EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OEAE?EI Ieaia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 541.(14+64);677.494.742.2;678-19;

678.742.(2+3);678.029.44

AIEEA IIEAEOEss?II? OA IAAeIIEAEOEss?II? NO?OEOO?E IA OIOIO?I?*IO
IIAeEO?EAOe?TH IIE?IEAO?I?A ? NOI?OAE IA ?O INIIA?

02.00.06 – o?i?y aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaooio?i??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe

CAIIOA?A Iaaei Aaneeueiae/

i?ia.i.n. ?inoeoooo a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaooio?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

ae.o.i. I?eaaeei Aaea??e Iaaeiae/, ?inoeooo o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo
niieoe IAI Oe?a?ie, caa.a?aeae?eii

e.o.i. Eieaiaei Ieaen?e TH??eiae/, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”
I?iIna?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? iie?a?ao?/iiai ae?iaieoeoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 19 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.25 Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aoae.518 o?i?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, 252033,
i.Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 252033, Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 15 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Een?eue A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo no/anii? o?i?? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo
niieoe ? iie?auaiiy aeanoeainoae iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? aeionea?
i?iieneia?noue, c iaoith ?icoe?aiiy iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy. Iie?ieao?ie
(II) noaiiaeyoue aaaiio /anoeo caaaeueiiai ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe (iniaeeai iie?aoeeai, iie?i?ii?eai oa
iie?aooai-1), aea aiane?aeie iaaeinoaoiuei? i?oeiino?, oa?iino?eeino? oa
cia/i?e oieiaeioaeo/ino?, iaeano? ?o canoinoaaiiy aeaui iaiaaeai?.
*anoeiaa iiaeieaiiy oeeo oa ?ioeo iaaeie?e?a iiaeeeaa ca aeiiiiiaith
iiaeeo?eaoe??, ui aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe ae?aiacii canoinoaaiiy ye naieo
aiiiiie?ia??a, oae ? noi?oae ia ?o iniia?.

Na?aae a?aeiieo iaoiae?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? iie?ia??a a inoaii?e /an aaaaoi
oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny oioio?i?/iei iaoiaeai. Oea iaoiiaeaii iecueeith
aia?ai?ii?noth, i?inoioith aia?aoo?iiai ioi?ieaiiy, aeiiii?/i?noth oa
aeieia?/iith /enoioith oioi?i?oe?eiaaieo i?ioean?a. Oe? ia?aaaae
noathoue aeaaeae? a?eueo aeooaeueieie o ca’yceo c caaino?aiiyi
aeiiii?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? neooaoe?e o na?o? a oe?eiio ? a Oe?a?i?
cie?aia. C ?ioiai aieo, iaoiae oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe??
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaeeeith naeaeoeai?noth aiane?aeie aea??eiaaiino?
iiaeeiaiiy na?oea eiie?aoiith ?a/iaeiith, ui aeicaiey? i?aeaiaeeoe
aia?a?th eeoa a ie?ai? ca’ycee aai iieaeoee, ia oi?eath/enue ?ioeo
eiiiiiaio?a. E??i oiai, oeae iaoiae aea? iiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy oaeeo
i?ioean?a, ye? a oiiaao oa?i?/ii? aeoeaaoe?? ia a?aeaoaathoueny acaaae?
aai i?io?eathoue aeoaea iia?eueii. Oae oioio?i?/iee iaoiae aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? ie?aeiaeo iaoa??ae?a oa aieieii.

Aea/aiiy i?ioeano oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy II aoei caii/aoeiaaia o e?ioe?
50-eo — ii/aoeo 60-eo ?ie?a o Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa O?I. I?ia?an a iaeano?
na?oeioaoi?ee, c?inoath/? aeiiae aei aia?aii?noeino? oa aeieia?/ii?
aaciaee ni?eyee ??ceiio ca?eueoaiith ?ia?o ii oioio?i?/i?e iiaeeo?eaoe??
II, iniaeeai iie?aoeeaio (IA) oa iie?i?ii?eaio (II), ye? i?iaiaeyoueny o
Oaaoe??, ssiii??, Eeoa?, Aano?ae??, Oo?a//ei?, *ao??, Neiaa//ei? oa
?yae? ?ioeo e?a?i. A Oe?a?i? iai?yi oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy ii/aee
?ic?iaeyoe o 60-70 ?ieao i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a I.I.Ea/aia.
I?aaenoaaeaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia o ?yaeo iaoeiaeo oaiaoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a ?inoeooo? a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa
iaooio?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeieoi?a o?i?/ieo iaoe
I.A.Caiioa?aa ? ni?yiiaai? ia noai?aiiy oai?aoe/ii? aace aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oioio?i?/ieo iaoiae?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? II oa ?o noi?oae c
iaoith iaea?aeaiiy iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a c iie?auaieie aeanoeainoyie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaaeeeaee e?ie ia oeyoo noai?aiiy iiaeo iie?ia?ieo
iaoa??ae?a iiaea aooe c?iaeaiei o ?acoeueoao? oi?ioaaiiy o aiiiaaii?e
aai aaoa?iaaii?e iie?ieao?iia?e nenoai? o?ueioi??ii? n?oee o?i?/ieo
aoce?a caaaeyee coeaaiith. Aeiiiaiaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a
iiaeeo?eaoe?? iie?ieao?i?a (II) ?o ianooiiei ia?aoai?aiiyi (coeaaiiyi,
uaieaiiyi) i?ae ae??th ciai?oi?o aeaea?ae (OO-na?oea, ?ii?coth/i?
?aae?aoe??) ? aaaiiei aeaea?aeii iiaeeeainoae iaea?aeaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?c
niaoe?aeueieie aeanoeainoyie ia iniia? II. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia ?icoe?eoe
oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae aenieoaoaoe?? ? iie?aueoe aeaye? o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
iieacieee iaoa??ae?a. Iaeiae, o oeueiio iai?yieo ?nio? eeoa iaiaaeaia
/enei aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, a yeeo a?aoiaothoueny
a?aei?iiino? o iieaeoey?ieo oa iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ia?aiao?ao iie?ia??a i?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a ?o coeaaiiy. Aein? ia cae?eniai? ni?iae
canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy aei oe?ei? a?oie iiaeo
ia(?eo?a o ?aieao iaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano ia
anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao noi?iiaaii? n?oee o?i?/ieo ca(yce?a ia
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? (cie?aia, oieiaeioaeo/?noue) aenieii???ioiaaieo
iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? iathoue no?oeoo?o, iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaio
aei ?aeaaeueii i???ioiaaiiai noaio — e?enoaeo c aeoyaiooeie eaioethaaie.

O iao /an oaeiae aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ieoaiith noai?aiiy iiaeo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? noi?oae II ??cii? no?oeoo?e, ye? iiaeooue
ii?aeioaaoe aeaye? iiceoeai? aeanoeaino? eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a. Oae?
noi?o? iathoue aaoa?ioacio no?oeoo?o, a ye?e iaeanoue ?icae?eo oac ?
iaeneaae?oei i?noeai aiane?aeie iaaeinoaoiuei? i?aeoacii? aca?iiae??.
Aeey ?? i?aeaeuaiiy aaiaeyoue eiiiaoea?e?caoi?e, iae/ano?oa — aei/i?
eiiie?ia?e c iiiiia??a iaio eiiiiiaio?a. I?aeaeuoth/e oae? aeanoeaino?
noi?oae ye ieanoe/i?noue, no?ee?noue aei ?ico??neoaaiiy oa ?io?,
eiiiaoea?e?caoi?e cieaeothoue iiaeoeue aeanoe/iino?, no?ee?noue aei
oieiaeioaeo/ino?, oi?iino?ee?noue. Ie?ai? ni?iae iiaeaeueoi?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? oaeeo nenoai o?i?/ieie oa ?aae?aoe?eieie iaoiaeaie ia
aeaee aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia?o ca ana caaaeyee aeano?oeoe?? ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a noi?o?, ui o naith /a?ao i?eaa?ioei oaaao aei oioio?i?/iiai
iaoiaeo iiaeeo?eaoe??. A ?AIIO IAI Oe?a?ie aoei ?icii/aoi nenoaiaoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? II oa noi?oae ia ?o iniia?,
?aeay yeeo a?oioo?oueny ia a?eueo?e naeaeoeaiino? oeueiai iaoiaeo. Oey
?iaioa ii/eia? ?aae?caoe?th iiaiai i?aeoiaeo — aaoa?ioacii?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? noi?oae II, a iniia? yei? eaaeaoue nenoaiaoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oioi?i?oe?eiaaieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o
iie?ia?ieo iao?eoeyo ??cii? iieaeoey?ii? oa iaaeiieaeoey?ii? no?oeoo?e.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie Iniiaia /anoeia
?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? ”Iiaeeo?eaoe?y iie?ia?ieo
noi?oae oa eiiiiceoe?e oeyoii naeaeoeaiiai coeaaiiy, i?euaieaiiy /e
aeano?oeoe?? eiiiaoea?e?caoi??a” (? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 0195U025785),
ye? aeeiioaaeenue a ?inoeooo? a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? oa iaooio?i?? IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe aoei anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy ?yaeo II c ??ciith
iieaeoey?iith oa iaaeiieaeoey?iith no?oeoo?ith oa eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ?o noi?oae. Iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aoee aecia/aiiy
aieeao ia i?ioean oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy: ?icaaeoaeaii? no?oeoo?e (II oa
iie?aooai-1 (IA)); i???ioaoe?? iie?ia?o (iaaeaenieiiieaeoey?i?
iie?aoeeaiia? (IAIIA) aieieia); aei/ii? no?oeoo?e (eiiie?ia?e aoeeaio c
i?ii?eaiii, ye? aenooiathoue ye eiiiaoea?e?caoi?e noi?oae).

