IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

I’ssNI?Ae IEEIEA IAO?IAE*

OAeE: 630.165.6:582.632.2

AIEEA IIOIAeAEAIIss AEEAOe?A IA IEIAeIIIOAIIss

EEII?A OA ??NO NAAeAEAIOe?A O EOEUeOO?AO

AeOAA CAE*AEIIAI A OIIAAO

EE?ANUeEIAI IIE?NNss

06.03.01 — e?nia? eoeueoo?e, naeaeoe?y, ian?iieoeoai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?niaeo eoeueoo? oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?ae??ieei Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?niaeo eoeueoo? oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia?? 

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Iienuee?a Ieeiea
?eueeiae/, Aiy?nueea e?niaa aeine?aeia noaioe?y, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c
iaoeiai? ?iaioe

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eion Aaneeue
?aaiiae/, Oiainueea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea aeaaeai?y, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e aeieia???, aeaei?aoeaiiai naae?aieoeoaa ? aeaiae?ieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? aa?iiae?i?aoe?? ?i. A.I.Aenioeueeiai,
eaai?aoi??y naeaeoe??, ian?iieoeoaa oa ?io?iaeoeoe??, i.Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «23»/a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.09 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao?: i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie,15, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3,
aoae. 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie,11, iaa/aeueiee
ei?ion 10, /eoaeueiee cae.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «18» o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee IAI?OA I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?, iie?auaiiy ye?niiai
neeaaeo ? i?enei?aiiy ?inoo e?n?a ?c oe?ieei canoinoaaiiyi o
e?n?aieoeoa? naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a ? aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi
no/anii? e?niainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeai aino?i aiii noi?oue
a Oe?a?i?, aea e?n ia? nioe?aeueia oa aeieia?/ia cia/aiiy. O ?ica’ycaii?
oe??? caaea/? aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue ooo/i? ianaaeaeaiiy. Ca oiia
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeiai?o iin?aiiai oa iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo c aenieei
aaiaoe/iei iioaioe?aeii ooo/i? ianaaeaeaiiy ia iinooiathoueny i?e?iaeiei
uiaei a?ieia?/ii? no?eeino? oa cia/ii ia?aaa?oothoue ?o ca
i?iaeoeoeai?noth. Ine?eueee iino?ei? ian?ii?a? ieaioaoe?? a e?a?i?
ii/aee caeeaaeaoe iaaeaaii, ? iio?aaa aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ii? noi?iie
oeueiai ieoaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ieoaiiy, ui
aena?oeai? a aeena?oaoe??, ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea?aeathaeaeaoiiai
iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo 110/53 «?ic?iaee a?ieiai – aeieia?/i? oa oaoiieia?/i?
iniiae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oe?eueiaiai e?niae?iuoaaiiy oa eiieaenii? nenoaie
caoenoo e?n?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a ? caoaeiee?a oai?ia» eaoaae?e e?niaeo
eoeueoo? oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia?? e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oaeoeueoaoo
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny aa?i-o?i?/ieie oa o?c?ieia?/ieie aeine?aeaie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ia?aaeaa/aeinue ?ic?iaeoe
i?iiiceoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaee/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy
noai?aiiy eeiiiaeo ian?ii?aeo ieaioaoe?e aeoaa cae/aeiiai a oiiaao
Oeaio?aeueiiai Iie?nny Oe?a?ie aeey io?eiaiiy ae?oiiai, ?aeiiiaaiiai
ian?iiy ? noai?aiiy ia eiai iniia? n?yioe?a, ye? iiaee a caaacia/eoe
aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaeaooi?o aea?aainoai?a.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

aecia/eoe iaoai?ieia?/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae ianaaeaeaiue c o/anoth
iethniaeo aea?aa, a oaeiae ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe?? Eeaaae??anueeiai
e?nainio;

anoaiiaeoe aieea iioiaeaeaiiy iethniaeo aea?aa ia ?o ?icaeoie,
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo oa ieiaeiiioaiiy eeii?a;

aeine?aeeoe aca?iica’ycie ai?noo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?aai?/iiio iiaae?
iethniaeo aea?aa ? eeii?a ia ieaioaoe??, oace ?icaeoeo inoaii?o,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ae??aiiai ei??iiy;

aecia/eoe aieea aeiaeyaeo ca eeiiaie ia ?o noai ? ieiaeiiioaiiy; aieea
iioiaeaeaiiy, ?ici???a oa iane aeieoae?a ia ?ioaineai?noue ?inoo
n?yioe?a o ?icnaaeieeo oa naaeaeaioe?a o aei?iaieo eoeueoo?ao;

aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe?? aeoaa cae/aeiiai a na?aeeo
noai?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa ?inoo ??cieo ca iioiaeaeaiiyi eeii?a aeoaa
cae/aeiiai ia ian?ii?a?e ieaioaoe??, noai?ai?e o na?aeeo noai?yo.
Aecia/aii aca?iica’ycie iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a oa ?ioaineaiino? ?o
ieiaeiiioaiiy; iane aeieoae?a oa ?ici???a n?yioe?a o ?icnaaeieeo ?
naaeaeaioe?a o aei?iaieo eoeueoo?ao ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy; oaeoi?e, ui
aieeaathoue ia iiyao aiaeyieo iaaii?a, ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a
i?aai?/iiio iiaae? iethniaeo aea?aa oa eeii?a, ?ioaineai?noue
o?aini??aoe??, iaaiaeiai?noue oa oioineioac eenoe?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aecia/aii ?aeiie
?icoaooaaiiy iethniaeo aea?aa aeoaa oa a?e aeey caaioiaeaiiy aeeaoe?a
i?e noai?aii? iaeaooi?o ian?ii?aeo ieaioaoe?e; ii?aoeueiaaii i?iiiceoe??
uiaei aaaeaiiy e?niainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
a?iaeaeiino? aeieoae?a oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ae?eyiie, ui
caeiyo? e?niian?ii?aeie ieaioaoe?yie. Cai?iiiiiaaii aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee
? niiniae aeiaeyaeo ca ieie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?ae /an aeiaeyaeo ca
ieaioaoe??th a Eeaaae??anueeiio aea?aee?naini?. Iiao iino?eio ian?ii?ao
ieaioaoe?th oa aei?iai? eoeueoo?e a Eeaaae??anueeiio aea?aee?naini?
caeeaaeaii c o?aooaaiiyi i?iiiceoe?e, aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae iaea?aeaiee
aaoi?ii i?ioyaii 1990 — 1996 ?ie?a. Iniaenoi ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ?o aeeiiaiiy, i?iaaaeaii ia?iaeo ?
aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae ii?aoethaaee e?oa?aoo?i?
aeaea?aea ii oai? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue ? io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oaeoeueoaoo IAO (Ee?a, 1991 — 1996), ia eaoaae??
e?niaeo eoeueoo? oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia??. I?iiiceoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy
ieaioaoe?e i?eeiyo? Ee?anueeei aea?aeaaiei e?niainiiaea?nueeei
ia’?aeiaiiyi «Ee?ae?n».

