7

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?AAe?IAEAEO?II?EE

EIAAEAIEI Ieeiea Eineiiae/

OAeE 621.382.001:539.16.04

AIEEA II?II?IAIIss IA EIIIIIAIOE ?AAe?IAEAEO?IIII? AIA?AOO?E ?
?IC?IAEA IAOIAe?A I?AeAEUAIIss ?O ?AAe?AOe?EII? NO?EEINO?

05.27.06. – Oaoiieia?y, iaeaaeiaiiy oa ae?iaieoeoai aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.
A.A. Aeieo/a?aa

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiai A?eai Ea?iiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao?i. A.A. Aeieo/a?aa,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee ? o?ceee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaa?ia Ay/aneaa
Eaa?aio?eiae/, IIOe “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, ia/aeueiee
eaai?aoi???;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Eocoa TH??e
Ieeieaeiae/, Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy (i. Oa?e?a), ia/aeueiee a?aeae?eaiiy.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/iee eiioea?i “?inoeooo iiiie?enoae?a”,
iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/iee oeaio? ?aae?aoe?eiiai i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy (i.
Oa?e?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny »   30  » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.064.052.03 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, 310726, Oa?e?a,
i?. Eai?ia, 14, aoae. 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, 310726, Oa?e?a,
i?. Eai?ia, 14.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee »  20  »    o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
*o?thiia A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O?ae a?aeiiaethth/eo ?ia?o ia *i?iiaeeuene?e AN
iieacaee, ui nenoaie ea?oaaiiy ni?iaeoiaai? aac o?aooaaiiy
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ui iathoue i?noea a ?N i?e ?o ii?ii?iaii?
ao?a/aee caeaoi?noue ae?yoe iaa?oue ia a?aei?aoethaaaoe iaeaaeiee ?i
?ano?n. Oea noino?oueny ye nenoai ea?oaaiiy ?iaio?a, aia?aoo?e
anoaiiaeaii? ia aae?eiioa?ao, oae ? nenoai ea?oaaiiy ?ioi? niaoe?aeueii?
oaoi?ee, ui ae?yea a ?aae?aoe?eiiio iie?, noai?aiiio aiane?aeie
aaa??eiiai noaio.

Canoinoaaiiy i?eeaae?a oaa?aeio?eueii? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee a aoiii?e
aia?aaoeoe?, a nenoaiao ea?oaaiiy o?ainii?oieo cania?a, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny a /i?iiaeeuenuee?e cii?, eini?/iiio
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaii?, o a?enueeia?e oaoi?oe?, i?ecia/aii? ooieoe?iioaaoe a
oiiaao ae?? ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aoiiieo aeaoo?a, a oaeiae
aaeeea /ooeea?noue iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a aei ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aeeeeea? ?ioa?an na?aae i?ia?aneaieo a/aieo oa ?iaeaia??a aei ?icaeyaeo
i?iaeaie, yea iieyaa? o aea/ai? iiaaae?iee iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a
oa ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai (?IN) a iieyo ?ii?coth/eo aei?ii?ithaaiue.
Aoiii? aeaeo?inoaioe?? i?aoeththoue oae, ui 11-13% ?aae?iaeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ye? ooai?ththoueny a aoiiiiio ?aaeoi?? a i?ioean? aoiiieo
ia?aoai?aiue aeeeaeathoueny a aeiae?eey, a iia?o?yiee aanaei, ai oea
?aae?iaeoeai? ?ia?oi? aace (a?aii, enaiii, iaii oa ?i.). I?iaeaia a
oiio, ui ii nai?e i?e?iae? aiie i? c /ei ia aca?iiae?thoue ?
ciaoiaey/enue a iia?o?yiiio, a aiaeiiio oa a a?iaaiiiio na?aaeiaeuo,
aei?ii?iththoue aaia, aaoa, aeueoa i?iiai?, ye? ? noai?ththoue
caaaeueiee ?aae?aoe?eiee oii.

Eiaei? 25 ?ie?a (/an ?iaioe aoiiiiai ?aaeoi?a) 9 ?aaeoi??a aeeeaeathoue
a?eueoa ?aae?iaeoeaieo ?a/iaei (?aae?iioee?ae?a) i?ae a *i?iiaeeuenuee?e
eaoano?io? i?e iioeiaeaeaii? aoiiiiai ?aaeoi?a. ?oo o?ainii?oo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?iciianthaeaeaiiy caa?oaeiaiino? ? /enoa iiaa?oiy
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aanue /an ciaioo?oueny. A ?aae?iaeaeo?iia aia?aoo?a
(?AA), iniiao yei? neeaaeathoue ?ioaa?aeuei? noaie (?N) oa
iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? (II) i?eeaaee, ye ?ac ? i?aoeth? a oeeo oiiaao. O
ca’yceo c oeei i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino? (?N)
eiiiiiaio?a ?AA, aea/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy neaiae?a o ?N,
ii?ii?iaieo aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie iaaoaa? ia?aeiia cia/aiiy.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie cia/iee aeeaae aianee ?iaioe Aaa?eiaa
A.N., Oo?ia I.A., Oaoiaoeiaa A.?., O?a??/a A.?., E?oia/aiei
A.A., Aey/e?ia A.I., Oea/iaa A.Ae., Ni??iiaa E.N., Eoeaeiaa A.I.,
Eaaeea?ia ?.A., Iaoiaaoeue O.A., A?iaoeueeiai A.E., Eiiicaiei ?.Ae.,
Ii?aeeiae/ A.I., Eiiiieueiai? ?.O., Oaea?aa A.I., A?oianueeiai
I.A. oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo E.-O. Ioeoee, Aeae. Ia??a, A. Eaeao??aea, I.
A?i??a, A. Oe?ia?a, ?. ?iaeana, ?. E?iaeoa?aea, I.Iaia,
E. A?aiina, I. N?aioiaea, A. Oeioa, Ae. Iaeueniia, A. Aiaea?niia oa ?i.

Ieoaiiyi iiaaae?iee iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??ae?a i?ae ae??th
ii?ii?iaiiy i?enay/aia cia/ia e?euee?noue ?o ?ia?o. Aea ieoaiiyi
oi?ioaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy aeaeo?e/ieo neaiae?a a ii?ii?iaieo o
?ioaa?aeueieo noaiao ? no?oeoo?ao, c yeeo aiie neeaaeathoueny, a ieo
i?eae?eaii iaei oaaae. ?iaioe ii aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a a no?oeoo?ao
?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai i?ae /an eiia?iiaaiiai (iaeo?iie+?-eaaioe,
iaeo?iie+aeaeo?iie, aeaeo?iie+a-eaaioe) ii?ii?iaiiy i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?.

O ca’yceo c oeei eiiieaenia aecia/aiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo yaeu a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo?ao ?ioaa?aeueieo noai i?ae /an ae?? ia ieo
iioie?a neeaaeieo ?ii?coth/eo aei?ii?ithaaiue, anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo
caeiiii??iinoae, ca’yce?a i?ae i?ioeanaie ooai?aiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo
aeaoaeo?a oa ci?iith oa?aeoa?enoee ?ioaa?aeueieo noai ? aeooaeueiei.
Aeieea? iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?
?ioaa?aeueieo noai aac ei??iii? ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo cania?a, iieeaaoe a
iniiao iiaeeeaino? ae?iiii? oa ?aae?aoe?eii? oaoiieia?e. A oea ?
iaei??th ?c neeaaeiaeo caaaeaiue no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie oa oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiioaaeany a
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e o?ceee, ui eii?aeeioaaeany ?aaeith c
?aae?aoe?eii? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie ca oaiaie: “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o
aeaoaeo?a ae?ia?a aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee”, “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia ia’?eoe” (iaoeiai-aeine?aei? ?iaioe c
ainiiaea?nueei-aeiaia??ii? oaiaoeee c Oa?e?anueeei o?ceei-oaoi?/iei
?inoeoooii IAI Oe?a?ie), o ieai? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o OAeAO ?
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie ia 1995 – 2000 ??. c
oaie “Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee ?aae?iaeoeaieo aeaoaeo?a, ui aeieeathoue
i?e aca?iiae?? ?aae?iaeoeaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c ?a/iaeiith oa
a?ieia?/ieie ia’?eoaie”. A oaeiae a iaaeao IAe? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ce/ieo
iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy i?io?eae ?iciiae?eo aoii?a a?aeaea/? oa
?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a i?e aca?iiae?? ca?yaeaeaieo oa
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo /anoeiie c oa?oaaoeie no?oeoo?aie ia iniia?
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a” o ?aieao i?ia?aie ca?aeii c eii?aeeiaoe?eiei ieaiii
I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie 1997-2000 ??. “…3. Eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy yaea?ieo
i?ioean?a oa noai?aiiy ia ?o iniia? yaea?ii-o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a aeey
canoinoaaiiy a aia?aaoeoe? oa ?aae?aoe?ei?e aaciaoe? yaea?ieo
aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie ? oaoiieia?e ?aae?aoe?eii? iiaeeo?eaoe??
iaoa??ae?a oa aeieia??”.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Aeoiaey/e c aeeeaaeaiiai, iaoith oe??? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai, i?aeaeuaii?
?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino? ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy aeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a o ?o ii?ii?iaieo oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?ao (aeaioiaeaieo ia iniia?
?-i ia?aoiae?a ? no?oeoo? iaoae-ieneae-iai?ai?ia?aeiee) oa anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??ieo ca’yce?a i?ae i?ioeanaie ?aae?aoe?eiiai aeaoaeoioai?aiiy ?
aeeiai?/ieie ia?aiao?aie ?ioaa?aeueieo noai.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/?:

1. Ioe?ieoe iiaaae?ieo o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? o iie? aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai
ii?ii?iaiiy, aeei?enoaaoe aeey a?aeoai?aiiy ?aaeueiino? i?ioean?a
aeaeo?io?ce/io iiaeaeue.

2. Aeey aeyao aeaoi?iaoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo neaiae?a, ui iioe?ththoueny a
ii?ii?iaieo ?N, aeine?aeeoe ci?ie AAO ?o aeoeaieo ? ianeaieo
eiiiiiaio?a.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe aieea neeaaeiiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai oaeoi?o ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee a?iiey?ieo oa III-eiiiiiaio?a ?N ??cieo oaoiieia?e
aeaioiaeaiiy.

4. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia??, caaacia/oth/e io?eiaiiy ?N i?aeaeuaii? ?N c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?enei?aieo io/e?a ?ii?a, aeaeo?ii?a, a oaeiae ia iniia?
aecia/aiiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca ?ioaineai?noue
?aae?aoe?eiiai aeaoaeoioai?aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iaea?aeai? oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, iaoeiaa iiaecia
yeeo iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

1. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii ia?aiao?e oanoiaeo eii??ie ?N oa i?e?inoai
III-oaoiieia?? a eiiieaen? c? ci?iith aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ae ae??th
ii?ii?iaiiy aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie.

2. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee eiiiiiaio?a ?ioaa?aeueieo
noai ia iniia? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? c a?aeoai?aiiyi neeaaeiiai
?aae?aoe?eiiai oiio, ye? iieacaee ia ca?eueoaiiy iae?i?eiinoae
oa?aeoa?enoee o?aicenoi??a oa iii??a, ye? aeeeeeathoue aeaoi?iaoe?th
neaiaeo, ui iioe?th?oueny a ?AA oa aaaeooue ?? aei a?aeeaco.

3. Aia?oa i?iaiae?ciaaii ae?th neeaaeiiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai oaeoi?o ia
eiiiiiaioe ?N. Iieacaii, ui iine?aeiaia aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ??cieie aeaeaie
ii?ii?iaiiy aaaea aei ?aae?aoe?eiiai a?aeiaeo ?ai?oa aaaaeaieo
?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a. Aoaeo a?ae eiia?iiaaii? aca?iiae?? ia ? noiith
aeaa?aaeaoe?e, a ? neeaaeiith ooieoe??th ?o aca?iiae??.

4. Aiae?c na?oeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeieea? a no?oeoo?ao ?N i?e
aiiaa?aeoaaii? aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie iieacaa, ui oea aaaea aei
aaia?aoe?? oioino?oi?a, ye? caeaoi? ci?ithaaoe ?iai/? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?N,
ui a naith /a?ao i?ecaiaeeoue aei cai?a o ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
iiaiiio a?aeeac? i?e aaa??eieo neooaoe?yo.

5. Ia/eneai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaae?eiino? ?N ? iaa?oioiaaia aeei?enoaiiy
?aae?aoe?eii-noeioeueiaaieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a (ia?iaea ieanoei
aeaeo?iiiei io/eii oa ?iiiei eaaoaaiiyi) aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?.

6. Oaeineiiaeaii i?ioean i?aeaeuaiiy ?N ?N III-oaoiieia?? oa i?e?inoai
ia iniia? a?iiey?ieo o?aicenoi??a ca ?aooiie oa?iiiieueiaeo
aei?iaoaaiue. ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? iniiaieo ?aaeei?a
oa?iiaeaeo?io?aioaaiiy (OAO).

7. I?iaiae?ciaaia noaiioaoi?/ia ae??oaiiy ?ioaa?aeueii? noaie OOE, yea
i?eaaei aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?? oaeaeeiae??, aea aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy ??
?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iaaea? iiaeeea?noue ca
iiaoaeiaaieie aeaeo?e/ieie iiaeaeyie ? ?ic?iaeaieie iaoiaeeeaie iiynieoe
iaoai?ci ?aae?aoe?eii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? ?N ??cii? oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?iaeao eiie?aoieo
?ioaa?aeueieo noai i?e ?o i?iaeooaaii? ? ae?iaieoeoa?, c iaoith
i?aeaeuaii? ?o ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?. Aeaye? c iaoeo ?acoeueoao?a
aeei?enoai? a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? i?e aeeiiaii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaiaoeee.

?acoeueoaoe oe??? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe oaeiae aeei?enoai?:

· i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo ?ioaa?aeueieo noai caeaoieo
i?aoethaaoe a iieyo aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai ii?ii?iaiiy ? aecia/aiiy ?o
e?eoe/ieo aeaiaio?a;

· i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ?N, i?aeaeuaii? ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?, aeei?enoaaoe
OAO eiiiiiaio?a ?AA;

· i?e aenieoaoaoe?? aia?aoo?e, ui aoea iaaiee /an o ?aae?aoe?eiiio iie?,
(ae?y oaiia?aoo?iiai iaa??ao ?AA ? aeoeaii? ?? ?iaioe o ?ioaineaieo
?aaeeiao i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy aeicaiey? iiaa?oaoe ?? a ?iai/ee noai);

· i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ?ioaa?aeueieo noai a oaoiieia?? ?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo
i?eeaae?a oaa?aeio?eueii? i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee aeey /iai iio??aii
ei?enooaaoeny ?aae?aoe?eieie oaoiieia?yie (ii?ii?iaiiy II eiiiiiaio?a
aeaeo?iiaie, iaeo?iiaie, aaiia-eaaioaie oa ?iiaie).

· i?e ae?iaieoeoa? ae?ao?aai noai?e?iiieo ?ici???a aeey oi?ioaaiiy
aeaeo?iiieo, ?iiieo ? ?aioaai?anueeeo io/e?a.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa aeinoia??i?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aecia/a?oueny ?o ca?aii i?e aeei?enoaii? iacaeaaeieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo? eiiiiiaio?a ?N, a oaeiae
caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiy no?iaeo iaoiae?a oai??? ?-i ia?aoiae?a ?
oai??? iaae?eiino?, ?o ai?iaaoe??th ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ?
eiioa?aioe?yo, ioae?eaoe?yie o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? oaiaoe/ieo
ca??ieeao, ai?iaaaeaeaii? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ia
i?aei?e?inoaao ye Oe?a?ie oae ? ?ioeo aea?aeaa, ia caaiaeao o
ae?iaieoeoa? ?N: “Oa?o?ii” i. Oa?eiaa, “A?aa?oii” i. *a?i?aoe?, ia
Caii??cueeiio caaiae? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a, a oaeiae a
Iaeanueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ca’yceo, Oe?a?inueeiio ?inoeooo? yaea?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
aecia/aiiy aieeao aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai ii?ii?iaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy ?
iioe?aiiy neaiae?a o eiiiiiaioao ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e. E??i oiai,
?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaii? ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeeeaaeaii?
caaaeueieo aeenoeeie?i ? niaoeeo?n?a c oaoiieia?? o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao a?aeiia?aeiiai oaoo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ui aeiinyoueny aei caoenoo.

1. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a a?iiey?ieo o?aicenoi??a
?ioaa?aeueieo noai ? o?aicenoi??a III ?N i?ae aieeaii aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo
/anoeiie. I?e inoeeeia?ao?/iiio ? iiaeaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
aieueoaiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ioaa?aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a aeyaeaii, ui /an
ii?ii?iaiiy ca?eueoothoueny iae?i?eiino? oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiaio?a ?N. Oea
aeeeeea? aeaoi?iaoe?th neaiaeo, ui iioe?th?oueny a ?N ? o ?AA ?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?? a?aeeaco.

2. Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a o?aicenoi?ieo
no?oeoo? i?ae aieeaii eiia?iiaaieo ii?ii?ithth/eo oaeoi??a (aaia +
iaeo?iie, aeaeo?iie + iaeo?iie, aaia + aeaeo?iie) ? i?ae aieeaii
a?aeiaeo a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 20-120?N. Aeyaeaii, ui aieea neeaaeiiai
?aae?aoe?eiiai /eiieea aaaea aei ?aae?aoe?eiiai a?aeiaeo ?ai?oa
aaaaeaieo aeaoaeo?a aaea a i?ioean? «aiiaa?aeoaaiiy» ? aoaeo a?ae
eiia?iiaaiiai aieeao ia ? noiith aeaa?aaeaoe?e, ui niinoa??aathoueny i?e
aiiaa?aeoaaii? oeie ae oethainaie ? iioieaie ie?aii, a ? neeaaeiith
ooieoe??th ?oiuei? aca?iiae??.

3. Aiae?c na?oeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeieea? a eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??aeao ?N i?e aiiaa?aeoaaii? ?o aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie,
iieacaa, ui eiai ?ioaineaiino? aeinoaoiuei aeey aaia?aoe?? oioioie?a,
ye? ni?iiiaei? i?eaanoe i?eeaae o ia?iai/ee noai, oiaoi i?ecaanoe aei
cai?a i?ae /an ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? aai ae aei iiaiiai a?aeeaco.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ?ic?iaethaa/?a ?N, ui aeicaieythoue
i?aeaeuoaaoe ?N i?eeaae?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao aieeao
ii?ii?iaiiy. Iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue a aeei?enoai? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a
iai?ici?eo o aeaeei?e ? aeeaei?e ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? niaeo?o
(iai?eeeaae, aa?iai?e), ye iniiaiee II iaoa??ae, a c canooaaiiyi
aeoeaieo aeii?oie — o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a, ui oi?iothoue a?aeiinii aeeaie?
aia?aaoe/i? ??ai?. Aeey ?cieyoe?? oa??a iai?ai?ia?aeieea aa?oi
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ae?aeaeo?ee, yeee aoa ae iai?ici?ei o aeaeei?e ?
aeeaei?e ?io?a/a?aii?e iaeano? niaeo?o.

Aiae?c i?ioeano ?icn?thaaiiy iainiiaieo iin??a ca?yaeo a o?aicenoi?ao ?
oano-eii??eao ?N i?ae /an aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai ii?ii?iaiiy iieacaa
caeaaei?noue eiai a?ae oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy no?oeoo?.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?ae /an
ii?ii?iaiiy no?oeoo? ?N na?oia? iioiee, ui aeieeathoue o ieo, a?eueoa
aieeaathoue ia ?-i ia?aoiaee cian?i iaaiiaa?aee?iaai? aai
aiiaa?aee?iaai? iaeei oethainii iaeo?ii?a (1011 — 1012 i·ni-2) o
ii??aiyii? c aiiaa?aee?iaaieie aaeeeeie oethainaie (5?1013 — 1014
i·ni-2).

4. ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae OAO ?N, aeaioiaeaieo ii oi?iiey?i?e ? a?iiey?i?e
oaoiieia?yi. OAO i?aeaeuo? iaae?ei?noue oaa?aeio?eueiuo no?oeoo?,
onoaath/e iioaioe?eii iaiaae?ei? ae?eyiee ?-i ia?aoiae?a ? a oiieeo
i?ioa?eao, i?eaiaey/e ?o o ??aiiaaaeiee noai ?c iaaeieeoiueith
iao?eoeath e?enoaea. I?e ca?eueoaii? /ano OAO ?N ?N i?aeaeuo?oueny.
Iieacaii, ui aieea OAO a?eueo aoaeoeaiee a ii??aiyii? c
oa?iio?aioaaiiyi. Oea ?acoeueoao aeiaeaoeiaeo i?ioean?a aeaeo?iaeeooc??
aeii?oie e aeoeaieo oeaio??a i?ae ae??th aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. O
i?e?inoaiao, ui i?ieoee OAO, niinoa??aa?oueny iaioa caeeoeiaeo
iioaioe?eii iaiaae?eieo ae?eyiie, ye? i?e ia?aa??oe? a nenoaiao
aeo?aeiiai eiio?ieth ia aeyaeythoueny.

5. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo oaoiieia?e iieacaei ia?niaeoeai?noue ?o
canoinoaaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?N ae?ia?a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee.

· Aia?oa iaaaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?iiieo io/e?a
(aeey noai?aiiy a ieanoeiao e?aii?th ia?aae i?iaaaeaiiyi oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano oa?iiaeeooc?? ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaieo aeaoaeo?a), ye?
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe ia?o?? o?aicenoi??a ?c aocueeeie iaeneioiaie
?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aiao??a. I?ioean oa?oioaaiiy cia/aiue
ia?aiao??a o a?eueo aino?? iaeneioie ia e?eaeo ?iciiae?eo aeicaiey?
iaea?aeoaaoe a?eueo iaae?ei? no?oeoo?e ?N i?e ii?ii?iaii?.

· Aia?oa iieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueia ?N ?N III-oaoiieia??, aeaioiaeaieo c
canoinoaaiiyi ?iii-i?iiaiaai? oaoiieia??, ianooia? i?e eaaoaaii?
iioieaie aei 6·1014 ?ii·ni-2. Oea ia ca?aa?oueny c? cia/aiiyi iioie?a
8·1014 ?ii·ni-2 aeey iaeneiaeueiiai a?aenioea aeoiaeo aiaeieo ?N (82%).
Oiio aeey iaea?aeaiiy a?eueo ?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo i?e?inoai aa?oi
iaiaaeeoeny iaioei a?aenioeii aeoiaeo aiaeieo ?N (56% i?e iioieao aei
6·1014 ?ii·ni-2). Ia?aiao?e oaeeo ?N a?eueo ei?eaiaai? ? iathoue iaioo
aeenia?n?th o ?oiueiio ?iciiae?e?.

6. Aiae?c ?iaioe ?N ia a?iiey?ieo no?oeoo?ao iieaco?, ui aeaye? noaie
OOE a?eueo /ooeea? aei ?aae?aoe?eiiai aieeao a ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth
(i?e i?iaeooaaii? noaii-oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue) aiae?co ?oiuei? iiaeeeai?
?iaioe a oiiaao aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai ii?ii?iaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii
noaiioaoi?/ia ??oaiiy, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ?N i?e?inoai.