Iaea?aeai? aeai? ia?aaeaa/aeinue aeei?enoaoe i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
eiiiaoea?e?ciaaieo oa iaeiiiaoea?e?ciaaieo noi?oae IA c II oa IA aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy aieeao i?ioeano oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iaea?aeaieo iaoa??ae?a oa ioe?iee ?o
ni?iiiaeiino? aei o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Aia?oa o ?aieao iaei??? ?iaioe aoei eiiieaenii aea/aii
caeiiii??iino? i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? II, IA-1
oa ?o noi?oae c IA ? iaea?aeaii aeai? ii eiai iioei?caoe??. Aoei
aeei?enoaii aeecueei 20 niieoe ye oioi?i?oe?aoi??a i?ioeano
iiaeeo?eaoe??, aeae?eueea eiaaaio?a coeaaiiy oa iaa?? eiiie?ia??a
aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio ye eiiiaoea?e?caoi??a noi?oae IA/II. Aecia/aii oeyoe
caiia?aaiiy oieiaeioaeo/ino? IAIIA aieieii aiaeii/an ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?o
oa?iinoaa?eueiino? oa aaeaac?? aei ca(ycoth/eo. ?ic?iaeaii iaoeia?
i?aeoiaee aei ?aae?caoe?? iaoiaeo oioiiiaeeo?eaoe?? aaoa?iaaiieo nenoai
ia iniia? noi?oae II. Aia?oa aoei cai?iiiiiaaii ? noai?aii canaaee
iaoiaeo aaoa?iaaiii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? noi?oae II, nooue yeiai iieyaaea o
naeaeoeaiiio coeaaii? oa?o eiiiaoea?e?caoi?a ? a?aie/ieo c iei
eiiiiiaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Caaaeyee nenoaiaoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith
i?ioeano oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy II, IA, ?o noi?oae c IA, a oaeiae
aieieii c IAIIA anoaiiaeaii caeaaeiino? aieeao i?e?iaee ? eiioeaio?aoe??
?i?oe?aoi??a oa eiaaaio?a, ia?aiao??a OO-ii?ii?iaiiy ia eiai
aoaeoeai?noue, ui aea? ciiao iioei?coaaoe ia?aa?a oeueiai i?ioeano.
I?iaeaiiino?iaaii iiaeeeaino? ni?yiiaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, a naia: iai?oae oa aeaoi?iaoe?? aei
?ic?eao, iai?oae oa aeaoi?iaoe?? oeeeiooai?aiiy, iiaeoey THiaa,
oieiaeioaeo/ino?, iiaeeo?eiaaieo aiiiiie?ia??a oa ?o noi?oae oeyoii
ooai?aiiy coeaie. Oea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe canaaee oeueiai iaoiaeo aeey
noai?aiiy iaoa??ae?a c aenieeie iaoai?/ieie oa oa?iieiioaeoieie
iieacieeaie ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaieo II oa ?o noi?oae, o oiio /ene?
aoi?eiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. O oiae? ii?aoethaaiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aaoi?ii naiino?eii aoee aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aiao??a n?o/aoi? no?oeoo?e, oioio?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ?i?oe?aoi??a
i?e coeaaii? IA, II, IA-1 oa ?o noi?oae ? IAIIA aieieii o i?enooiino?
oe?ieiai iaai?o ?i?oe?aoi??a, eiaaaio?a coeaaiiy, eiiiaoea?e?coth/eo
?a/iaei; i?iaaaeaii aei??e o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oioiiiaeeo?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a. Aaoi? i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a
aiae?c? oa ioi?ieaii? ?acoeueoao?a o aeaeyae? ioae?eaoe?e, a oaeiae
naiino?eii ocaaaeueithaaa ie?ai? aoaie aeine?aeaeaiue oa aeena?oaoe?eio
?iaioo o oe?eiio.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? o 6
noaooyo oa oacao aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ?AIIO IAI Oe?a?ie (aa?acaiue
1999 ?., i.Ee?a), 19 I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiiiiceoeeiiiua
iaoa?eaeu a i?iiuoeaiiinoe” (Neaaiieeeii-99) (o?aaaiue 1999 ?., i.Ee?a).

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? ia?ae?eo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 148 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 47 iaethie?a, 10 oaaeeoeue.
A?ae?ia?ao?y aeeth/a? 179 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iiaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii ??
iaoo, iaoeiao iiaecio oa iiaeeeao i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue, aecia/ai?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c aeaoaeueiei
aiae?cii i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e oioi?i?oe?thaaii? iie?ia?ieo
(a iniiaiiio iie?ieao?iiaeo) iao?eoeue. ?icaeyiooi ci?io ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aoaeoeaiinoae ?aaeoe?e ?aeiia?iaoe??, aeano?oeoe?? oa ieeneaiiy i?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae e?i?eii? no?oeoo?e IA aei ?icaaeoaeaii? o II oa IA, a
oaeiae aei i???ioiaaii? o IAIIA aieieiao. Ni?anoaaeaii iniiai? iai?yiee
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?i?oe?eiaaiiai coeaaiiy IA oeyoii aaaaeaiiy
eiaaaio?a oa ci?i oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio i?ioeano. Aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea
iniaeeainoae o?a?eey?ii? aoaeiae aieieii IAIIA, yea ? iaea?eueo
iaaeeaeaiith aei ?aeaaeueii? i???ioiaaii? no?oeoo?e II (e?enoae?a c
aeoyaiooeie eaioethaaie). C iaeyaeo ia oe? iniaeeaino? ii??aiyii
?acoeueoaoe aeayeeo ni?ia coeaaiiy aieieii, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue
iioei?coaaoe iaoiaeeeo oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? aenieii???ioiaaieo II
iaoa??ae?a. Nenoaiaoeciaaii e?oa?aoo?i? aeai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iniiai? iaoiaee iiaeeo?eaoe?? noi?oae aeine?aeaeo?ieo II oa aieea ?o ia
aeanoeaino? iaea?aeaieo iie?ia??a.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aea/aiiy i?ioeano oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy ?
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae II oa ?o noi?oae. Ia’?eoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue aoee IA, II, IA-1, aieieia ?c IAIIA, noi?o? IA c II oa
IA-1, iecueeiiieaeoey?i? ?a/iaeie ye ?i?oe?aoi?e oa eiaaaioe
oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy, eiiie?ia?e aoeeaio c i?ii?eaiii ye
eiiiaoea?e?caoi?e noi?oae II. Oioio?i?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy aea/aee
niaeo?aeueieie iaoiaeaie ca ci?iith iiaeeiaiiy a OO-, aeaeei?e oa
?*-iaeanoyo niaeo?o. E?euee?nia aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a coeaaiiy
i?iaiaeeee, aeei?enoiaoth/e aaeue-cieue aiae?c. No?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e
aeo?aeieo oa iiaeeo?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a aecia/aee, canoiniaoth/e iaoiae
AeNE. O?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aea/aee ia onoaiiaoe? Instron
4301, iaeaaeiai?e eiii’thoa?iith nenoaiith ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaiai?aii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue caeiiii??iinoae aieeao iieaeoey?ii? oa iaaeiieaeoey?ii?
no?oeoo?e II ia aoaeoeai?noue ia?aa?ao oioi?i?oe?eiaaieo i?ioean?a o
iie?ia?i?e iao?eoe?.

Aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? II c ??ciith
iieaeoey?iith, iaaeiieaeoey?iith oa aaoa?iaaiiith no?oeoo?ith
canoiniaoaaee aeaa ??cieo oeia ?i?oe?aoi??a. Ia?oee – oea niieoee, ye?
aaia?othoue iae?i?aaeeeaee aaciina?aaeiuei caaaeyee i?ioeano
oioia?aeiiaeaiiy o iie?ia?i?e iao?eoe?. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue a?iiaoe/i?
eaoiie – aaicioaiii (AO) ? enaioii (EN), oa o?iiie – 9,10-aio?ao?iii
(AO), 2-iaoee-aio?ao?iii (IAO). Ae?oaee oei – oea iecueeiiieaeoey?i?
oei?eaee n??ee, oinoi?o oa aoaeaoeth (SO2Cl2, S2Cl2, C2HCl3, PCl3, CCl4
? o.i.). Aiie caeaoi? i?ae ae??th OO-ii?ii?iaiiy a?aeuaiethaaoe aeoeai?
?aaeeeaee, ye? aca?iiae?thoue c iae?iiieaeoeaie, ooai?thth/e
iae?i?aaeeeaee aai uaieaiiy. Aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeei?enoiaoaaee aeai?, iaea?aeai? o iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo ii
oioio?i?/i?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? IA aai ?acoeueoaoe ia?aeaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a
o oe?e iao?eoe?.