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 6
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa, aeeeaaeaia ia 151
noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, eio?ee ia?aoiao? 221 iaeiaioaaiiy. Oeeo?iaee iaoa??ae
nenoaiaoeciaaiee o 45 oaaeeoeyo. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 26 ?enoieaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

IAOA??AEE OA IAOIAeE AEEIIAIIss AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Ca iaoa??aeaie e?niaii?yaeeoaaiiy oa aeieoiaioaie aeai?o iethniaeo
aea?aa o I?aeeinueeiio (*a?i?a?anueea iae.), A?eiei?iaeoeueeiio
(AEeoiie?nueea iae.) oa Eeaaae??anueeiio (Ee?anueea iae.)
aea?aee?nainiao aeyaeaii e?nieoeoaa, eaa?oaee, aeae?ee, aea ?inoooue
iethnia? aea?aaa. A eiaeiiio ianaaeaeaii? caeeaaeaee oei/ania? i?iai?
ieiu? ca ?nioth/eie a e?n?aieoeoa? iaoiaeeeaie (Aio/ei, 1982;
Ai?aeeaiei, 1979). O e?ioe? aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo o iethniaeo aea?aa ?
eeii?a cae?aee iiaea eenoy aeey aa?io?i?/iiai aiae?co. A iaaeao
i?iaeoe?? e?iie eiaeiiai iethniaiai aea?aaa ao?ii a?aeae?aee a?oio ii
aaiaoe/ieo ai?eciioao aeey aa?io?i?/iiai aiae?co a i’yoe iiaoi?aiiyo. Ia
ian?ii?a?e ieaioaoe?? a?oio aeey aiae?co a?aeae?aee, aeeiioth/e iaeei
oo?o aeeaeiith 1,5 i ? i’youe i?eeiiie, ?icoaoiaaieo o oaoiaiio
ii?yaeeo, aeeaeiith aei iaoa?einueei? ii?iaee.

O eaai?aoi??? eaoaae?e a?oioiciaanoaa IAO aecia/aee: aoion oa acio ca
Oth??iei, oinoi? — ca Ee?naiiaei, eae?e — c aeei?enoaiiyi iieoi’yiiai
oioiiao?a, a?ae?ie?oe/io eeneioi?noue — ca Eaiiaiii, noio iiaeeiaieo
iniia — ca Eaiiaiii—A?eueeaae/ai, pH aiaeii? aeoyaeee —
iioaioe?iiao?ii.

?ioaineai?noue o?aini??aoe?? eenoy eeii?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy
anoaiiaethaaee ca iaoiaeeeith E.A. ?aaiiaa oa ?i. (1950),
aieia?noue eenoy — ca iaoiaeeeith I.?. Ai?ae??iea (1979). Eenoy aeey
aiae?co c?eaaee ?c iaaii?a inoaii?o o?ueio ?ie?a aa?oiuei?
i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? aa?ii ina?oeaii? i?ioyaii aeiy /anoeie e?iie.

?iciianthaeaeaiiy o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai (oiaueiith aei 2 ii) ei??iiy
aea/aee c aeei?enoaiiyi ao?a a iaaeao i?iaeoe?? e?iie o?ueio na?aaei?o
ca aaa?oonii aea?aa. Naa?aeeiaeie ia’?iii 1000 ni3 caeeaaeaee ia
a?aeaeae? iaeiiai iao?a a?ae noiaao?a o /ioe?ueio iiaoi?aiiyo ?
?icoaoiaoaaee ?o o iai?yieo ?yae?a. C onueiai ia’?io aeeiyoiai a?oioo
a?o/io aeae?aee an? ei??ioe? aeoaa, a?aeieaaee ?o a?ae /anoi/ie a?oioo,
aenoooaaee aei iia?o?yii-nooiai noaio ? caaaeoaaee. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue ia?iaeyee iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee (Ieeeoei,
Oaeaeaiei, 1978) c aeei?enoaiiyi AII ? i?e?ieaeueeoeyoi??a ca
i?ia?aiaie, ?ic?iaeaieie ia eaoaae?? e?niai? oaenaoe?? IAO.

OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ? OIIAE I?NOeAC?INOAIIss

IETHNIAEO AeA?AA

Aeey noai?aiiy ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe?? aeoaa cae/aeiiai a
Eeaaae??anueeiio aea?aee?naini? aeeaoe? caaioiaeyee ?c iaaii?a iethniaeo
aea?aa Eiaeuainueeiai e?nieoeoaa I?aeeinueeiai aea?aee?nainio
(*a?i?a?anueea iae.), Iiyne?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa A?eiei?iaeoeueeiai
aea?aee?nainio (AEeoiie?nueea iae.), Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa
Eeaaae??anueeiai aea?aee?nainio (Ee?anueea iae.).

Aeua na?aaeiy oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a?aei?/aia o ?aeii? Aeoa??anueeiai
e?nieoeoaa, a na?aaeiy ??/ia e?euee?noue aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a a ?aeii?
Iiyne?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa.

Iacia/i? a?aeoeeaiiy iiaiaeieo oiia ia iiaee nooo?ai aieeiooe ia
aia?a?th ?inoo eeii?a ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe?? Eeaaae??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa,
aea iicia/eeeny ia ?o niaaeeiaeo aeanoeainoyo.

Iethnia? aea?aaa a on?o ainiiaea?noaao aeae?aee a noeaeeo (a?e 110 —
180 ?ie?a) ianaaeaeaiiyo ?c c?ieioo?noth e?ii 0,6 ia ??ai?e ca
?aeue?oii i?noeaaino?, a yeeo a?oio i?ioyaii anueiai ?ieo ae?eoee
nooe?eueiei oa?ii i?aenoeeee (oaae.1).

O a a e e oe y 1 – Oa?aeoa?enoeea ianaaeaeaiue c o/anoth iethniaeo
aea?aa aeoaa cae/aeiiai O Eiaeuainueeiio e?nieoeoa? aeoa aeyaey? ??no
ca ? eeanii aii?oaoo, a ?ioeo — ca ??.

Ca iaoei aecia/aiiyi, a ianaaeaeaiiyo Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa aenioa
iethniaeo aea?aa neeaaea? 28,5—31,0 i, a Eiaeuainueeiai — 30,5—32,5,
Iiyne?anueeiai 28,0—32,0. Ae?aiao? noiaao??a iethniaeo aea?aa ia aenio?
1,3 i noaiiaeoue a?aeiia?aeii 47—66, 47—54, 50—70 ni.

E?iia iaeieae/a iiouaia o iethniaeo aea?aa Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa,
aea aiia aa?a ii/aoie c aenioe 12,5—18,5 i, ? iaeaeua – 16,0—20,0 i a
Eiaeuainueeiio e?nieoeoa?. Iaee?aua e?iia ?icaeiaia o iethniaeo aea?aa
Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa (ieiua ?? i?iaeoe?? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 86 aei
176 i2) oa Iiyne?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa (38—295 i2). Iaeiaioa – 57—102 i2 o
iethniaeo aea?aa Eiaeuainueeiai e?nieoeoaa.

I?e ianoaaeaii? iethniaeo aea?aa iciae caoaeiee?a oai?ia, iayaiino?
oe?aeiee?a oa iaoai?/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue ia aeyaeaii.

OA?AEOA?ENOEEA IAN?II?AI? IEAIOAOe??

EEAAAe??ANUeEIAI AeA?AEE?NAINIO

O Eeaaae??anueeiio e?nieoeoa? (ea.102) i?ae ieaioaoe?th a?aeaaaeaii
na?aeee ?icei?/iaaiee, ??aiee ca ?aeue?oii c?oa o na?aaeei? e?niaiai
ianeao. I?ney ieaioaaiiy ? ae/?noaaiiy ei??iiy a?oio aiooaaee ca
nenoaiith /i?iiai ia?o.

Iaeii??/i? aeia?a ?icaeiai? n?yioe? aac iaoai?/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue ? iciae
oai?ia aenaaeaeoaaee ia iino?eia i?noea iaaani? 1978 ?. i?ae ia/
Eieaniaa ?c ?ici?uaiiyi iinaaeeiaeo i?noeue 5,0 5,0 i.

Uaieaiiy i?iaiaeeee iaaani? 1982 ?. ai?eeeaae a?oiueie, ye? caaioiaeyee
?c iaaii?a iethniaeo aea?aa ?aiiuei? oi?ie ?icioneaiiy Eiaeuainueeiai,
Iiyne?anueeiai oa Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoa.