7. ?ic?iaeaio oaoiieia?th aeaioiaeaiiy i?aoeec?eieo ae?ao?aai i?e?iiieo
? noai?e?iiieo ae?aiao??a, oiaueiith 0,1 – 2 ii aeey ?aioaaiie?oia?ao??
oa oi?ioaaiiy io/e?a ei?ioneoey?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy iaeiai ae?aiao?o ?
aaeeei? aonoeie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? i?iieneiaeo oaoiieia?e
aeaioiaeaiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo i?e?inoai, i?aeaeuaii? ?N, a oaeiae a
iiaoaeia? oai?aoe/ieo [4, 5] ? aeaeo?io?ce/ieo [6] iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee
ii?ii?iaieo eiiiiiaio?a ?AA, o ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iioeuenieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ii?ii?iaieo ieaia?ieo o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? [3], a
iaea?aeai? ? aiae?c? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae h-ia?aiao??a
o?aicenoi??a ? oano-eii??ie, ii?ii?iaieo iaeo?iiaie ? neeaaeiei
ii?ii?ithaaiiyi [1, 2, 8, 9], a aiae?c? aieeao na?oeiaiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ui aeieea? i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy ei?ioneoey?ieo
/anoeiie a no?oeoo?ao ?ioaa?aeueieo noai ia ?iioeueni? ia?aiao?e
ieaia?ieo o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? ? ?ioaa?aeueieo noai [4]. Aianie aaoi?a
oaeiae iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a i?aeaeuaiiy
?N ? ieaia?ieo o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?, ?N III-oaoiieia?? oa i?e?inoai ia
iniia? a?iiey?ieo no?oeoo? aeioe?eueieie ?aaeeiaie OAO [10, 11].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?ia?o. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ? eiioa?aioe?yo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, ?inoeoooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, I?? «Ooi?i» (Iaeana),
Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ? i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo «I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoai oi?aaeaiey e nayce»,
(Oa?e?a, 1997), «Ia?niaeoeaiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii,
i?iiuoeaiiii e ai?iaeneii o?ainii?oa» (Aeoooa, 1997), «Ieoaiiy
a?i?iaeeeaoe?? ? aeieia??» (Caii??aeaey, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a aeai?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?,
iaae?oeiaaii o aeaaiaaeoeyoe noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao,
o o?ueio oacao i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e ? oiui.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?c
iaeiaioaaiue. Caaaeueiee ia’?i aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, ?enoie?a ? oaaeeoeue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aea?aiiai iai?yieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, oi?iothoueny oe?eue ? iniiai? caaea/? ?iaioe, iaoeiaa
iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “I?i aeaoaeoe, ye? aieeaathoue ia iae?i?eiino?
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ioaa?aeueieo noai”, ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e?
“Aeaoaeoiooai?aiiy a iaoa??aeao i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee i?e ?ii?coth/iio
aieea?” ?icaeyioo? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? ii aeaoaeoioai?aiith a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo iaoa??aeao ?ioaa?aeueii? aeaeo?ii?ee i?e ae??
?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy. I?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai? oeie aeaoaeo?a, ui
aeieeathoue o II oeio aa?iai?y ? e?aii?th i?e ii?ii?iaii? ??cieie oeiaie
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo /anoeiie (iaeo?iie, aaiia-eaaioe, aeaeo?iie). Oe?
aeaoaeoe, a iniiaiiio, aieeaathoue ia i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai neaiaeo
/a?ac iai?ai?ia?aeiee.

A iniiao iieeaaeai? oai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy E?i/eia, I?ca ? E?iaeoa?aea.
Iieacaii, ui ia i?ioiaeaeaiiy neaiaeo /a?ac II, yeee ii?ii?iaiee
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie, aieeaathoue ia o?eueee e?aieia?
aeaoaeoe, a e cia/i? ?o ia’?aeiaiiy o aeaeyae? eeanoa??a. A aea/aiiy
eeanoa??a cia/iee aeeaae c?iaeee Aa?oieioo?, Oo?i oa Ain?e. Aiie
iieacaee, ui eeanoa?e aeaoaeo?a iathoue yae?i ? ciai?oi?e i?inoi?iaee
ca?yae. Oe? iaeano? iathoue ??cio eiioeaio?aoe?th iin??a ca?yaeo a
oeaio?? ? ia ia?eoa???. Oo?i i?ia?a aenia?eiaioe c aeei?enoaiiyi AII.
A?i aaaaeaa, ui iaeano? aacii?yaeeo a e?aii?? i?ney caaa?oaiiy
ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a yaeythoue niaith neeaaei? no?oeoo?e ?c
iane/aiiai ae?aaeain?yie yae?a oa iaieiiee ?c eiiieaen?a iiiiaaeain?e c
aoiiaie aeii?oee.

Aiae?c ??aiy Oa?i? iieacaa, ui a ia’?i? II noai?th?oueny iioaioe?aeueiee
?aeue?o. Oea iiaeiii aieeaaoe ia ?oo iin??a ca?yaeo. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui
oe? ?acoeueoaoe, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe Ain?ea iieacaee, ui eeanoa?i?
aeaoaeoe, ye? aeieeathoue i?e ii?ii?iaii?, aieeaathoue ia ia?aiao?e ?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?e/iiai neaiaeo (oi?io, /ania? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? ?io?
aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e).

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiai ?icae?eo “I?e?iiaiaeii??aeiino?
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa ?ioaa?aeueieo no?oeoo? i?e ii?ii?iaii?” i?eaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?ino?oeoo?e
aiiaa?aeiaaieo aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie II c?ace?a oa ?N.
Iieacaii, ui o iai?ai?ia?aeieeao i?e oeueiio iathoue i?noea iaoai?/i?
iai?oaeaiiy, ?ae?enoae?caoe?y, aeaooiaa e?enoae?caoe?y ? ooai?aiiy
iaeanoae c iiaeoeyoe??th i?ia?aeiino?. I?e ii?ii?iaii? ?N iaea i?noea
ci?ia ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??aeo, a?aeoa?oaaiiy ae?aeaeo?e/iiai
oa?o a?ae II, ?ic?eae cieioeo i?ia?aeiee?a a i?noeyo niathaaiiy c
cieioeie noaaeeaie, aea aiie ia?aaoaathoue o iai?oaeaiiio noai?. I?e oeo
aea aeicao aaiia-eaaio?a a ?N, ui i?ieoee OAO yaeu a?aeoa?oaaiiy,
?ic?ea?a oa aeaoi?iaoe?? cieioeo noaaeie ia aoei.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaoiieia?e i?aeaeuaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii?
no?eeino? ?N, i?eaiooaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a” i?eaaaeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eno?i?a, oaoiieia?? ?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue.

?icaeyioo? oaoiieia?/i? ieoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ?N ia iniia? e?aii?th oiio,
ui iniiaith aeaeo?iiieo II i?eeaae?a yaeythoueny eiia?iaoe??
iiiie?enoaeo iai?ai?ia?aeieea c oa?aie ae?aeaeo?eea ? iaoaeo.

I?ioeane ?aae?aoe?eiiai aeaoaeoioai?aiiy a oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?ao
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oaeeo a iaeii??aeiiio II. Oea iia’ycaii c iieyie
iaoai?/ieo ? aeaeo?e/ieo iai?oaeaiue, ui iaoiiaeaii iaiaeii??aeiei
?iciiae?eii aeii?oie ? no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a a iai?ai?ia?aeieeo.

Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie e?aii??aeie no?oeoo?aie ? ieaia?i? o?aicenoi?e, ye?
yaeythoueny iniiaith ?N ? a ia?oo /a?ao o?aicenoi?ii-o?aicenoi?ii?
eia?ee. Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny oaeiae oi?iiey?i? ?N oa aea/aeeny i?ioeane ia
o?eueee a ia’?i? II, a ? a i?e iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? Si-SiI, Si-Al, SiO-Al.
Oe? i?ioeane /anoi iaoiiaeththoue ?N ae?ia?a oaa?aeio?eueii?
aeaeo?ii?ee.

?icaeyioo? oaoiieia?/i? ieoaiiy aeaioiaeaiiy ?N ia niiia? ?-i
ia?aoiae?a, ? III no?oeoo?. Aeine?aeaeoaai? oano-eii??ee aeaioiaeyeenue
a ?aeeiiio oaoiieia?/iiio oeeee? c ?N. Aiie iio?i ii?ii?ithaaeeny i?e
oeo aea oiiaao a ?aeei?e ia?o??, ui ? ?N. Aeei?enoaiiy oano-eii??ie
iia’ycaia c oei, ui ia?aiao?e o?aicenoi??a, ?acenoi??a a ?N ia iiaeia
eiio?iethaaoe a noai? ie?aii ye aei ii?ii?iaiiy, oae ? i?ney, ai ?
aca?iiee aieea oeeo aeaiaio?a.

Ii?ii?iaiiy aaeinue iioieii iaeo?ii?a c aia?a??th 1,8 IaA ia
ai?eciioaeueiiio eaiae? Ee?anueeiai ?aaeoi?a. Aeey ii?ii?iaiiy c
aia?a??th a 14 IaA iaeo?iiaie aoa aeei?enoaiee aaia?aoi? iaeo?ii?a.

?ioaa?aeuei? no?oeoo?e, ?ioaa?aeuei? noaie oa oano-eii??ee
ii?ii?ithaaeenue ia aaiia onoaiiaoe? oeio “Enneaaeiaaoaeue” a OAeO.