Ia iniia? i?eaaaeaieo o e?oa?aoo?? aeaieo, a oaeiae iaea?aeaieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a iaie cai?iiiiiaaia caaaeueia noaia
oioi?i?oe?eiaaiiai coeaaiiy II (noaia 1). Aeo?ae oioio?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e
?i?oe?aoi?a (In) cieaeo?oueny aiane?aeie aeacaeoeaaoe?? eiai caoaeaeaieo
??ai?a o i?ioeanao oinoi?anoeaioe?? (koc ) oa oethi?anoeaioe?? (koe);
aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? eiiaa?n?? ?c neiaeaoiiai (kae) oa o?eieaoiiai
noai?a (k’?e), a oaeiae i?e ooo?ii? In* (kq) c ia?aiinii aia?a?? ia
iieaeoee aeoeaioi??a (An). Aeoeaieie ooo?yie 3In* ? iieaeoee eenith. Aei
i?ioean?a, ye? cieaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue oioi?i?oe?thaaiiy,
a?aeiineoueny ?aeiia?iaoe?y ?aaeeeaeueieo ia?, ooai?aieo o ia?aeiiiio
oioio?i?/iiio aeo? ia?aoai?aiiy In o II. I?e oeueiio aeey
oioio?aaiaiooth/eo ?i?oe?aoi??a eiia??ia ?o ?aaaia?aoe?y (k?ae), a o
aeiaaeeo oioia?aeiiaeth?ieo niieoe iiaeeeaa ooai?aiiy aaeaeoeo?a
eaoeeueieo aai naieo?iiieo ?aaeeeae?a c ?aaeeeaeaie i?ioiiiaeiii?a
(InHR)

Noaia 1.Iaoai?ci oioi?i?oe?eiaaiiai coeaaiiy II

h( koe k’aeeni k’p

In (1In* ( 1 [ r( + r., ] (
r( + r.,

kae k(oo

k’?e k’?e koo
RH

koc i?iaeoeoe
rH(r’H) + R(

3In* ieeneaiiy
O2

kq koa RO2(
R-R

O2 (Ac)
coeaaiiy

k’?ae
k’’?

InHR( 3[InH( + R(] (
InH( + R(

O2 RO2( k?ae h(
k’o?

I?( OI

+I2
kaeeni kaeei

InH2 + In
(InH)2

-H2O2

+I2 (-HO2()

(k?ae). C ?ioiai aieo, i?e aeeni?iii?oe?thaaii? naieo?iiiieo ?aaeeeae?a
(kaeeni), a oaeiae i?e ieeneaii? InH( aai InH2, ooai?aieo i?e
aeeni?iii?oe?thaaii? aai aeeia?ecaoe?? InH( (kaeei), iiaea i?ioiaeeoe
?aaaia?aoe?y ?i?oe?aoi?a. Oeae i?ioean ni?ey? iiaeiaaeaiith eiai oa?i?ia
ae??.

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui niaeo?e aani?aoe?? EN, IAO oa AO o II, IA,
eiiie?ia?? aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio (40%/60%) aiaeia?/i? oaeei o IA, aea o II
ia? i?noea iacia/iee a?inio?iiiee cnoa (aeecueei 100 ni-1) aieiaieo
i?e?a, yeee aeeeeeaiee ca?eueoaiiyi aei?noeino? ? ?icaaeoaeaiino?
iie?ia?ii? iao?eoe?. Oi?ia niaeo??a ai?nn?? ?icaeyiooeo ?i?oe?aoi??a o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo II ia?no?oeoo?o, ui aeaco? ia iaeiaeiaee (Tn(*)
oa?aeoa? ieaeiueiai caoaeaeaiiai ??aiy. Eaaioia? aeoiaee
oioi?i?oe?aoi??a ciaioothoueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aei?noeino? iie?ia?ii?
iao?eoe?, ine?eueee i?aeaeuo?oueny a??ia?aei?noue ?aeiia?iaoe??
?aaeeeaeueieo ia? o ee?ooe?.

Ia ?en.1 i?aaenoaaeai? caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo aaeue-o?aeoe?? a?ae /ano oa
oaiia?aoo?e OO-ii?ii?iaiiy o IA, II, IA oa eiiie?ia?? aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio,
ui i?noyoue 0.5% EN. Oaeaee?noue iaeiie/aiiy ? iaeneiaeuei? aeoiaee
aaeaooai?aiiy ciaioothoueny o ?yaeo: IA>IA>II>eiiie?ia?
aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio. I?e ii??aiyii? coeaaiiy IA oa II, no?ee?noue
?aaeeeae?a yeeo aei ?ic?ea?a aeecueea, iniiai? i?e/eie iieyaathoue o
a?aei?iiinoyo ?o ?ooeeaino?. A?eueo iecueea ?ooeea?noue iae?i?aaeeeae?a
o II iiynith?oueny oei, ui oaiia?aoo?e ?aeaenaoe?eieo ia?aoiae?a o
iueiio aeua, i?ae o IA. Iaeneiaeuei? aeoiaee coeaie ?aae?cothoueny aaea
i?e 3 oaeeeiao OO-aeniiceoe??.

Aeey ioe?iee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiia??iinoae ?aaeoe?e ?ic?eao oa coeaaiiy
(po /qo) io?eiai? aeai? aoee i?aaenoaaeai? o eii?aeeiaoao
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai ??aiyiiy *a?eca?-I?iia?a:

S+S0.5=k[i]-1+ po /qo,

aea S — ai?no cieth, yeee iiaea aooe io?eiaiee i?e iiai?e eiiaa?n??
aaaaeaiiai ?i?oe?aoi?a, k — eiinoaioa, yea aecia/a?oueny ii/aoeiaith
iieaeoey?iith ianith II ? aoaeoeai?noth ?i?oe?aoi?a.

Oeyoii aeno?aiieyoe?? cia/aiue S+S0.5 o c?aceao II i?e aaciaaei?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? oioi?i?oe?aoi?a ciaoiaeeee aaee/eie po /qo (?en.2).
Aenie? cia/aiiy (1.3-1.4) aeacothoue ia aaeeeo eiia??i?noue
o?aaiaioaoe?? II iae?i?aaeeeae?a, aaia?iaaieo i?e oioia?aeiiaeaii? EN,
IAO oa AO. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy po /qo aeey IA caeia? i?ii?aeia i?noea i?ae
a?aeiia?aeieie cia/aiiyie aeey IA oa II iao?eoeue (1.1-1.2). Iaeiae,
iaea?eueoo noeeuei?noue aei aeano?oeoe?? i?iyaey? eiiie?ia?
aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio (po /qo (1.6-1.7). Cia/aiiy po /qo aeey ?i?oe?aoi??a o
i?ioean? coeaaiiy on?o aeine?aeaeaieo II ciaioothoueny o ?yaeo: EN > IAO
> AO.

Iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ui ni?eythoue cieaeaiith aoaeoeaiino? coeaaiiy II c
iae?iiieaeoeaie, ui i?noyoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue o?aoeiieo aoii?a
aoaeaoeth o eaioethc?, ? ?o noeeuei?noue aei aeano?oeoe?? ? ?aaeoe?e
ieeneaiiy, a oaeiae i?inoi?ia? o?oaeiiu? aeey ooai?aiiy coeaee,
aeeeeeai? iayai?noth iia?/ieo iaoeeueieo a?oi. E??i oiai ?aaeoe?y
?aeiia?iaoe?? ?aaeeeae?a ia? ae?oaee ii?yaeie o ii??aiyii? ?c ia?oei
ii?yaeeii ?aaeoe?? ?o o?aaiaioaoe??, yea a?eueo aoaeoeaia o II oa IA,
i?ae o IA. Iaea aoaeoeai?noue coeaaiiy eiiie?ia?a aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio
aecia/a?oueny aeeeth/ii noeeuei?noth eiai iae?i?aaeeeae?a aei
aeano?oeoe??.

O aeai?e ?iaio? aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy II
o i?enooiino? ?yaeo oei?eae?a n??ee, oinoi?o oa aoaeaoeth, cie?aia
SO2Cl2, S2Cl2, PCl3, C2HCl3, CCl4, C2Cl4, C2F2Cl4. Oe? niieoee
i?iyaeythoue aenieo aoaeoeai?noue coeaee o an?o aeuacaaaeaieo II
iao?eoeyo ? a?aeiinio ia/ooeea?noue i?ioeano iaeiie/aiiy aaeth aei
??cieoe? o no?oeoo?? iae?iiieaeoe. sse oaeaee?noue iaeiie/aiiy, oae ?
iaeneiaeuei? aeoiaee aaeaooai?aiiy (60-85%) o i?enooiino? a?eueoino?
oei?ai?nieo ?i?oe?aoi??a aeyaeythoueny nooo?ai a?eueo aenieeie, i?ae o
i?enooiino? a?iiaoe/ieo eaoii?a ? o?iii?a, ui a?aeiiaeththoueny o
i?ioean? OO-ii?ii?iaiiy.

Ca cia/aiiyie po /qo o eii?aeeiaoao ??aiyiiy *a?eca?-I?iia?a oe?
oioi?i?oe?aoi?e iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: 1) po /qo ( 1, oiaoi
i?ioean aaia?aoe?? iae?i?aaeeeae?a II ? ii??aiyii iaaoaeoeaiei, ?
iieiaeia ooai?aieo iae?i?aaeeeae?a aeia aiane?aeie o?aaiaioaoe?? (PCl3
oa C2F2Cl4); 2) po /qo = 0.3-0.4, oiaoi ooai?ai? iae?i?aaeeeaee
ia?aaaaeii i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ?aaeoe?yo ?aeiia?iaoe??, i?e/iio
aoaeoeai?noue aaeaooai?aiiy ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aeo?ae aaia?aoe??
iae?i?aaeeeae?a o II oa IA o i?enooiino? eaoeeo oei?eae?a cieaeothoueny
o iine?aeiaiino?: S2Cl2 > SO2Cl2 > CCl4 > C2Cl4 > C2HCl3.