Iniiaiith noaiith ?ici?uaiiy eeii?a ia ieaioaoe?? i?eeiyoa
?icn?yii-caaeainiaaia.

Ei?/oaaiiy ii?a aeaui ii?ooeei aoaeiao noaeiai i?io?eth a?oioo, ui
aeyaeeiny a aacnenoaii?e ci?i? ai?noo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei c aeeaeiith.
I?ioa iacaaaeath/e ia iaeiaeia? ee?iaoe/i? e a?oioia? oiiae, a yeeo
noai?aii ian?ii?ao ieaioaoe?th, ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?aai?/iiio
iiaae? eeii?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy ??ciee. Iaeiaioa acioo cao?eniaaii a
i?aai?/iiio iiaae? eeii?a eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, a iaea?eueoa a
iiaae? eeii?a aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Ai?no iniiaieo aeaiaio?a
aeeaeaiiy a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? aaouee?anueeeo (iethniaeo) aea?aa ia
ei?aeth? ?c ai?noii acioo, oinoi?o ? eae?th a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? eeii?a
a?aeiia?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oae, o eeii?a eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy
iaeaea a aeaa ?ace iaioa acioo, i?ae a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? iethniaeo
aea?aa oeueiai e?nieoeoaa. Oaea ae caeiiii??i?noue niinoa??aa?oueny ?
a?aeiinii eae?th (oaae. 2).

Iaea?eueoa acioo, oinoi?o ? eae?th a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? iethniaeo
aea?aa Eiaeuainueeiai e?nieoeoaa, iaeiaioa – Iiyne?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa.
Iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue acioo, oinoi?o ? eae?th iaa iiaae eeii?a
Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa, iaeiaioa – Eiaeuainueeiai.

O a a e e oe y 2 – Ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? eeii?a
? iethniaeo aea?aa, %

Iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a

? i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy

iethniaeo aea?aa

Acio

Oinoi?

Eae?e

EeiieEiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy0,80,30,2Iiyne?anueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy1,10,40,1Aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy1,50,40,2

Iethnia? aea?aaaEiaeuainueea e?nieoeoai1,60,40,4Iiyne?anueea
e?nieoeoai0,80,30,2Aeoa??anueea e?nieoeoai1,20,30,2

O a?oe? 14 ?ie?a aea?aaa eeii?a aeoaa aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy
aeinyaee na?aaeiuei? aenioe 4,7 i, c eieeaaiiyie a iaaeao 4,2—5,3 i,
eiaeuainueeiai ? iiyne?anueeiai — a?aeiia?aeii 4,2 ? 4,2, c a?aeoeeaiiyi
a iaaeao 3,5 —4,9 i ? 3,6-4,9 i.

Ioaea, eeiie aeoaa i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia?aaeuothoue eeiie c ?ioeo
i?noeue ia 0,5 i. Aea oey ??cieoey ianooo?aa: t — e?eoa??e ??cieoe?
neeaaea? 1,4.

Iaaaeeea ?ioaineai?noue ?inoo an?o eeii?a aeoaa iaoiiaeaiee
a?aenooi?noth i?aeaiio. Ae?aiao? noiaao??a ia aenio? 0.8 i ??ciee,
iaa?oue o aea?aa iaeiiai ? oiai ae iioiaeaeaiiy. Oae, aea?aaa eeii?a
aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iathoue na?aaei?e ae?aiao? 5,5 ni, yeee
eieeaa?oueny a?ae 4,5 aei 7,4 ni. Iaeiaioee na?aaei?e ae?aiao? 4,2 ni c
a?aeoeeaiiyie 3,1—6,2 ni iaee eeiie eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.
Aeecuee? aei ieo ca ae?aiao?ii noiaao?e iaee aea?aaa iiyne?anueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy (na?aaei?e 4,6 ni c a?aeoeeaiiyi 3,3—6,4 ni).

Ae?aiao? e?iie eeii?a on?o iioiaeaeaiue aeecueeee ? neeaaea? 2,7—3,6 i.
E?iia iaeiiai na?aaeiueiai aea?aaa ia? ieiuo 13,4 i2. I?e ?ici?uaii?
iinaaeeiaeo i?noeue ca noaiith 5,0 5,0 i ia ieaioaoe?? ?inei 400
aea?aa. Oaeei /eiii, o 14 ?ie?a iiaiioa ii c?ieiooino? e?ii noaiiaeoue
aeecueei 0,5. A?aoiaoth/e i?enei?aiiy ?inoo c a?eii, e?iie ia ieaioaoe??
c?ieiooueny ia ?ai?oa, ye /a?ac i’youe — n?i ?ie?a, a iiaia ?o c?ieiaiiy
a?aeaoaeaoueny o 19—20 ?ie?a. Ioaea, a?aeaaaeaia i?ae ian?ii?ao
ieaioaoe?th aeoaa ieiua o ia?o? 20—25 ?ie?a aeei?enoiao?oueny ae?ae
ia?aoe?iiaeueii. Oiio aeey ?? a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e
caeeaaeaii? iiai? ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe?? a Aeoa??anueeiio e?nieoeoa? a
5-iao?ia? i?ae?yaeaey aaaaeaii ii iaeiiio ?yaeo a?ii?? /i?iiie?aeii? ?
eaeeie cae/aeii? c a?aenoaiith i?ae ?yaeaie aea?aa aeoaa ? /aaa?iee?a
2,5 i. O aea?aa aeoaa a 14 ?ie?a iaea?eueoee ae?aiao? e?iie 5,3,
iaeiaioee — 2,9 i. Oaeei /eiii, aei 14 ?ie?a eiai aea?aaa ia aoaeooue
cao?iyoe /aaa?ieee. Ca /an ?nioaaiiy ieaioaoe?? ?c eou?a oeeo /aaa?iee?a
iiaeia aoaea cae?aoe yaiaee.

A?ii?y /i?iiie?aeia ia aeiaaia?/ia. Aiia aeeaa aei 35—40 ?ie?a, eaeeia
cae/aeia — aei 80—90 ?ie?a ? ii/eia? ieiaeiiineoe c /aoaa?oiai—oinoiai
?ieo. Eaeeia a?eueo o?iueiaeo?eaaea, i?ae a?ii?y. Ia?oa aeineoue ?ynii
ieiaeiiineoue iaa?oue ?c iiaiioith ii c?ieiooino? e?iie 0,7. Ioaea,
iaa?oue ca oiia ia??aiii??iiai cao?iaiiy, ui ianoaia ia ieaioaoe?? a
18—20 ?ie?a, eaeeia aoaea ua ieiaeiiineoe.

Aaaaeaiiy /aaa?iee?a o i?ae?yaeaey aeoaa aeioe?eueii oaeiae c
e?n?aieoeueeiai iiaeyaeo. Ia ieaioaoe?? ai?iaeiaae 14 ?ie?a a?oio
o?eiathoue o /i?iiio ia?o. C oe??th iaoith eiaeai ??e i?iaiaeyoue o?e
eoeueoeaaoe?? (iaaani?, ae?oeo oa ainaie). I?e eoeueoeaaoe??
?icioooaaiiy a?oioo i?iaiaeeoueny ia aeeaeio 20—22 ni, a ?iiae? e
aeeaoa. Iao? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui a /enoeo na?aaeiueia?eiaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo aeoaa o aa?oiueiio 10-naioeiao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo na?aeeo
noai??a cina?aaeaeaii 26—76 % o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai ei??iiy aeoaa
a?ae caaaeueii? eiai iane aei aeeaeie 1,25 i. Ioaea, ii/eiath/e c
o?aoueiai ?ieo i?ney naae?iiy n?yioe?a ia iino?eia i?noea ?o ei??iiy i?e
iaoai?ciaaiiio aeiaeyae? ca a?oioii o i?ae?yaeaeyo nenoaiaoe/ii
iioeiaeaeo?oueny ? iaa?oue cieuo?oueny, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia noai ?
aia?a?th ?inoo aea?aa aeoaa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? a?aei?iiino? iiaiaeieo ? a?oioiaeo oiia ?aeii?a,
aea ciaoiaeeeeny iethnia? aea?aaa, a oaeiae ??ciee ?o a?e, na?aaei?e
i?e??no aa?o?aeiaeo iaaii?a eeii?a aeoaa ia ieaioaoe??, o 14 ?ie?a aoa
iaeaea iaeiaeiaee.