Ii?ii?iaiiy no?oeoo? oaeaeeeie aeaeo?iiaie aaeinue ia e?i?eiiio
i?enei?thaa/? aeaeo?ii?a «Aeaeo?ii?ea» ?inoeoooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie.
Aia?a?y aeaeo?ii?a 1,5-5 IaA, no?oi. Ii?ii?iaiiy aaeinue i?e oaiia?aoo??
60?N. No?oi aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea eiio?iethaaany ca aeiiiiiaith oeee?iae??a
Oa?aaeay c oi/i?noth 20%.

Ii?ii?iaiiy e?aii??aeo no?oeoo? ?iiaie ai?o aei aeic 1014-5·1016
?ii·ni-2 i?iaiaeeeinue ia i?enei?thaaeuei?e onoaiiaoe? ?icae?eaiiyi ii
ianai («Aacoa?e-1A»). Aonoeia ?iiiiai no?oio — aei 10 ieA·ni-2,
oaiia?aoo?a c?acea a?ey 90?N. Oea ia aeicaieyei ooai?thaaoeny i?aai?/iei
ie?aeai ia iiaa?oi? e?aii?th.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa?ao o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a a aiiaa?aeiaaieo
c?aceao. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaeenue noaiaea?oi? iaoiaee na?oeiai? ?
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? — i?e?ioioia?aooaaiiy ia onoaiiaoe? “I?IOIO” a
aeaeeiiio na?oe?, a aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? ia “i?ina?o” ? a ?ano?iaiio
aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? ia a?aeia?aaeaiiy.

Ii?yae c oeei aaeenue aeaeo?e/i? aei??thaaiiy ia?aiao??a ?-i ia?aoiae?a,
aeeaeie iieiaeaiiy ?-i ia?aoiae?a ? ?iciiae?eo aeii?oie, ?iioeuenieo
oa?aeoa?enoee o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?, oano-eii??ie oa aeeiai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a i?e?inoai aeey aeaiaio?a, ui aoee ii?ii?iai? iaeo?iiaie,
aaiia-eaaioaie oa aeaeo?iiaie.

Ii?ii?iaiiy aaeinue ia o?eueee ie?aieie aeaeaie ii?ii?iaiiy, aea ?
eiia?iiaaieie aeaeaie ii?ii?iaiiy. Aoee aeei?enoai? caaiaenuee?
onoaiiaee aeey OAO aei 13 ae?a.

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii?
oaoiieia?? i?e ae?iaieoeoa? II o?aicenoi??a ? ?N.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a i?iiiio?oueny oaoiieia?y
aeaioiaeaiiy ae?ao?aai a oaa?aeiio o?e? ae?aiao?ii 10-50 i?e?ii, ye?
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey oi?ioaaiiy io/e?a ?aioaai?anueeiai
i?ii?iiy, aaiia-eaaio?a, ?-/anoeiie ? io/e?a aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo ?ii?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Aieea aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai ii?ii?iaiiy ia eiiiiiaioe
?ioaa?aeueieo noai oa ?o iaae?ei?noue”. I?e i?ioiaeaeaii? neaiaeo a
ae?iaao oaa?aeio?eueii? aeaeo?ii?ee, ii?ii?iaieo aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie
/anoeieaie, a?i aeaoi?io?oueny ca ?ioeie caeiiaie, i?ae a iaii?ii?iaieo.
A??ia?aeii, ui oea iaoiiaeaii ci?iith oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiiaio?a. Aeieea?
caaaeaiiy iiaoaeiae iiaeae? ci?ie /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee ae?iaeieo ?
o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? i?ae /an ii?ii?iaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aea/aiiy aieeao ii?ii?iaiiy ia ?iioeueni? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aicenoi?ieo
no?oeoo? ? aieeao ia ?iioeueni? oa?aeoa?enoeee na?oeiaeo iioie?a, a
oaeiae aiae?co iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy oioino?oi?a a no?oeoo?ao ?N.
A oiio, ui a ?aaeuei?e neooaoe?? ia? i?noea ii?ii?iaiiy
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie c neeaaeiei niaeo?ii, oi oi?ioeth?oueny
caaea/a aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee no?oeoo? ?N a oaeeo oiiaao.

I?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii aecia/aiith aieeao
ii?ii?iaiiy ia /anoioi? aeanoeaino? ?-i ia?aoiae?a oa /anoioi? ia?aiao?e
o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?, aeaioiaeaieo ii ??ciei oaoiieia?yi.
I?iaiae?ciaaia ci?ia eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee a ?-i ia?aoiaeao, ci?ia
aeeaeie caeyaaiiy ?-i ia?aoiae?a, ci?ia ?o oe?eie ? ?iiino? i?e
aenieiaia?aaoe/iiio ii?ii?iaii?. Iaea?aeaiee ?iciiae?e aeii?oee aeey
aeeooc?eiiai ?-i ia?aoiaeo c a?aooaaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa
?aae?aoe?eii-noeioeueiaaii? aeeooc??.

Aecia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii? /anoioe aaia?aoe?? aeeooc?eiiai o?aicenoi?a i?e
ii?ii?iaii? aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie ciaoiaeeoueny ?c ae?aco
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(picscalex100010009000003ae000000020016000000000005000000090200000000040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 —
eiao?oe??io i?aeneeaiiy ia iecuee?e /anoio?;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 — eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? ae??ie a n-iaeano?;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 — ii?/iee ii?? aace;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 — eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? i?e
ii?ii?iaii?).

Iaea?aeai? oaeiae oi?ioee aeey o?aicenoi??a, aeaioiaeaieo ca ?ioeie
oaoiieia?yie. Oe? oi?ioee iieacothoue, ui caeaaei?noue iaaeiaeo /anoio
o?aicenoi??a aecia/athoueny ii/aoeiaei ?iciiae?eii aeii?oie. Ieae/a
i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ia AII caeaaeiinoae iaaeiaeo /anoio
a?ae ?ioaa?aeueiiai iioieo ii?ii?iaiiy ? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy (?en.
1, e?.1) ? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue (?en. 1, e?.2).

?en. 1. Ci?ia a?aie/ii? /anoioe o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? (aia?a?y
iaeo?ii?a 14 I?A).

Iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe, ui iaeneiaeueio ?N iathoue o? no?oeoo?e, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeith ci?iith iieiaeaiiy ?-i ia?aoiae?a ? ?o oe?eie,
eiee aaciaa iaeanoue i?e ii?ii?iaii? caa??aa? aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e, a
iaoee e?eaeo ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/ii-aeoeaieo oeaio??a a iaeanoyo ?-i
ia?aoiae?a i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny.

Aeae? i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai
ii?ii?iaiiy ia ?iioeueni? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? (ia /an
?icn?thaaiiy aeeooc?eieo o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? ?N). Aeey aeinoia??ii?
ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeinue oioia?aooaaiiy ?iioeuen?a c
ae?aio inoeeeia?aoa.

Aeey ioe?iee aieeao ina?oeaiiy ?-i ia?aoiae?a ia ?iioeueni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? aeei?enoiaoaaeiny na?oei
aeaeo?e/ii? eaiie ?icaea?thaaiiy. Ae?th oaieiaiai iioieo iaeo?ae?coaaee
aiaeyiei o?eueo?ii. Ina?oeaiiy ci?ithaaeiny a iaaeao 300-11000 ethen.

Ca?eueoaiiy oethaina aiiaa?aeoth/eo iaeo?ii?a aaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy /ano
?icn?thaaiiy, aei aaia?aoe?? ca?yae?a, a ca?aene ? aei ca?eueoaiiy
oeueiai /ano. I?e oeueiio /an ?icn?thaaiiy ciaioo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii?
oethaina aiiaa?aeoth/eo iaeo?ii?a a?ae 1011 aei 1014 i·ni-2. I?aeaeuaiiy
aiie?ooaee ao?aeiiai neaiaeo aaaea aei c?inoaiiy /ano ?icn?thaaiiy i?e
oethain? 1011-1013 i·ni-2, aea iaeaea ia aaaea aei ci?i i?e oethain?
1014 i·ni-2. I?e ina?oeaii? 320 ee ia?ii oaeo ae caeaaei?noue.