Iniiaia /anoeia i?iaeoeo?a oioie?co oeeo ?i?oe?aoi??a i?euaieth?oueny
aei iae?i?aaeeeae?a II. Oae, i?ney aeani?aoe?? eaoeeo i?iaeoeo?a ie?aee
iathoue aaao, ui neeaaea? a?eueo, i?ae iieiaeio ii/aoeiai? aaae
aaeni?aiaaiiai ?i?oe?aoi?a (80% aeey PCl3, 65% aeey CCl4). Ine?eueee
o?aaiaioe oei?eae?a aeoaea aeoeai?, oi ?aaaoth/e ?c ??cieie II
eaioethaaie iaeaeaa o?aaiaioe ooai?ththoue iae?i?aaeeeaee o
aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino?. Oei naiei i?aeaeuo?oueny eiia??i?noue
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?o ?aeiia?iaoe?? iacaeaaeii a?ae na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy
noaoe?iia?ii? eiioeaio?aoe??, ? a?aeiia?aeii ciaioo?oueny iiaeeea?noue
o?aaiaioaoe??.

?c ?icaeyiooeo oei?eae?a iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieie aeyaeeeny SO2Cl2 oa
S2Cl2. Aeniea ni?aoe?eia caeaoi?noue oeeo niieoe aeicaiey? aaiaeeoe ?o o
aaeee?e e?eueeino? o II iao?eoeth ? aeinyaaoe cia/ieo nooiai?a coeaaiiy,
caaacia/oth/e iaeu?euei?oo n?oeo o?i?/ieo ca’yce?a. Iaeiae aiie iathoue
i?aeaeuaio oiene/i?noue, ? ?o i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy oneeaaeiaii. Oiio
aeooaeueiei ? iiooe oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? coeaaiiy II,
?i?oe?eiaaiiai niieoeaie, ui oioia?aeiiaeththoueny. O aeai?e ?iaio? aeey
oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy II aia?oa ii?iaiaaia ?i?oe?thth/a ae?y nenoai, ui
i?noyoue EN oa iio?aei? AO o ii?aeiaii? ?c iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieie
iiiiia?aie (IOI) – aeeae?eeaoaie: (aooaiae?ieaeeae?eeaoii- AAeAeA,
aeeaoeeaiae?-eieueaeeae?eeaoii- AeAAAeA); o?eae?eoe?aio?aoii (OAOe) oa
o?eae?e?cioe?aio?aoii (OA?Oe).

IOI caeaoi? i?e?aeioaaoenue aei o?aoeiieo iae?i?aaeeeae?a II,
ooai?thth/e a?eueo no?ee? ?aaeeeaee, ? oei naiei ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ?o
aeano?oeoe??. E??i oiai, ?aaaoth/e ?c ??cieie iae?i?aaeeeaeaie, aiie
oi?iothoue i?noee i?ae iae?iiieaeoeaie iie?ia?a, ye? iathoue a?euei?
ae?euei? ? ae?eeuei? a?oie. Aca?iiae?y inoaii?o c iae?i?aaeeeaeaie
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo aoce?a n?oee i?e
caa?aaeaii? ?aaeeeaeueieo oeaio??a. O caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ae?th IOI o
II iao?eoe? iiaeia caanoe aei iaaaaeaii? iine?aeiaiino? ?aaeoe?e:

R( + n(IOI) -> R(IOI)n( (1)

R(IOI)n( + R`( -> R(IOI)nR` (2)

R(IOI)nR`+R”( -> R(IOI)nR`R”. (3)

R(IOI)n + R’(-> R(IOI)nR’( (4)

R( + IOI -> RH + IOI( (5)

(IOI)n(+ IOI( -> (IOI)n+1 (6)

R( + IOI( -> R(IOI) (7)

Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy o i?enooiino? eiaaaio?a
iieacothoue, ui ?nio? e?eueea a?aei?iieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? aeeth/athoueny
o i?iiiooth/ee aoaeo ooai?aiiy n?oee o?i?/ieo ca’yce?a:

ooai?aiiy R(IOI) ( – ?aaeeeae?a (?aaeoe?y 1), a yeeo ?aaeeeaeueiee
oeaio? ia?aiineoueny c iniiaiiai eaioethaa, ui caiia?aa? o?aaiaioaoe??
inoaiiueiai;

cieaeaiiy aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? oa ca?eueoaiiy aeoiae?a ?aaeoe?e
?aeiia?iaoe?? R(IOI)( o ii??aiyii? ?c II iae?i?aaeeeaeaie, ye? noa?e/ii
oneeaaeiai? (?aaeoe?y 2);

ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo c’?aeiaiue ? iiaeo ?aaeeeaeueieo i?noeue oeyoii
i?euaieaiiy iae?i?aaeeeae?a aei iacaae?yieo aeoeaieo iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a
o R(IOI)nR` i?noeao aai R(IOI)n uaieaiiyo (?aaeoe?? 3 ? 4);

?aaeoe?? ia?aaea/? ?aaeeeaea a?ae iae?i?aaeeeaea II aei IOI (?aaeoe?y
5);

ooai?aiiy ie?aiia??a aai aiiiiie?ia??a IOI (?aaeoe?y 6);

caaeaaeue iae?i?aaeeeae?a aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? c ?aaeeeaeaie IOI
(?aaeoe?y 7).

I/aaeaeii, ui o/anoue IIO o ?aaeoe?yo 1-4 iaoiiaeth? i?iiiooth/ee aoaeo
aeiaeaaaiiy IOI o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy n?oee, o oie /an, eiee ?aaeoe??
5-7 iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia i?ioean coeaaiiy.

O II iao?eoe? a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia aaeaooai?aiiy o i?enooiino?
aeeae?eeao?a (1.5-2.5% AeAAAeA aai AAeAeA), a aeiaeaoee OAOe
i?iyaeythoue a?aeiinii neaaeee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue oeueiai i?ioeano.
Ine?eueee noi?ni?noue aeeae?eeao?a c II aeineoue aeniea, oi AeAAAeA oa
AAeAeA aeyaeythoueny ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaieie a aii?oieo iaeanoyo II,
aea o ?acoeueoao? oioi?i?oe?eiaaieo i?ioean?a aaia?othoueny
iae?i?aaeeeaee,. E??i oiai, ?aaeoe?eia caeaoi?noue ae?eeueiiai
iiaea?eiiai ca’yceo nooo?ai aeua, i?ae ae?eueiiai. Eiiieaen oeeo i?e/ei,
i/aaeaeii, ? aecia/a? a?eueo aenieo aoaeoeai?noue uaieaiiy aeeae?eeao?a
aei iae?i?aaeeeae?a II, a, a?aeiia?aeii, ? ?o a?eueoo o ii??aiyii? ?c
OAOe aoaeoeai?noue a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy.

Ine?eueee oaiia?aoo?a ? iaeiei c aieiaieo /eiiee?a ?ooeeaino?, ?nio?
nooo?aa caeaaei?noue i?ae aoaeoeai?noth ?aeiia?iaoe?? iae?i?aaeeeae?a II
? oaiia?aoo?ith. Iaeaeu? cia/aiiy aaeaooai?aiiy aoee io?eiai? o iaaeao
70-90 iN (?en.3). Oea, i/aaeaeii, iiynith?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi
iia?eueiino? naaiaio?a, ye? ianooue ?aaeeeaeuei? oeaio?e, oa/aai
oaeaeeino? i?aeiieaeoey?ii? i?a?aoe?? ?aaeeeae?a. Iaaaoeaiee aieea
iiaeaeueoiai iaa??aaiiy ia i?ioean oioicoeaaiiy II aeeeeeaiee
ca?eueoaiiyi aeie? iae?i?aaeeeae?a, ye? aeiooue o ?aaeoe?yo
o?aaiaioaoe??. Aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? oeeo ?aaeoe?e cia/ii aeua, i?ae
?aaeoe?? ?aeiia?iaoe?? iae?i?aaeeeae?a, oiio aeoiaee o?aaiaioaoe??
ca?eueoothoueny ?c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e a?eueo nooo?ai. I?e aeiaeaaaii?
OAOe ye eiaaaioa i?e oioio?i?/iiio coeaaii? II o i?enooiino? 0.3% EN
i?ioean ooai?aiiy n?oee ?ioaineo?eo?oueny c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e ?
aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueieo aeoiae?a i?e 120-140 iN. Iieaeoee OAOe, ye?
caeaoi? uaieoeny aei o?aoeiieo iae?i?aaeeeae?a II, ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ?o
o?aaiaioaoe?? ? cieaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue ia?aa?ao i?ioeano aeano?oeoe??
i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao. I?e aea/aii? oioicoeaaiiy II o i?enooiino?
eaoeeo oei?eae?a ye ?i?oe?aoi??a aai AeAAAeA ye eiaaaioa ia anoaiiaeaii
iiceoeaii? ae?? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao aiane?aeie ?o cia/ii?
aeani?aoe??.