Ia??coaaiiy ieaei?o a?eie aei aenioe 0,5—0,7 i o 10-??/ieo aea?aa
??cieo iioiaeaeaiue iaoiiaeei iiyao aeieoae?a. Aea?aaa, ia yeeo a?eee ia
ia??coaaee aei 14 ?ie?a, ia ieiaeiiineee. Aeeo/aiiy ianeaieo a?eie
ca?eueoeei iaeiie/aiiy i?iaeoeo?a anei?eyoe??, ? o oaeeo aea?aa
aenoa/eei iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ia aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ? ooai?aiiy
aaia?aoeaieo i?aai?a. O aea?aa, a?eee yeeo ia??coaaee aei aenioe 1,0—1,4
i, ia noiaao?ao c’yaeeeny aiaeyi? iaaiie, ui ia ni?eyei ooai?aiith
aeieoae?a aei 14 ?ie?a. Ie oea iiynith?ii oei, ui ?ioaineai?noue
o?aini??aoe?? eenoe?a aiaeyieo iaaii?a o na?aaeei? eeiiy aeua (293—328
ia/(aei2aiae)), i?ae eenoe?a o aa?oi?e /anoei? e?iie (164—188
ia/(aei2aiae)).

Aeey i?aai?caoe?? e?niian?ii?aeo ieaioaoe?e, eeiie ne?ae aeiae?aoe ia
o?eueee ca oeiii oi?i (?aiiy, i?ciy), aea e ca oaiieia?/ieie oacaie,
iniaeeai, uia ni?aiaaeaea oaca ea?ooaaiiy. Ia ieaioaoe??
Eeaaae??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa ii/aoie ? ianiaa ea?ooaaiiy uai an?o eeii?a
ca iaeei aeeeth/aiiyi ni?aiaaea?. Ea?ooaaiiy cae?i/o?oueny ?ai?oa o uai
i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy 24—27 ea?oiy, a o uai eeii?a iiyne?anueeiai ?
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy aiii ii/eia?oueny 27 ea?oiy. Nooo?ai?
??cieoe? a ii/aoeo ?ioeo oac ?icaeoeo eeii?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia
ieaioaoe?? ia aeyaeaii.

Ei?aiaaa nenoaia aeeiio? aeeeth/ii aaaeeeao ?ieue o aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
?ineei. Iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a aieeaa? ia iano oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ae??aiiai ei??iiy. Aei aeeaeie 1,2 i iaea?eueoa ae??aiiai ei??iiy (a
na?aaeiueiio 23,4 a a 1000 ni3 a?oioo) iathoue eeiie iiyne?anueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy ? iaeiaioa (a na?aaeiueiio 9,2 a a 1000 ni3) — eeiie
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Ca ianith ae??aiiai ei??iiy eeiie
i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy caeiathoue i?ii?aeia i?noea (a na?aaeiueiio 14,5
a a 1000 ni3). A i?ioeeaaei?noue aeeeaaeaiiio o aa?oiueiio
12-naioeiao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo iaea?eueoa (59% a?ae caaaeueii? iane)
cina?aaeaeaii ae??aiiai ei??iiy eeii?a aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
iaeiaioa — 34% eeii?a iiyne?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Ca ianith ae??aiiai
ei??iiy eeiie eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy caeiathoue i?ii?aeia
i?noea(56%).

O eeii?a on?o iioiaeaeaiue iaeaeua ?ioaineai?noue o?aini??aoe??
niinoa??aa?oueny iaaani?, eiee a a?oio? ? aaeeea e?euee?noue aieiae ?
eenoy iieiaea. Iaeieae/a aiia o eeii?a aeoaa an?o iioiaeaeaiue o
na?aaeei? e?oa, eiee a a?oio? ianaaeaeaiiy iaeiaioa aieiae. Ainaie
?ioaineai?noue o?aini??aoe?? caeia? i?ii?aeia i?noea.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia ?ioaineai?noue o?aini??aoe?? aieeaa? oaeiae
iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a. Ca iacia/iei aeiyoeii o eenoy eeii?a aeoaa
i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy o?aini??aoe?y ?ioaineai?oa ai?iaeiaae anueiai
aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo, i?ae o eenoy eeii?a iiyne?anueeiai ?
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeuo ?ioaineai?noue o?aini??aoe?? eenoy aeoaa
aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, aieia?noue eiai aeyaeeany a?eueoith, i?ae
o eenoy aeoaa ?ioiai iioiaeaeaiiy. E?eoa??e ??cieoe? aieiaino?
aeoa??anueeiai ? iiyne?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue 9,2,
aeoa??anueeiai ? eiaeuainueeiai — 12,2. Oea na?ae/eoue, ui aea?aaa aeoaa
i?noeaaiai (aeoa??anueeiai) iioiaeaeaiiy a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii
aeei?enoiaothoue aieiao, yeo iiaeeiathoue c a?oioo.

sse ? ne?ae i/?eoaaoe, a na?aaeei? niiy/iiai aeiy iaea?eueoa
?ioaineai?noue oioineioaco eenoy niinoa??aaeany ia aa?oi?e /anoei? e?iie
( 100%), aeaui iaioa (63 — 70%) a na?aaei?e /anoei? e neaaea (18 — 22%)
o ieaei?e.

A?aoiaoth/e ?ioaineai?noue o?aini??aoe?? oa aieia?noue eenoy, ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui aea?aaa aeoaa i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia o?eueee
iaeiie/othoue a?eueoa iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?ioean? oioineioaco, a e
aeyaeythoue aeuo a?ieia?/io no?ee?noue.

IEIAeIIIOAIIss AeA?AA AeOAA IA IEAIOAOe??

Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie a ianaaeaeaiiyo Eeaaae??anueeiai
aea?aee?nainio aea?aaa aeoaa c aaeeeith ieiuath aeeaeaiiy ii/eiathoue
ieiaeiiineoe c 12—15 ?ie?a, a a c?ieiooeo ianaaeaeaiiyo c 25—28 ?ie?a.
?yni? a?iaea? iiaoi?ththoueny /a?ac eiaei? o?e—i’youe ?ie?a. Ii/aoie
ieiaeiiioaiiy i?euaieaieo eeii?a ia ieaioaoe?? Eeaaae??anueeiai
e?nieoeoaa a?aecia/aii a 1990 ?. I?ioa iaa?oue ca ni?eyoeeaeo oiia
ina?oeaiiy ? aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? iiaae?a ia an? aea?aaa ui??/ii
ieiaeiiineee. Aea?aaa i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeaui e?aua ieiaeiiineee,
i?ae c ?ioeo i?noeue.

A on?o ieiaeiiinieo aea?aa aeieoae? c’yaeeenue ia aa?oi?e /anoei?
e?iie. ?o iana oa ?ici??e ia iaeiaeia?. Iaeiaio? ca aeiaaeeiith aeieoae?
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy (24,8 ni), ca oiaueiith iiyne?anueeiai
(14,2 ni) (oaae. 3). I?e/iio ca ianith aeieoae? aeoa??anueeiai oa
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iathoue nooo?ao ??cieoeth, e?eoa??e ??cieoe?
neeaaea? 6,8.