I?e ii?ii?iaii? ei?ioneoey?ieie /anoeieaie a ?ioaa?aeueieo no?oeoo?ao
aeieea? ina?oeaiiy, aea?aaeaioia na?oeiaei iioieai a e?eueea ethen. I?e
oeueiio, na?oeia? iioiee, ui iiiaaeathoue a oa? ieeneo e?aii?th iiaeooue
ia?aoiaeeoe c iaei??? no?oeoo?e a ae?oao. A ?-i ia?aoiaeao, a
III-no?oeoo?ao aaia?othoueny oioino?oie. Iaa?oue i?e iae?e na?aaei?e
?ioaineaiino? oaeeo oioino?oi?a, aiie aeeeeeathoue cai?io aeaeo?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, a oaeiae aaaeooue ?N aei caith a ?iaio?.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co iiaaae?iee oano-eii??ie ? o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?,
ii?ii?iaieo iaeo?iiaie, aaiia-eaaioaie ? iaeo?iiaie iethn
aaiia-eaaioaie iieacothoue, ui i?e eiia?iiaaiiio ii?ii?iaii?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?aae?aoe?eiee a?aeiae aeaoaeo?a, aaaaeaieo iiia?aaei?i
aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi.

Aiae?c aeo?aeieo ia?aiao??a ?N OOE, a oaeiae ioe?iea ?o iaae?eiino?
iieacaee, ui aiie caa??aathoue nai? ?iai/? ia?aiao?e aei oethaina 1014
i·ni-2.. I?e ae?? oethaina 5·1014 i·ni-2 ?N OOE i?aeoe/ii ia?anoathoue
ooieoe?iioaaoe.

Aeey e?auiai ?icoi?iiy aeaeo?e/ieo i?ioean?a, ui iathoue i?noea a
eiiiiiaioao ?N i?e iioe?aii? neaiae?a aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? AAO II
?acenoi??a ? o?aicenoi??a aeaioiaeaieo a aeaeyae? oano-eii??ie ca
??cieie oaoiieia?yie. Iieacaii, ui iaoee AAO ?acenoi??a aecia/a?oueny
oethainii iaeo?ii?a, aai aeicith aaiia-eaaio?a. Oa?aeoa? e?eaeo
aecia/a?oueny aaiiao???th ? oeiii ?cieyoe??. Oae, ?cieyoe?y ?-i
ia?aoiaeaie aecia/a? cia/i? iae?i?eiino?, ai no?oi, ui aeieea? i?e
ia?aaea/? neaiae?a aca?iiae?? c ia?aoiaeii, a a?i nai ? iae?i?eiei
aeaiaioii. Oea aaaea aei cia/iiai niioai?thaaiiy neaiaeo. Aiiaa?aeoaaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae a ?aeii? ?-i ia?aoiaeo iioeiaeaeaieo iaeanoae ?
oea i?aeneeth? aeaoi?iaoe?th neaiaeo.

Aiae?c aeo?aeieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?, ii?ii?iaieo
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie /anoeieaie iieaco?, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy
eiao?oe??ioa i?aeneeaiiy, aeaoi?iaoe?y oa?aeoa?enoee ? ca?eueoaiiy ?o
iae?i?eiinoae. Oiio i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a iioe?aiiy neaiaeo
a II, ui iathoue eeanoa?e aeaoaeo?a. Aeoiaey/e ?c o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a oa
oai?aoe/ieo oyaeaiue, aoea aea?aia o?aicenoi?ia no?oeoo?a, a ye?e iiaeia
aoei i?iioneaoe no?oi a nioc? /anoio 200 aoe — 40 Eaoe /a?ac aaciao
iaeanoue ? ?aa?no?oaaoe neaiae a iaeano? ai?oa?-aaca.

I?e i?ioiaeaeaii? ci?iiiai no?oio ii II aiiaeiaae ieiueie ?-i ia?aoiaeo,
ui iiaeaeth? ciai?oith iaaeo eeanoa??a aeaoaeo?a, aeieea? ci?iia
iai?oaa. Aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny ii oi?i? ? aiie?ooae? a?ae i?eeeaaeaii?.
?c ca?eueoaiiyi no?oio aeaoi?iaoe?y neaiae?a a iaeano? ca?cieueiaai?e
?-i ia?aoiaeii caaaa/o?oueny aeueie aa?iii?eaie ? caaaeyee
aneiao?e/iino? aeaoi?iaoe?? c’yaey?oueny iino?eia neeaaeiaa. I?e
i?ioiaeaeaii? neaiaeo ia?aeaeueii eeanoa?ai aeieeathoue ci?ie a oi?i?
?-i ia?aoiae?a ? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. Oea aaaea aei aeaoi?iaoe?? neaiaeo,
ui iioe?th?oueny a II i?eeaaeao, iaoa??ae yeeo ia? eeanoa?e aeaoaeo?a
oaeiai oeio.

Iiaeia c?iaeoe ne?aeoth/e ocaaaeueiaiiy.

1. Iaea?aeai? ?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy ci?ie /anoioieo
ia?aiao??a o?aicenoi??a i?e ii?ii?iaii? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaoiieia?? ?o
aeaioiaeaiiy. ?ic?aoiaai? ia AII caeaaeiino? iaaeiaeo /anoio
o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? ii??aiyii c io?eiaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie
caeaaeiinoyie i?e ii?ii?iaii? iaeo?iiaie c aia?a??th 14 IaA. A?aeoeeaiiy
noaiiaeoue aeecueei 10 %.

2. Aea/aii aieea aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia ?iioeueni?
ia?aiao?e o?aicenoi??a a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?iiiieueiaeo aieea?a ?
ina?oeaiiy ?-i ia?aoiae?a.

3. Iieacaii, ui ?io?a/a?aiia ? na?oeiaa aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea
ooai?th?oueny a i?ioean? aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ei?ioneoey?ieie ?
eaac?ei?ioneoey?ieie /anoeieaie caeaoia aaia?oaaoe a ?ioaa?aeueieo
no?oeoo?ao oioino?oie, ye? iiaeooue aeaiaeeoe ?N a iai?aoeacaeaoiee
noai.

4. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea eiia?iiaaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia ia?aiao?e
oano-eii??ie ? o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?, aieea oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo ia
ia?aiao?e o?aicenoi??a. Aoaeo ae?? oaeiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia ? noiith
aieeao ??cieo oei?a aei?ii?ithaaiiy, a ia? neeaaeio caeaaei?noue. Ia ??
o?ae aieeaa? ?aae?aoe?eiee a?aeiae aeaoaeo?a, oiaoi a?aeiae aeaoaeo?a a
/an ii?ii?ithaaiiy.

5. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii aieea iaeo?iiiiai ? aaiia ii?ii?iaiiy
ia ia?aiao?e ?N OOE. I?iaiae?ciaaia ?o iaae?ei?noue i?e iaeo?iiiiio
ii?ii?iaii?.

6. Ii??aithaaeueia aea/aiiy AAO o?aicenoi?ieo ? ?acenoi?ieo no?oeoo? c
aeiiiiiaith aeaioi?iiaiaaiai inoeeeia?aoa iieacaei ca?eueoaiiy
iae?i?eiinoae ?o oa?aeoa?enoee i?e ii?ii?iaii?. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano
iioe?aiiy neaiaeo a II, ye? i?noyoue eeanoa?e ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a, a
oaeiae aeei?enoaiiy aa?iii?/iiai aiae?co aeicaiey? iiynieoe oe? ci?ie.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee “?ic?iaea niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?
ae?ia?a oaa?aeio?eueii? aeaeo?ii?ee” i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? niinia?a
i?aeaeuaiiy ?N ae?ia?a ?N.

Noi?ioeueiaaia caaea/a ae??ooaaeanue ae??th aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a ?
oaiia?aoo?e (?en 2), iiia?aaeiueiai ii?ii?iaiiy aeaeo?iiieie io/eaie
e?aii?th ? no?oeoo? ia eiai iniia?, aeei?enoaiiyi ?iiieo io/e?a.

?en. 2. Aieea oa?iiaeaeo?io?aioaaiiy ia a?oioaaiiy ia?aiao??a a ia?o??
?ioaa?aeueieo noai,

ii?ii?iaieo iaeo?iiaie

Iieacaii, ui OAO eiiiiiaio?a — oea aoaeoeaiee can?a i?aeaeuaiiy ??
iaae?eiino? i?e ae?? iioie?a aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo /anoeiie. ?ic?iaeaii
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeo ia iniia? eeane/ieo iiiyoue A?ai?ona, a
oaeiae oaeoo, ui aaaaeaiiy a II aia?a?? a aeaeyae? iaa??ao, ina?oeaiiy,
ii?ii?iaiiy aaiia-eaaioaie, /e ?iieaioaoe??th aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo
/anoeiie iaeaea caaaeaee i?eaiaeeoue aei iaeiaeiaeo iane?aee?a. Ai
aoaeoe, ui aeieeathoue i?e oeueiio caeaaeaoue eeoa a?ae ??aiy aia?a??,
yea iiaea aooe ia?aaeaia a iaeeie/iiio aeo? aca?iiae?? c aoiiii, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny a aoce? e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee, aai i?ae aoceaie.