Iniiaiee aianie o o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? IA, II oa IA i?e
ii?iaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ao aea? e?enoae?/ia no?oeoo?a (oiaueia eaiaeae,
aeiey i?aeeaiaey?ieo iaeanoae, e?euee?noue i?io?aeieo eaioetha?a ?
o.i.). Coeaaiiy II iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo
i?io?aeieo eaioetha?a aai aei ?ic?ea?a ?nioth/eo. O ?acoeueoao?
ci?ith?oueny ?iciiae?e iai?oae i?ae aei?noeeie aeaiaioaie no?oeoo?e, o
/iio i?iyaey?oueny aaciina?aaei?e aieea n?oee o?i?/ieo ca(yce?a ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoa??aeo. E??i oiai, n?oea aieeaa? ia naio
e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o, iniaeeai, yeui iie?ia? coeaa?oueny o ?icieaa? aai
i?aeeyaa? oaiia?aoo?iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

Ioe?ieoe aieea i?ioeano coeaaiiy ia e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o II iiaeia ca
aeiiiiiaith aeaieo AeNE. Ine?eueee oioi?i?oe?aoi?e eieae?cothoueny ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, aaia?othoue ?aaeeeaee eeoa a aii?oieo iaeanoyo II, oi
coeaaiiy o oaa?aeiio noai? ia aeeeeea? cia/ieo ci?i o ?ici???, oi?i? oa
nooiai? iaiaeii??aeiino? e?enoae?o?a. Ioaea, ci?ie cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e
(Tie) oa oaieioe ieaaeaiiy ((Hie) ? ?acoeueoaoii ci?ie a?eueii?
iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? e?enoae?o?a aai iaiaaeaiiy coeaeaie no?oeoo?ieo
?ai?aai?caoe?e aeayeeo aeaoaeoieo iaeanoae, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o
i?ioean? iaa??aaiiy. sse aeaeii ?c aeaieo oaae.1, oioio?i?/ia coeaaiiy
II o oaa?aeiio noai? cieaeo? eiai Oie oa (Hie i?iii?oe?eii ca?eueoaiith
ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe??, iniaeeai o i?enooiino? eaoeeo oei?eae?a.
A?aeiia?aei? cia/aiiy O?ae?enoae oa (H?ae?enoae, io?eiai? i?ney
?ae?enoae?caoe?? o coeoeo o oaa?aeiio noai? c?aceao II, aeyaeythoueny
cia/ii ieae/eie, i?ae Oie oa (Hie.

Iaea?eueo nooo?aee aieea ia e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o ia? oioio?i?/ia
coeaaiiy o i?enooiino? eaoeeo oei?eae?a aoaeaoeth oa n??ee. Ooai?aia a
inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo n?oea ? a?eueo aiiiaaiiith, ui ? iane?aeeii
a?eueoi? caeaoiino? oeeo niieoe i?ioiaeeoe o /anoeiai oii?yaeeiaai?
iaeano? II (iai?eeeaae, o aioo??oi? iaeano? i?ae e?enoae?/ieie
neeaaeeaie) ? o i?aeeaiaey?i? iaoii?yaeeiaai? i?ioa?ee. Aeiaeaaaiiy
eiaaaio?a aeyaey? eeoa iacia/iee aieea ia oa?aeoa? ieaaeaiiy oa
e?enoae?caoe?? oioio?i?/ii coeoeo II c?ace?a, ui aeaco? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aio/eino? noi?iiaaii? n?oee o?i?/ieo ca(yce?a.

Oaaeeoey 1. Aeai? AeNE aeey II c?ace?a, oioicoeoeo i?e 30 oa 170 iN o
i?enooiino? ??cieo ?i?oe?aoi??a ? eiaaaio?a.

Oioi- Ei- Oii?ii=30iN Oii?ii=170iN

?ioe?a-

oi? aaaio g,% Tie, oC (Hie, Aeae/a T?ae?, oC (H?ae?, Aeae/a g,% Tie, oC
(Hie,Aeae/a T?ae?, oC (H?ae?,Aeae/a

— — — 163 87 164 95 — — — — —

-* — — 165 97 164 95 — — — — —

EN — 34 163 80 160 72 26 158 67 160 65

EN OAOe 48 162 76 161 73 50 160 70 161 72

EN AeAAAeA 68 161 78 160 71 44 161 69 160 73

S2Cl2 — 82 160 77 152 69 — — — — —

SI2Cl2 — 80 159 73 150 65 — — — — —

N2ICl3 — 65 161 79 153 71 — — — — —

S2Cl2* — 76 162 85 153 71 — — — — —

*- aeoyaioo? c?acee

Ci?ie iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a oioio?i?/ii coeoeo II c?ace?a o caeaaeiino?
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e i?aaenoaaeai? o oaae. 2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eie
iiaeoey THiaa (A), iai?oae oeeeiooai?aiiy ((y) oa iai?oae aei ?ic?eao
((b) ca?eueoothoueny i?e coeaaii? iie?ia?a o oaa?aei-

Oaaeeoey 2. ?acoeueoaoe iaoai?/ieo aei?iaoaaiue oioio?i?/ii coeoeo i?e
30 oa 170 iN II c?ace?a o i?enooiino? ??cieo ?i?oe?aoi??a ? eiaaaio?a.

Oioi-

Oii?ii=30iN Oii?ii=170iN

?i?oe?a-oi? Eiaaaio g,

% A, IIa (o, IIa (b, IIa (b,% g,% A, IIa (o, IIa (b, IIa (b,%

— — — 1290 43.5 35.5 42.0 — — — — —

EN — 34 1320 44.0 40.6 12.5 26 1240 — 42.4 9.6

EN OAOe 48 1350 44.7 39.7 19.8 33 1280 39.5 37.1 10.6

EN AeAAAeA 68 1365 44.1 42.0 16.1 21 1270 — 39.5 11.3

S2Cl2 — 82 1430 46.3 43.9 10.7 — — — — —

SI2Cl2 — 80 1445 46.0 44.9 10.1 — — — — —

N2ICl3 — 76 1390 46.3 43.1 10.3 — — — — —

io noai?, o oie /an, eiee aeaoi?iaoe?y aei ?ic?eao ((b) cia/ii
ciaioo?oueny. Oea nooo?a?oa ae?aaeaii o i?enooiino? S2Cl2, SI2Cl2 aai
N2ICl3, i?ae o c?aceao, coeaaiiy yeeo aoei ?i?oe?eiaaii EN c eiaaaioii
aai aac iueiai, iaa?oue, i?e iaeiaeiaeo aeoiaeao aaeue-o?aeoe??. Oea
aeaco? ia ??cieoeth o oiiieia?? ooai?aieo n?oie ? ni?aiaaea? ?c aeaieie
AeNE.

O a?eueoino? c?ace?a II, coeoeo o ?icoiieaiiio noai?, ?ic?ea ia?aaeo?
iaeneiaeuei?e oa/?? (oaae.2). O?eueee o c?aceao, coeoeo o i?enooiino?
OAOe, aei??thaaeanue (o. Cieaeaiiy iai?oae oeeeiooai?aiiy
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ? ciaioaiiyi cia/aiue A, ui iia(ycaii ?c
i?aeaeuaiiyi aeaoaeoiino? e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e (oaae.1). Oea aeaco? ia
eiiieaenia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae u?euei?noth oa oiiieia??th n?oee,
e?ioeaaith e?enoae?/iith no?oeoo?ith oa e?euee?noth iai?oaeaieo
i?io?aeieo iieaeoe o II.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aieeao i?ioeano i???ioaoe?? ia aoaeoeai?noue
oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy aoee aeine?aeaeai? aieieia, aeaioiaeai? c
iaaeaenieiiieaeoey?iiai IA ca aeiiiiiaith oaoiieia?? i?yae?iiy c
iane/aiiai aaeth. Oey oaoiieia?y aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe i???ioiaaio
no?oeoo?o, yea ? iaea?eueo iaaeeaeaiith aei ?aeaaeueii i???ioiaaiiai
noaio — e?enoaeo c aeoyaiooeie eaioethaaie. C?acee aieieii, iicia/aieo
ye IA1-IA6, iathoue nooiai? i???ioaoe?? a?ae 15 aei 110. sse ?i?oe?aoi?e
aoei ia?aii eaoe? oei?eaee. Oae, aieieia IA6 caeaoi? aaeni?aoaaoe
aeecueei 0.7% N2HCl3, 3.4% PCl3, 6.8% SO2Cl2. Niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia
cieaeaiiy aeoiae?a coeaie ?c ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaith i???ioaoe?? c?acea,
ui iaoiiaeaii no?eioaaiiyi ni?aoe?? ?i?oe?aoi?a aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy
/anoee iaaii?yaeeiaaieo iaeanoae, aeinooiieo aeey iieaeoe ?i?oe?aoi?a.
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeineoue aenie? aeoiaee aaeaooai?aiiy ia?yaeo c
noaa?e?caoe??th iaaii? e?eueeino? caoeaieaiue ? ia?o ca ana ?acoeueoaoii
aeniei? iieaeoey?ii? iane aeo?aeiiai c?acea. Na?aae oioi?i?oe?aoi??a
coeaaiiy IAIIA aieieii aeoiaee aaeaooai?aiiy cieaeo?oueny o ?yaeo:
SO2Cl2( PCl3( N2HCl3.

O ?acoeueoao? ooai?aiiy u?eueii? n?oee o?i?/ieo ca(yce?a, ye?
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue cnoao iie?ia?ieo eaioetha?a iaeei a?aeiinii ?ioiai,
ca?eueoo?oueny oa?iinoaa?euei?noue aenieii???ioiaaieo IAIIA aieieii. Oea
eaaei i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe ia i?eeeaae? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? iiaeoey
caa?aaeaiiy aeey iiaeeo?eiaaieo oa iaiiaeeo?eiaaieo c?ace?a, ai eeoa o
coeoeo aieieiao iiaeia i?iaiaeeoe aei??e eiiieaeniiai aeeiai?/iiai
iiaeoeth i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 190-200 iN (aeecueei 5-10 IIa).