O a a e e oe y 3 – Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeieoae?a o?iaeath 1992 ?.

Iioiaeaeaiiy

Aeiaaeeia, ii

Oiaueia, ii

Iana, aeeiiaMmtMmtMmt

Iiyne?anueea

29,4

0,34

14,2

0,24

3,2

0,14 1,5 3,9 3,1 Aeoa??anueea28,6 0,3815,4 0,22 3,9 0,17 6,3 0,8 6,8
Eiaeuainueea24,8 0,4615,2 0,24 2,4 0,12 Ae?iaie/? ianaaeaeaiiy

Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa

25,4 0,3815,2 0,18 2,6 0,14

IIOIINOAI IETHNIAEO AeA?AA

Iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a ? ?o ian?iiy aieeaa? ia ??no oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue
aae aei a?eo noeaeino?. Oey ??cieoey a ?ici??? ? a?iian? ?ineei ii/eia?
aeyaeyoeny aaea ia noaae?? 1—2 — ??/ieo n?yioe?a.

Aeey aea/aiiy aieeao ieiae?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy ia ??no naaeaeaioe?a
aeieoae? o 1992 ?. cae?aee c aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ianaaeaeaiue
Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa ? iaeii/anii ia ieaioaoe?? c ??cieo
eeii?a. N?yioe? c oeeo aeieoae?a ae?iuoaaee a ?icnaaeieeo.
Iaea?aeai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui a iaeii??/iiio a?oe? n?yioe? aeoaa ?c
aeieoae?a, caaioiaeaieo o aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiio i?noeaaiio ianaaeaeaii?,
aeinyaee na?aaeiuei? aenioe 15,1, n?yioe? eeii?a iiyne?anueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy — 17,1 ni. t — ??cieoe? i?ae aenioith n?yioe?a oeeo aeaio
iioiaeaeaiue neeaaea? 2,1. N?yioe?, ui ae?inee ?c eeii?a aeoa??anueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, aeinyaee iaea?eueoi? na?aaeiuei? aenioe 19,2 ni. ??cieoey
o aenio? n?yioe?a aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui ae?inee ?c aeieoae?a,
ye? caaioiaeyee ia ieaioaoe?? ? a ianaaeaeaii?, aaeeea, t — e?eoa??e
neeaaea? 3,0. N?yioe? eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iathoue iaeiaioo (16,1
ni) na?aaeith aenioo ? i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae n?yioe?a
aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, aeey ae?iuoaaiiy yeeo aeei?enoiaothoue
aeieoae? c aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai i?noeaaiai ianaaeaeaiiy. t — e?eoa??e
??cieoe? neeaaea? 0,7.

Ae?iuai? a ?icnaaeieeo aeine?aei? iaeii??/i? n?yioe? aenaaeaeoaaee o
aei?iai? eoeueoo?e, ui noai?thaaeeny a Aeoa??anueeiio e?nieoeoa?
Eeaaae??anueeiai aea?aee?nainio (ea.56), ia na?aeiio ia?icei?/iaaiiio
c?oa?. Ca oiiaaie i?noeac?inoaiiy ae?eyiea a?aeiineoueny aei na?aeeo
noai??a. A?oio aiooaaee i?ieeaaeaiiyi ai?icie ieoaii IEE-70.

Ca ?iaeth/?noth a?oio, ia yeiio noai?thaaee eoeueoo?e, oeiiaee aeey
ianaaeaeaiiue Eeaaae??anueeiai aea?aee?nainio, cie?aia aea aea?aii
iethnia? aea?aaa.

Ae?eyiea ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai?e ca ?aeue?oii i?noeaaino?. N?yioe?
aenaaeaeoaaee a aeii ai?icie ? a a?aa?iue. An? aenaaeaeai? n?yioe?
i?eaeeeeny, aea e?i?eiee i?e??no aa?o?aeiaeo iaaii?a aoa ??ciei ? i?yii
caeaaeaa a?ae ?ici???a iaeii??/ieo n?yioe?a ai?iaeiaae /ioe?ueio ?ie?a
i?ney ?o aenaaeaeoaaiiy ia iino?eia i?noea. Iaea?eueoee na?aaei?e
e?i?eiee i?e??no ianooiiiai ?ieo i?ney aenaaeaeoaaiiy iaeii??/ieo
n?yioe?a aoa o iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy i?e eiai
?ici?uaii? ye a aeii ai?icie (11,0), oae ? a a?aa?iue (11,6 ni).
Iaeiaioee – o naaeaeaioe?a eeii?a eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. I?e
aenaaeaeoaaii? naaeaeaioe?a a aeii ai?icie a?i neeaaeaa 8,7, a a
a?aa?iue — 9,1 ni. ??cieoey o i?e?ino? naaeaeaioe?a aeoa??anueeiai ?
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiue nooo?aa. I?e aenaaeaeoaaii? n?yioe?a o aeii
ai?icie t — e?eoa??e ??cieoe? neeaaeaa 2,2, a a?aa?iue — 2,7. I?e??no o
aenioo naaeaeaioe?a iiyne?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iaaeeaeaany aei i?e?inoo
naaeaeaioe?a aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

sse ca na?aaei?ie ?ici??aie iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo, oae e ca i?e?inoii
aa?o?aeiaeo iaaii?a n?yioe? eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iaee iaeiaio?
iieacieee, ye? aoee aeecuee? aei a?aeiia?aeieo o n?yioe?a, ae?iuaieo ?c
aeieoae?a aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, caaioiaeaieo o
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo. ?o t — e?eoa??e ??cieoe? a iaio
niiniaao naae?iiy neeaaeaa 0,3.

Aeyaeaii, ui e?i?eiee i?e??no aa?o?aeiaeo iaaii?a iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy
oaeiae ia? cia/io ??cieoeth. A?eueoee a?i i?e iinaaeoe? a a?aa?iue.

Ia ae?oaee ??e i?ney naae?iiy ia iino?eia i?noea i?e??no o aenioo
ci?ieany iaei, iniaeeai o naaeaeaioe?a eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, a ia
o?ao?e ??e iaeaea eeoeany oaeei, ye ? a iiia?aaeiueiio ?ioe?. Oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui i?e aeeiioaaii? oa ia?anaaeaeoaaii? naaeaeaioe?a
/anoeia ei??iiy ? iniaeeai ei?aiaa? aieinee iioeiaeaeothoueny aai
cieuothoueny. Oea ii?ooo? ei?aeyoeaia a?aeiioaiiy i?ae ianith iaaecaiii?
/anoeie ? ei?aiaaith nenoaiith. Oiio iiee oea a?aeiioaiiy ia
a?aeiiaeoueny, niinoa??aa?oueny neaaeee ?icaeoie ? ??no iaaecaiii?
/anoeie. O aeoaa oea a?aeiioaiiy a?aeiiaeth?oueny, ye a?aei?/a?
I.?.Ai?ae??iei (1986), ia o?aoueiio-/aoaa?oiio ?ioe? i?ney
aenaaeaeoaaiiy n?yioe?a ia iino?eia i?noea. Oeei iiaeia iiynieoe
ca?eueoaiiy i?e?inoo o aenioo aa?o?aeiaeo iaaii?a o 4-??/ieo
naaeaeaioe?a (oaae. 4). O oeueiio ae a?oe? iaea?eueoo aenioo ? ??/iee
i?e??no o aei?iaieo eoeueoo?ao iaee naaeaeaioe? i?noeaaiai,
aeoa??anueeiai, iioiaeaeaiiy. I?e aenaaeaeoaaii? n?yioe?a o aeii ai?icie
aiie aeinyaee na?aaeiuei? aenioe 65,6 ni ? na?aaeiueiai i?e?inoo a ??e
22,1 ni, a a a?aa?iue — a?aeiia?aeii 68,3 ? 23,2 ni. Iaeiaioo aenioo ?
i?e??no iaee 4-??/i? naaeaeaioe? eiaeuainueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy.