Oa?oaaoa II no?oeoo?a ?-i ia?ao?ae /e iaoae-ieenae-iai?ai?ia?aeiee a
i?ioean? oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e ?o ae?iaieoeoaa oi?iothoue cia/i?
iaoai?/i? ? aeaeo?e/i? iai?oaeaiiy a iaeeo iaeanoyo — a ia’?iao iaioeo
0,01 iei3. Oiio iaeano? ?aae?aoe?eiiai aeaoaeoioai?aiiy c e?i?eieie
?ici??aie 10-8 i a?athoue ?ieue aino?iai eaca, ui ?icoeia? iaeanoue
iai?oaeaiino? iiae?aii eaco a?eoae, yea ?icoeia? ooai iaoyaiooo ieoeo.

I?e oa?iio?aioaaii? aiane?aeie oa?iiaeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a ciaioothoueny
a?aae??ioe iai?oaeaiino? a iaeanoyo ?-i ia?aoiae?a oa a noi?aeieo
iaeanoyo iaoae-ieenae-iai?ai?ia?aeiee. Aieea aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a oaeiae
iie?ioo? oiiae a??aiiaaaeaiino? a ?-i ia?aoiaeao ? a noi?aeieo iaeanoyo
III-no?oeoo? (oea iieacaii a i.i. 1.1).

Aea/aiiy aieeao OAO ia ?N ?N iieacaei, ui aiii noaa?e?co? no?oeoo?e, ?o
aeaeo?e/i? ia?aiao?e, a oaeiae:

* OAO ca?eueoo? ?N ieaia?ieo no?oeoo?.

* OAO i?aeaeuo? ?N noai OOE. I?e i?iaaaeaii? OAO a?eueoa 168 aiaeei
ii/eia?oueny iane/aiiy ?N, oiaoi i?e aeaeueoiio i?iaaaeaii? OAO ?N
i?aeoe/ii ia ca?eueoo?oueny.

* Oi?iiey?i? ?N oaeiae i?aeaeuothoue ?N i?ae ae??th OAO (>70 aiaeei).

* Aea/aiee iiceoeaiee aieea OAO ia ci?io aiie?ooaee aeiaeaoii? ?
a?ae’?iii? ia?aoeiaee, ui aeieea? a eiioi?eaoe?eiiio iie? ?N 143, a
oaeiae ia ?? aeiaaeeio.

* ?ic?iaeaia oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a aieeao OAO ia
?N II no?oeoo? ?N.

* Iieacaii, ui iaoai?ci i?ioean?a, ye? iie?auothoue oa?aeoa?enoeee
oi?iiey?ieo ?N a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iaoai?cio a a?iiey?ieo no?oeoo?ao.
Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui iin?yie ca?yaeo a oi?iiey?ieo no?oeoo?ao
aenooiathoue iniiai? iin?? ii??aiyii c iainiiaieie iin?yie a a?iiey?ieo
no?oeoo?ao. A?aei?ia iaoiiaeaia oaeiae ??cieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iaae. A
a?iiey?ieo no?oeoo?ao iaae? a?athoue iaioo ?ieue, ai a ieo aecia/aeueia
cia/aiiy iathoue ia’?ii? aeanoeaino?.

?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
eiiiiiaio?a ?AA aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?N. ?iiia eaaoaaiiy i?e ae?iaieoeoa?
?N ia III-no?oeoo?ao, a oaeiae iiia?aaei? ii?ii?iaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
ieanoei e?aii?th iioieaie aeaeo?ii?a i?eaiaeeoue aei a?oioaaiiy a ia?o??
ii ?iai/ei ia?aiao?ai, yea cia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae a?oioaaiiy
i?eeaae?a, ye? aeaioiaeai? oa?iiaeeooc?eiith oaoiieia??th.

Iieacaii, ui ia?o?? ?N ? o?aicenoi??a, ui iaee a?eueo aocueeee ?iciiae?e
ii ia?aiao?o, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeuith ?N.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iiaeeeaino? i?aeaeuaiiy ?N ?N OOE ca ?aooiie ci?ie ??
aeaeo?e/ii? noaie. Iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai eiea ?c
o?aicenoi?a ? aeaio ?acenoi??a aeey ciaioaiiy /ano aeeth/aiiy ?
aeeeth/aiiy i?e ii?ii?iaii? aaaea aei a?ae’?iiiai aoaeoo i?e
ii?ii?iaii?, oae ye ?iai/a oi/ea o?aicenoi?a ci?uo?oueny ia e?ea?e. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? neaiaeo, ui iioe?th?oueny. Oiio
i?iiiio?oueny cai?ieoe o?aicenoi? c aeaiia ?acenoi?aie a oaeeo noaiao ia
iaeei ?acenoi?.

AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

?ic?iaoe? ?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo ?N a Oe?a?i? i?eae?ey?oueny iaei oaaae.
sse iieacaee iiae?? inoaii?o ?ie?a, iaiao?aei? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo ?N, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao a?aee?eoiai
einiino, o a?enueeia?e aia?aoo?? ? nenoaiao oi?aae?iiy aoiiieie
onoaiiaeaie. I?aeaeuaiiy ?N ?AA ia iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa aac ?ic?iaeaiiy
eiie?aoieo oaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa eiiiiiaio ?c i?aeaeuaiith
?aae?aoe?eiith no?ee?noth.

I?e aeeiiaii? aeaii? ?iaioe i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aea/aiiy
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a o eiiiiiaioao ?AA, i?aeaeaieo ii?ii?iaiith, oa
ii ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e ? oaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?N ?N.

Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeia c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

· ci?ie /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? iiaeia
i?iaiae?coaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith io?eiaieo iaie oi?ioe;

· i?e aieea? ii?ii?iaiiy neeaaeiiai neeaaeo niinoa??aa?oueny
?aae?aoe?eiee a?aeiae ?ai?oa aaaaeaieo ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a;

· ii?ii?iaiiy aaaea aei ca?eueoaiiy iae?i?eiinoae oa?aeoa?enoee
?acenoi?ieo ? o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?;

· niinoa??aa?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e aia?a?? i?ae aa?iii?eieie neeaaeiaeie
neaiaeo, ui iiynith?oueny iayai?noth eeanoa??a aeaoaeo?a;

· aiae?c i?ioean?a iieacaa, ui na?oeiaa aei?ii?ithaaiiy, yea aeieea? a
i?noeyo aaeueioaaiiy ia?aeiii ci?uaieo aoii?a, caeaoia aeaiaeeoe c
?iai/iai noaio o?aicenoi?e oa ?N;

· yeui no?oeoo?e aoee ?ai?oa i?aeaeai? ii?ii?iaiith, oi ia oae?
no?oeoo?e aieea, na?oeiaeo iioie?a ui aeieeathoue a ieo, iiieaeaiee.

Cai?iiiiiaai? aeey ?ic?iaethaa/?a oaoiieia?e ?N ?aeiiaiaeaoe??,
ia?aaeaa/athoue o yeino? iniiaiiai II iaoa??aeo aeei?enoiaoaaoe II
iai?ici?ee o aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?a, a aeey aeoeaieo aeii?oie
canoiniaoaaoe aeaiaio, ui oi?io? aeeaie? aia?aaoe/i? ??ai?. Aeey
?cieyoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaoe ae?aeaeo?eee, iai?ici?? o aeaeei?e iaeano?
niaeo?a.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?N ?N cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? iaie
oaoiieia??, caniiaai? ia:

· canoinoaaii? aeaeo?iiieo io/e?a;

· canoinoaaii? oaoiieia?? ?iiiiai eaaoaaiiy;

· aeei?enoaii? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oa?iiaeaeo?io?aioaaiiy.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe aenieo /ooeea?noue aeayeeo noai aei ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aieeao, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii a?aenooiino? iiia?aaeiueiai aiae?co ?oiuei?
iiaeeeai? ?iaioe a oiiaao ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny ?oi?i ca?aii i?e
aeei?enoaii? iacaeaaeieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?
eiiiiiaio ?N ? naieo ?N, a oaeiae caaacia/o?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi noai?eo
iaoiae?a oai??? ?-i ia?aoiae?a ? oai??? iaae?eiino?, ai?iaaoe??th ia
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ? eiioa?aioe?yo, ioae?eaoe?yie o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ?
oaiaoe/ieo ca??ieeao, ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean, i?e
aeeiiaii? IAeIE? o IAeO? i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy (i. Oa?e?a) ? IAe?
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie onoaiiaaie, i?aei?e?inoaaie i?iieneiaino? i?e
i?iaeooaaii? ? ae?iaieoeoa? ?aae?aoe?eii-no?eeeo ?N, oeyoii
cai?iiiiiaaieo oaoiieia?e ? iaoiae?a.