Oioio?i?/ia coeaaiiy aieieii ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aeo no?oeoo?ieo
ci?i ? ao?ao o iieacieeao iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Aeaui ciaioothoueny
cia/aiiy iai?oae oa aeaoi?iaoe?? aei ?ic?eao. Aea o oie aea /an, iaeaea
aaea?/? cieaeo?oueny oieiaeioaeo/?noue IAIIA aieieii (?en.4). I?e/iio
ciaioaiiy oieiaeioaeo/ino? aieieii no?iai ei?aeth? ?c nooiaiai
i???ioaoe??. Oae, iiaeeo?eiaai? c?acee ?c iaioei nooiaiai i???ioaoe?? o
cia/ii a?eueo?e i??? iie?athoueny ae?? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ? iane?aeeii
oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo u?eueii? n?oee caoeaieaiue. Aoaeoeai?noue ae??
oioi?i?oe?aoi??a o iiaeieaii? oieiaeioaeo/ino? cieaeo?oueny o ?yaeo:
N2HCl3 ( PCl3( SO2Cl2. Oaeei /eiii, c iaeyaeo ia ieoaiiy aeiiii?/iino?
oa aeieia?/iino? i?eaeaoiei aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean
iiaeeo?eaoe?? IAIIA aieieii , ye ? ?ioeo II, iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
N2HCl3 ye ?i?oe?aoi?.

Ia?iaea iiaa?oi? aieieii eaoeeie oei?ai?nieie ?i?oe?aoi?aie oaeiae
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?? a?ae?io?eueiino?. Oae, aaeaac?y aieieia
?c nooiaiai i???ioaoe?? 110 i?ney ia?iaee SO2Cl2 iie?auo?oueny iaeaea o
5 ?ac?a – c 0.7 aei 4.2 IIa.

C iaoith noai?aiiy iiaeo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a c i/?eoaaieie
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie iieacieeaie oe?iei aea/aeenue ? aea/athoueny noi?o?
iie?ia??a, iai?eeeaae, ia iniia? IA. Iaie aoei aea/aii aieea
aaoa?ioacii? oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee noi?oae IAAO/IA oa eiiiaoea?e?ciaaieo eiiiiceo?a IA/II.
sse eiiiaoea?e?caoi?e aoee ia?ai? eiiie?ia?e aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio, aeey
yeeo aoei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?aa?ao
oioi?i?oe?eiaa-ieo i?ioean?a. Eiiiiceoe?? i?aeeyaaee o?eaaeiio
a?aeiaeaiith i?e oaiia?aoo?? 70 iN aeey ioe?iee ?o aenieoaoaoe?eii?
ni?iiiaeiino? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeo?ae aaeue-o?aeoe?? o noi?oao IAAO/IA caeaaeeoue a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a o noi?o? ? ciaioo?oueny c ?inoii ai?noo IA
(oaae.3). Iaea?eueoee aeo?ae coeaie ?aae?co?oueny o aeiaaeeo, eiee ai?no
IA oace eaaeeoue o iaaeao 5-20%. (Hie oa Oie eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a
caciathoue aieeao iaeia iaeiiai /a?ac aca?iiae?th o i?aeoacieo iaeanoyo.
Oae, ciaioaiiy Oie o oac? IAAO a?eueo ae?aaeaia, i?ae o IA, ine?eueee
uaieai? ia oaa?aeo iiaa?oith IA iie?aoeeaiia? eaioethae iiaeooue
aenooiaoe ye aeiaeaoeia? aeaoaeoe, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue e?enoae?caoe??
IAAO.

I?ney a?aeiaeaiiy iaiiaeeo?eiaai? c?acee ao?a/athoue o cia/aiiyo A oa
(b, a oioio?i?/ia coeaaiiy, noaa?e?coth/e no?oeoo?o noi?oae,
oiia?eueith? ?icaeoie iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e, ui ? iane?aeeii
ca?eueoaiiy i?aeoacii? aca?iiae?? aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy i?aeeaioethaiaeo
i?noe?a-c’?aeiaiue (oaae.3). Aei oeeo iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a ia?o ca ana
a?aeiineoueny naa?aaaoe?y i?e?ioac iaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a noi?o?, yea ?
?acoeueoaoii ?icii?iaeoaaiiy aaeeeeo ?ooeeaeo eaiie iie?ia?ieo
eaioetha?a oa oe?oiiaiiy oac iie?ia??a i?ae aieeaii i?aeaeuaii?
oaiia?aoo?e i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano. Iai?yiei aeieacii oiai, ui oeae
i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny o noi?oao, ? i?aeaeuaiiy iai?oae oeeeiooai?aiiy
i?ae /an a?aeiaeaiiy, yea, ye a?aeiii, ciaoiaeeoueny o aaciina?aaei?e
caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?oaeoiino? oa ?ici??o iaaeiieaeoey?ieo ooai?aiue.

Oaaeeoey 3. Cia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a oa aeoiaee aaeue-o?aeoe??
aeey iiaeeo?eiaaieo oa iaiiaeeo?eiaaieo c?ace?a noi?oae IAAO/IA i?ney
a?aeiaeaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?? 70 iN i?ioyaii 190 aei?a.

Ai?no Ai?no Iiaeeo?eiaai? c?acee Iaiiaeeo?eiaai? c?acee

IA,% IAAO,% g,% E, IIa (b, IIa E, IIa (b, IIa

0 100 56,4 250 10,7 235 12,9

5 95 60,3 215 10,1 140 11,4

10 90 58,8 202 10,0 125 10,2

20 80 57,5 217,2 10,5 135 8,4

30 70 47,8 240 10,9 152,6 8,6

40 60 39,4 243,1 11,3 167,2 9,5

50 50 31,6 223 11,4 181 11,7

100 0 17,6 262 27,4 222 24,7

Aeey iiaeieaiiy ianoi?niino? eiiiiiaio?a, yea iaoiiaeth? cieaeaiiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a eiiiiceoo a?aeiinii aaeeoeaieo aaee/ei ? ?o
aeiaeaoeiaa iia??oaiiy o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? ca ?aooiie iiaeaeueoiai
oaciaiai ?icae?eaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ii ia??aiiaaaeii? nenoaie,
aeueoa?iaoeaiei oeyoii iiaeeo?eaoe?? eiiiiceo?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy
aaoa?ioaciiai oioi?i?oe?eiaaiiai coeaaiiy iae?iiieaeoe ??cieo
eiiiiiaio?a o i?aeoacieo iaeanoyo o ii?aeiaii? c eiiiaoea?e?caoe??th. Ie
aeei?enoiaoaaee eiiie?ia?e aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio aii?oiiai oeio, oiio
ia?aaaaeia /anoeia oioi?i?oe?aoi?a aoea eieae?ciaaia naia o aeioe?
eiiiaoea?e?caoi?a. Aeey an?o c?ace?a aoa i?iaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c aieeao ?icieo eiiiaoeaieicaoi?ia ia iaoaii/ii aeanoeainoi
oioio?i?/ii coeoeo noiioae IA/II i?ae /an oa?i?/iiai noa??iiy. Iaee?auee
eiiiaoea?e?coth/ee aoaeo anoaiiaeaii aeey aeie-eiiie?ia?o aoeeaio c
i?ii?eaiii, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeeoue aeecueei 60% aei/ieo naaiaio?a
II. Aieea eiiiaoea?e?caoi??a ia aeanoeaino? noi?oae IAAO/II ae?acii
aeyaey?oueny aeey eiiiiceoe?e o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 30%/70%, ui iaoiiaeaii
iniaeeainoyie i?e?iaaoa?iaaiii? no?oeoo?e noi?oae, ai naia o oe?e
iaeano? cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae aeenia?n?? II o aacia?a?ai?e oac?
IA aei aeenia?n?? IA o oac? II.

I?ae ae??th oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny noaa?e?caoe?y
no?oeoo?e noi?oae oa onoiaiiy iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
?oeioaaiiy iaoa??aeo, ia?o ca ana naa?aaaoe?? i?e?ioac iaeiiai ?c
eiiiiiaio?a. Aeey coeoeo c?ace?a cia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a
iniiaiiio iie?auothoueny c /anii noa??iiy, a ?ioeo aeiaaeeao aiie
caeeoathoueny noaeeie (?en.5). Ooai?aia n?oea iiia?aaeaea? eieaeuei?
ia?aiai?oaeaiiy, caaacia/oth/e a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e i?eeeaaeaii?
iai?oae, ?, oaeei /eiii, ia?aoeiaeaeo? ooai?aiith oeeee.

Ii?aeioth/e iaoiaee oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy oa eiiiaoea?e?caoe?? iiaeia
noi?ioaaoe coeoo no?oeoo?o o i?aeoacieo iaeanoyo, yea ni?iiiaeia
noaa?e?coaaoe no?oeoo?o iie?ia?iiai eiiiiceoo. Caaaeyee eieae?caoe??
i?ioeano ia?aaaaeii o oa?? eiiiaoea?e?caoi?o aeaoi?iaoe?eia caeaoi?noue
eiiiiceoe?e ia aeieo?oueny nooe?eueiith n?oeith, ? i?ney aeo?eioaaiiy
i?e oaiia?aoo?? 70 iN coeo? eiiiaoea?e?ciaai? eiiiiceoe aeyaeythoue
ieanoe/i?noue aeuo, i?ae iacoeo?.aeei /eiii, o ?aieao iaeiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aea/aii aoaeoeai?noue oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy II
??cii? iieaeoey?ii? oa iaaeiieaeoey?ii? no?oeoo?e (II, IA, eiiie?ia??a
aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio, IAIIA aieieii) oa eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia?
?o noi?oae. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aecia/aii oiiae oioi?i?oe?eiaaii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?icaaeoaeaieo II, ?o
noi?oae oa aenieii???ioiaaieo IA aieieii, ye? i?eaeaoi? aeey noai?aiiy
iaoa??ae?a c iie?auaieie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa oa?iieiioaeoieie
iieacieeaie. ?aoe?iiaeueiei aeaea?oueny aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoeiaeo canaae iaoiaeo oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? II oa eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ?o noi?oae aeey ia?a?iaee aoi?eiii? iie?ia?ii?
ne?iaeie c iaeyaeo ia aeooaeuei?noue oeueiai ieoaiiy o na?o? o oe?eiio ?
a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia.