I?e aenaaeaeoaaii? a aeii ai?icie
aiie

aeinyaaee na?aaeiuei? aenioe eeoa 50,2 ni ? iaee na?aaei?e i?e??no
16,6 ni, a o a?aa?iue — a?aeiia?aeii 52,8 ? 17, 2 ni. I?ii?aeia i?noea
ca oeeie iieacieeaie iaee naaeaeaioe? iiyne?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui naaeaeaioe?, ae?iuai? ?c aeieoae?a, c?a?aieo o
ianaaeaeaiiyo Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa a 4-??/iiio a?oe?, iaee
na?aaei?e i?e??no 15,0 ni, a a a?aa?iue —15,7 ni (oaae. 4), a na?aaeiy
aenioa a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeea 48,4 oa 49,1 ni.

A?aoiaoth/e neaaeee ??no ye n?yioe?a, oae ? e?i?eiee i?e??no o aenioo
naaeaeaioe?a, ne?ae aaaaeaoe, ui i?e noai?aii? ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe??
aeeaoe? o?aaa caaioiaeyoe c iethniaeo aea?aa aeoaa a a?ieia?/ii no?eeeo
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo.

O a a e e oe y 4 – Ii??aiyiiy ??/iiai i?e?inoo naaeaeaioe?a aeoaa
??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy o aei?iaieo eoeueoo?ao

IioiaeaeaiiyI?noeaNiin?a aenaaeaeoaaiiy naaeaeaioe?a o
eoeueoo?aoeeiiacaaio?ae?a aeii ai?iciea
a?aa?iueaeieoae?ai?e??no,nimti?e??no,nimt3-??/i? naaeaeaioe?, ca
?ici??aie ainaie 1995 ?. Iiyne?anueeaIeaioaoe?y11,50,9413,60,711,9
2,5 Aeoa??anueeaIanaaeaeaiiy

(eiio?ieue)8,61,189,51,453,2
2,5 Aeoa??anueeaIeaioaoe?y13,20,8314,21,13
EiaeuainueeaIeaioaoe?y8,70,959,51,250,7
0,1 Aeoa??anueeaIanaaeaeaiiy

(eiio?ieue)8,61,189,51,454-??/i? naaeaeaioe? ca ?ici??aie ainaie 1996 ?.
Iiyne?anueeaIeaioaoe?y19,41,4421,82,282,4
2,1 Aeoa??anueeaIanaaeaeaiiy

(eiio?ieue)15,01,0915,71,674,1
2,7 Aeoa??anueeaIeaioaoe?y22,11,3223,22,15
EiaeuainueeaIeaioaoe?y16,60,9517,21,780,7
1,0 Aeoa??anueeaIanaaeaeaiiy

(eiio?ieue)15,01,0915,71,67

Iioiinoai ?c aeeaoe?a, caaioiaeaieo c aea?aa noa?oiai a?eo,
a?aecia/a?oueny neaaeei ?inoii. sseui ? a iaeaooiueiio aoaea neaaea
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo iioiinoaa eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, aea?aaa
eeii?a oeueiai e?nieoeoaa iiaeooue aooe aeaeaeai?, aea i?ney o?eaaei?
ia?aa??ee ia iioiinoai, uia iicaaaeoe a?ae iaaaaeaiiai ia?ao?aniiai
caieeaiiy ?ioeo eeii?a.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo eeii?a
aeoa??anueeiai, eiaeuainueeiai ? iiyne?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy iathoue
i?aeoe/ia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy, ye? aoaeooue aeei?enoai? a iaeaooiueiio
aeey ia?aa??ee niaaeeiaino? eeii?a ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?, ye
i?iiiio? A.?.A?eion, /a?ac 25-30 ?ie?a.

Aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ae?oiiai ian?iiy e?niaeo aea?aaieo
ii??ae i?e iiai?e a?aenooiino? oaeoe/ieo aeaieo ii aa?oino? noai?aiiy oa
aenieoaoaoe?? ieaioaoe?e, a oaeiae i?iaeoeoeaiino? e?niaeo eoeueoo?,
caeeaaeaieo naeaeoe?eiei iaoa??aeii, ia? cia/i? o?oaeiiu?. Oiio aeey
?ic?aooie?a i?eeiyoi aeei?enoiaoaaoe ii?iaoeae ca aeaieie A.?.A?eiona
(1994).

Neeaaeiaeie noia?iiai aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo i?eeiyoi: ca?eueoaiiy
o?iaeaeiino? ian?iiy e?niaeo aea?aaieo ii??ae; nei?i/aiiy no?ieo
ii/aoeo ieiaeiiioaiiy; i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ooo/ieo
aea?aainoai?a, oa aa?oino? aea?aainoai?a.

I?eeiyoee ii?iaoea aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ( 19% ), no?ie ieoiiino?
(5-6 ?ie?a), ii?iaoea aoaeoeaiino? cao?ao ( 0,03 ), a oaeiae ii?iaoeae
oiaa?iino? aea?aainoai?a aeoaa, e?nioaenia? ianyae aeicaieythoue
aeeiiaoe ?ic?aooiee oa aecia/eoe caaaeueio oaeniao aa?o?noue
aeiaeaoeiai? aea?aaeie o a?oe? aieiaii? ?oaee aea?aainoai?a.

Noeae? aea?aainoaie aeoaa cae/aeiiai 1,2 aii?oao?a a Eeaaae??anueeiio
aea?aee?naini? iathoue caian 210 i3/aa. I?e i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
iaeaooi?o aea?aainoai?a ia 19% aeiaeaoeiai io?eia?ii aei a?eo aieiaii?
?oaee — 40 i3/aa aea?aaeie (19% a?ae 210 i 3/ aa ), a ia an?e ieiu?
eoeueoo? aea?aee?nainio (1800 aa ) — 72 oen. i 3.

Caaaeueia oaeniaa aa?o?noue aeiaeaoeiai? aea?aaeie neeaaea 2605 oen.
a?i., a i?eaooie ia iaeei aaeoa? — 147,2 a?i.

I?eaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy
eeiiiaeo e?niian?ii?aeo ieaioaoe?e, ye? caeaoi? caaacia/eoe oi?ioaaiiy
a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieo aea?aainoai?a. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui i?iaiic
?ic?aooie?a c?iaeaii a ?aaeueiiio /an? (1998 ??e ), oi a ia?niaeoea? ?c
?inoii iiieoo, oe?i i/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ieaioaoe?eiiai
ian?iieoeoaa iiaea cia/ii i?aeaeueoenue.

AENIIAEE

1. O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy iethniaeo
aea?aa Aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeicaiey? io?eiaoe iaea?eueo
i?iaeoeoeai? aea?aainoaie c iaeoaeaeoei ieiaeiiioaiiyi.

2. Ca iaoai?ieia?/ieie oiiaaie i?e?i?aeii Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeuith na?aaeiueith ??/iith oaiia?aoo?ith iia?o?y,
i?ae Eiaeuainueeiai oa Iiyne?anueeiai e?nieoeoa. Na?aaeiy e?euee?noue
aoiinoa?ieo iiaae?a ca ??e aeiaaea? a?eueoa a ?aeii? inoaiiueiai (ia
19 ii). I?ioa oe? oiiae iaei aieeioee ia iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo eeii?a
ia ieaioaoe??.