I?e aenieoaoaoe?? ?AA, yea ciaoiaeeeanue iaaiee /an o ?aae?aoe?eiiio
iie?, iiaeeeai a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? i?aoeacaeaoiino? aieeaii aeiionoeiiai
oaiia?aoo?iiai iaa??aaiiy ? ?iaioith a ?ioaineaieo ?aaeeiao.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Eeeiaiei E.N. Eiiaeie?iaaiiia iaeo/aiea
o?aicenoi?iuo no?oeoo? // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. — Oa?ueeia: IAI
Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO. — 1994. — Aui. 2 — N. 14 — 21.

2. Eiaaeaiei I.E. Aeeyiea iioieia aunieiyia?aaoe/iuo iaeo?iiia ia
ia?aiao?u ieaia?iuo o?aicenoi?iuo no?oeoo? // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. —
Oa?ueeia: IAI Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO. — 1994. — Aui. 2 — N. 39-46.

3. Aiai A.E., Eeeiaiei E.N., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Iaeeoaoue I.I. Aeeyiea
aunieiyia?aaoe/aneiai eceo/aiey ia eiioeueniua naienoaa o?aicenoi?iuo
no?oeoo? // Oi?aaeaiea e naycue. Oa?ueeia, IAI Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO, 1997,
n. 84-90.

4. Aiai A.E., Eeeiaiei E.N., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Iaeeoaoue I.I. Naaoiaua
iioiee a eioaa?aeueiuo no?oeoo?ao i?e aunieiyia?aaoe/iii iaeo/aiee //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. — Oa?ueeia: IAI Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO. — 1997.
Aui. 1(5). — N. 55-63.

5. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Eeeiaiei E.N. Eciaiaiea ia?aiao?ia p-n
ia?aoiaea i?e ?aaeeiaeoeaiii iaeo/aiee // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythuea
nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa. — 1997. — ? 3. N. 42-45.

6. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Iaeeoaoue I.I. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia
?ani?ino?aiaiey neaiaea a iieoi?iaiaeieea niaea?aeauai eeanoa?u //
Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa. —
1997. — ? 4. — N. 117-118.

7. Eiaaeaiei I.E., Aiai A.E., Eeeiaiei E.N. Oaiia?aoo?iay caaeneiinoue
h-ia?aiao?ia ieaia?iuo o?aicenoi?iuo no?oeoo? // Iaoa?eaeu IOE.
«I?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoai oi?aaeaiey e nayce». — Oa?ueeia: IAI
Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO. — 1997. — N. 5.

8. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Eeeiaiei E.N. Aeeyiea
oa?iiyeaeo?io?aie?iaee ia iaaeaaeiinoue eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. — Oa?ueeia: IAI Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO. — 1998. —
Aui. 1(9). — N. 32-42.

9. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E., Eeeiaiei E.N. Iaoiae iiauoaiey
iaaeaaeiinoe o?aicenoi?iuo no?oeoo? // Eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu. —
Oa?ueeia: IAI Oe?aeiu, IAIE, OAO. — 1998. — Aui. 2(10). — N. 112-119.

10. Aiai A.E., Iioiaeaiei I.I., Ii?uaiei A.A., ?iya?i A.A., Eiaaeaiei
I.E. A?aeai eieaoe?y i?e?iaee ?a/iaeie ? a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a / Oace
i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? «Ieoaiiy a?i?iaeeeaoe?? ? aeieia??». —
Caii??aeaey — 1998. 136 n.

11. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E. Aeeiaieea ia?aiao?ia eioaa?aeueiuo noai
i?e aicaeaenoaee eceo/aiey // Oaoiieiaey i?eai?ino?iaiey. – Oa?ueeia:
IEOEI, — 1998. ?2. – N. 75-80.

12. Aiai A.E., Eiaaeaiei I.E. Oa?iio?aie?iaea iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo
i?eai?ia e eioaa?aeueiuo noai // Eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythuea nenoaiu ia
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiii o?ainii?oa. — 1999. — ?1. N. 72-74.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eiaaeaiei I.E. Aieea ii?ii?iaiiy ia eiiiiiaioe ?aae?iaeaeo?iiii?
aia?aoo?e ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino? —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.27.06. – oaoiieia?y, iaeaaeiaiiy oa ae?iaieoeoai
aeaeo?iiii? oaoi?ee — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?aae?iaeaeo?ii?ee, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a oa oaoiieia??
aeey ae?iaieoeoaa ?ioaa?aeueieo noai c i?aeaeuaiith ?aae?aoe?eiith
no?ee?noth, ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue
i?noea a oeeo noaiao i?e ii?ii?iaii?. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaeeee, iniiaai?
ia oa?iiaeaeo?io?aioaaii?, ci?i? noaiioaoi?/ieo ??oaiue, a oaeiae ia
aeei?enoaii? ae?iiieo oaoiieia?e. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe ciaeoee
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ii oi?ioaaiith i?io?e?a ?iciiae?eo aoii?a a?aeaea/? a
oa?oaaoeo no?oeoo?ao, ?ic?iaeaia oaeiae oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy
ae?ao?aai noai?e?iiieo ?ici???a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aae?aoe?eia no?ee?noue, oaoiieia?y, ?ioaa?aeueia noaia,
oa?iiaeaeo?io?aioaaiiy, ae?iiia oaoiieia?y, ae?ao?aaia.

AIIOAOeEss

Eiaaeaiei I.E. Aeeyiea iaeo/aiey ia eiiiiiaiou ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiie
aiia?aoo?u e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia iiauoaiey eo ?aaeeaoeeiiiie noieeinoe.
— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.27.06. –oaoiieiaey, iai?oaeiaaiea e i?iecaiaenoai
yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee — Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneeo iaoiaeia e oaoiieiaee
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa eioaa?aeueiuo noai n iiauoaiiie ?aaeeaoeeiiiie
noieeinoueth, ia iniiaa eco/aiey yeaeo?ioece/aneeo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua
eiatho ianoi a ?oeo noaiao i?e iaeo/aiee. I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoiaeeee,
iniiaaiiua ia oa?iiyeaeo?io?aie?iaea, eciaiaiee noaiioaoie/aneeo
?aoaiee, a oaeaea ia eniieueciaaiee yeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. Iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou auee aiaae?aiu i?e oi?ie?iaaiee i?ioeeae ?ani?aaeaeaiey
aoiiia ioaea/e a neienouo no?oeoo?ao, ?ac?aaioaia oaeaea oaoiieiaey
ecaioiaeaiey aeeao?aai noaiee?iiiuo ?acia?ia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aaeeaoeeiiiay noieeinoue, oaoiieiaey, eioaa?aeueiay
noaia, oa?iiyeaeo?io?aie?iaea, yeeiiiay oaoiieiaey, aeeao?aaia.

ABSTRACT

Kovalenko M.Y. Influence of irradiation of a radio electronic equipment
components and development of methods of increasing their radiation
stability. — Manuscript.

Thesis on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate of
engineering science on a speciality 05.27.06. — technology, equipment
and production of electronic engineering — Kharkov State Technical
University of Radioelectronics, Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the development of technological methods and
technology for production of the integral schemes with increased
radiation stability on the bases of studies of electrophysical processes
which take place in them under radiation. The techniques based on
thermal electrotreating, modification of scheme technical solutions and
on the use of elion technologies are offered. The obtained results are
introduced when forming the profiles of response atom distribution in
stratified structures, the technology of producing process of diaphragms
of submicron sizes is also developed.

Key word: radiation stability, technology, integrated scheme, thermal
electrotreating, elion technology, diaphragm.

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