AENIIAEE

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae IA aei II c o?aoeiieie aoiiaie
aoaeaoeth o iie?ia?iiio eaioethao aoaeoeai?noue oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy
cieaeo?oueny o ?yaeo IA(IA(II(eiiie?ia?e aoeeaio c i?ii?eaiii. Aeo?ae
i?ioean?a oioiieeneaiiy oa oioiaeano?oeoe?? i?aeaeuo?oueny o II c
aaeeeith e?euee?noth ?icaaeoaeaiue, iniaeeai o nenoaiao c ?o
ia?aaoeueiaaiei ?icoaooaaiiyi (eiiie?ia?e aoeeaio-i?ii?eaio), iniaeeai
i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Ciaeaeaii oiiae oioiiiaeeo?eaoe?? ?icaaeoaeaieo II, ye? caaacia/othoue
aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo aeoiae?a aaeue-o?aeoe?? oa u?eueiino? n?o/aoi?
no?oeoo?e. Iieacaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy
?icaaeoaeaieo ? aenieii???ioiaaieo II, ?i?oe?eiaaiiai aeayeeie
iecueeiiieaeoey?ieie oei?eaeaie aoaeaoeth, n??ee oa oinoi?o (ia?o ca ana
S2Cl2, SO2Cl2, C2HCl3) nooo?ai aeua, i?ae o i?ioeanao, oioi?i?oe?eiaaieo
a?iiaoe/ieie eaoiiaie ? o?iiiaie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue
oioiiiaeeo?eaoe?? o i?enooiino? oioia?aeiiaeth?ieo ?i?oe?aoi??a
(eaoii?a) iiaeia cia/ii i?aeaeueoe oeyoii aaaaeaiiy o eiiiiceoe?th
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo iiiiia??a ye eiaaaio?a coeaaiiy. Iaeneiaeuei?
aeoiaee aaeaooai?aiiy o II iao?eoe? ?aae?coaaeenue o i?enooiino? 1.5-2.5
% (ii ian?) aeeae?eeao?a. Aoei cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci ae??
iie?ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiiiia??a o i?ioean? oioi?i?oe?eiaaii?
iiaeeo?eaoe??.

O IAIIA aieieiao, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaeeeith eiioeaio?aoe??th
ia?aiai?oaeaieo i?io?aeieo eaioetha?a, ?c i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaith
i???ioaoe?? i?ioeane coeaaiiy i?eai?/othoueny aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy
/anoee iaeanoae, aeinooiieo aeey i?iieeiaiiy iieaeoe ?i?oe?aoi?a.
Iaeiae, o i?enooiino? eaoeeo oei?eae?a aaeaeiny aeinyaoe cia/ieo
nooiai?a coeaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oeyoii oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe??
iiaeia nooo?ai cieceoe oieiaeioaeo/?noue aenieii???ioiaaieo IA aieieii c
iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi oa?iinoaa?eueiino? ? aaeaac?? aei ca(ycoth/eo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiei iiceoeaiei iane?aeeii oioio?i?/ii?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aaoa?iaaiieo II noi?oae ? ni?eyiiy i?ioeanai eiiia?aoeaii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? eiiiiiaio?a i?ae ae??th iaaaioaaeaiue, ui ? iane?aeeii
noaa?e?caoe?? ?o i?e?ioacii? no?oeoo?e. Aaaeeeaei ?acoeueoaoii ?
caiia?aaiiy eiaeanoeaioe?? aeenia?nieo /anoie eiiiiiaio?a i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? noi?oae i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao, caaaeyee /iio
aaea?oueny ?icoe?eoe oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae canoinoaaiiy iaea?aeaieo
iaoa??ae?a.

Aia?oa aoei canoiniaaii i?ea?iaeueiee iaoiae aaoa?iaaiii? oioio?i?/ii?
iiaeeo?eaoe??, nooue yeiai iieyaa? o naeaeoeai?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? oa?o
eiiiaoea?e?caoi?a ? a?aie/ieo c iei eiiiiiaio?a. Caaaeyee oae?e
eieae?caoe?? i?ioeano aaea?oueny caiia?aoe ciaioaiith ieanoe/iino?
eiiiiiaio?a (iniaeeai noeeueiiai aei oioiaeano?oeoe?? II) ? iaeii/anii
noaa?e?coaaoe aaoa?iaaiio nooeoo?o, ooai?eaoe ie?ai? ca(ycee oeio
eiiiiiaio 1-eiiiaoea?e?caoi?-eiiiiiaio 2. Caaaeyee oeueiio
aeaoi?iaoe?eia caeaoi?noue eiiiiceoe?e ia aeieo?oueny nooe?eueiith
n?oeith.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE AEEEAAeAI? O IANOOIIEO IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

1. I.A. Caiioaaa, A.A. Oeae?ei, A.I. A?ai/ae. Oioioeie/aneia noeaaiea
iieeyoeeaia aunieiai aeaaeaiey e iieei?iieeaia a i?enoonoaee ae?eeiauo
iiiiia?ia //Aunieiiie. niaae.-1994.-36, ?5.-N.739-746.

2.P.Zamotaev, E.Shibirin, Z.Nogellova. Photocrosslinking of
polypropylene: the effect of different photo-initiators and coagents
//Polym. Degr. and Stab.-1995.-47.-P.93-107.

3.Caiioaaa I.A., No?aeueoeiaa C.I., Oeae?ei A.A. Oioieieoeee?iaaiiia
noeaaiea iieei?iieeaia // Oe?. oei. aeo?i.-1995.-61,?9-10.-N.131-136.

4.Oeae?ei I.A.,I?otho?i I.I.,No?aeueoeiaa C.I., Caiioa?a I.A. Aea/aiiy
aieeao aani?aoe?? oei?aiinieo oioi?i?oe?aoi??a oa iiaeaeueoiai
OO-ii?iiiiaiiy ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? aenieiiiaeoeueieo IA aieieii
//Eaoae?c ? iaooio?i?y.-1997.-?3.-N.58-62.

5.Oeae?ei I.A.,I?otho?i I.I.,No?aeueoeiaa C.I., Caiioa?a I.A. Aieea
oioio?i?/ii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ia no?oeoo?o oa iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noi?oae
iie?aoeeaio aenieiai oeneo oa iie?aooaio-1 //O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue
Oe?a?ie.-1999.-?1.-N.54-58.

6. Caiioaaa I.A.,Oeae?ei A.A. Aeeyiea aaoa?ioaciie oioioeie/aneie
iiaeeoeeaoeee ia noa?aiea eiiiaoeaeeece?iaaiiuo nianae
iieeieaoeiia.//Oac.aeiee.ia 19 I?aeia?iae. eiio. ”Eiiiiceoeeiiiua
iaoa?eaeu a i?iiuoeaiiinoe” (Neaaiieeeii-99)-Ee?a.-1999.-N.62.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oeae?ei I.A. Aieea iieaeoey?ii? oa iaaeiieaeoey?ii? no?oeoo?e ia
oioio?i?/io iiaeeo?eaoe?th iie?ieao?i?a oa noi?oae ia ?o
iniia?.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?i?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 02.00.06-o?i?y aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe.- Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,1999 ?.

Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?io?eaiiy oioi?i?oe?eiaaieo
i?ioean?a o iie?ieao?iao ??cii? iieaeoey?ii? oa iaaeiieaeoey?ii?
no?oeoo?e (II, IA, eiiie?ia?? aoeeaia-i?ii?eaia, IAIIA aieieiao) oa
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? ?o noi?oae. Iieacaii, ui iaoiae
oioio?i?/iiai coeaaiiy ia? aeaye? ia?aaaae ia?aae o?aaeeoe?eieie
iaoiaeaie coeaaiiy o a?aeiioaii? aei iie?ieao?i?a c ?icaaeoaeaiith
aoaeiaith ?, iniaeeai, aei ?o noi?oae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoiaeii
oioiiiaeeo?eaoe?? aaea?oueny noi?ioaaoe aeineoue u?eueio n?oeo o?i?/ieo
ca(yce?a o iie?ia?i?e iao?eoe?. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oeyoii ooai?aiiy
oaei? n?oee. Ia?o ca ana, oioi?i?oe?eiaaia coeaaiiy aeicaiey? cia/ii
cieceoe oieiaeioaeo/?noue aenieii???ioiaaieo iie?ia?ieo iaoa??ae?a oa
iie?aueoe ?o oa?iinoaa?euei?noue ? aaeaac?th aei ca(ycoth/eo. Oeyoii
oioi?i?oe?eiaaiiai coeaaiiy aaeaeiny i?aeaeueoe aca?iiae?th ia iaae?
?icae?eo oac o noi?oao II, ui caiia?aa? eiaeanoeaioe?? aeenia?nieo
/anoie eiiiiiaio?a i?e o?eaae?e aenieoaoaoe?? eiiiiceo?a i?e i?aeaeuai?e
oaiia?aoo?? (70 iN). Caaaeyee oeueiio aaea?oueny nooo?ai i?aeaeueoe
oaiia?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae canoinoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a.. Aia?oa aoei canoiniaaii
i?ea?iaeueiee iaoiae aaoa?iaaiii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? noi?oae II, nooue yeiai
iieyaaea o naeaeoeaiiio coeaaii? oa?o eiiiaoea?e?caoi?a ? a?aie/ieo c
iei eiiiiiaio?a. O ?acoeueoao? eieae?caoe?? i?ioeano ia?aaaaeii o oa??
eiiiaoea?e?caoi?o aeaoi?iaoe?eia caeaoi?noue eiiiiceoe?e ia aeieo?oueny
nooe?eueiith n?oeith, ? i?ney aeo?eioaaiiy i?e i?aeaeuai?e oaiia?aoo??
ia i?ioyc? 7 i?nyoe?a coeo? eiiiaoea?e?ciaai? eiiiiceoe aeyaeythoue
aeaoi?iaoe?eio caeaoi?noue aeuo, i?ae iaiiaeeo?eiaai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?ieao?ie, iie?aoeeai, iie?i?ii?eai, iie?aooai-1,
iie?aoeeaiia? aieieia, noi?o?, oioio?i?/ia iiaeeo?eaoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oeae?ei A.A. Aeeyiea iieaeoey?iie e iaaeiieaeoey?iie no?oeoo?u ia
oioioeie/aneoth iiaeeoeeaoeeth iieeieaoeiia e nianae ia eo
iniiaa.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 02.00.06-oeiey aunieiiieaeoey?iuo niaaeeiaiee.- Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999 a.