Ii/aoie an?o oac o eeii?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy ianoa? iaeaea
iaeii/anii, aea aiie i?ioiaeyoue o a?eueo noene? oa?i?ie o eeii?a
i?noeaaiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

3. Iacaaaeath/e ia ??cieoeth aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia, a yeeo ?inoooue
iethnia? aea?aaa, a oaeiae ?o a?eo aea?aaa an?o eeii?a aeoaa a 14 ?ie?a
iathoue aeineoue aeecuee? aenioo ? ae?aiao? ia aenio? 0,8 i.

A oiiaao aeinoaoiuei? e?eueeino? iiaae?a ia e?i?eiee i?e??no
aa?o?aeiaeo iaaii?a aeoaa a?eueoa aieeaa? oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y, i?ae
iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a, a?e iethniaeo aea?aa ? oiiae i?noeac?inoaiiy
inoaii?o.

4. Aea?aaa eeii?a aeoaa ii/aee ieiaeiiineoe a 1990 ?ioe?. Caeaaeii a?ae
?o iioiaeaeaiiy aeieoae? iathoue ??cio iano, yea ia caaaeaee ei?aeth? c
?ici??aie ae?iuaieo n?yioe?a.

O /ioe?e??/iiio a?oe? iaea?eueoi? na?aaeiuei? aenioe (65,6 ni) aeinyaee
n?yioe?, ui ae?inee ?c aeieoae?a aeoa??anueeiai, iaeiaioi? (50,2 ni) —
eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Inoaii? ca aaee/eiith iaeaea ia
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae naaeaeaioe?a, ui ae?inee ?c aeieoae?a,
caaioiaeaieo o aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiio ianaaeaeaii? Aeoa??anueeiai
e?nieoeoaa.

5. Ai?iaeiaae onueiai aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo iaeaeua ?ioaineai?noue
o?aini??aoe?? o eenoe?a eeii?a aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ? iaeieae/a —
o eiaeuainueeiai. A na?aaeei? e?oa aieia?noue eenoy iaeaeua o eeii?a
aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy ieie aieiae.

6. Ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? aaouee?anueeeo
(iethniaeo) aea?aa ? a?aeiia?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy eeii?a ia ni?aiaaea?.
Iaea?eueoa acioo, oinoi?o ? eae?th a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? iethniaeo aea?aa
Eiaeuainueeiai e?nieoeoaa, iaeiaioa — a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? aea?aa
Iiyne?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa. Iaea?eueoa oeeo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a iiaae?
eeii?a aeoa??anueeiai, iaeiaioa — eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaa?oue i?e aaaaoaoeaiiio ?iciiiaeaii? ia an?
aeanoeaino? aaouee?anueeeo aea?aa ca ai?noii a i?aai?/iiio iiaae? acioo,
oinoi?o, eae?th ia?aaeathoueny iauaaeeai.

7. Iioiaeaeaiiy i?euai aieeaa? ia aoaeiao ei?aiaai? nenoaie eeii?a. A
iaeeieoe? ia’?io a?oioo iaeiaioa o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai ei??iiy o eeii?a
eiaeuainueeiai ? iaea?eueoa — iiyne?anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Ca ianith
oaeiai ei??iiy eeiie aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy caeiathoue i?ii?aeia
iieiaeaiiy.

Ia na?oei-n??eo noaeeieiaeo a?oioao iniiaia iana o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaiiai
ei??iiy o an?o eeii?a cina?aaeaeaia a aeoioeyoeaiiio oa??.

8. Ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueieie (ae?iuaieie ?c aeieoae?a, ui caaioiaeai? o
aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiio ianaaeaeaii? Aeoa??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa) o 4 ?iee
naaeaeaioe? aeoa??anueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy ae?inee ia 33—37, iiyne?anueeiai
— ia 24—30, eiaeuainueeiai — ia 10—16 %. Ca oiia iiaeaeueoi? neaaei?
?ioaineaiino? ?inoo iioiinoaa eiaeuainueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy oe? eeiie
iiaeooue aooe aeaeaeai?, aea o?eueee i?ney o?eaaei? ia?aa??ee ia
iioiinoai, uia iicaaaeoe a?ae iaaaaeaiiai ia?ao?aniiai caieeaiiy ?ioeo
eeii?a.

9. Ia ieaioaoe?? Eeaaae??anueeiai e?nieoeoaa ieaei? a?eee aeioe?eueii
ia??coaaoe aei aenioe 0,5—0,7 i, a aiaeyi? iaaiie — ia ??ai? iiaa?oi?
noiaao??a. Oae? caoiaee i?aeaeuaoue ieiaeiiioaiiy eeii?a ia ian?ii?a?e
ieaioaoe??.

10. C iaoith i?i?iaeueiiai iioeiaeaeaiiy ? cieuaiiy ei??iiy aeoaa i?ae
/an aeiaeyaeo ca a?oioii, caiia?aaiiy ?ic?inoaiith o?aa’yieo ?ineei ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ieaioaoe?? aeioe?eueii a
i?ae?yaeaeyo aenaaeaeoaaoe /aaa?ieee. A aenia?eiaio? aeey oeueiai
aeei?enoiaoaaee eaeeio cae/aeio oa a?ii?th /i?iiie?aeio.

11. Aeey ian?ii?aeo ieaioaoe?e aeeaoe? ne?ae caaioiaeyoe o i?noeaaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo ?c na?aaeiueia?eiaeo iethniaeo aea?aa, ui ?inoooue a
?aeaioe/ieo c iaeaooiueith ieaioaoe??th oiiaao. Eeiie iaiao?aeii
i?aeae?aoe c iaeii/aniei ?icaeoeii ca oaiieia?/ieie oacaie, iniaeeai
ea?ooaaiiy, a aeeaoe? caaioiaeyoe c aa?oiuei? aeia?a ina?oeaii? /anoeie
e?iie.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

1. I’yni?ae I.I. Noai?aiiy iino?eii? ian?ii?ai? ieaioaoe?? aeoaa //
E?niaee aeo?iae — 1993. — ? 5. — N. 16—17.

2. I’yni?ae I.I. Iaoiaee/i? iniiae ieaioaoe?eiiai ian?iieoeoaa aeoaa
cae/aeiiai // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. –
Ee?a, 1998. – ? 3, — N.203-208

3. I’yni?ae I.I. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue noai?aiiy ian?ii?aeo
ieaioaoe?e aeoaa cae/aeiiai // Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. – Ee?a, 1998. – ? 4, — N.193-197.

Oace ? iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae:

1. I’yni?ae I.I. Ieiaeiiioaiiy aeoaa ia ieaioaoe?? // I?iaeaie
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno: iiooe, aeinyaiaiiy. — E.: ONAA, 1993. — N.
167.

2. I’yni?ae I.I. Aeiaeyae ca aea?aaaie aeoaa ia ian?ii?a?e ieaioaoe?? //
I?iaeaie aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno: iiooe, aeinyaiaiiy. — E.: ONAA, —
1994. — N. 5.

3. Ai?aeeaiei I.E., Iyniaae I.I., Aie/oe A.O. Ieiaeiiioaiea aeoaa ia
ieaioaoeee e oa?aeoa?enoeea iioiinoaa iethniauo aea?aaueaa //
Eioaineoeeaoeey au?aueaaiey iioiinoaa eaniiinaaei/iiai iaoa?eaea.
-Eioea? – Iea, 1996, — N. 58-68.

I’yni?ae I.I. «Aieea iioiaeaeaiiy aeeaoe?a ia ieiaeiiioaiiy eeii?a oa
??no naaeaeaioe?a o eoeueoo?ao aeoaa cae/aeiiai a oiiaao Ee?anueeiai
Iie?nny». – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.03.01 – e?nia?
eoeueoo?e, naeaeoe?y, ian?iieoeoai. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
i.Ee?a,1999.

Caoeua?oueny ?oeiien aeena?oaoe??, a ye?e iaa?oioiaai? i?aenoiee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue 1990-1996 ?.?., iioae?eiaaieo a oanoe
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao.

