 5. Oeyoii aei??thaaiiy aceiooaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aeeo?aeoe?eii? aoaeoeaiino? i?e ??cieo /anao aeniiceoe?? ? ii??aiyiiy eiai c oai?aoe/ieie ?ic?aooieaie iieacaia ?noioia ?ieue iiceoeaiiai cai?ioiiai ca'yceo a i?ioean? aaiethoe?? NY o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag. 6. Aia?oa aea/ai? niiioaii? ??aoee, noi?iiaai? ia ?aae?aoe?eieo OA- iiaeao i?e iioeeiio iaae?ii? OeIN. Neeaaeia ea?oeia aeeo?aeoe?? a?ae NY o oeueiio aeiaaeeo neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio nenoai ieyi, aeoa ? e?eaoeue, aeoae o?aouei? nenoaie iathoue oi?io, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae eieiaeo aeoa. Iieacaii, ui oaea no?oeoo?a ea?oei iia'ycaia c ooai?aiiyi o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag iaae??aoie, ui aeieeathoue i?e ia?aiaeeaaeaii? ii-??ciiio i???ioiaaieo a?aeiinii ieiueie iaae?iiy aioe-ia?aeaeueieo ca oaeeaaei aaeoi?ii i?e?i??aoie. 7. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee iaoiae caieno ? c/eooaaiiy niaeo??a i?iioneaiiy ai?cio?iiieo e?enoae?a, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? aoaeoo Aaeaa?oa ? NY, ?iaeoeiaaieo o oiieeo ie?aeao AgCl-Ag. 8. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii aieia?ao?/iee iaoiae caieno aeaeeiiai niaeo?a na?oea ca aeiiiiiaith oi?ioaaiiy niiioaiieo ??aoie o ie?aeao AgCl-Ag. Iieacaii ?noioio a?aei?ii?noue iaoiaeo caieno eieuei?iaeo aieia?ai ia a?aie/ieo OA-iiaeao o oiieeo ie?aeao AgCl-Ag a?ae a?aeiiiai iaoiaea E?iiaia. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Aieea ?icn?yiiy na?oea ia oi?ioaaiiy oioi?iaeoeiaaieo ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo? o oiieeo na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao / E.I. Aa??a, A.E. Ieeineaanueeee, I.A. Aa?i?inueeee, A?aoi?ae Iaaae // Iaoa??aee 3-? I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? "O?ce/i? yaeua o oaa?aeeo o?eao" .- Oa?e?a: OAeO .-1997.- N. 58. 2. Niiioaii? ia??iaee/i? no?oeoo?e, ?iaeoeiaai? a oiieeo na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao eaca?ieie io/eaie ??ciiiai?oii? iiey?ecaoe?? / E.I. Aa??a, A.E. Ieeineaanueeee, I.A. Aa?i?inueeee, A?aoi?ae Iaaae // Oace VI I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? "O?ceea ? oaoiieia?y oiieeo ie?aie"._ ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: IO.- 1997.- N. 102 - 103 . 3. Miloslavsky V.K., Nahal A., Ageev L.A. Peculiarities of spontaneous gratings formation in photosensitive films under linearly and circularly polarized radiation // Optics Communications.-1998.-V. 147.- ?. 436 - 442. 4. Ageev L.A., Miloslavsky V.K., Nahal A. Study of spontaneous gratings formation in photosensitive films by means of small-angle scattering // Pure and Applied Optics.-1998.-V. 7.- P. L1 - L5. 5. Arashmid Nahal, Vladimir K. Miloslavsky, Leonid A. Ageev, Influence of photoinduced gyrotropy on the formation of spontaneous periodic structures in light-sensitive AgCl-Ag thin films // Optics Communications.-1998.-V. 154.- P. 234 - 242. 6. Miloslavsky V.K. , Ageev L.A. , Nahal A. Peculiarities of spontaneous gratings formation in photosensitive films under elliptically polarized radiation // Canadian Journal of Physics.-1998.-V. 76.- P.77 - 85. 7. Ageev L.A., Miloslavsky V.K., Nahal A. Holographic recording of visible-light spectra in thin AgCl-Ag waveguide films // Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics.- 1999. -V.1.- P. 173 -177. A?aoi?ae Iaaae, Aieea iiey?ecaoe?? ?iaeoeoth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ia oi?ioaaiiy niiioaiieo ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo? o na?oei/ooeeaeo ie?aeao. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.05 - Iioeea, eaca?ia o?ceea. - Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith i?ioean?a ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?inoo ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo?, ?iaeoeiaaieo eaca?ieie io/eaie ??cii? iiey?ecaoe?? o na?oei/ooeeaeo oaeeaaiaeieo ie?aeao AgCl , ye? i?noyoue a?aioey?ia n??aei. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee, ui aeicaieythoue aea/aoe aaiethoe?th o /an? ia??iaee/ieo no?oeoo?. I?e ae?? ii?iaeueii iaaeath/iai ae?ioe/ii iiey?eciaaiiai na?oea a ie?aeao oi?iothoueny niiioaii? i?e?i??aoee, i???ioaoe?y aaeoi?a yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae aaee/eie ? ciaea ae?ioe/iino? ?, ye iieacaii, iia'ycaia c ?icn?thaaiiyi OA-iiae ia ai?ciiao?e/ieo /anoeao Ag, ui aeieeathoue ia noaae??, yea ia?aaeo? ca?iaeaeaiith i?e?i??aoie. O neeaaei?e aaiethoe?? no?oeoo? i?e iine?aeiai?e ae?? e?i?eii ? oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaiiai na?oea ae??oaeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aeaiaei??ia aeeo?aeoe?y A?aaa OA-iiae ia aeo?aeieo, ?iaeoeiaaieo e?i?eii iiey?eciaaiei na?oeii, i?e?i??aoeao. Aeyniaii ?ieue oioi?iaeoeiaaii? a??io?ii?? a iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo i?e?i??aoie i?ae ae??th e?i?eii iiey?eciaaiiai io/ea. C’yniaai? iia? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ??aoie ia aei?ii?ithaaeueieo OA-iiaeao i?e ae?? iioeei iaaeath/eo oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaieo io/e?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee iioe/iiai caieno iiey?eciaaieo niaeo??a o aeaeeiiio ae?aiacii?, caniiaai? ia aoaeo? Aaeaa?oa ? ca?iaeaeaiiy niiioaiieo ??aoie. Eeth/ia? neiaa: oiie? na?oei/ooeea? oaeeaaiaei? ie?aee, niiioaii? ia??iaee/i? no?oeoo?e, iiey?eciaai? eaca?i? io/ee, oioi?iaeoeiaaiee aeeo?i?ci ? a??io?ii?y, caien iioe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Arashmid Nahal (citizen of Iran), Influence of polarization on the radiation–induced formation of spontaneous periodic structures in thin light-sensitive films. -Manuscript. Dissertation for a Doctor of Philosophy degree (Ph.D.) in Physical-Mathematical Sciences according to speciality 01.04.05 - Optics, Laser Physics. Kharkov State University. Kharkov, Ukraine. 1999. The dissertation contains the results of a research into the causes of generation and development of periodic structures, induced by laser beams of different polarization in thin light-sensitive waveguide AgCl-Ag films. Some experimental methods were elaborated to study the temporal evolution of the spontaneous gratings. Under elliptically polarized light spontaneous micro-gratings are formed, in the film, with vectors whose orientation depends on the value and sign of the ellipticity. The cause of this effect is related to the scattering of TE-modes on the anisometric Ag particles, which arise on the stage preceding of the micro-gratings generation . We showed that in complicated evolution of the structures under successive action of linearly and circularly polarized beams, a two-dimensional Bragg diffraction of TE-modes plays crucial role. Influence of photoinduced gyrotropy, by a circularly polarized radiation, was established in the peculiarities of the periodic structures development under a linearly polarized beam. New peculiarities were found during the formation of gratings on the scattered radiative TE-modes under the action of an off-normal circularly polarized incident beam. On the base of Weigert effect and spontaneous gratings we proposed two new methods for recording of polarization spectra and holographic recording of the visible-region spectra. Key words: Thin light-sensitive waveguide films, spontaneous periodic structures, polarized laser beams, photoinduced dichroism and gyrotropy, recording of optical information. A?aoieae Iaaae, Aeeyiea iiey?ecaoeee eiaeooee?othuaai eceo/aiey ia oi?ie?iaaiea niiioaiiuo ia?eiaee/aneeo no?oeoo? a naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiuo neiyo. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.05 - Iioeea, eaca?iay oeceea.–Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999. I?