Aia?aua enneaaeiaaiu caeiiiia?iinoe i?ioaeaiey oioieieoeee?iaaiiuo
i?ioeannia a iieeieaoeiao ?aciie iieaeoey?iie e iaaeiieaeoey?iie
no?oeoo?u (II, IA, niiieeia?a yoeeai/i?iieeaia, IAIIY aieieiao) e
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeao ia iniiaa eo nianae. Onoaiiaeaiu oneiaey
oioiiiaeeoeeaoeee, i?e eioi?uo oaeaaony aeinoeaiooue aunieeo auoiaeia
aaeue-o?aeoeee e noi?ie?iaaoue aeinoaoi/ii aonooth naoeo oeie/aneeo
naycae a iieeia?iie iao?eoea. Iaeneiaeueiua auoiaeu noeaie auee iieo/aiu
a i?enoonoaee oioio?aaiaioe?oaiuo eieoeeaoi?ia, iniaaiii SO2Cl2 e S2Cl2.
I?e ia?aoiaea io eeiaeiie no?oeoo?u IY e ?acaaoaeaiiie II e IA, a oaeaea
e aei/iie eiiieeia?a yoeeai/i?iieeaia yooaeoeaiinoue noeaaiey
oiaiueoaaony, /oi naycaii n aieueoei auoiaeii ?aaeoeee aeano?oeoeee e
ieeneaiey n oaaee/aieai /enea o?aoe/iuo aoiiia oaea?iaea a iieeia?iie
oeaie, a oaeaea i?ino?ainoaaiiuie cao?oaeiaieyie i?ioeannia
?aeiiaeiaoeee aeeeeueiuo iae?i?aaeeeaeia. Ia i?eia?a II iieacaii, /oi
iooai aaaaeaiey a nenoaio iieeooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiiiia?ia (ieeaiia?ia) a
ea/anoaa eiaaaioia noeaaiey iiaeii iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
aaeaia?aciaaiey a i?enoonoaee a?iiaoe/aneeo eaoiiia e oeiiiia. ?ieue
iieeooieoeeiiaeueiuo aeiaaaie ninoieo a i?aaeioa?auaiee o?aaiaioaoeee
o?aoe/iuo iae?i?aaeeeaeia iooai i?eniaaeeiaiey e iei n ia?aciaaieai
aieaa noieeeo ?aaeeeaeia. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuie eiaaaioaie ieacaeenue
aeeae?eeaou, aneaaenoaee aieueoae niaianoeiinoe n II iao?eoeae, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii e aieueoae iiaeaeaeiinoe.

Aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u caaeneo io i?e?iaeu eieoeeaoi?a e oeia eiaaaioa.
Oae, a i?enoonaee o?eaeeeeoeeaio?aoa a II iaeneiaeueiia aaeaia?aciaaiea
aeinoeaaeinue i?e 120-140 iN, a oi a?aiy, eae a ionoonoaee eiaaaioa i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao auoa 100 iN ?acei aic?anoaee auoiaeu oioiaeano?oeoeee.

I?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaiey oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae (iiaeoey THiaa, iai?yaeaiey e aeaoi?iaoeee aei ?ac?uaa,
iai?yaeaiey e aeaoi?iaoeee oaeeiia?aciaaiey) iieeia?iuo iaoa?eaeia iooai
ia?aciaaiey noeaie. Iiceoeaiia aeeyiea ia?aciaaiiie naoee a aieueoae
noaiaie i?iyaeyaony i?e iiauoaiiuo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Iieacaii, /oi iaeioi?ua naienoaa aieieii ec naa?oiieaeoey?iiai IY,
iaeaaeathuea aunieie noaiaiueth e?enoaeee/iinoe, iiaoo auoue nouanoaaiii
eciaiaiu iooai eo oioioeie/aneiai noeaaiey e i?eaeaee. A oiaea
oioieieoeee?iaaiiie iiaeeoeeaoeee n eniieueciaaieai oei?niaea?aeaueo
niaaeeiaiee auei aeinoeaiooi cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiey oeaaeioaeo/anoe ( a
aeaa ?aca) ia?yaeo n iacia/eoaeueiui iaaeaieai e?aoein?i/iuo
iaoaie/aneeo iieacaoaeae. E?iia oiai, aic?anoaao oa?iinoaaeeueiinoue
IAIIY aieieii, e iie iiaoo auaea?aeeaaoue iaa?ocee aei 10 IIa i?e 200
iN, a oi a?aiy eiaaea ianoeoua ia?acoeu ?ac?ooathony i?e aeinoeaeaiee
oaiia?aoo?u ieaaeaiey. Aneaaenoaee ia?aaioee oei?niaea?aeaueie
eieoeeaoi?aie iiauoaaony aeae?ioeeueiinoue iiaa?oiinoe aieieia e
aaeaacey e naycothuei.

Iaeaeaii, /oi oioioeie/aneay iiaeeoeeaoeey iicaieyao iiauneoue
acaeiiaeaenoaea ia a?aieoea ?acaeaea oac a nianyo II. Noi?ie?iaaiiay
naoea niinianoaoao eo/oaio ?ani?aaeaeaieth i?eeiaeaiiiai iai?yaeaiey
iaaeaeo aeanoeeie yeaiaioaie eiiiiceoeee. Oioioeie/aneay iiaeeoeeaoeey n
iineaaeothuei ioaeeaii niinianoaoao noaaeeecaoeee no?oeoo?u eiiiiceoeee
e i?aaeioa?auaao eiaeanoeaioeeth aeenia?niuo /anoeoe eiiiiiaioia i?e
aeeeoaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee nianae i?e iiauoaiiie oaiia?aoo?a (70 iN).
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio oaeaaony nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eoue oaiia?aoo?iue eioa?aae
eniieueciaaiey yoeo iaoa?eaeia.

Aia?aua aue ?ac?aaioai iaoiae aaoa?iaaiiie iiaeeoeeaoeee nianae II a
ni/aoaiee n eiiiaoeaeeecaoeeae, nooue eioi?iai ninoieo a naeaeoeaiii
noeaaiee neiy eiiiaoeaeeecaoi?a e i?ea?aie/iuo n iei eiiiiiaioia.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio oaeaaoueny ecaaaeaoue oiaiueoaiey ieanoe/iinoe
eiiiiiaioia e iaeiia?aiaiii noaaeeece?iaaoue aaoa?iaaiioth no?oeoo?o
eiiiiceoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeieaoeiu, iieeyoeeai, iieei?iieeai, iieeaooai-1,
iieeyoeeaiiaua aieieia, niane, oioioeie/aneay iiaeeoeeaoeey.

SUMMARY

Shibirin E.V. The influence of molecular and supermolecular structure on
the photochemical modification efficiency of polyolefines and blends on
their basis. Manuscript.

Thesis for chemical sciences degrees candidate competition. Speciality
02.00.06- chemistry of high-molecular compaunds.-Kiev University, Kiev,
1999.

The interdependances of photoinitiated process in polyolefins with
different molecular and supermolecular structures (PP,PB, copolymer
ethylene/propylene, ultra high molecular weigth fiber) were
investigated. It was shown that application of photocrosslinking method
for polyolefins with branched structure and their blends has several
advantages against related to the conventional methods. Relatively dense
network of chemical links could be created in polymer matrix via
photochemical modification. The principle possibility of
physico-mechanical properties tailoring due to crosslinking of polymer
materials was proved. First of all, this is allow to decrease
sufficiently creep, to increase thermostability and adhision to hinders.
This method improves also the interphase adhision in polyolefins blends
and prevents coalescence of the microphase of components during long
time exploitation at elavated temperatures (70 oC). This enables to
expand the temperature interval of polyolefins blends application. The
new method of heterogeneous modification of compatibilized blends
proposed which includes selective crosslinking of compatibilises and
interphase of components. Such modification doesn(t cause any
detereoration of blends ductility. Due to this modification crosslinked
composites had the deformation properties higher than uncrosslinked
after 7 months of high temperature endurance.

Key words: polyolefins, polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutene-1,
polyethylene fibers, blends, photochemical modification.

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