O ?iaio? a?aeia?aaeai? iaoai?ieia?/i? oiiae ? o?ceei – o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino? a?oioo ?aeii?a i?noeac?inoaiiy iethniaeo aea?aa ? ian?ii?ai?
eeiiiai? ieaioaoe??; aea/ai? oace ?icaeoeo eeii?a, ?ioaineai?noue
iniiaieo o?c?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ?o eenoy ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ae??aiiai
ei??iiy c aeeaeiith, ?ioaineai?noue ieiaeiiioaiiy, iano aeieoae?a eeii?a
??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ?ici??e n?yioe?a o ?icnaaeieeo ? naaeaeaioe?a o
aei?iaieo eoeueoo?ao; aecia/ai? oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia
ieiaeiiioaiiy ? iiyao aiaeyieo iaaii?a ia noiaao?ao aeoaa ia ian?iiaa?e
ieaioaoe??; cai?iiiiiaai? caoiaee, iai?aaeai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
ieiaeiiioaiiy eeii?a ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy ieiu?, a?aeaaaeaii?
i?ae e?niian?ii?a? ieaioaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ianaaeaeaiiy, iethnia? aea?aaa, ian?ii?aa ieaioaoe?y,
eeiie, aeieoae?, aiaeyi? iaaiie, n?yioe?, e?nia? eoeueoo?e,
naaeaeaioe?, ae??aia ei??iiy.

Iyniaae I.I. «Aeeyiea i?ienoiaeaeaiey /a?aieia ia ieiaeiiioaiea eeiiia e
?ino naaeaioeaa a eoeueoo?ao aeoaa /a?ao/aoiai a oneiaeyo Eeaaneiai
Iieanuey». – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.03.01 — eaniua
eoeueoo?u, naeaeoeey, naiaiiaiaenoai. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue
oieaa?neoao, a. Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony ?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee, a eioi?ie iaiauaiu eoiae iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee 1990—1996 aa., iioaeeeiaaiiuo a oanoe ia/aoiuo ?aaioao.

A ?aaioa io?aaeaiu eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey e oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa
ii/au ?aeiiia i?iec?anoaiey iethniauo aea?aaueaa e naiaiiie eeiiiaie
ieaioaoeee; eco/aiu oacu ?acaeoey eeiiia, eioaineaiinoue iniiaiuo
oeceieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eo eenoueaa e ?ani?ino?aiaiea iaeeeo ei?iae n
aeoaeiie, eioaineaiinoue ieiaeiiioaiey, ianna aeaeoaeae eeiiia ?aciiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ?acia?u nayioeaa ia ieoiiieea e naaeaioeaa a
eniuoaoaeueiuo eoeueoo?ao; ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia
ieiaeiiioaiea e iiyaeaiea aiaeyiuo iiaaaia ia noaieao aeoaa ia naiaiiie
ieaioaoeee; i?aaeeiaeaiu ia?ii?eyoey, iai?aaeaiiua ia iiauoaiea
ieiaeiiioaiey eeiiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea ieiuaaee,
ioaaaeaiiie iiae eaninaiaiiua ieaioaoeee.

Eniuoaiey iieacaee, /oi aeey i?eaeaie iiaaae iaiaoiaeeii caaioaaeeaaoue
n iethniauo aea?aaueaa aa?oiae oi?ioi inaauaiiie /anoe e?iiu. I?e oaeeo
oneiaeyo iaaethaeaaony aieaa ?aiiaa ieiaeiiioaiea eeiiia ia ieaioaoeee.
Ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai aaaaoaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea iaeaunoay eioaineaiinoue
o?ainie?aoeee iaaethaeaaony o eenoueaa eeiiia aeoa?aaneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaeiecoay — o eiauuaineiai. Aeaaeiinoue yoeo eenoueaa a
na?aaeeia eaoa o eeiiia aeoa?aaneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey auoa, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?aoeeiiaeueiii eniieueciaaiee eie aeaae.

Niaea?aeaiea ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a i?aaie/aneii iiaaea iethniauo
aea?aaueaa e niioaaonoaothuaai i?ienoiaeaeaiey eeiiia ia niaiaaeaao.
Aieueoa yoeo ieoaoaeueiuo aauanoa a i?aaie/aneii iiaaea eeiiia
aeoa?aaneiai, iaiueoa — eiauuaineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. I?ienoiaeaeaiea
i?eaiaa aeeyao ia no?iaiea ei?iaaie nenoaiu eeiiia. A aaeeieoea iauaia
ii/au iaeiaiueoa eiee/anoai oeceieiae/aneeo ei?iae o eeiiia eiauuaineiai
e iaeaieueoaa — iiyneianeiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ca iannie oaeeo ei?iae
eeiiu aeoa?aaneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey caieiatho i?iiaaeooi/iia ianoi.

Aea?aauey eeiiia ia/aee ieiaeiiineoue /a?ac 8 eao iinea i?eaeaie.
AEaeoaee ?aciuo eeiiia eiatho ?acioth ianno: iaeaieueoay — aeoa?aaneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaeiaiueoay — eiauuaineiai. Eioaineaiinoue ?inoa
naaeaioeaa iaoiaeeony a i?yiie caaeneiinoe io iannu aeaeoaeae. A
4-eaoiai aic?anoa iaeaieueoae n?aaeiae auniou aeinoeaee naaeaioeu aeoaa
aeoa?aaneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaeiaiueoae — eiauuaineiai. Ca iineaaeiea
aeaa aiaea i?e?ino aa?oooa/iuo iiaaaia o naaeaioeaa aeoa?aaneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oaeaea ieacaeny auoa, /ai o naaeaioeaa eiauuaineiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Anoue aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oaeay ?acieoea
ii i?e?inoo aoaeao eiaoue ianoi e a aoaeouai.

Iieiaeeoaeueii aeeytho ia eioaineaiinoue ieiaeiiioaiey oaeaeaiea o
aea?aaueaa eaaeaeiai eeiia iecoeo ianneaiuo aaoie aei auniou 0,7 i. Aeey
oiaiueoaiey cao?ao ii ooiaeo ca ii/aie ia ieaioaoeee oeaeaniia?acii a
iaaeaeo?yaeuey aaiaeeoue ieiaeiaua eee yaiaeiua eonoa?ieee,

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ianaaeaeaiey, iethniaua aea?aauey, naiaiiay
ieaioaoeey, eeiiu, aeaeoaee, aiaeyiua iiaaae, nayioeu, eaniua eoeueoo?u,
naaeaioeu, iaeeea ei?ie.

N.P. Miasoed «Influence of the origin of the (seed pieces) propagules on
the fructifications of the clones and growth of planting stock in the
sylviculture of Quercus Robur in the conditions of Kiev Polissya». –

Manuscript.

Ph. D. In agricultural sciences, speciality code 06.03.01 — forestry
cultures, selection, seed-growing and planting cities with trees and
gardens. National Agrarian University, Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation is prepared on a basis of the results of scientific
researches conducted in 1990-96, and reflected in 6 published works.

Climate conditions, as well as physical and chemical land
characteristics of the regions where plus trees are being grown and of
seed clone plantations are reflected in the thesis: phases of clones’
development, intensity of main physiological processes in leaves,
spreading of small roots and depth of spreading, intensity of bearing,
mass of acorns of the clones of different origin, size of seeddlings in
nurseries and of saplings of industrial cultures; factors influencing on
bearing and appearance of water sprouts on oak trunks on seed
plantations, measures aimed on improvement of clones’ bearing and
rational use of space earmarked for forest seed plantations.

Key words:plantations, elite trees, seed plantations, clones, acorns,
water stems (offsets), seedling, planting stock, sylviculture, tiny
roots.

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