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey oi?ie?iaaiey niiioaiiuo ia?eiaee/aneeo no?oeoo? (NIN) a oiieeo aieiiaiaeiuo naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiuo ieaieao iiae aeaenoaeai iaeiiai eaca?iiai io/ea ?acee/iie iiey?ecaoeee. A ea/anoaa oioi/oanoaeoaeueiuo ieaiie eniieueciaaeenue ieaiee AgCl, aeiie?iaaiiua a?aioey?iui Ag, e iaeaaeathuea oioi/oanoaeoaeueiinoueth ai anai aeaeeiii aeeaiaciia. Iaeo/aiea ieaiie i?iaiaeeeinue io/eii He-Ne eaca?a (l0 = 632,8 ii). Aeey eco/aiey a?aiaiiie yaiethoeee NIN a i?ioeanna eo caiene eaca?iui io/eii eniieueciaaeenue iaoiae iaeioaeiaiai ?annayiey e iaoiae ?aaeno?aoeee iiae ooa/ee a ia?acoeao n i?iiaaeooi/iui neiai n iaiueoei, /ai o iiaeeiaeee, iieacaoaeai i?aeiieaiey. Iiae aeaenoaeai yeeeioe/anee iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa, ii?iaeueii iaaeathuaai ia ia?acaoe, aicieeaao caaenyuay io aaee/eiu e ciaea yeeeioe/iinoe aneiiao?ey ea?oei iaeioaeiaiai ?annayiey e aeeo?aeoeee, eioa?i?aoe?oaiay a i?aaeiieiaeaiee ?annayiey OE-iiae ia aieciiao?e/aneeo iaeuo /anoeoeao Ag a ieaieao AgCl, eioi?ua iiyaeythony ca n/?o yooaeoa Aaeaa?oa a ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee ca?iaeaeaieth niiioaiiuo ?aoaoie. Aneiiao?ey ea?oei en/acaao i?e yeeeioe/iinoe, aieueoae 0,45 . Iaeiaei, i?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii aeaenoaee eeiaeii e oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaiiuo (EIN e OeIN, niioaaonoaaiii) io/eia iiae aeaenoaeai eceo/aiey, iiey?eciaaiiiai ii e?oao, ca?iaeaeathony iee?i?aoaoee n aaeoi?aie, i?eaioe?iaaiiui iiae oaeaie ±60°, m45° e enoiaeiui, nicaeaiiui EIN. Iaaethaeaaiua ea?oeiu iaeioaeiaiai ?annayiey e aeeo?aeoeee caaenyo io ciaea OeIN. ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioa iauyniaiu n o/aoii ?annayiey OA-iiae aieciiao?e/aneeie /anoeoeaie Ag , oi?ie?othueie oo?eoe enoiaeiie ?aoaoee n o/aoii aeaooia?iie aeeo?aeoeee A?yaaa e iioe/aneie aiecio?iiee ieaiee , iaeo/aiiie EIN. A ieaieao AgCl-Ag , iaeo/aiiuo OeIN, iaia?oaeaia neaaay ae?io?iiey, i?iyaeythuayny a caaeneiinoe ciaea oaea iiai?ioa ieineinoe iiey?ecaoeee e e?oaiaiai aeeo?iecia io ciaea OeIN. Iaaaaeaiiay ae?io?iiey ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia a?aiaiioth yaiethoeeth niiioaiiuo ?aoaoie i?e iineaaeothuai iaeo/aiee EIN: ia ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo iaeo/aiey aicieeaao caaenyuay io ciaea OeIN aneiiao?ey a aceiooaeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeeo?aeoeeiiiie yooaeoeaiinoe iee?i?aoaoie. I?e iineaaeothuai ?inoa NIN ca n/?o iieiaeeoaeueiie ia?aoiie nayce aceiooaeueiay caaeneiinoue neiiao?ecoaony. Enneaaeiaaia ea?oeia aeeo?aeoeee i?e oi?ie?iaaiee niiioaiiuo ?aoaoie ia OA-iiaeao ooa/ee iiae aeaenoaeai iaeeiiii iaaeathuaai OeIN. Iieacaii, /oi neiaeiay no?oeoo?a ea?oeiu, ninoiyuae ec o??o nenoai eieaoe, aeoa e iyoai, naycaia n ia?aciaaieai a ieaieao naa?o?aoaoie, aicieeathueo i?e ia?aiaeiaeaiee ?acee/ii i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ioiineoaeueii ieineinoe iaaeaiey aioeia?aeeaeueiuo ii aaeoi?o iee?i?aoaoie. Aeeo?aeoeey ia naa?o?aoaoeao i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth aeoa a oi?ia oeeoee Ianeaey (Limacons of Pascal) . ?ac?aaioaiu aeaa iaoiaea caiene e aini?iecaaaeaiey iiey?eciaaiiuo niaeo?ia a aeaeeiii aeeaiaciia io aiecio?iiiuo e?enoaeeia. Iaoiaeu iniiaaiu ia eniieueciaaiee yooaeoa Aaeaa?oa e aaia?aoeee niiioaiiuo ?aoaoie a ieaieao AgCl-Ag. Iieacaii nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea iaoiaea caiene oeaaoiuo aieia?aii ia i?aaeaeueiuo OA-iiaeao a ieaieao AgCl-Ag io ecaanoiiai iaoiaea Eeiiiaiia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: oiieea naaoi/oanoaeoaeueiua aieiiaiaeiua ieaiee, niiioaiiua ia?eiaee/aneea no?oeoo?u, iiey?eciaaiiua eaca?iua io/ee, oioieiaeooee?iaaiiue aeeo?ieci e ae?io?iiey, caienue iioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee.

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